WorldWideScience

Sample records for include biofuels programs

  1. Biofuels feedstock development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Martin, S.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires

  2. 76 FR 7935 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-Cooperative Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4288 Advanced Biofuel Payment Program; Interim Rule #0... Part 4288 RIN 0570-AA75 Advanced Biofuel Payment Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service and... Business-Cooperative Service (Agency) is establishing the Advanced Biofuel Payment Program authorized under...

  3. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents general aspects of biofuels. It includes production, comparison with conventional fuel concerning full fuel cycle energy use, gas emissions. Moreover, economical aspects are also considered. (TEC). refs

  4. 76 FR 24343 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ...-AA75 Advanced Biofuel Payment Program; Correction AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service; Rural... Federal Register of February 11, 2011, establishing the Advanced Biofuel Payment Program authorized under... this Program, the Agency will enter into contracts with advanced biofuel producers to pay such...

  5. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Biofuels AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS), USDA. ACTION: Notice of Contract for Proposal... Year 2009 for the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP... Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels. In response to the previously published NOCP, approximately $14.5...

  6. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  7. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  8. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-506-000] Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Biofuels...

  9. 75 FR 21191 - Subpart B-Advanced Biofuel Payment Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 4288 RIN 0570-AA75 Subpart B--Advanced Biofuel Payment Program; Correction AGENCY... for producers of advanced biofuels to supporting existing advanced biofuel production and to encourage...

  10. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, E.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  11. A stochastic programming approach towards optimization of biofuel supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, Ali; Vafa Arani, Hamed; Dashti, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergy has been recognized as an important source of energy that will reduce dependency on petroleum. It would have a positive impact on the economy, environment, and society. Production of bioenergy is expected to increase. As a result, we foresee an increase in the number of biorefineries in the near future. This paper analyzes challenges with supplying biomass to a biorefinery and shipping biofuel to demand centers. A stochastic linear programming model is proposed within a multi-period planning framework to maximize the expected profit. The model deals with a time-staged, multi-commodity, production/distribution system, facility locations and capacities, technologies, and material flows. We illustrate the model outputs and discuss the results through numerical examples considering disruptions in biofuel supply chain. Finally, sensitivity analyses are performed to gain managerial insights on how profit changes due to existing uncertainties. - Highlights: • A robust model of biofuel SC is proposed and a sensitivity analysis implemented. • Demand of products is a function of price and GBM (Geometric Brownian Motion) is used for prices of biofuels. • Uncertainties in SC network are captured through defining probabilistic scenarios. • Both traditional feedstock and lignocellulosic biomass are considered for biofuel production. • Developed model is applicable to any related biofuel supply chain regardless of region

  12. 75 FR 20085 - Subpart B-Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... functions of Rural Development, including whether the information will have practical utility; (b) the..., including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility... made to producers of advanced biofuel and biogas, which is fuel derived from renewable biomass, other...

  13. Biofuels feedstock development program. Annual progress report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Martin, S.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires.

  14. 75 FR 42745 - Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of Program Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of Program Intent AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...). Through this notice, biofuels producers and other interested parties are invited to submit pre-auction..., ``Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels; Reverse Auction Procedures and Standards,'' (74 FR 52867...

  15. LANL capabilities towards bioenergy and biofuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Min S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unkefer, Clifford J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    LANL invented technology for increasing growth and productivity of photosysnthetic organisms, including algae and higher plants. The technology has been extensively tested at the greenhouse and field scale for crop plants. Initial bioreactor testing of its efficacy on algal growth has shown promising results. It increases algal growth rates even under optimwn nutrient supply and careful pH control with CO{sub 2} continuously available. The technology uses a small organic molecule, applied to the plant surfaces or added to the algal growth medium. CO{sub 2} concentration is necessary to optimize algal production in either ponds or reactors. LANL has successfully designed, built and demonstrated an effective, efficient technology using DOE funding. Such a system would be very valuable for capitalizing on local inexpensive sources of CO{sub 2} for algal production operations. Furthermore, our protein engineering team has a concept to produce highly stable carbonic anhydyrase (CA) enzyme, which could be very useful to assure maximum utilization of the CO{sub 2} supply. Stable CA could be used either imnlobilized on solid supports or engineered into the algal strain. The current technologies for harvesting the algae and obtaining the lipids do not meet the needs for rapid, low cost separations for high volumes of material. LANL has obtained proof of concept for the high volume flowing stream concentration of algae, algal lysis and separation of the lipid, protein and water fractions, using acoustic platforms. This capability is targeted toward developing biosynthetics, chiral syntheses, high throughput protein expression and purification, organic chemistry, recognition ligands, and stable isotopes geared toward Bioenergy applications. Areas of expertise include stable isotope chemistry, biomaterials, polymers, biopolymers, organocatalysis, advanced characterization methods, and chemistry of model compounds. The ultimate realization of the ability to design and

  16. The U.S. Department of Energy biofuels research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Program has focused mainly on liquid fuels such as ethanol, methanol, biocrude-derived gasoline, and plant-oil-derived diesel fuel with some emphasis on gaseous fuels such as biogas. Researchers have improved the economics off the wood to ethanol process to approximately $1.35/gal by developing a method to ferment ethanol from the xylose fraction of wood with greater than 70% efficiency. The program goal of $0.60/gal would provide ethanol at a competitive cost without tax credits. DOE has increased the emphasis on cooperative ventures with industry and is developing plans for a cost-shared project to scale up gasification technologies for both syngas and methanol fuel production testing. Development of successful methods for cleaning and conditioning the raw syngas from the gasifier is expected to reduce methanol costs from $0.75/gal to $0.55/gal. Scientists have made substantial progress in testing process concepts for hydrotreating and zeolite catalyst upgrading of pyrolysis oils to produce gasoline. The cost of gasoline from biomass by this process is currently projected at $1.60/gal with a goal of $0.85/gal. With adequate research and development investments, biofuels can have a much greater impact on the liquid transportation fuels sector in the future, even without legislation or federal regulations to stimulate the industry. Therefore, biofuels costs are projected to be competitive with oil costs at $25-$30/bbl within the next 5-10 years; however, the development time frame depends on the research and development investment level

  17. Biofuels Program Plan, FY 1992--FY 1996. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This five-year program plan describes the goals and philosophy of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) program and the BSD`s major research and development (R&D) activities for fiscal years (FY) 1992 through 1996. The plan represents a consensus among government and university researchers, fuel and automotive manufacturers, and current and potential users of alternative fuels and fuel additives produced from biomass. It defines the activities that are necessary to produce versatile, domestic, economical, renewable liquid fuels from biomass feedstocks. The BSD program focuses on the production of alternative liquid fuels for transportation-fuels such as ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and fuel additives for reformulated gasoline. These fuels can be produced from many plant materials and from a significant portion of the wastes generated by municipalities and industry. Together these raw materials and wastes, or feedstocks, are called biomass.

  18. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Christopher M; Bierwagen, Britta G; Morefield, Philip E; Ridley, Caroline E; Lin, Yolanda; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Bush, Brian W; Eaton, Laurence M; Langholtz, Matthew H; Peterson, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  19. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M.; Lin, Yolanda; Bierwagen, Britta G.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Morefield, Philip E.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian W.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  20. The U.S. Department of Energy biofuels research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that biomass encompasses agricultural and forestry residues, woody and herbaceous energy crops, municipal solid waste, and underutilized traditional forests. The contribution of biomass to the nation's energy supply stands at 3.1 quads per year and is continuing to grow. Increasing our use of fuels derived from biomass can improve air quality, mitigate global warming, reduce dependency on foreign oil imports, and strengthen a weak farm economy. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Biofuels and Municipal Waster Technology Program has focuses mainly on liquid fuels such as ethanol, methanol, biocrude-derived gasoline, and plant-oil-derived diesel fuel, with some emphasis on gaseous fuels such as biogas. Researchers have improved the economics of the wood to ethanol process to approximately $1.35/gas by developing a method to ferment ethanol from the xylose fraction of wood with greater than 70% efficiency. The program goal of $0.60/gal would provide ethanol at a competitive cost without tax credits. Doe has increased the emphasis on cooperative ventures with industry and it developing plans for a cost-shared project to scale up gasification technologies for both syngas and methanol fuel production testing

  1. Review of the algal biology program within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Clifford J.; Sayre, Richard T.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Baxter, Ivan; Blaby, Ian K.; Brown, Judith K.; Carleton, Michael; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Dale, Taraka; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Downes, C. Meghan; Dutcher, Susan K.; Fox, David T.; Goodenough, Ursula; Jaworski, Jan; Holladay, Jonathan E.; Kramer, David M.; Koppisch, Andrew T.; Lipton, Mary S.; Marrone, Babetta L.; McCormick, Margaret; Molnár, István; Mott, John B.; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Polle, Juergen; Richardson, James W.; Sabarsky, Martin; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Stormo, Gary D.; Teshima, Munehiro; Twary, Scott N.; Unkefer, Pat J.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Olivares, José A.

    2017-03-01

    In 2010,when the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) consortiumbegan, littlewas known about themolecular basis of algal biomass or oil production. Very fewalgal genome sequenceswere available and efforts to identify the best-producing wild species through bioprospecting approaches had largely stalled after the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program. This lack of knowledge included how reduced carbon was partitioned into storage products like triglycerides or starch and the role played bymetabolite remodeling in the accumulation of energy-dense storage products. Furthermore, genetic transformation and metabolic engineering approaches to improve algal biomass and oil yields were in their infancy. Genome sequencing and transcriptional profiling were becoming less expensive, however; and the tools to annotate gene expression profiles under various growth and engineered conditions were just starting to be developed for algae. It was in this context that an integrated algal biology program was introduced in the NAABB to address the greatest constraints limiting algal biomass yield. This review describes the NAABB algal biology program, including hypotheses, research objectives, and strategies to move algal biology research into the twenty-first century and to realize the greatest potential of algae biomass systems to produce biofuels.

  2. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An economic analysis of a major bio-fuel program undertaken by OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel are creating a new demand for agricultural output and for agriculture land in Canada. However, the participation of other large countries with a large demand potential is necessary for bio-fuels to have a significant impact on the price of grains and oilseeds. This paper quantified the potential impact that a major bio-fuel program initiated by OECD countries has on grain and oilseed prices. The program was initiated for the period 1999 to 2006. There is considerable interest by Canadian producers to stimulate grain and oilseed prices by increasing demand of biofuels. This renewable energy source produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions than petroleum products. The analysis presented in this paper only considered ethanol from corn or wheat and bio-diesel from vegetable oils. It also focused only on the use of bio-fuels in the OECD transportation sector. The analysis was undertaken with AGLINK, a multi-commodity multi-country policy-specific dynamic model of the international agricultural markets built by the OECD with member countries. It was shown that the increase in world and domestic prices for grains and vegetable oils will remain strong, particularly toward 2006. It was also shown that a major bio-fuel program for all OECD countries would be beneficial to Canadian agriculture. It was concluded that ultimately, an increase in OECD bio-fuels usage has a direct impact on the demand for grains and oilseeds which are important feed-stocks in biofuel production. The analysis presumes an increase in renewable fuel use, but does not consider factors such as financial incentives and regulatory requirements that could bring about this increase. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Review of the cultivation program within the national alliance for advanced biofuels and bioproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivation efforts within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) were developed to provide four major goals for the consortium, which included biomass production for downstream experimentation, development of new assessment tools for cultivation, development of new ...

  5. Cellulosic-Derived Biofuels Program in Kentucky - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    growth of heterotrophic algae on biomass sugars. Genes Involved in the Accumulation of Oil in Chlorella p. Single celled microalgae produce...may be in ample supply due to the demand for biofuels and microalgae as future feedstock, this data suggests that AM may be a suitable ingredient for...Task B8. Algae Feedstocks Fresh water microalgae Algae Growth Heterotrophic method Carbon Source Lignocellulosic sugar Fermentation 2-stage

  6. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    His, St.

    2004-01-01

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  7. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria.

  8. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  9. Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program: Final Subcontract Report, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This report is a compilation of studies done to develop an integrated set of strategies for the production of energy from renewable resources in Hawaii. Because of the close coordination between this program and other ongoing DOE research, the work will have broad-based applicability to the entire United States.

  10. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  11. Fabrication of Mediatorless/Membraneless Glucose/Oxygen Based Biofuel Cell using Biocatalysts Including Glucose Oxidase and Laccase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christwardana, Marcelinus; Kim, Ki Jae; Kwon, Yongchai

    2016-07-01

    Mediatorless and membraneless enzymatic biofuel cells (EBCs) employing new catalytic structure are fabricated. Regarding anodic catalyst, structure consisting of glucose oxidase (GOx), poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered, while three cathodic catalysts consist of glutaraldehyde (GA), laccase (Lac), PEI and CNT that are stacked together in different ways. Catalytic activities of the catalysts for glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions (GOR and ORR) are evaluated. As a result, it is confirmed that the catalysts work well for promotion of GOR and ORR. In EBC tests, performances of EBCs including 150 μm-thick membrane are measured as references, while those of membraneless EBCs are measured depending on parameters like glucose flow rate, glucose concentration, distance between two electrodes and electrolyte pH. With the measurements, how the parameters affect EBC performance and their optimal conditions are determined. Based on that, best maximum power density (MPD) of membraneless EBC is 102 ± 5.1 μW · cm-2 with values of 0.5 cc · min-1 (glucose flow rate), 40 mM (glucose concentration), 1 mm (distance between electrodes) and pH 3. When membrane and membraneless EBCs are compared, MPD of the membraneless EBC that is run at the similar operating condition to EBC including membrane is speculated as about 134 μW · cm-2.

  12. Biofuels and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John; Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason

    2011-06-01

    The recent increase in liquid biofuel production has stemmed from a desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil, mitigate rising energy prices, promote rural economic development, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The growth of this industry has important implications for biodiversity, the effects of which depend largely on which biofuel feedstocks are being grown and the spatial extent and landscape pattern of land requirements for growing these feedstocks. Current biofuel production occurs largely on croplands that have long been in agricultural production. The additional land area required for future biofuels production can be met in part by reclaiming reserve or abandoned croplands and by extending cropping into lands formerly deemed marginal for agriculture. In the United States, many such marginal lands have been enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing important habitat for grassland species. The demand for corn ethanOl has changed agricultural commodity economics dramatically, already contributing to loss of CRP lands as contracts expire and lands are returned to agricultural production. Nevertheless, there are ways in which biofuels can be developed to enhance their coexistence with biodiversity. Landscape heterogeneity can be improved by interspersion of land uses, which is easier around facilities with smaller or more varied feedstock demands. The development of biofuel feedstocks that yield high net energy returns with minimal carbon debts or that do not require additional land for production, such as residues and wastes, should be encouraged. Competing land uses, including both biofuel production and biodiversity protection, should be subjected to comprehensive cost-benefit analysis, so that incentives can be directed where they will do the most good.

  13. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered...... model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties...

  14. 13 CFR 125.1 - Programs included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 125.1 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT CONTRACTING PROGRAMS...-Owned Small Business Concern contracting assistance. The objective of the programs is to assist small businesses in obtaining a fair share of Federal Government contracts, subcontracts, and property sales. ...

  15. Algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  16. San Francisco Biofuel Program: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolis, Domènec [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Martis, Mary [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jones, Bonnie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Miot, Alex [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ving, Karri [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sierra, Natalie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Niobi, Morayo [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas.

  17. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  18. Biofuel Production: Considerations for USACE Civil Works Business Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 14 -3 2 USACE Institute of Water Resources Global Change Sustainability Program Biofuel Production Considerations... Biofuel Production Considerations for USACE Civil Works Business Lines Natalie R. Myers and Dick L. Gebhart Construction Engineering Research...that include the production of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gallons from non-corn sources. To meet the congressionally

  19. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  20. A strategic assessment of biofuels development in the Western States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert Rummer; Bryan Jenkins; Nathan Parker; Peter Tittman; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson; Ed Gray; Anneliese Schmidt; Marcia Patton-Mallory; Gordon Gayle

    2009-01-01

    The Western Governors' Association assessment of biofuels potential in western states estimated the location and capacity of biofuels plants that could potentially be built for selected gasoline prices in 2015 using a mixed integer programming model. The model included information on forest biomass supply curves by county (developed using Forest Service FIA data...

  1. The Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the many compelling reasons for the development of biofuels on remote Pacific islands, several of the most important include: (1) a lack of indigenous fossil fuels necessitates their import at great economic loss to local island economics, (2) ideal conditions for plant growth exist on many Pacific islands to produce yields of biomass feedstocks, (3) gaseous and liquid fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol manufactured locally from biomass feedstocks are the most viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels for transportation, and (4) the combustion of biofuels is cleaner than burning petroleum products and contributes no net atmospheric CO2 to aggravate the greenhouse effect and the subsequent threat of sea level rise to low islands. Dr. Vic Phillips, HNEI Program Manager of the Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program welcomed 60 participants to the Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop at the Sheraton Makaha Hotel, Waianae, Oahu, on March 27 and 28, 1989. The objectives of the workshop were to update progress since the Second Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop in April 1987 and to develop a plan for action for biofuels R and D, technology transfer, and commercialization now (immediate attention), in the near-term (less than two years), in the mid-term (three to five years), and in the long-term (more than six years). An emerging theme of the workshop was how the production, conversion, and utilization of biofuels can help increase environmental and economic security locally and globally. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  2. Biocatalyst including porous enzyme cluster composite immobilized by two-step crosslinking and its utilization as enzymatic biofuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yongjin; Christwardana, Marcelinus; Tannia, Daniel Chris; Kim, Ki Jae; Kwon, Yongchai

    2017-08-01

    An enzyme cluster composite (TPA/GOx) formed from glucose oxidase (GOx) and terephthalaldehyde (TPA) that is coated onto polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is suggested as a new catalyst ([(TPA/GOx)/PEI]/CNT). In this catalyst, TPA promotes inter-GOx links by crosslinking to form a large and porous structure, and the TPA/GOx composite is again crosslinked with PEI/CNT to increase the amount of immobilized GOx. Such a two-step crosslinking (i) increases electron transfer because of electron delocalization by π conjugation and (ii) reduces GOx denaturation because of the formation of strong chemical bonds while its porosity facilitates mass transfer. With these features, an enzymatic biofuel cell (EBC) employing the new catalyst is fabricated and induces an excellent maximum power density (1.62 ± 0.08 mW cm-2), while the catalytic activity of the [(TPA/GOx)/PEI]/CNT catalyst is outstanding. This is clear evidence that the two-step crosslinking and porous structure caused by adoption of the TPA/GOx composite affect the performance enhancement of EBC.

  3. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  4. Reaching the Environmental Community: Designing an Information Program for the NREL Biofuels Program; May 2002-May 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, J.; Werner, C.

    2003-08-01

    Final report on subcontract for holding two briefings for policymakers and the environmental community on environmental issues related to biofuels; one on one on the energy and environmental issues associated with biofuels production and use, and the other on implications of pending renewable fuels standard legislation.

  5. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  6. A roadmap for biofuels...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Londo, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels have been in the eye of the storm, in particular since 2008, when the food crisis was considered by many to be caused by the increased production of biofuels. Heavy criticism in public media made various governments, including the European Commission, reconsider their targets and ambitions

  7. Biofuels Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, J.; Adolf, S.; Cragg, C.; Smits, M.; Kanen, J.L.M.; Kemfert, C.; De Jong, R.; Schroeter, S.; Terzic, B.

    2009-01-01

    The EU has decided to push ahead with biofuels, deflecting criticism with stringent environmental safeguards. In a special section correspondents of the magazine take stock of the ups and downs of the biofuels business. As it turns out, national policies differ widely, leading to a very uneven playing field. Nevertheless, it appears that biofuels have reached the point of no return

  8. Survey of state legislative programs that include passive solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S

    1979-06-01

    This report surveys and evaluates state-level solar-incentive programs, including passive solar energy. The range of programs examined focuses on financial and legal incentives designed to speed the implementation of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. They have been evaluated by probing the wording of the incentive legislation and by interviewing state program administrators in each state to determine: (1) the extent, if any, of passive inclusion in solar-incentive programs, and (2) the level of success that various implementation techniques have achieved for encouraging passive solar designs as opposed to the more-commonly-understood active systems. Because no states have initiated incentive legislation designed exclusively to encourage passive solar techniques, it has been essential to determine whether legislative programs explicitly or implicitly include passive solar or if they explicitly exclude it.

  9. Biofuels Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  10. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  11. Printed biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Jia, Wenzhao

    2016-11-22

    Methods, systems, and devices are disclosed for implementing a biofuel cell device for extracting energy from a biofuel. In one aspect, a biofuel cell device includes a substrate, an anode including a catalyst to facilitate the conversion of a fuel in a biological fluid in an oxidative process that releases electrons captured at the anode, thereby extracting energy from the fuel substance, a cathode configured on the substrate adjacent to the anode and separated from the anode by a spacing region, and a load electrically coupled to the anode and cathode via electrical interconnects to obtain the extracted energy as electrical energy.

  12. Biofuels; Biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitrat, E. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie (ADEME), Dir. des Energies Renouvelables, des Reseaux et des Marches Energetiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  13. The second generation biofuels from the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  14. Biofuels: from microbes to molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of different biofuel molecules including hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, higher chain alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives, from genetically engineered microbes...

  15. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  16. Developments in National Fuel Alcohol (biofuel) Programs: implications for world sugar trade. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments in the national fuel alcohol programmes of Brazil, the European Union and USA with the main emphasis on Brazil. A brief history of Brazil's alcohol production is given, and the deregulation of the alcohol sector in Brazil, the impacts of partial liberalisation of Brazil's alcohol sector, government delays in further liberalisation and attempts to manage supply, the PROALCOOL programme, the government's actions to boost ethanol demand, the slump in ethanol output in 1998/1999, and the increase in sugar output are examined. The long term goal of increasing reliance on biofuels in the European Union, the EU's alcohol industry, and ethanol production in France are considered. Market factors affecting ethanol production in the US, the US government's extension of its ethanol tax incentive, the US ethanol sector, and the future demand for ethanol in the US are discussed. The short and medium-term implications for sugar in Brazil, the EU and the US are assessed. (UK)

  17. Biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 bio-fuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union (EU). However its pace backs the assertion that bio-fuel consumption growth in EU slackened off in 2010. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total bio-fuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13.9 Mtoe that can be broken down into 10.7 Mtoe for bio-diesel, 2.9 Mtoe for bio-ethanol and 0.3 Mtoe for others. Germany leads the pack for the consumption of bio-fuels and for the production of bio-diesel followed by France and Spain

  18. Biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union governments no longer view the rapid increase in biofuel consumption as a priority. Between 2010 and 2011 biofuel consumption increased by only 3%, which translates into 13.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) used in 2011 compared to 13.2 million toe in 2010. In 2011 6 European countries had a biofuel consumption in transport that went further 1 million toe: Germany (2,956,746 toe), France (2,050,873 toe), Spain (1,672,710 toe), Italy (1,432,455 toe), United Kingdom (1,056,105 toe) and Poland (1,017,793 toe). The breakdown of the biofuel consumption for transport in the European Union in 2011 into types of biofuels is: bio-diesel (78%), bio-ethanol (21%), biogas (0.5%) and vegetable oil (0.5%). In 2011, 4 bio-diesel producers had a production capacity in Europe that passed beyond 900,000 tonnes: Diester Industrie International (France) with 3,000,000 tonnes, Neste Oil (Finland) with 1,180,000 tonnes, ADM bio-diesel (Germany) with 975,000 tonnes, and Infinita (Spain) with 900,000 tonnes. It seems that the European Union's attention has shifted to setting up sustainability systems to verify that the biofuel used in the various countries complies with the Renewable Energy Directive's sustainability criteria

  19. Biofuel technology handbook. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, Dominik; Janssen, Rainer

    2008-01-15

    This comprehensive handbook was created in order to promote the production and use of biofuels and to inform politicians, decision makers, biofuel traders and all other relevant stakeholders about the state-of-the-art of biofuels and relevant technologies. The large variety of feedstock types and different conversion technologies are described. Explanations about the most promising bio fuels provide a basis to discuss about the manifold issues of biofuels. The impartial information in this handbook further contributes to diminish existing barriers for the broad use of biofuels. Emphasis of this handbook is on first generation biofuels: bio ethanol, Biodiesel, pure plant oil, and bio methane. It also includes second generation biofuels such as BTL-fuels and bio ethanol from lingo-cellulose as well as bio hydrogen. The whole life cycle of bio fuels is assessed under technical, economical, ecological, and social aspect. Characteristics and applications of bio fuels for transport purposes are demonstrated and evaluated. This is completed by an assessment about the most recent studies on biofuel energy balances. This handbook describes the current discussion about green house gas (GHG) balances and sustainability aspects. GHG calculation methods are presented and potential impacts of biofuel production characterized: deforestation of rainforests and wetlands, loss of biodiversity, water pollution, human health, child labour, and labour conditions.

  20. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  1. Imported biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieurin, J.

    1992-01-01

    No import of biofuels to Sweden for energy production existed before 1991. That year, import of wood chips from Latvia and olive wastes (pits) from the Mediterranean region started, with volumes corresponding to 100 GWh each. This fuels were used in district heating plants, with converted coal boilers. The price was about 120 SEK/MWh (∼ 18 USD/MWh) at the plant. Small amounts of wood pellets were imported from Poland, Canada and Denmark, totalling less than 100 GWh. This fuel was used by small heating centrals and the import was caused by a shortage of swedish pellets. Potentially important export countries, if a large scale biofuel use starts in Sweden, are Russia, the Baltic states, USA, and Canada. Technical possibilities for converting coal-fired boilers to biofuel firing are discussed in a four page section of this paper. (2 refs., 2 tabs.)

  2. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Clean Biofuels from Biomass Using FeCuZnAlK Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Song-bai; Xu, Yong; Ye, Tong-qi; Gong, Fei-yan; Yang, Zhi; Yamamoto, Mitsuo; Liu, Yong; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-12-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of clean biofuels using the bio-syngas obtained from biomass gasification was performed over Fe1.5Cu1Zn1Al1K0.117 catalyst. The maximum biofuel yield from the bio-syngas reaches about 1.59 kg biofuels/(kgcatal·h) with a contribution of 0.57 kg alcohols/(kgcatal·h) and 1.02 kg liquid hydrocarbons/(kgcatal·h). The alcohol products in the resulting biofuels were dominated by the C2+ alcohols (mainly C2—C6 alcohols) with a content of 73.55%-89.98%. The selectivity of the liquid hydrocarbons (C5+) in the hydrocarbon products ranges from 60.37% to 70.94%. The synthesis biofuels also possess a higher heat value of 40.53-41.49 MJ/kg. The effects of the synthesis conditions, including temperature, pressure, and gas hourly space velocity, on the biofuel synthesis were investigated in detail. The catalyst features were characterized by inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction, and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements. The present biofuel synthesis with a higher biofuel yield and a higher selectivity of liquid hydrocarbons and C2+ alcohols may be a potentially useful route to produce clean biofuels and chemicals from biomass.

  3. Putting a green toe on the biofuels foot : determining and reducing the ecological footprint anticipated from accelerated biofuel development in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, T. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Technology Strategies Branch

    2007-07-01

    Results from recent Environment Canada (EC) research on punctuated life cycle analysis of biofuels and completed ongoing global benchmarking were presented. The purpose of the presentation was to demonstrate how the research community was responding to and organizing themselves for the biofuels opportunity/challenge agenda. The presentation provided a list of some of the environmental benefits of biofuels claimed in the public domain and identified potential environmental impact areas of concern. The author indicated that environmental data was not very robust and that this complex issue lends itself to a weak understanding of theoretical versus likely/achievable benefits. Other topics that were presented included biomass conversion technologies; the petrochemical distribution infrastructure in Canada; the biofuels distribution infrastructure; biofuel spill fate and behaviour; and the focus of EC's BEST research and development program. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  5. Biofuels and Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The world obtains 86% of its energy from fossil fuels, 40% from petroleum, a majority of which goes to the transportation sector (www.IEA.gov). Well-recognized alternatives are fuels derived from renewable sources known as biofuels. There are a number of biofuels useful for transportation fuels, which include ethanol, biobutanol, mixed alcohols, biodiesel, and hydrogen. These biofuels are produced from biologically derived feedstock, almost exclusively being plant materials, either food or feed sources or inedible plant material called biomass. This chapter will discuss technologies for production of liquid transportation biofuels from renewable feedstocks, but hydrogen will not be included, as the production technology and infrastructure are not near term. In addition, a specific emphasis will be placed upon the research opportunities and potential for application of system biology tools to dissect and understand the biological processes central to production of these biofuels from biomass and biological materials. There are a number of technologies for production of each of these biofuels that range from fully mature processes such as grain-derived ethanol, emerging technology of ethanol form cellulose derived ethanol and immature processes such thermochemical conversion technologies and production of hydrogen all produced from renewable biological feedstocks. Conversion of biomass by various thermochemical and combustion technologies to produce thermochemical biodiesel or steam and electricity provide growing sources of bioenergy. However, these technologies are outside of the scope of this chapter, as is the use of biological processing for upgrading and conversion of fossil fuels. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the current status of production of biofuels produced from biological-derived feedstocks using biological processes. Regardless of the status of development of the biological process for production of the biofuels, each process can benefit from

  6. The Significance of Including an Entrepreneurship Course in Engineering Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosly, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This paper studied the significance of entrepreneurship education in engineering programs. It looked into its influence on engineering students' perception and willingness to change their future job direction. The study was performed at the College of Engineering-Rabigh Branch, of King Abdulaiziz University in Saudi Arabia. Entrepreneurship…

  7. Biofuels Barometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    European Union biofuel use for transport reached the 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009, heralding a further drop in the pace of the sectors growth, which rose by only 18.7% between 2008 and 2009 - just 1.9 mtoe of consumption over the previous year. The biofuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the EU is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009, which is a very long way short of the 5.75% goal for 2010 set in the 2003 European biofuel directive, which would require around 18 mtoe of biofuel use. [French] Durant l'annee 2009, la consommation de biocarburants dedies aux transports de l'Union europeenne a atteint le seuil des 12 millions de tonnes equivalent petrole (Mtep). Ce resultat marque une nouvelle diminution du rythme de croissance de la filiere, +18,7 % seulement entre 2008 et 2009, qui n'ajoute que 1,9 Mtep a la consommation de 2009 par rapport a celle de 2008. Le taux d'incorporation des biocarburants dans le contenu energetique de l'ensemble des carburants utilises dans les transports de l'UE ne devrait pas depasser les 4% en 2009. On est encore tres loin de l'objectif de 5,75 % en 2010 de la directive europeenne sur les biocarburants de 2003, qui necessiterait une consommation de biocarburants de l'ordre de 18 Mtep.

  8. Scenarios for world agriculture and the Brazilian biofuels program; Cenarios para a agricultura mundial e o programa brasileiro de biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: anto1810@fec.unicamp.br, cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Three scenarios are elaborated denominated: 'tendency', 'sustainable development' and 'equilibrium'. The scenario 'tendency' tries to show how serious issues such as environmental, economic and social will be pushed to the limit, if current trends persist. The level of awareness of population, businesses and governments about the severity of current and future environmental problems does not change. In the 'sustainable development' scenario are introduced changes in economic, ecological and social developments seeking to reach the sustainable development in long term. There is a slow change in the current economic paradigm for the economic 'sustainable' and also the level of awareness of the population. The competitive paradigm gives way slowly to the place of community cooperation. Some of the technologies type 'end of pipe' and the substitution of dangerous technologies to the environment are introduced. In the 'equilibrium' scenario deep changes are proposed in the man's relationship with the nature and of man himself. The current economic paradigm is changed to the state stable in the medium term. The level of awareness of the population increases greatly, resulting in the reduction of waste, leading to demand for products with greater durability and repairability and agricultural products without pesticides. The competitive paradigm is changed to the community cooperation. The main conclusion is that it is necessary to do a strategic evaluation of the brazilian biofuels program.

  9. BSN Program Admittance Criteria: Should Emotional Intelligence Be Included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify and monitor emotions and remain aware of how emotions affect thoughts and actions. Emotional intelligence has been discussed as a better predictor of personal and occupational success than performance on intellectual intelligence tests. Despite the importance of one's emotional intelligence, BSN (Bachelor of Science in Nursing) nursing schools routinely admit candidates based on the student's cumulative college course grade point average (GPA). Nursing is a profession that requires one's ability to empathize, care, and react in emotionally sound manners. Is the GPA enough to determine if a student will evolve into a professional nurse? This article will explore the routine admittance criteria for BSN nursing programs and propose the concept of using the emotional intelligence tool as an adjunct to the cumulative college course GPA. The emotional intelligence theory will be identified and applied to the nursing profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  11. Information to Include in Curriculum Vitae | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applicants are encouraged to use their current curriculum vitae and to add any necessary information. Please include your name and a page number on each page of the curriculum vitae. Some of the information requested below will not be applicable to all individuals. Please do not print or type your information on this page. Personal Information Name (First middle last) Gender (optional) Race (optional) Date of birth Place of birth (city,

  12. Final report on the potential of local biofuels development to the Environmental and Renewable Industries Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-31

    There is significant interest in renewable and sustainable energy technologies, particularly biofuels, because of the growing crisis in the agricultural and forestry sectors, rising fuel prices, dwindling energy supply and growing awareness of the impact of traditional energy resources on the environment. Biofuels represent a possible opportunity to move towards a sustainable bio-economy in which agricultural and forestry products, co-products, and waste materials are utilized to produce energy. This report discussed the policy context for biofuels. The key local drivers for biofuel development in Prince Edward Island (PEI) were presented. These include rising energy prices; dependence on fossil fuels; climate change; and agricultural industry challenges. Biofuel policies and initiatives in a federal context, in central and western Canada, in New England, and in Atlantic Canada were also addressed. Prince Edward Island feedstocks such as forestry, agriculture, marine-based, and waste resources were examined. The report also identified the biofuel potential in PEI with reference to biocombustibles; pure plant oils; biodiesel; ethanol; and biogas. Last, the report outlined several biofuel projects, proposal, and initiatives and presented conclusions and recommendations. Several appendices were also included on resource materials; federal funding programs; Canadian renewable fuel standards and tax incentives; and the PEI biofuels evaluation framework. It was concluded that biomass feedstocks such as wood, cereals, straw, grasses, and crop residues offer significant potential for space and water heating applications and electricity generation. refs., tabs.

  13. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    To assess which biofuels have the better potential for the short-term or the longer term (2030), and what developments are necessary to improve the performance of biofuels, the production of four promising biofuels-methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, and synthetic diesel-is systematically analysed. This present paper summarises, normalises and compares earlier reported work. First, the key technologies for the production of these fuels, such as gasification, gas processing, synthesis, hydrolysis, and fermentation, and their improvement options are studied and modelled. Then, the production facility's technological and economic performance is analysed, applying variations in technology and scale. Finally, likely biofuels chains (including distribution to cars, and end-use) are compared on an equal economic basis, such as costs per kilometre driven. Production costs of these fuels range 16-22 Euro /GJ HHV now, down to 9-13 Euro /GJ HHV in future (2030). This performance assumes both certain technological developments as well as the availability of biomass at 3 Euro /GJ HHV . The feedstock costs strongly influence the resulting biofuel costs by 2-3 Euro /GJ fuel for each Euro /GJ HHV feedstock difference. In biomass producing regions such as Latin America or the former USSR, the four fuels could be produced at 7-11 Euro /GJ HHV compared to diesel and gasoline costs of 7 and 8 Euro /GJ (excluding distribution, excise and VAT; at crude oil prices of ∼35 Euro /bbl or 5.7 Euro /GJ). The uncertainties in the biofuels production costs of the four selected biofuels are 15-30%. When applied in cars, biofuels have driving costs in ICEVs of about 0.18-0.24 Euro /km now (fuel excise duty and VAT excluded) and may be about 0.18 in future. The cars' contribution to these costs is much larger than the fuels' contribution. Large-scale gasification, thorough gas cleaning, and micro-biological processes for hydrolysis and fermentation are key major fields for RD and D efforts, next to

  14. Economic and social implications of biofuel use and production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, K.

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of biofuels in meeting Canadian commitments to greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The characteristics of various biofuels were presented, including ethanol, methanol, biodiesel and biogas. Benefits of biofuels included a reduction in air contaminants as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Federal and provincial programs are currently in place to encourage production and use of biofuels. The Federal Ethanol Expansion Plan was outlined with reference to its target to increase ethanol production from 238 m litres to 1400 m litres by 2010. The main instruments of the program include excision of the gasoline tax exemption, ethanol expansion and the fact that ethanol can operate a polyfuels vehicle fleet. Provincial policies on ethanol were outlined, driven by characteristics of provincial economies. Provincial tax exemptions for ethanol were provided and an overview of the global ethanol market was presented. A map of existing and projected ethanol projects in Canada was presented, along with a forecast of Canadian ethanol production capacity. A time-line of Nebraska's ethanol production from the years 1985 to 2004 was provided. Economic drivers for ethanol include additional markets for products of agricultural, marine and forestry industries; the enhancement and diversification of rural and regional economies; employment; and energy security. Challenges to growth in biofuel production include technological knowledge and a lack of public awareness concerning the benefits of biofuel. The production and use of biofuels may increase environmental amenities but decrease economic growth. Issues concerning the economics of biofuel research were reviewed. The demand for biofuels has grown slowly in Canada, but has been promoted or mandated federally and in several provinces. The costs of biofuel production were reviewed, with a chart presenting ethanol production costs by plant size. Barriers to trade include the complexity of provincial tax

  15. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  16. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  17. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  18. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Joerg; Thielmann, Sascha

    2008-01-01

    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  19. Microbial stress tolerance for biofuels. Systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zonglin Lewis (ed.) [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions. (orig.)

  20. Resources, policy, and research activities of biofuel in Indonesia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuandri Putrasari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels as the main energy source of every country now predicted will be ended no more than 40 years. Therefore, alternative fuel such as biofuel has been developed by many countries including Indonesia. Indonesia as one of the highest populated country and has wide areas of agriculture, forest and crop field is potential to be the highest biofuel production in the world. However, after one decade since the Government of Indonesia launched the energy Policy in 2006, appears to be interesting that the biofuels progress in Indonesia seen not well developed. One of the basic weaknesses is the program only applied to the specific area with a high biofuel resource by central government without support by local government. Furthermore, the target of biofuel programs seems to be very high or too ambitious, while the condition of the people still very traditional which can be seen from the lifestyle and their energy consumption. This paper provides in detail a review of several topics related to resource, energy consumption, policy and the research and development activities of biofuel in Indonesia. As a discussion, some recommendation provided to encourage the biofuel development in the near future.

  1. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  2. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, M.A; Masjuki, H.H.; Maleque, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NO x , smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  3. Frames in the Ethiopian Debate on Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Portner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production, while highly contested, is supported by a number of policies worldwide. Ethiopia was among the first sub-Saharan countries to devise a biofuel policy strategy to guide the associated demand toward sustainable development. In this paper, I discuss Ethiopia’s biofuel policy from an interpretative research position using a frames approach and argue that useful insights can be obtained by paying more attention to national contexts and values represented in the debates on whether biofuel production can or will contribute to sustainable development. To this end, I was able to distinguish three major frames used in the Ethiopian debate on biofuels: an environmental rehabilitation frame, a green revolution frame and a legitimacy frame. The article concludes that actors advocating for frames related to social and human issues have difficulties entering the debate and forming alliances, and that those voices need to be included in order for Ethiopia to develop a sustainable biofuel sector.

  4. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.janssen@wip-munich.de [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany); Rutz, Dominik Damian [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: > This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. > Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. > Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. > Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. > Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  5. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Rainer; Rutz, Dominik Damian

    2011-01-01

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  6. 34 CFR 86.100 - What must the IHE's drug prevention program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? 86.100 Section 86.100 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.100 What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? The IHE's drug prevention program must, a...

  7. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  8. Cyanobacterial biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Iara M P; Atsumi, Shota

    2012-11-30

    The development of new technologies for production of alternative fuel became necessary to circumvent finite petroleum resources, associate rising costs, and environmental concerns due to rising fossil fuel CO₂ emissions. Several alternatives have been proposed to develop a sustainable industrial society and reduce greenhouse emissions. The idea of biological conversion of CO₂ to fuel and chemicals is receiving increased attention. In particular, the direct conversion of CO₂ with solar energy to biofuel by photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria has several advantages compared to traditional biofuel production from plant biomass. Photosynthetic microorganisms have higher growth rates compared with plants, and the production systems can be based on non-arable land. The advancement of synthetic biology and genetic manipulation has permitted engineering of cyanobacteria to produce non-natural chemicals typically not produced by these organisms in nature. This review addresses recent publications that utilize different approaches involving engineering cyanobacteria for production of high value chemicals including biofuels. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  10. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities in the operational phase. Portions of this standard are also useful for other DOE processes, activities, and programs. This Part 1 contains foreword, glossary, acronyms, bibliography, and Chapter 1 on operational configuration management program principles. Appendices are included on configuration management program interfaces, and background material and concepts for operational configuration management

  11. Biofuels from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Benemann, John; Metting, F. Blaine

    2010-03-01

    8.1 Introduction: Seaweeds and microalgae have a long history of cultivation as sources of commercial products (McHugh 2003; Pulz and Gross 2004). They also have been the subject of extensive investigations related to their potential as fuel source since the 1970s (Chynoweth 2002). As energy costs rise, these photosynthetic organisms are again a focus of interest as potential sources of biofuels, particularly liquid transportation fuels. There have been many recent private sector investments to develop biofuels from microalgae, in part building on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program from 1976 to 1996 which focused on microalgal oil production (Sheehan et al. 1998). Seaweed cultivation has received relatively little attention as a biofuel source in the US, but was the subject of a major research effort by the DOE from 1978 to 1983 (Bird and Benson 1987), and is now the focus of significant interest in Japan, Europe and Korea...

  12. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  13. Microalgae for biofuels production and environmental applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae can provide several different types of renewable biofuels. These include methane produced by anaerobic digestion of the algal biomass; biodiesel derived from microalgal oil and photobiologically produced biohydrogen. This review presents the current classification of biofuels, with special focus on microalgae ...

  14. Biofuels. Environment, technology and food security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Jose C.; Lora, Electo S.; Venturini, Osvaldo J. [NEST - Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation, Mechanical Engineering Institute, Universidade Federal de Itajuba (Brazil); Yanez, Edgar E. [CENIPALMA, Oil Palm Research Center - Cenipalma, Calle 21 42-C-47, Bogota (Colombia); Castillo, Edgar F. [CENICANA - Sugarcane Research Center of Colombia, Calle 58 N, 3BN-110, A.A., 9138 - Cali (Colombia); Almazan, Oscar [ICIDCA - Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar, Via Blanca y Carretera Central 804, San Miguel del Padron, A.P. 4036, La Habana (Cuba)

    2009-08-15

    The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)

  15. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur-Vernat, A.; His, St.

    2007-01-01

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  16. Advancing Biofuels: Balancing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with most technologies, use of biofuels has both benefits and risks, which vary by feedstock. Expected benefits include increased energy independence, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, reduced emission of greenhouse gases and invigorated rural economies. Anticipated risks include potential com...

  17. The development of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanroy, A.

    2009-01-01

    With respect to using renewable sources of energy for transportation, two major events have occurred a year part: the signing in December 2007 by President Bush of the Energy Independence and Security Act, and the energy and climate agreement between the European Parliament and European Council, including a directive on boosting renewable sources of energy. The French policy concerning biofuels is consistent with sustainable development: this policy will allow an important reduction of greenhouse gas release, the creation of jobs in rural areas and will reinforce the energy independency of the country

  18. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor......This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...

  19. Biofuels and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-fuels based on micro-algae are promising, their licensing for being used in plane fuels in a mix containing 50% of fossil kerosene is expected in the coming months. In United-States research on bio-fuels has been made more important since 2006 when 2 policies were launched: 'Advanced energy initiative' and 'Twenty-in-ten', the latter aiming to develop alternative fuels. In Europe less investment has been made concerning micro-algae fuels but research programs were launched in Spain, United-Kingdom and France. In France 3 important projects were launched: SHAMASH (2006-2010) whose aim is to produce lipidic fuels from micro-algae, ALGOHUB (2008-2013) whose aim is to use micro-algae as a raw material for humane and animal food, medicine and cosmetics, SYMBIOSE (2009-2011) whose aim is the optimization of the production of methane through the anaerobic digestion of micro-algae, SALINALGUE (2010-2016) whose aim is to grow micro-algae for the production of bio-energies and bio-products. (A.C.)

  20. Biofuel implementation agendas. A review of Task 39 Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Neeft, J.; Van Thuijl, E.; Wismeijer, R.; Mabee, W.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels for use in the transportation sector have been produced on a significant scale since the 1970's, using a variety of technologies. The biofuels widely available today are predominantly sugar- and starch-based bioethanol, and oilseed- and waste oil-based biodiesel, although new technologies under development may allow the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Measures to promote the use of biofuels include renewable fuel mandates, tax incentives, and direct funding for capital projects or fleet upgrades. This paper provides a review of the policies behind the successful establishment of the biofuel industry in countries around the world. The impact of direct funding programs and excise tax exemptions are examined using the United States as a case study. It is found that the success of five major bioethanol producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota) is closely related to the presence of funding designed to support the industry in its start-up phase. The study concludes that successful policy interventions can take many forms, but that success is equally dependent upon external factors which include biomass availability, an active industry, and competitive energy prices

  1. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  2. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    . Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

  3. Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohimain, Elijah I.

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria's economy is largely dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel supply shortages. In response to the transportation fuel supply difficulties in Nigeria, the country released the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives in 2007 to create favorable investment climate for the entrance of Nigeria into the biofuel sector. The paper assessed the progress made thus far by Nigeria, 4 years after the Nigerian biofuel was released in an attempt to answer the question whether the policy is adequate to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy. The study found that little progress has been made, which includes commencement of the construction of 20 bioethanol factories, installation of biofuel handling facilities at two depots (Mosimi and Atlas Cove), and selection of retail outlets for biofuel/conventional fuel mix. The site construction of the announced biofuel projects is now slow and other progress is marginal. We therefore conclude that the Nigerian biofuel policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy unless the Government revert and refocus on biofuel and include additional financial incentives such as grants and subsidy to complement the tax waivers (income, import duty, VAT), loans, and insurance cover contained in the policy. - Highlights: ► Nigeria's economy is dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel shortages. ► The Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives was released in 2007. ► Little progress has been made since the policy was released 4 years ago. ► Hence, the policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy

  4. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib-Mintz, Nazia

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  6. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  7. Biofuel production by recombinant microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, James C.; Atsumi, Shota; Cann, Anthony F.

    2017-07-04

    Provided herein are metabolically-modified microorganisms useful for producing biofuels. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing high alcohols including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol from a suitable substrate.

  8. Biofuels Refining Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobban, Lance [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-03-28

    The goal of this project is the development of novel catalysts and knowledge of reaction pathways and mechanisms for conversion of biomass-based compounds to fuels that are compatible with oil-based fuels and with acceptable or superior fuel properties. The research scope included both catalysts to convert lignocellulosic biomass-based molecules (from pyrolysis) and vegetable oil-based molecules (i.e., triglycerides and fatty acid methyl esters). This project comprised five technical tasks. Each task is briefly introduced below, and major technical accomplishments summarized. Technical accomplishments were described in greater detail in the quarterly progress reports, and in even more detail in the >50 publications acknowledging this DoE project funding (list of publications and presentations included at the end of this report). The results of this research added greatly to the knowledge base necessary for upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals, and for conversion of vegetable oils to fungible diesel fuel. Numerous new catalysts and catalytic reaction systems were developed for upgrading particular compounds or compound families found in the biomass-based pyrolysis oils and vegetable oils. Methods to mitigate catalyst deactivation were investigated, including novel reaction/separation systems. Performance and emission characteristics of biofuels in flames and engines were measured. Importantly, the knowledge developed from this project became the basis for a subsequent collaborative proposal led by our research group, involving researchers from the University of Wisconsin, the University of Pittsburg, and the Idaho National Lab, for the DoE Carbon, Hydrogen and Separations Efficiency (CHASE) program, which was subsequently funded (one of only four projects awarded in the CHASE program). The CHASE project examined novel catalytic processes for lignocellulosic biomass conversion as well as technoeconomic analyses for process options for maximum

  9. Effects of Deployment Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In support of the national goals for biofuel use in the United States, numerous technologies have been developed that convert biomass to biofuels. Some of these biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathways are operating at commercial scales, while others are in earlier stages of development. The advancement of a new pathway toward commercialization involves various types of progress, including yield improvements, process engineering, and financial performance. Actions of private investors and public programs can accelerate the demonstration and deployment of new conversion technology pathways. These investors (both private and public) will pursue a range of pilot, demonstration, and pioneer scale biorefinery investments; the most cost-effective set of investments for advancing the maturity of any given biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathway is unknown. In some cases, whether or not the pathway itself will ultimately be technically and financially successful is also unknown. This report presents results from the Biomass Scenario Model -- a system dynamics model of the biomass to biofuels system -- that estimate effects of investments in biorefineries at different maturity levels and operational scales. The report discusses challenges in estimating effects of such investments and explores the interaction between this deployment investment and a volumetric production incentive. Model results show that investments in demonstration and deployment have a substantial positive effect on the development of the biofuels industry. Results also show that other conditions, such as supportive policies, have major impacts on the effectiveness of such investments.

  10. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  11. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  12. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A., E-mail: miguelc@iastate.edu [Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University (United States); Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.edu [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.org [Development Research Group, The World Bank (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: > Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. > Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. > The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  13. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Du Xiaodong; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: → Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. → Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. → The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  14. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  15. Biomass, biogas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the different ways to produce biofuels. It appears that there are 3 generations of biofuels. The first generation was based on the use of the energetic reserves of the plants for instance sugar from beetroot or starch from cereals or oil from oleaginous plants. The second generation is based on a more complete use of the plant, the main constituents of the plant: cellulose and lignin are turned into energy. The third generation of biofuels relies on the use of energy plants and algae. The second generation of biofuels reduces drastically the competition between an alimentary use and a non-alimentary use of plants. In 2008 the production of biofuels reached 43 Mtep which represents only 2% of all the energy used in the transport sector. The international agency for energy expects that the production of biofuels would be multiplied by a factor 6 (even 10 if inciting measures are taken) by 2030. (A.C.)

  16. 75 FR 50986 - Notice of Contract Proposal (NOCP) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice to accept applications from previously excluded advanced biofuel producers and to modify... available Fiscal Year 2009 program funds under the Advanced Biofuel Payment Program. The March 12, 2010...

  17. Biofuels barometer; Barometre biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-05-15

    Biofuels represent 2,6% of the energy content of all the fuels used in road transport in Europe today. Nearly half of the target of 5,75% for 2010 set by the directive on biofuels has thus been reached in four years time. To achieve 5,75%, the european union is going to have to increase its production and doubtless call even more on imports, at a moment when biofuels are found at the core of complex ecological and economic issues. This analysis provided data and reflexions on the biofuels situation in the european union: consumption, bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, producers, environmental problems, directives. (A.L.B.)

  18. The second generation biofuels from the biomass; Les biocarburants de deuxieme generation issus de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  19. [Model-based biofuels system analysis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhang, Xiliang; Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin

    2011-03-01

    Model-based system analysis is an important tool for evaluating the potential and impacts of biofuels, and for drafting biofuels technology roadmaps and targets. The broad reach of the biofuels supply chain requires that biofuels system analyses span a range of disciplines, including agriculture/forestry, energy, economics, and the environment. Here we reviewed various models developed for or applied to modeling biofuels, and presented a critical analysis of Agriculture/Forestry System Models, Energy System Models, Integrated Assessment Models, Micro-level Cost, Energy and Emission Calculation Models, and Specific Macro-level Biofuel Models. We focused on the models' strengths, weaknesses, and applicability, facilitating the selection of a suitable type of model for specific issues. Such an analysis was a prerequisite for future biofuels system modeling, and represented a valuable resource for researchers and policy makers.

  20. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  1. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  2. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO 2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO 2 price of $80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO 2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  3. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  4. Biofuels and certification. A workshop at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereaux, Charan; Lee, Henry

    2009-06-01

    Liquid biofuels can provide a substitute for fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Many countries have mandated the use of biofuels, by creating targets for their use. If not implemented with care, however, actions that increase biofuel production can put upward pressure on food prices, increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and exacerbate degradation of land, forest, and water sources. A strong global biofuels industry will not emerge unless these environmental and social concerns are addressed. Interested parties around the world are actively debating the design and implementation of policies to meet the biofuel goals, particularly those established in the United States and Europe. In general, policy options for managing the potential risks and benefits of biofuel development should specify not only clear standards governing biofuel content and production processes, but also certification processes for verifying whether particular biofuels meet those standards, and specific metrics or indicators on which to base the certification. Historically, many standards in the energy and environment fields have ultimately been set or supported by governments. Many of the certification processes have been voluntary, carried out by independent third parties. The biofuels case is a young one, however, with questions of goals, standards, certification, and metrics still in interdependent flux. The workshop focused its discussions on certification issues, but found the discussions naturally reaching into ongoing debates regarding possible goals, standards, and metrics. Many countries are proposing that for a biofuel to qualify as contributing to government-mandated targets or goals, it must be certified to meet certain standards. These standards could be limited to the amount of GHG emitted in the production process or could include a number of other environmental sustainability concerns ranging from deforestation and biodiversity to water resources. While the threat to

  5. Supply chain design under uncertainty for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2014-01-01

    An advanced biofuels supply chain is proposed to reduce biomass transportation costs and take advantage of the economics of scale for a gasification facility. In this supply chain, biomass is converted to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, and after bio-oil gasification, the syngas is upgraded to transportation fuels at a centralized biorefinery. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to maximize biofuel producers' annual profit considering uncertainties in the supply chain for this pathway. The first stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants as well as the centralized biorefinery, while the second stage determines the biomass and biofuels flows. A case study based on Iowa in the U.S. illustrates that it is economically feasible to meet desired demand using corn stover as the biomass feedstock. The results show that the locations of fast pyrolysis plants are sensitive to uncertainties while the capacity levels are insensitive. The stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model in the stochastic environment, especially when there is insufficient biomass. Also, farmers' participation can have a significant impact on the profitability and robustness of this supply chain. - Highlights: • Decentralized supply chain design for advanced biofuel production is considered. • A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to consider uncertainties. • Farmers' participation has a significant impact on the biofuel supply chain design

  6. Recommended Resources for Planning to Evaluate Program Improvement Efforts (Including the SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Systemic Improvement at WestEd, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a list of recommended existing resources for state Part C and Part B 619 staff and technical assistance (TA) providers to utilize to support evaluation planning for program improvement efforts (including the State Systemic Improvement Plan, SSIP). There are many resources available related to evaluation and evaluation…

  7. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  8. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travelers on official business; and (e) A Travel Management Reporting System that covers financial and other... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL...

  9. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, Bala; Kumar, Ritunesh; Deshmukh, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    biofuel production from microalgae, including the selection and isolation of microalgal species, various cultivation and harvesting techniques as well as methods for their subsequent conversion into biofuels

  10. Biofuels: stakes, perspectives and researches; Biocarburants: enjeux, perspectives et recherches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Ballerin, D.; Montagne, X.

    2004-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) is a major intervener of the biofuels sector, from the production to the end-use in engines. In this press conference, the IFP takes stock of the technological, environmental and economical stakes of today and future biofuel production processes and of their impact on transports. This document gathers 2 presentations dealing with: IFP's research strategy on biofuels (transparencies: context; today's processes: ethanol, ETBE, bio-diesel; tomorrows processes: biomass to liquid; perspectives), bio-diesel fuel: the Axens process selected by Diester Industrie company for its Sete site project of bio-diesel production unit. The researches carried out at the IFP on biofuels and biomass are summarized in an appendix: advantage and drawbacks of biofuels, the ethanol fuel industry, the bio-diesel industry, biomass to liquid fuels, French coordinated research program, statistical data of biofuel consumption in France, Spain and Germany. (J.S.)

  11. Toward Inclusive Biofuel Innovation in Indonesia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward Inclusive Biofuel Innovation in Indonesia. Concern about energy security prompted the Indonesian government to issue several presidential decrees in 2005 and 2006 promoting a national biofuels program based on a vegetable oil produced from the seeds of Jatropha curcas, a plant that can be grown on marginal ...

  12. An overview of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels for transport have received considerable attention due to rising oil prices and growing concern about greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels namely ethanol and esters of fatty acids have the potential to displace a substantial amount of petroleum fuel in the next few decades which will help to conserve fossil fuel resources. Life cycle analyses show that biofuels release lesser amount of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Thus biofuels are seen as a pragmatic step towards reducing carbon dioxide emission from transport sector. Biofuels are compatible with petroleum and combustion engines can easily operate with 10% ethanol and 20% biodiesel blended fuel with no modification. However higher concentrations require 'flex-fuel' engines which automatically adjust fuel injection depending upon fuel mix. Biofuels are derived from renewable biomass and can be produced from a variety of feedstocks. The only limiting factors are the availability of cropland, growth of plants and the climate. Countries with warmer climate can get about five times more biofuel crops from each acre of land than cold climate countries. Genetically modified crops and fast growing trees are being developed increase the production of energy crops. (author)

  13. The biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO 2 accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  14. Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world were discussed in present article. First-generation biofuels, i.e., grain and land based biofuels, occupied large areas of arable lands and severely constrained food supplies, are widely disputed. They have been replaced by second-generation biofuels. The raw materials of the second-generation biofuels include plants, straw, grass and other crops and forest residues. However, the cost for production of the second-generation biofuels is higher. Therefore the development of the third-generation biofuels is undergoing. The third-generation technologies use, mainly algae, as raw material to produce bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel and hydrogen, and use discarded fruits to produce dimethylfuran, etc. Different countries and regions are experiencing different stages of biofuel industry. In the future the raw materials for biofuel production will be focused on various by-products, wastes, and organisms that have not direct economic benefit for human. Production technologies should be improved or invented to reduce carbon emission and environmental pollution during biofuel production and to reduce production cost.

  15. Biofuels: which interest, which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of several studies concerning the production and utilization of bio-fuels: energy balance and greenhouse effect of the various bio-fuel systems; economical analysis and profitability of bio-fuel production; is the valorization of bio-fuel residues and by-products in animal feeding a realistic hypothesis?; assessment of the cost for the community due to tax exemption for bio-fuels

  16. A Self-Assembling Protein Hydrogel Technology for Enzyme Incorporation onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0369 A Self-Assembling Protein Hydrogel Technology for Enzyme Incorporation onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells (YIP) Zhilei Chen...Incorporation Onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER C12-00857 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0330 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...activity enzyme immobilization on electrodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. Enzymatic biofuel cells hold great potential for providing flexible, compact

  17. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  18. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 20 CFR 627.220 - Coordination with programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program, the...

  20. Impact of biofuels on air pollutant emissions from road vehicles. Management Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Kadijk, G.; Hensema, A.; Passier, G.L.M.; Rabe, E.L.M. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands); Smokers, R.T.M.; Kampman, B. [CE, Delft (Netherlands); Riemersma, I.J.

    2008-06-15

    Industrialized nations face the dual challenge of reducing the emission of CO2 as well as reducing concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. For reducing CO2 emissions, the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels has received much attention recently. However, there is still much unclear regarding the effect of the implementation of biofuels on polluting emissions. To investigate this issue, the Ministry of VROM has initiated the research programme BOLK ('Beleidsgericht Onderzoeksprogramma Lucht en Klimaat 2008-2009' or 'Policy-aimed research program on air and climate 2008-2009). In BOLK, different areas of renewable fuel production and use are investigated, including production, use in different situations, and capture/sequestration. The work reported here gives an overview of the expected effects of the use of biofuels on vehicle emissions up to 2020. Three main questions have been the guideline in this work: (1) Which biofuels will be used in significant quantities up to 2020?; (2) What engine developments are expected, both for diesel and petrol engines?; and (3) How does engine technology interact with the use of biofuels, both on short and longer term, and what are the expected implications for exhaust emissions? A literature study has been carried out and international experts on engine technology and fuels were consulted. The current work is the first phase in the BOLK project, and is still rather exploratory in nature. Nevertheless, some important conclusions for policy makers already become clear.

  1. Market possibilities for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The market for biofuels in Sweden after introduction of a proposed CO 2 -tax on fossil fuels is forecast. The competition between biofuels, fossil fuels and electricity is described for important market segments such as: Paper industry, Sawmills, Other energy-intensive industry, Power and heat producers, small Heat producers, and for Space heating of one-family houses. A market increase of the use of biofuels is probable for the segment small (district) heating centrals, 10 TWh in the next ten year period and even more during a longer period. Other market segments will not be much affected. An increased use of biofuels in paper and pulp industry will not influence the fuel market, since the increase will happen in the industry's normal lumber purchase. (2 figs., 18 tabs.)

  2. Biofuels barometer; Barometre biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-15

    In 2010 bio-fuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union (EU). However its pace backs the assertion that bio-fuel consumption growth in EU slackened off in 2010. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total bio-fuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13.9 Mtoe that can be broken down into 10.7 Mtoe for bio-diesel, 2.9 Mtoe for bio-ethanol and 0.3 Mtoe for others. Germany leads the pack for the consumption of bio-fuels and for the production of bio-diesel followed by France and Spain

  3. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  4. From first generation biofuels to advanced solar biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Roadmaps towards sustainable bioeconomy, including the production of biofuels, in many EU countries mostly rely on biomass use. However, although biomass is renewable, the efficiency of biomass production is too low to be able to fully replace the fossil fuels. The use of land for fuel production also introduces ethical problems in increasing the food price. Harvesting solar energy by the photosynthetic machinery of plants and autotrophic microorganisms is the basis for all biomass production. This paper describes current challenges and possibilities to sustainably increase the biomass production and highlights future technologies to further enhance biofuel production directly from sunlight. The biggest scientific breakthroughs are expected to rely on a new technology called "synthetic biology", which makes engineering of biological systems possible. It will enable direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel from inexhaustible raw materials: sun light, water and CO2. In the future, such solar biofuels are expected to be produced in engineered photosynthetic microorganisms or in completely synthetic living factories.

  5. PTAC: a computer program for pressure-transient analysis, including the effects of cavitation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kot, C A; Youngdahl, C K

    1978-09-01

    PTAC was developed to predict pressure transients in nuclear-power-plant piping systems in which the possibility of cavitation must be considered. The program performs linear or nonlinear fluid-hammer calculations, using a fixed-grid method-of-characteristics solution procedure. In addition to pipe friction and elasticity, the program can treat a variety of flow components, pipe junctions, and boundary conditions, including arbitrary pressure sources and a sodium/water reaction. Essential features of transient cavitation are modeled by a modified column-separation technique. Comparisons of calculated results with available experimental data, for a simple piping arrangement, show good agreement and provide validation of the computational cavitation model. Calculations for a variety of piping networks, containing either liquid sodium or water, demonstrate the versatility of PTAC and clearly show that neglecting cavitation leads to erroneous predictions of pressure-time histories.

  6. A modelling approach to estimate the European biofuel production: from crops to biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clodic, Melissa [Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (IFP/INRA), Paris (France). Instituto Frances do Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Today, in the context of energy competition and climate change, biofuels are promoted as a renewable resource to diversify the energy supply. However, biofuel development remains controversial. Here, we will present a way to make an environmental and economic cost and benefit analysis of European biofuels, from the crops until the marketed products, by using a linear programming optimization modelling approach. To make this European biofuel production model, named AGRAF, possible, we decided to use different independent linear programming optimization models which represent the separate parts of the process: European agricultural production, production of transforming industries and refinery production. To model the agricultural and the refining sections, we have chosen to improve existing and experimented models by adding a biofuel production part. For the transforming industry, we will create a new partial equilibrium model which will represent stake holders such as Sofiproteol, Stereos, etc. Data will then be exchanged between the models to coordinate all the biofuel production steps. Here, we will also focus on spatialization in order to meet certain of our requirements, such as the exchange flux analysis or the determination of transport costs, usually important in an industrial optimization model. (author)

  7. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the transportation sector and can address many of the problems associated with mineral oil. Many biofuels are conceivable. Biodiesel (from oil crops) and ethanol from sugar beets or grains are already used in pr...

  8. Turbomachinery in Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Görling, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the production processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel production process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...

  9. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  10. The biofuels, situation, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2007-03-01

    The climatic change with the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, sees the development of ''clean'' energy sources. Meanwhile the biofuels remain penalized by their high production cost, the interest is increasing. Facing their development ecologists highlight the environmental and social negative impacts of the development of the biofuels. The author aims to take stock on the techniques and the utilizations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Engineering microbes for tolerance to next-generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop Mary J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major challenge when using microorganisms to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels is that the production targets are often toxic to cells. Many biofuels are known to reduce cell viability through damage to the cell membrane and interference with essential physiological processes. Therefore, cells must trade off biofuel production and survival, reducing potential yields. Recently, there have been several efforts towards engineering strains for biofuel tolerance. Promising methods include engineering biofuel export systems, heat shock proteins, membrane modifications, more general stress responses, and approaches that integrate multiple tolerance strategies. In addition, in situ recovery methods and media supplements can help to ease the burden of end-product toxicity and may be used in combination with genetic approaches. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology provide a framework for tolerance engineering. This review highlights recent targeted approaches towards improving microbial tolerance to next-generation biofuels with a particular emphasis on strategies that will improve production.

  12. Reassessing Escherichia coli as a cell factory for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Pfleger, Brian F; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-06-01

    Via metabolic engineering, industrial microorganisms have the potential to convert renewable substrates into a wide range of biofuels that can address energy security and environmental challenges associated with current fossil fuels. The user-friendly bacterium, Escherichia coli, remains one of the most frequently used hosts for demonstrating production of biofuel candidates including alcohol-, fatty acid- and terpenoid-based biofuels. In this review, we summarize the metabolic pathways for synthesis of these biofuels and assess enabling technologies that assist in regulating biofuel synthesis pathways and rapidly assembling novel E. coli strains. These advances maintain E. coli's position as a prominent host for developing cell factories for biofuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Public acceptance of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2010-01-01

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  14. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  15. From biomass to sustainable biofuels in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zyl, W.H.; Den Haan, R.; Rose, S.H.; La Grange, D.C.; Bloom, M. [Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland (South Africa). Dept. of Microbiology; Gorgens, J.F.; Knoetze, J.H. [Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland (South Africa). Dept. of Process Engineering; Von Blottnitz, H. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a global sustainable bioenergy project with particular reference to South Africa's strategy to develop biofuels. The current biofuel production in South Africa was presented along with the potential for biofuels production and other clean alternative fuels. The South African industrial biofuel strategy (IBS) was developed in 2007 with a mandate to create jobs in the energy-crop and biofuels value chain; attract investment into rural areas; promote agricultural development; and reduce the import of foreign oil. The proposed crops for bioethanol include sugar cane and sugar beet, while the proposed crops for biodiesel include sunflower, canola and soya beans. The exclusion of maize was based on food security concerns. Jatropha curcas was also excluded because it is considered to be an invasive species. In addition to environmental benefits, the production of biofuels from biomass in Africa offers improved energy security, economic development and social upliftment. All biofuel projects are evaluated to ensure that these benefits are realized. Although first generation technologies do not score well due to marginal energy balance, negative life cycle impacts or detriment to biodiversity, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass scores well in terms of enabling the commercialization of second generation biofuels. This paper discussed both the biochemical and thermochemical technological interventions needed to develop commercially-viable second generation lignocellulose conversion technologies to biofuels. tabs., figs.

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  17. Exploring new strategies for cellulosic biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Langan; S. Gnankaran; Kirk D. Rector; Norma Pawley; David T. Fox; Dae Won Cho; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2011-01-01

    A research program has been initiated to formulate new strategies for efficient low-cost lignocellulosic biomass processing technologies for the production of biofuels. This article reviews results from initial research into lignocellulosic biomass structure, recalcitrance, and pretreatment. In addition to contributing towards a comprehensive understanding of...

  18. Integrated Biorefineries: Biofuels, Biopower, and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-06

    This fact sheet describes integrated biorefineries and the Program's work with them. A crucial step in developing the U.S. bioindustry is to establish integrated biorefineries capable of efficiently converting a broad range of biomass feedstocks into affordable biofuels, biopower, and other bioproducts.

  19. Biofuels and food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. STREBKOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The major source of energy comes from fossil fuels. The current situation in the field of fuel and energy is becoming more problematic as world population continues to grow because of the limitation of fossil fuels reserve and its pressure on environment. This review aims to find economic, reliable, renewable and non-polluting energy sources to reduce high energy tariffs in Russian Federation. Biofuel is fuel derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Other alternative energy sources including solar energy and electric power generation are also discussed. Over 100 Mt of biomass available for energy purposes is produced every year in Russian. One of the downsides of biomass energy is its potential threatens to food security and forage industries. An innovative approach proved that multicomponent fuel (80% diesel oil content for motor and 64% for in stove fuel can remarkably reduce the costs. This paper proposed that the most promising energy model for future is based on direct solar energy conversion and transcontinental terawatt power transmission with the use of resonant wave-guide technology.

  20. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  1. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and... participate in one or more financial education programs that involve receiving deposits, paying withdrawals...

  2. Body Image and quality of life of senior citizens included in a cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vargas Amaral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people who have to live with some kind of disease tend to adopt healthy habits and create new ways of seeing themselves. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the index of quality of life and self perception of patients included in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program in Florianopolis/Brazil. The sample consists of 24 subjects of 62 ± 1.3 years of age, who have coronary artery disease. The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ was used to assess the quality of life, and to identify the degree of body image discontentment the Stunkard and Sorensen questionnaire (1993 was applied. Statistical analysis was made through statistics programs and the software SPSS 11.0. The degree of association between variables was studied with Kendall test. It was verified that the higher the BMI and the current body shape, the greatest the degree of body image dissatisfaction. The emotional symptoms also appear to be significantly correlated with a desire for a smaller body shape and with indicators of lower quality of life (r = 0474 = 0735, p major 0.05. The physical symptoms were also considerably associated with the emotional symptoms. These results suggest that the variables concerning the quality of life are meaningful to significant body image and satisfaction, which seems to correlate with fewer emotional problems and better facing of the disease. Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Programs that implement physical activity in daily habits proves to be a suitable tool for improving these ailments in this post-acute phase

  3. Impacts of Climate Change on Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this research project was to improve and use our biogeochemistry model, TEM, to simulate the effects of climate change and other environmental changes on the production of biofuel feedstocks. We used the improved version of TEM that is coupled with the economic model, EPPA, a part of MIT’s Earth System Model, to explore how alternative uses of land, including land for biofuels production, can help society meet proposed climate targets. During the course of this project, we have made refinements to TEM that include development of a more mechanistic plant module, with improved ecohydrology and consideration of plant-water relations, and a more detailed treatment of soil nitrogen dynamics, especially processes that add or remove nitrogen from ecosystems. We have documented our changes to TEM and used the model to explore the effects on production in land ecosystems, including changes in biofuels production.

  4. A tool to include gamma analysis software into a quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Christina E; McGarry, Conor K

    2016-03-01

    To provide a tool to enable gamma analysis software algorithms to be included in a quality assurance (QA) program. Four image sets were created comprising two geometric images to independently test the distance to agreement (DTA) and dose difference (DD) elements of the gamma algorithm, a clinical step and shoot IMRT field and a clinical VMAT arc. The images were analysed using global and local gamma analysis with 2 in-house and 8 commercially available software encompassing 15 software versions. The effect of image resolution on gamma pass rates was also investigated. All but one software accurately calculated the gamma passing rate for the geometric images. Variation in global gamma passing rates of 1% at 3%/3mm and over 2% at 1%/1mm was measured between software and software versions with analysis of appropriately sampled images. This study provides a suite of test images and the gamma pass rates achieved for a selection of commercially available software. This image suite will enable validation of gamma analysis software within a QA program and provide a frame of reference by which to compare results reported in the literature from various manufacturers and software versions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  6. Panorama 2018 - 2017 biofuels scoreboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anne; Lorne, Daphne

    2018-01-01

    This note presents some 2017 statistical data about biofuels: consumption, fuel substitution rate, world ethanol and bio-diesel markets, diesel substitutes, French market, R and D investments, political measures for biofuels development

  7. Greenhouse gas emission curves for advanced biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daioglou, Vassilis; Doelman, Jonathan C.; Stehfest, Elke; Müller, Christoph; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2017-01-01

    Most climate change mitigation scenarios that are consistent with the 1.5–2 °C target rely on a large-scale contribution from biomass, including advanced (second-generation) biofuels. However, land-based biofuel production has been associated with substantial land-use change emissions. Previous

  8. Transgenic perennial biofuel feedstocks and strategies for bioconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of transgenic tools for the improvement of plant feedstocks will be required to realize the full economic and environmental benefits of cellulosic and other biofuels, particularly from perennial plants. Traits that are targets for improvement of biofuels crops include he...

  9. Approval Letter for an Alternative Renewable Biomass Tracking Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This January 27, 2015 letter and decision document from EPA approves the Argentine Chamber of Biofuel's (CARBIO) Alternate Biomass Traking Program meeting all the requirements outlined in 40 CFR § 80.1454, including elements determined necessary to achieve

  10. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  11. Microalgae biofuel potentials (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Naseri, A T; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Mobasher, M A; Dabbagh, F

    2012-01-01

    With the decrease of fossil based fuels and the environmental impact of them over the planet, it seems necessary to seek the sustainable sources of clean energy. Biofuels, is becoming a worldwide leader in the development of renewable energy resources. It is worthwhile to say that algal biofuel production is thought to help stabilize the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decrease global warming impacts. Also, among algal fuels' attractive characteristics, algal biodiesel is non toxic, with no sulfur, highly biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae are capable of producing in excess of 30 times more oil per acre than corn and soybean crops. Currently, algal biofuel production has not been commercialized due to high costs associated with production, harvesting and oil extraction but the technology is progressing. Extensive research was conducted to determine the utilization of microalgae as an energy source and make algae oil production commercially viable.

  12. 76 FR 5154 - Availability of Draft Report, Biofuels and the Environment: First Triennial Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... entire biofuel supply chain, including feedstock production and logistics, and biofuel production, distribution, and use. Throughout the biofuel supply chain, activities take place and materials are used that... Information Management Team, NCEA; telephone: 703-347-8561; facsimile: 703-347- 8691. If you are requesting a...

  13. 77 FR 61012 - Expansion of Importer Self-Assessment Program To Include Qualified Importers of Focused...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... announces changes to the Importer Self- Assessment (ISA) program and describes the requirements for... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Importer Self-Assessment Program and the Focused Assessment The Importer Self-Assessment (ISA) program is a joint government- business initiative designed to build cooperative...

  14. Algorithms and Programs for Strong Gravitational Lensing In Kerr Space-time Including Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie; Maddumage, Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  15. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python

  16. Effects of Deployment Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stright, Dana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report updates the 2013 report of the same title. Some text originally published in that report is retained and indicated in gray. In support of the national goals for biofuel use in the United States, numerous technologies have been developed that convert biomass to biofuels. Some of these biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathways are operating at commercial scales, while others are in earlier stages of development. The advancement of a new pathway toward commercialization involves various types of progress, including yield improvements, process engineering, and financial performance. Actions of private investors and public programs can accelerate the demonstration and deployment of new conversion technology pathways. These investors (both private and public) will pursue a range of pilot, demonstration, and pioneer scale biorefinery investments; the most cost-effective set of investments for advancing the maturity of any given biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathway is unknown. In some cases, whether or not the pathway itself will ultimately be technically and financially successful is also unknown. This report presents results from the Biomass Scenario Model--a system dynamics model of the biomass to biofuels system--that estimate effects of investments in biorefineries at different maturity levels and operational scales. The report discusses challenges in estimating effects of such investments and explores the interaction between this deployment investment and a volumetric production incentive. Model results show that investments in demonstration and deployment have a substantial growth impact on the development of the biofuels industry. Results also show that other conditions, such as accompanying incentives, have major impacts on the effectiveness of such investments. Results from the 2013 report are compared to new results. This report does not advocate for or against investments, incentives, or policies, but analyzes simulations of

  17. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  18. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  19. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain–represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner’s decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer’s choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  20. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  1. 45 CFR 284.30 - What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in the State on the increase in child poverty? 284.30 Section... TANF PROGRAM § 284.30 What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the... PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES METHODOLOGY...

  2. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

  3. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., coordination, responsibility for the construction project, day-to-day on-site management on site-management and administration of the project, which may include cost management, project budgeting, project scheduling and... Improvement Program or road maintenance program activities of BIA; (3) Operation and maintenance programs; and...

  4. Socio-economic aspects of different biofuel development pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duer, Henrik; Christensen, Pernille Ovre

    2010-01-01

    There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.

  5. Parental Preferences for the Organization of Preschool Vaccination Programs Including Financial Incentives: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Flynn PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.

  6. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  7. Next generation biofuel engineering in prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronenberg, Luisa S.; Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation biofuels must be compatible with current transportation infrastructure and be derived from environmentally sustainable resources that do not compete with food crops. Many bacterial species have unique properties advantageous to the production of such next-generation fuels. However, no single species possesses all characteristics necessary to make high quantities of fuels from plant waste or CO2. Species containing a subset of the desired characteristics are used as starting points for engineering organisms with all desired attributes. Metabolic engineering of model organisms has yielded high titer production of advanced fuels, including alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives. Technical developments now allow engineering of native fuel producers, as well as lignocellulolytic and autotrophic bacteria, for the production of biofuels. Continued research on multiple fronts is required to engineer organisms for truly sustainable and economical biofuel production. PMID:23623045

  8. Mitochondrial bioelectrocatalysis for biofuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arechederra, Robert L.; Boehm, Kevin; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria modified electrodes have been developed and characterized that utilize whole mitochondria isolated from tubers and immobilized within a quaternary ammonium modified Nafion membrane on a carbon electrode that can oxidize pyruvate and fatty acids. Detailed characterization of the performance of these mitochondria modified electrodes has been accomplished by coupling the mitochondria-based bioanode with a commercial air breathing cathode in a complete pyruvate/air biofuel cell. The studies included the effect of fuel (pyruvate) concentration, mitochondria lysing, temperature and pH on the performance of the mitochondria catalyzed, pyruvate/air biofuel cell. Effect of oxygen and cytochrome c oxidase inhibitors on biofuel cell performance has allowed us to further understand the mechanism of electron transfer with the carbon electrode.

  9. Smart choices for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Much of the strong support for biofuels in the United States is premised on the national security advantages of reducing dependence on imported oil. In late 2007, these expected payoffs played a major role in driving an extension and expansion of the...

  10. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    to be 'like' a compliant biofuel. A more economically rational way to reduce GHG emissions, and one that might attract greater public support, would be for the RED to reward emission reductions along the lines of the FQD. Moreover, this modification would probably make the provisions more acceptable...

  11. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the

  12. The Danish Biofuel Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    What role does scientific claims-making play in the worldwide promotion of biofuels for transport, which continues despite serious concerns about its potentially adverse social and environmental effects? And how do actors with very different and conflicting viewpoints on the benefits and drawbacks...

  13. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As the twentieth century drew to a close, there was considerable support for the use of biofuels as a source of renewable energy. To many people, they offered significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, an opportunity for reduced dependency on oil for transport, and potential as a counter weight to increasing oil prices. They also promised an opportunity for rural economies to benefit from a new market for their products and a chance of narrowing the gap between rich and poor nations. Biofuel development was encouraged by government subsidies, and rapid growth occurred in many parts of the world. Forty per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is used for biofuel production, for example, as is almost a quarter of maize grown in the United States. Although only around 1 per cent of arable land is cultivated to grow feedstock for biofuels, there has been increasing concern over the way a largely unchecked market has developed, and about its social and environmental consequences. Recent research has confirmed that food prices have been driven significantly higher by competition for prime agricultural land and that savings in greenhouse gas emissions are much smaller - and in some cases entirely eliminated - when environmentally important land, such as rainforest, is destroyed to grow biofuels. As a result, many now believe that the economic benefits of biofuels have been obtained at too high a social and environmental price, and they question whether they can be a truly sustainable source of energy. The United Kingdom has always had sustainability at the heart of its biofuel policies and set up the Renewable Fuels Agency to ensure that this goal was met. The direct effects of biofuel production are already being assessed through five measures of environmental performance and two measures of social performance, as well as measures of the energy efficiency of the production processes used and of the greenhouse gas savings achieved

  14. The rationality of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horta Nogueira, Luiz Augusto; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Schuchardt, Ulf; Goldemberg, Jose

    2013-01-01

    In an editorial of a recent issue of a known academic journal, Prof. Hartmut Michel affirmed that “…the production of biofuels constitutes an extremely inefficient land use… We should not grow plants for biofuel production.”, after comparing the area occupied with plants for bioenergy production with the one required for photovoltaic cells to supply the same amount of energy for transportation. This assertion is not correct for all situations and this comparison deserves a more careful analysis, evaluating the actual and prospective technological scenarios and other relevant aspects, such as capacity requirements, energy consumed during the life cycle of energy systems and the associated impacts. In this communication this comparison is revaluated, presenting a different perspective, more favorable for the bioenergy routes. - Highlights: • Energy systems and life cycle impacts are compared under equal conditions. • The comparison is done between biofuels and photovoltaic/battery in mobility uses. • Biofuels are a valuable option when produced sustainably by efficient routes

  15. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  16. Patient and program costs, and outcomes, of including gender-sensitive services in intensive inpatient programs for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornack, Sarah E; Yates, Brian T

    2017-12-01

    Gender-sensitive services (GSS) attempt to make substance use treatment better for women, but at what cost and with what results? We sought answers to these questions in a federally-funded study by measuring separately the patient and provider costs of adding GSS, outcomes, and cost-outcome relationships for 12 mixed-gender intensive inpatient programs (IIP) that varied in amounts and types of GSS. GSS costs to female inpatients included time devoted to GSS and expenses for care of dependents while in the IIP. GSS costs to providers included time spent with patients, indirect services, treatment facilities, equipment, and materials. Offering more GSS was expected to consume more patient and provider resources. Offering more GSS also was expected to enhance outcomes and cost-outcome relationships. We found that average GSS costs to patients at the IIPs were $585 ($515-$656) per patient. Average GSS costs to providers at the IIPs were $344 ($42-$544) per patient. GSS costs to patients significantly exceeded GSS costs to providers. Contrary to previous research, offering more GSS services to patients did not result in significantly higher costs to patients or providers. IIPs offering more GSS may have delivered fewer traditional services, but this did not significantly affect outcomes, i.e., days until returning to another substance use treatment. In fact, median cost-outcome for these IIPs was a promising 35 treatment-free days, i.e., over a month, per $100 of GSS resources used by patients and providers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mets, Uelo

    2000-01-01

    This article contains a short overview of biomass consumption in Eu countries. The market share of biomass comparing with the other renewable energy sources, analysis, figures of development options and potential barriers are presented. Some special paragraphs were devoted to liquid biofuels like ethanol, methanol and bio-diesel oils. Lacking of the distribution system of liquid biofuels is one of the barriers in implementation. The granulated wood pellets is going to be one of the most widespread bio fuel for households in Austria and Southern Germany and for small scale district heating in Denmark and Sweden. From the analyse follows, that in countries with the state support and subsidies, the biomass consumption is much more developed and is competing with the fossil fuels in heat and power market. But in countries without this support the share of biofuels is decreasing. The last paragraph is describing the situation of biomass consumption in Estonia. Up to now here are positive as well as negative examples of biomass boilers implementation. Comparison of the heat prices in Estonia and in E U countries is presented in Fig. 2. Considering that our heat prices are about 2 times less than the E U average, implementation of the quite expensive western burning technology in Estonia would be more complicated than in E U countries. This points out even bigger necessity of the state support or subsidizing in Estonia. But there is another, economically more feasible way for subsidizing - to start the production of the small bio-fuelled boilers and the fuel handling technology in Estonia. This should reduce the total investment cost of the bio-fuelled heating systems. (author)

  18. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  19. 14 CFR 1267.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... abuse violations occurring in the workplace. ... ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for... establish an ongoing drug-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in...

  20. 13 CFR 147.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... abuse violations occurring in the workplace. ... ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Requirements for Recipients... establish an ongoing drug-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in...

  1. 12 CFR 361.6 - What outreach efforts are included in this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with the FDIC in minority- and women-owned media; and (5) Monitoring to assure that FDIC staff... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.6 What outreach efforts...

  2. Individualized Education Programs for Students with Autism: Including Parents in the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The involvement of parents in developing individualized education programs (IEPs) for their children with autism is discussed. Essential components of IEP documents are outlined, and strategies that professionals can use to promote significant family involvement are considered. (Author/SW)

  3. [Michigan Technological University Pre-Service Teacher Enhancement Program]. [Includes a copy of the Student Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.S.; Yarroch, W.L.

    1993-04-27

    The Michigan Technological University Teacher Education Program received funding from the US Department of Energy for the purpose of providing capable and suitably inclined, MTU Engineering and Science students a chance to explore high school level science and mathematics teaching as a career option. Ten undergraduate students were selected from nominations and were paired with mentor teachers for the study. This report covers the experience of the first ten nominees and their participation in the program.

  4. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  5. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies rely upon attributional lifecycle analysis (LCA) approaches to estimate water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/evapotranspiration water consumed for biofuel production. Such approaches can be misleading. From a policy perspective, a better approach is to compare differential water impacts among scenarios on a landscape scale. We address the shortcomings of existing studies by using consequential LCA, and incorporate direct and indirect land use (changes) of biofuel scenarios, marginal vs. average biofuel water use estimates, future climate, and geographic heterogeneity. We use the outputs of a partial equilibrium economic model, climate and soil data, and a process-based crop-soil-climate-water model to estimate differences in green water (GW - directly from precipitation to soil) and blue water (BW - supplied by irrigation) use among three scenarios: (1) business-as-usual (BAU), (2) Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. We use spatial statistical methods to interpolate key climatic variables using daily climate observations for the contiguous USA. Finally, we use FAO's crop model AquaCrop to estimate the domestic GW and BW impacts of biofuel policies from 2007-2035. We assess the differences among scenarios along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion at the county level, including prime and marginal lands, (2) crop-specific and overall annual/seasonal water balances including (a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (d) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm 3 /acre over the relevant time period. The functional unit of analysis is the BW and GW requirements of biofuels (mm3 per Btu biofuel) at the county level. Differential water use impacts among scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes

  6. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Berndes, G.; Prieler, S.; Fischer, G.; Cueste Cabal, H.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and increase crop

  7. The Agricultural Ethics of Biofuels: The Food vs. Fuel Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Thompson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based transportation fuels were the focus of extended criticism in the press, especially during 2008 when a portion of the blame for a spike in global food prices was associated with growth of the United States’ corn ethanol industry. The critique is based on an unsophisticated portrayal of the ethical issues at stake in the food security implications of biofuel. Three ethical critiques can be leveled at the food vs. fuel debate. First, although market drivers of biofuels indeed skew consumption of agricultural grains, this is not a problem that is unique to biofuels. Second, the critique does not reflect an adequate understanding of the way that rising food prices and changes in agricultural technology affect the food security of the poorest people. Third, although rising food prices could be beneficial to poor farm producers among the world’s poor, it is unlikely that benefits will materialize in the absence of concerted programs to deliberately select biofuel development strategies that are targeted to strengthen food security for poor and small-holding producers. An adequate agricultural ethics for biofuels will require commitment by both private and public sector biofuel developers to ensure that potentially positive attributes of biofuel development are realized.

  8. Transitioning to sustainable use of biofuel in Australia★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasongko Nugroho Adi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel is identified as one of the key renewable energy sources for sustainable development, and can potentially replace fossil-based fuels. Anticipating the competition between food and energy security, the Australian Government is intensively exploring other biofuel resources. There have been numerous research projects in Australia using the second and third generation model based on different feedstocks including lignocellulosic and microalgae. Such projects have been successfully demonstrated but are yet to be commercially viable. Moreover, transition pathways to realize the potential benefits of these value chains are not well understood. This preliminary study tried to provide an alternative framework and proposes future long-term transport biofuel pathways in Australia which can be seen as a solution for a post-carbon society. The study is targeted to outline the milestone of the Australian biofuel industry and its roadmap into the future. An investigation has been carried out on biofuel status and barrier, technology development, market and the chronology of biofuel related policies in Australia to understand the current situation and possibilities to develop further strategies, while also providing an insight into the consequences of producing biofuel for transportation. Several methods have been proposed to introduce the transition into a post-carbon society. Seven scenarios were divided, covering the roadmap of first, second and third generation of biofuel, alternative transportation modes such as electric vehicles (EVs and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs and the elimination of the fossil fuel running vehicles within a time frame of 20 years. The utilization of biofuel can be seen as a short to medium mode for transition into a green transportation society. Our investigation also showed that microalgae gave a better ecological footprint which offers the strongest potential for future Australian biofuel industry and aviation. Meanwhile, EVs

  9. Microalgae: biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.

  10. The bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.H.

    1993-02-01

    In France, using fallow soils for energy production may be a solution to agriculture problems. Technical and economical studies of biofuels (ethanol, methanol, ethyl tributyl ether, methyl tributyl ether and methyl ester) are presented with costs of production from the raw material to the end product, characteristics of the end product, engine consumption for pure or mixed fuels, and environmental impacts. For the author, the mixed ethanol process shows no advantages in term of energy dependency (ETBE, MTBE and colza ester give better results), ethanol production uses 90% and colza ester production 53% of the calorific power of the produced biofuels. Commercial balance: damaged, fiscal receipts: reduced, new jobs creation: inferior to 10.000 and the majority outside of the agriculture sphere, environmental impacts: slight diminution of greenhouse gases, but growth of soil and water pollution, all these points are developed by the author. Observations of some contradictors are also given. (A.B.). refs. figs., tabs

  11. Biofuels made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, C.

    2004-01-01

    Much has been said and written in Australia since the Federal Government introduced its Clean Fuels Policy in September 2001. Various biofuel projects are now being considered in different states of Australia for the manufacture of bioethanol and biodiesel from renewable resources. However, the economic viability required to establish an Australian liquid biofuels industry is predicated on supportive government legislation and an encouraging fuel excise regime. On the other hand, the benefits of such an industry are also in debate. In an attempt to clarify some of the concerns being raised, this paper endeavours to provide an overview of the current use of bioethanol and biodiesel around the world, to summarise the process technologies involved, to review the benefits and non-benefits of renewable fuels to the transport industry and to address the issues for such an industry here in Australia

  12. 45 CFR 1155.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  13. 22 CFR 1509.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  14. 20 CFR 439.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  15. 49 CFR 32.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  16. 21 CFR 1405.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  17. 10 CFR 607.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  18. 22 CFR 1008.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  19. 22 CFR 210.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  20. 31 CFR 20.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than...

  1. 34 CFR 84.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  2. 43 CFR 43.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than...

  3. 45 CFR 1173.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  4. 22 CFR 133.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than Individuals...

  5. 28 CFR 83.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation...) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Requirements for Recipients Other Than...

  6. 15 CFR 29.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-free awareness program to inform employees about— (a) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (b) Your policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (c) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other Than...

  7. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  8. Including a Programming Course in General Education: Are We Doing Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Roger C.; Leidig, Paul M.; Reynolds, John H.

    2015-01-01

    General education is more than a list of required courses a student must take to complete their degree. For most universities, general education is the groundwork for the student's university experience. These courses span multiple disciplines and allow students to experience a wide range of topics on their path to graduation. Programming classes,…

  9. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  10. 38 CFR 21.4235 - Programs of education that include flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an educational institution of higher learning for credit toward a standard college degree that the.... The enrollment in an instrument rating course alone does not establish that the individual is pursuing... program of education that leads to a standard college degree. (2) An individual described in paragraph (f...

  11. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Prieur, A.

    2006-10-01

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  12. Effects of US biofuel policies on US and world petroleum product markets with consequences for greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Wyatt; Whistance, Jarrett; Meyer, Seth

    2011-01-01

    US biofuel policy includes greenhouse gas reduction targets. Regulators do not address the potential that biofuel policy can have indirect impacts on greenhouse gases through its impacts on petroleum product markets, and scientific research only partially addresses this question. We use economic models of US biofuel and agricultural markets and US and world petroleum and petroleum product markets to show that discontinuing biofuel tax credits and ethanol tariff lower biofuel use could lead to increased US petroleum product use, and a reduction in petroleum product use in other parts of the world. The net effect is lower greenhouse gas emissions. Under certain assumptions, we show that biofuel use mandate elimination can have positive or negative impacts on greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude and the direction of effects depend on how US biofuel trade affects biofuel in other countries with different emissions, context that determines how important use mandates are in the first place, who pays mandate costs, and the price responsiveness of global petroleum supplies and uses. However, our results show that counter-intuitive effects are possible and discourage broad conclusions about the greenhouse gas impacts of removing these elements of US biofuel policy. - Highlights: → Biofuel policy has counter-intuitive greenhouse gas effects under certain conditions. → US biofuel policies affect global petroleum markets, with implications for GHGs. → US biofuel use mandate GHG effects depend on whether they are binding and who pays. → US biofuel GHGs are sensitive to policy, petroleum market responses, and biofuel trade.

  13. Biofuels - the UFIP position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since 2003 a directive promote the biofuels use. The industry is then using them in ETBE (Ethyl Tertio Butyl Ether) fuels and in diesel oil of vegetal oils esters EMHV. Meanwhile some of them present technical difficulties and must free themselves from fiscal incentives which make them competitive. For these reasons, the UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) do not agree their obligatory incorporation. (A.L.B.)

  14. Biofuels barometer: Crops pending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The actors and production capacities have changed only little in the biofuel sector from year to another. Nevertheless, it is interesting to take stock of the development of this sector at the end of 2002, so as to update the more complete barometer published in issue 144 of Systemes Solaires. Indeed, European ethanol production grew by 13% and that of bio-diesel by more than 20% in 2001. (authors)

  15. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  16. Biofuels from microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Inst. of Resource and Energy Technology; Zverlov, V.V.; Schwarz, W.H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Dept. of Microbiology

    2007-11-15

    Today, biomass covers about 10% of the world's primary energy demand. Against a backdrop of rising crude oil prices, depletion of resources, political instability in producing countries and environmental challenges, besides efficiency and intelligent use, only biomass has the potential to replace the supply of an energy hungry civilisation. Plant biomass is an abundant and renewable source of energy-rich carbohydrates which can be efficiently converted by microbes into biofuels, of which, only bioethanol is produced on an industrial scale today. Biomethane is produced on a large scale, but is not yet utilised for transportation. Biobutanol is on the agenda of several companies and may be used in the near future as a supplement for gasoline, diesel and kerosene, as well as contributing to the partially biological production of butyl-t-butylether, BTBE as does bioethanol today with ETBE. Biohydrogen, biomethanol and microbially made biodiesel still require further development. This paper reviews microbially made biofuels which have potential to replace our present day fuels, either alone, by blending, or by chemical conversion. It also summarises the history of biofuels and provides insight into the actual production in various countries, reviewing their policies and adaptivity to the energy challenges of foreseeable future. (orig.)

  17. Biofuels Barometer; Barometre Biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    In 2010 biofuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union. However its pace backs the assertion that EU biofuel consumption growth slackened off. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total biofuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13,9 Mtoe. [French] Dans les pays de l'union europeenne, les biocarburants ont continue en 2010 a se substituer a la consommation d'essence et de diesel. Ils l'ont cependant fait a un rythme plus lent, confirmant la perte de vitesse de la croissance de la consommation de biocarburants dans l'union europeenne. Dans le secteur des transports, l'augmentation n'a ete que de 1,7 Mtep en 2010 contre une augmentation de 2,7 Mtep en 2009. la consommation totale de biocarburants devrait finalement etre de l'ordre de 13,9 Mtep en 2010.

  18. European biofuel policies in retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuijl, E.; Deurwaarder, E.P.

    2006-05-01

    Despite the benefits of the production and use of biofuels in the fields of agriculture, security of energy supply and the environment, in India and surrounding countries, the barriers to the use of biofuels are still substantial. The project ProBios (Promotion of Biofuels for Sustainable Development in South and South East Asia) aims at promoting biofuels in the view of sustainable development in the Southern and South eastern Asian countries. The first stage of this project concerns a study, which will provide a thorough review of the complicated and sector-overarching issue of biofuels in India and surrounding countries. This report describes past experiences with the policy context for a selection of EU countries, with the purpose of identifying conclusions from the European experience that may be valuable for Indian and South East Asian policy makers and other biofuels stakeholders

  19. Sustainability development: Biofuels in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels are socially and politically accepted as a form of sustainable energy in numerous countries. However, cases of environmental degradation and land grabs have highlighted the negative effects to their adoption. Smallholder farmers are vital in the development of a biofuel industry. The study sort to assess the implications in the adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 129 smallholder farmers who were sampled from the Easter...

  20. BIOFUELS: FROM HOPES TO REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Carioca , José Osvaldo Beserra; Friedrich, Horst E.; Ehrenberger, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the research for biofuels processing development with the vehicle conception to focus on realistic scenarios for biofuels to attend vehicle specifications and future green mobility. Actually, these are two important segments of fuels and biofuels context which should converge to a sustainable and realistic model. Recently, due to the climate changes versus fossil fuels use, and its consequences, the United Nations System addressed to the world a report on green economy ind...

  1. Impact of Technology and Feedstock Choice on the Environmental Footprint of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. B.; Dodder, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard program (RFS2) has led to a dramatic shift in the use of biofuel in the U.S. transportation system over the last decade. To satisfy this demand, the production of U.S. corn-based ethanol has grown rapidly, with an average increase of over 25% annually from 2002 to 2010. RFS2 requires a similarly steep increase in the production of advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol. Unlike corn-based ethanol, which is derived from the biochemical fermentation of sugars in wet and dry mills, it is likely that a more diverse suite of technologies will need to be developed to be able to meet the advanced biofuel RFS2 targets, including biochemical as well as thermochemical (e.g., gasification and pyrolysis) approaches. Rather than relying on energy crops, a potential advantage of thermochemical approaches is the ability to use a wider variety of feedstocks, including municipal solid waste and wood waste. In this work, we conduct a system-level analysis to understand how technology and feedstock choice can impact the environmental footprint of biofuels in the U.S. We use a least-cost optimization model of the U.S. energy system to account for interactions between various components of the energy system: industrial, transportation, electric, and residential/commercial sectors. The model was used to understand the scale of feedstock demand required from dedicated energy crops, as well as other biomass feedstocks, in order to meet the RFS2 mandate. On a regional basis, we compare the overall water-consumption and land requirements for biofuels production given a suite of liquid-fuel production technologies. By considering a range of scenarios, we examine how the use of various feedstocks (e.g., agricultural residues, wood wastes, mill residues and municipal wastes) can be used to off-set environmental impacts as compared to relying solely on energy crops.

  2. Assessment of biofuels supporting policies using the BioTrans model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensink, Sander; Londo, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of advanced, 2nd generation biofuels is a difficult to forecast process. Policies may impact the timing of their introduction and the future biofuels mix. The least-cost optimization model BioTrans supports policy analyses on these issues. It includes costs for all parts of the supply chain, and endogenous learning for all biofuels technologies, including cost reductions through scale. BioTrans shows that there are significant lock-in effects favouring traditional biofuels, and that the optimal biofuels mix by 2030 is path dependent. The model captures important barriers for the introduction of emerging technologies, thereby providing valuable quantitative information that can be used in analyses of biofuels supporting policies. It is shown that biodiesel from oil crops will remain a cost effective way of producing biofuels in the medium term at moderate target levels. Aiming solely at least-cost biofuel production is in conflict with a longer term portfolio approach on biofuels, and the desire to come to biofuels with the lowest greenhouse gas emissions. Lowering the targets because of environmental constraints delays the development of 2nd generation biofuels, unless additional policy measures (such as specific sub targets for these fuels) are implemented.

  3. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  4. Biofuel Cells: Enhanced Enzymatic Bioelectrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Matthew T.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2012-07-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells represent an emerging technology that can create electrical energy from biologically renewable catalysts and fuels. A wide variety of redox enzymes have been employed to create unique biofuel cells that can be used in applications such as implantable power sources, energy sources for small electronic devices, self-powered sensors, and bioelectrocatalytic logic gates. This review addresses the fundamental concepts necessary to understand the operating principles of biofuel cells, as well as recent advances in mediated electron transfer- and direct electron transfer-based biofuel cells, which have been developed to create bioelectrical devices that can produce significant power and remain stable for long periods.

  5. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  6. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  7. [Productivity of doctoral programs in Psychology with Quality Mention in journal articles included in Journal Citation Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi-Lechuga, Bertha; Olivas-Ávila, José; Castro, Angel

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to classify doctoral programs with Quality Mention in Psychology based on their scientific productivity. For this purpose, articles in the Web of Science published by professors teaching in these doctoral programs were analyzed. In addition, we analyzed scientific journals in which these professors tend to publish more papers and the evolution in the number of papers published until 2009. Results showed that the most productive doctoral program was the Neurosciences program at the University of Oviedo. This program showed a ratio of 40 articles--published in journals included in Journal Citation Reports--by each professor. In contrast, other programs did not reach a ratio of 10 articles per professor. Regarding journals, results showed that 9 out of the 20 most popular journals are Hispanic and a gradual increase in the number of published papers was also observed. Lastly, results and implications for quality assessment are discussed.

  8. Including everyone: A peer learning program that works for under-represented minorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques van der Meer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer learning has long been recognised as an effective way to induct first-year students into the academic skills required to succeed at university. One recognised successful model that has been extensively researched is the Supplemental Instruction (SI model; it has operated in the US since the mid-1970s. This model is commonly known in Australasia as the Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS program. Although there is a considerable amount of research into SI and PASS, very little has been published about the impact of peer learning on different student groups, for example indigenous and other ethnic groups. This article reports on the results from one New Zealand university of the effectiveness of PASS for Māori and Pasifika students. The questions this article seeks to address are whether attendance of the PASS program results in better final marks for these two groups of students, and whether the number of sessions attended has an impact on the final marks.

  9. 30 CFR 250.415 - What must my casing and cementing programs include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)); (b) Casing design safety factors for tension, collapse, and burst with the assumptions made to arrive... included in API RP 65, Recommended Practice for Cementing Shallow Water Flow Zones in Deep Water Wells...

  10. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  11. Pathways to Carbon-Negative Liquid Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, D.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many climate change mitigation scenarios assume that atmospheric carbon dioxide removal will be delivered at scale using bioenergy power generation with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). However, other pathways to negative emission technologies (NETs) in the energy sector are possible, but have received relatively little attention. Given that the costs, benefits and life-cycle emissions of technologies vary widely, more comprehensive analyses of the policy options for NETs are critical. This study provides a comparative assessment of the potential pathways to carbon-negative liquid biofuels. It is often assumed that that decarbonisation of the transport sector will include use of liquid biofuels, particularly for applications that are difficult to electrify such as aviation and maritime transport. However, given that biomass and land on which to grow it sustainably are limiting factors in the scaling up of both biofuels and NETs, these two strategies compete for shared factors of production. One way to circumvent this competition is carbon-negative biofuels. Because capture of exhaust CO2 in the transport sector is impractical, this will likely require carbon capture during biofuel production. Potential pathways include, for example, capture of CO2 from fermentation, or sequestration of biochar from biomass pyrolysis in soils, in combination with thermochemical or bio-catalytic conversion of syngas to alcohols or alkanes. Here we show that optimal pathway selection depends on specific resource constraints. As land availability becomes increasingly limiting if bioenergy is scaled up—particularly in consideration that abandoned degraded land is widely considered to be an important resource that does not compete with food fiber or habitat—then systems which enhance land productivity by increasing soil fertility using soil carbon sequestration become increasingly preferable compared to bioenergy systems that deplete or degrade the land resource on which they

  12. Protein Network Signatures Associated with Exogenous Biofuels Treatments in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Although recognized as a promising microbial cell factory for producing biofuels, current productivity in cyanobacterial systems is low. To make the processes economically feasible, one of the hurdles, which need to be overcome is the low tolerance of hosts to toxic biofuels. Meanwhile, little information is available regarding the cellular responses to biofuels stress in cyanobacteria, which makes it challenging for tolerance engineering. Using large proteomic datasets of Synechocystis under various biofuels stress and environmental perturbation, a protein co-expression network was first constructed and then combined with the experimentally determined protein–protein interaction network. Proteins with statistically higher topological overlap in the integrated network were identified as common responsive proteins to both biofuels stress and environmental perturbations. In addition, a weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed to distinguish unique responses to biofuels from those to environmental perturbations and to uncover metabolic modules and proteins uniquely associated with biofuels stress. The results showed that biofuel-specific proteins and modules were enriched in several functional categories, including photosynthesis, carbon fixation, and amino acid metabolism, which may represent potential key signatures for biofuels stress responses in Synechocystis. Network-based analysis allowed determination of the responses specifically related to biofuels stress, and the results constituted an important knowledge foundation for tolerance engineering against biofuels in Synechocystis.

  13. Protein Network Signatures Associated with Exogenous Biofuels Treatments in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Although recognized as a promising microbial cell factory for producing biofuels, current productivity in cyanobacterial systems is low. To make the processes economically feasible, one of the hurdles, which need to be overcome is the low tolerance of hosts to toxic biofuels. Meanwhile, little information is available regarding the cellular responses to biofuels stress in cyanobacteria, which makes it challenging for tolerance engineering. Using large proteomic datasets of Synechocystis under various biofuels stress and environmental perturbation, a protein co-expression network was first constructed and then combined with the experimentally determined protein-protein interaction network. Proteins with statistically higher topological overlap in the integrated network were identified as common responsive proteins to both biofuels stress and environmental perturbations. In addition, a weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed to distinguish unique responses to biofuels from those to environmental perturbations and to uncover metabolic modules and proteins uniquely associated with biofuels stress. The results showed that biofuel-specific proteins and modules were enriched in several functional categories, including photosynthesis, carbon fixation, and amino acid metabolism, which may represent potential key signatures for biofuels stress responses in Synechocystis. Network-based analysis allowed determination of the responses specifically related to biofuels stress, and the results constituted an important knowledge foundation for tolerance engineering against biofuels in Synechocystis.

  14. An Assessment of Thailand’s Biofuel Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujan Shrestha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues—environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects. The policies, measures and incentives for the development of biofuel include targets, blending mandates and favorable tax schemes to encourage production and consumption of biofuels. Biofuel development improves energy security, rural income and reduces greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, but issues related to land and water use and food security are important considerations to be addressed for its large scale application. Second generation biofuels derived from agricultural residues perform favorably on environmental and social sustainability issues in comparison to first generation biofuel sources. The authors estimate that sustainably-derived agricultural crop residues alone could amount to 10.4 × 106 bone dry tonnes per year. This has the technical potential of producing 1.14–3.12 billion liters per year of ethanol to possibly displace between 25%–69% of Thailand’s 2011 gasoline consumption as transportation fuel. Alternatively, the same amount of residue could provide 0.8–2.1 billion liters per year of diesel (biomass to Fischer-Tropsch diesel to potentially offset 6%–15% of national diesel consumption in the transportation sector.

  15. Algae as a Biofuel: Renewable Source for Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kant Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels produced by algae may provide a feasible alternative to fossil fuels like petroleum sourced fuels. However, looking to limited fossil fuel associated with problems, intensive efforts have been given to search for alternative biofuels like biodiesel. Algae are ubiquitous on earth, have potential to produce biofuel. However, technology of biofuel from algae facing a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly organized. Different challenges include strain identification and improvement of algal biomass, both in terms of biofuel productivity and the production of other products to improve the economics of the entire system. Algal biofuels could be made more cost effective by extracting other valuable products from algae and algal strains. Algal oil can be prepared by culture of algae on municipal and industrial wastewaters. Photobioreactors methods provide a controlled environment that can be tailored to the specific demands of high production of algae to attain a consistently good yield of biofuel. The algal biomass has been reported to yield high oil contents and have good amount of the biodiesel production capacity. In this article, it has been attempted to review to elucidate the approaches for making algal biodiesel economically competitive with respect to petrodiesel. Consequently, R & D work has been carried out for the growth, harvesting, oil extraction and conversion to biodiesel from algal sources.

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  17. Cyanobacteria and microalgae: a positive prospect for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Asha; Singh, Niraj Kumar; Pandey, Ashok; Gnansounou, Edgard; Madamwar, Datta

    2011-11-01

    Biofuel-bioenergy production has generated intensive interest due to increased concern regarding limited petroleum-based fuel supplies and their contribution to atmospheric CO2 levels. Biofuel research is not just a matter of finding the right type of biomass and converting it to fuel, but it must also be economically sustainable on large-scale. Several aspects of cyanobacteria and microalgae such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high per-acre productivity, non-food based feedstock, growth on non-productive and non-arable land, utilization of wide variety of water sources (fresh, brackish, seawater and wastewater) and production of valuable co-products along with biofuels have combined to capture the interest of researchers and entrepreneurs. Currently, worldwide biofuels mainly in focus include biohydrogen, bioethanol, biodiesel and biogas. This review focuses on cultivation and harvesting of cyanobacteria and microalgae, possible biofuels and co-products, challenges for cyanobacterial and microalgal biofuels and the approaches of genetic engineering and modifications to increase biofuel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, T.; Londo, H.M.

    2008-06-01

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels

  19. 42 CFR 137.275 - May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.275 May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding...

  20. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  1. Biofuels: Project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  2. Biofuels in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, E.

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the biofuel markets in El Salvador, Panama, Costa Rica and Honduras. The aim of this report is to provide insight in the current situation and the expected developments in these markets and thus to provide investors with an image of the opportunities that could be present in this sector. An attempt has been made to provide a clear overview of this sector in the countries concerned. Due to a lack of data this has not been fully accomplished in some cases. [mk] [nl

  3. Investigating biofuels through network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curci, Ylenia; Mongeau Ospina, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel policies are motivated by a plethora of political concerns related to energy security, environmental damages, and support of the agricultural sector. In response to this, much scientific work has chiefly focussed on analysing the biofuel domain and on giving policy advice and recommendations. Although innovation has been acknowledged as one of the key factors in sustainable and cost-effective biofuel development, there is an urgent need to investigate technological trajectories in the biofuel sector by starting from consistent data and appropriate methodological tools. To do so, this work proposes a procedure to select patent data unequivocally related to the investigated sector, it uses co-occurrence of technological terms to compute patent similarity and highlights content and interdependencies of biofuels technological trajectories by revealing hidden topics from unstructured patent text fields. The analysis suggests that there is a breaking trend towards modern generation biofuels and that innovators seem to focus increasingly on the ability of alternative energy sources to adapt to the transport/industrial sector. - Highlights: • Innovative effort is devoted to biofuels additives and modern biofuels technologies. • A breaking trend can be observed from the second half of the last decade. • A patent network is identified via text mining techniques that extract latent topics.

  4. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  5. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-02-15

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised industrial agricultural systems. The legitimacy problems of biofuels cannot be addressed by sustainability indicators or new technologies alone since they arise from the spatial ordering of biofuel production. In the 1970-80s, promoters of bioenergy anticipated current concerns about food security implications but envisioned bioenergy production to be territorially embedded at national or local scales where these issues would be managed. Where the territorial and scalar vision was breached, it was to imagine poorer countries exporting higher-value biofuel to the North rather than the raw material as in the controversial global biomass commodity chains of today. However, controversy now extends to the global impacts of national biofuel systems on food security and greenhouse gas emissions, and to their local impacts becoming more widely known. South/South and North/North trade conflicts are also emerging as are questions over biodegradable wastes and agricultural residues as global commodities. As assumptions of a food-versus-fuel conflict have come to be challenged, legitimacy questions over global agri-business and trade are spotlighted even further. In this context, visions of biofuel development that address these broader issues might be promising. These include large-scale biomass-for-fuel models in Europe that would transform global trade rules to allow small farmers in the global South to compete, and small-scale biofuel systems developed to address local energy needs in the

  6. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised industrial agricultural systems. The legitimacy problems of biofuels cannot be addressed by sustainability indicators or new technologies alone since they arise from the spatial ordering of biofuel production. In the 1970–80s, promoters of bioenergy anticipated current concerns about food security implications but envisioned bioenergy production to be territorially embedded at national or local scales where these issues would be managed. Where the territorial and scalar vision was breached, it was to imagine poorer countries exporting higher-value biofuel to the North rather than the raw material as in the controversial global biomass commodity chains of today. However, controversy now extends to the global impacts of national biofuel systems on food security and greenhouse gas emissions, and to their local impacts becoming more widely known. South/South and North/North trade conflicts are also emerging as are questions over biodegradable wastes and agricultural residues as global commodities. As assumptions of a food-versus-fuel conflict have come to be challenged, legitimacy questions over global agri-business and trade are spotlighted even further. In this context, visions of biofuel development that address these broader issues might be promising. These include large-scale biomass-for-fuel models in Europe that would transform global trade rules to allow small farmers in the global South to compete, and small-scale biofuel systems developed to address local energy needs in the

  7. Program description for the program Fuel program sustainability July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2015; Programbeskrivning foer programmet Braensleprogrammet haallbarhet 1 juli 2011 till och med 30 juni 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    The Fuel program sustainability is included as one of three programs in a cohesive commitment to increased, sustainable and efficient production and use of indigenous and renewable fuels that are implemented by the Swedish Energy Agency from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015. The program focuses on issues of environment and ecological sustainability of the production of biofuels, and systems and resource issues concerning the use. It does not include purely technical issues related to biofuels production or processes in which fuel is converted to heat, electricity or fuel. Questions about fuel supply and fuel processing / scale combustion are treated in the parallel running programs; the Fuel program supply and the Fuel program conversion. The four-year program will commence on July 1, 2011 and will run until June 30, 2015 and has an annual budget of total SEK 16 millions. Ambiguities in the environmental area may through various regulations mean various forms of barriers on the biofuel market. The Fuel program sustainability aims to sort out such ambiguities and, if possible, eliminate such obstacles, identify solutions and develop opportunities. The availability of biofuels and croplands is limited relative to needs. Thus the program also aims to describe the resource efficiency and climate benefits of current biofuel chains, and the possibility of using instruments to stimulate good practice. The program consists of sub-areas that partly overlap. - The sub-area Environment and sustainability focuses on how biofuel production will be designed to meet national and international environmental objectives and sustainability criteria. - The sub-area Biofuels and greenhouse gases describes different climate aspects related to production and exploitation of biofuels. - The sub-area System and market focuses on resource- and climate-efficient solutions in a system perspective, and how the bio-energy system can be affected by policy instruments

  8. Biofuels. An overview. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.F.M.

    2007-05-01

    The overall objective of this desk study is to get an overview of the most relevant liquid biofuels especially in the African context, and more specifically in the Netherlands' relevant partner countries. The study will focus on biofuels for transport, but will also consider biofuels for cooking and power generation. Biogas as the result of anaerobic fermentation which can be used for cooking, lighting and electricity generation will not be considered in this study. Liquid biofuels are usually divided into alcohols that are used to substitute for gasoline and oils that are used to substitute for diesel and are often called Biodiesel, and this division will be followed in this study. In chapter 2 we will analyse several aspects of the use of alcohols particularly ethanol, in chapter 3 the same analysis will be done for oils, using as example the very promising Jatropha oil. In chapter we will analyse socio-economic issues of the use of these biofuels

  9. A Call to Include Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Newborn Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raz Somech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs has recently emerged as a useful non-invasive clinical and research tool to investigate thymic activity. It allows the identification of T cell production by the thymus. Quantification of TREC copies has recently been implemented as the preferred test to screen neonates with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID or significant lymphopenia. Neonatal genetic screening for SCID is highly important in countries with high rates of consanguinous marriages, such as Israel, and can be used for early diagnosis, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention that will save lives and improve the outcome of these patients. TREC measurement is also applicable in clinical settings where T cell immunity is involved, including any T cell immunodeficiencies, HIV infection, the aging process, autoimmune diseases, and immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation.

  10. First generation biofuels compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marshall A

    2010-11-30

    Rising petroleum prices during 2005-2008, and passage of the 2007 U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act with a renewable fuel standard of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022, encouraged massive investments in U.S. ethanol plants. Consequently, corn demand increased dramatically and prices tripled. This created a strong positive correlation between petroleum, corn, and food prices resulting in an outcry from U.S. consumers and livestock producers, and food riots in several developing countries. Other factors contributed to higher grain and food prices. Economic growth, especially in Asia, and a weaker U.S. dollar encouraged U.S. grain exports. Investors shifted funds into the commodity's future markets. Higher fuel costs for food processing and transportation put upward pressure on retail food prices. From mid-2008 to mid-2009, petroleum prices fell, the U.S. dollar strengthened, and the world economy entered a serious recession with high unemployment, housing market foreclosures, collapse of the stock market, reduced global trade, and a decline in durable goods and food purchases. Agricultural commodity prices declined about 50%. Biotechnology has had modest impacts on the biofuel sector. Seed corn with traits that help control insects and weeds has been widely adopted by U.S. farmers. Genetically engineered enzymes have reduced ethanol production costs and increased conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Time for commercializing non-food biofuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The booming automobile in China has added additional pressure on the country that needs to import almost 50% of its oil. Non-food-based biofuel is a viable fuel alternative for cars. China already has the required-foundation to commercialize non-food-based biofuel. Chinese crop straw and stock, energy crop, and woody biomass that could potentially be converted into energy are projected to be 700 million toe (ton of oil equivalent) in the near future. Meanwhile, Chinese food-based ethanol fuel industry ranks as the world's third after United States and Brazil. Several non-food-based ethanol plants are constructed or under constructed, one of which has been licensed. However, more efforts should be directed to commercializing non-food-based biofuel, including industrialized feedstock, strengthening key technology research, supporting private enterprise, and E10 upgrading to E20. The enormous increase in private ownership of car must compel China to commercialize biofuel. (author)

  12. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tallant, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  13. A study of the LCA based biofuel supply chain multi-objective optimization model with multi-conversion paths in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhexuan; Qiu, Tong; Chen, Bingzhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A LCA based biofuel supply chain model considering 3E criteria was proposed. • The model was used to design a supply chain considering three conversion pathways. • An experimental biofuel supply chain for China was designed. • A Pareto-optimal solution surface of this multi-objective problem was obtained. • The designed supply chain was rather robust to price variation. - Abstract: In this paper we present a life cycle assessment (LCA) based biofuel supply chain model with multi-conversion pathways. This model was formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem which took economic, energy, and environmental criteria (3E) into consideration. The economic objective was measured by the total annual profit. The energy objective was measured by using the average fossil energy input per megajoule (MJ) of biofuel. The environmental objective was measured by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per MJ of biofuel. After carefully consideration of the current situation in China, we chose to examine three conversion pathways: bio-ethanol (BE), bio-methanol (BM) and bio-diesel (BD). LCA was integrated to a multi-objective supply chain model by dividing each pathway into several individual parts and analyzing each part. The multi-objective MILP problem was solved using a ε-constraint method by defining the total annual profit as the optimization objective and assigning the average fossil energy input per MJ biofuel and GHG emissions per MJ biofuel as constraints. This model was then used to design an experimental biofuel supply chain for China. A surface of the Pareto optimal solutions was obtained by linear interpolation of the non-inferior solutions. The optimal results included the choice of optimal conversion pathway, biomass type, biomass locations, facility locations, and network topology structure in the biofuel supply chain. Distributed and centralized systems were also factored into our experimental system design. In addition, the

  14. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  15. Road-map for 2. generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents road-map issues concerning the requirements for biofuels of second generation, and defines the priorities addressed by a demonstrator program. It recalls the context created by the challenges of climate change and the excessive dependence on fossil fuels, and the objectives defined by the European Union in terms of biofuel share in the global consumption. Then, it describes the candidate technologies for the production of this second generation of biofuels, those based on thermo-chemical processes (mainly the pyrolysis-gasification of biomass), and those based on biochemical processes (enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of biomass). It highlights the technological challenges for these processes, and describes the various objectives of research projects supported by a 'demonstrator fund'. It discusses the necessity to develop demonstrators, and mentions some current projects of private companies, competitiveness clusters, and public research institutions. An agenda is defined from 2009 to 2020 which encompasses the research, demonstration and operation phases. An appendix provides brief presentations of thermo-chemical or biological demonstrators currently under operation or under construction in foreign countries (Germany, Finland, United States of America, Sweden, Spain, Canada, Japan, and Denmark)

  16. State of the art review of biofuels production from lignocellulose by thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yujia; Xin, Fengxue; Lu, Jiasheng; Dong, Weiliang; Zhang, Wenming; Zhang, Min; Wu, Hao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min

    2017-12-01

    Biofuels, including ethanol and butanol, are mainly produced by mesophilic solventogenic yeasts and Clostridium species. However, these microorganisms cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic materials, which are abundant, renewable and non-compete with human demand. More recently, thermophilic bacteria show great potential for biofuels production, which could efficiently degrade lignocellulose through the cost effective consolidated bioprocessing. Especially, it could avoid contamination in the whole process owing to its relatively high fermentation temperature. However, wild types thermophiles generally produce low levels of biofuels, hindering their large scale production. This review comprehensively summarizes the state of the art development of biofuels production by reported thermophilic microorganisms, and also concludes strategies to improve biofuels production including the metabolic pathways construction, co-culturing systems and biofuels tolerance. In addition, strategies to further improve butanol production are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stimulating learning-by-doing in advanced biofuels: effectiveness of alternative policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu; Yeh, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This letter examines the effectiveness of various biofuel and climate policies in reducing future processing costs of cellulosic biofuels due to learning-by-doing. These policies include a biofuel production mandate alone and supplementing the biofuel mandate with other policies, namely a national low carbon fuel standard, a cellulosic biofuel production tax credit or a carbon price policy. We find that the binding biofuel targets considered here can reduce the unit processing cost of cellulosic ethanol by about 30% to 70% between 2015 and 2035 depending on the assumptions about learning rates and initial costs of biofuel production. The cost in 2035 is more sensitive to the speed with which learning occurs and less sensitive to uncertainty in the initial production cost. With learning rates of 5–10%, cellulosic biofuels will still be at least 40% more expensive than liquid fossil fuels in 2035. The addition of supplementary low carbon/tax credit policies to the mandate that enhance incentives for cellulosic biofuels can achieve similar reductions in these costs several years earlier than the mandate alone; the extent of these incentives differs across policies and different kinds of cellulosic biofuels. (letter)

  18. Risks affecting the biofuels industry: A US and Canadian company perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pries, Fred; Talebi, Alireza; Schillo, R. Sandra; Lemay, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers face the challenge of finding a mix of policies that are effective in growing the biofuels industry. We argue that a missing component of biofuel policy is consideration of the risks faced by companies in the biofuels industry. The purpose of this paper is to address the research question: What are the most important risks facing companies in the biofuels industry? We identify 22 risks in our analysis of 652 narrative risk factor descriptions disclosed by 26 publicly traded biofuel companies in the US and Canada. The results show that the most important risks are related to management and management processes, and to market conditions and profitability. Biofuel companies view technological risks, including those related to intellectual property protection, as less significant. These results suggest that, in order to be responsive to the risks companies face, biofuel policy needs to support the development of managers and management processes; to support market conditions and industry profitability; and to strike an appropriate balance between policy support for technology development and for business development. Further, we suggest a risk informed approach to setting government policy for the biofuels industry may support the industry's development. - Highlights: • Risk factors disclosed by 26 publicly traded biofuel companies were analyzed. • 22 risks were identified and assessed. • Key risks involved management, market conditions and profitability. • A risk focused approach to biofuel policy may support the industry's development.

  19. Biofuels and the biorefinery concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Liquid fuels can be made by refining a range of biomass materials, including oil-rich and sugar-rich crops such as oil-seed rape and sugar beet, biomass that consists mainly of plant cell walls (second generation lignocellulosics), macro- and micro-alga, or material that would now be discarded as waste. This can include animal bi-products as well as waste wood and other resources. In the medium-term, plant cell (lignocellulosic) material is likely to be favoured as the feedstock for biorefineries because of its availability. The UK may make use of a number of these options because of its complex agricultural landscape. There are now a range of targets for biofuel use in the UK, although their environmental effects are disputed. The technology of refining these materials is well known. Possible outputs include biodiesel and bioethanol, both of which can be used as transport fuel. Other potential products include hydrogen, polymers and a wide range of value-added chemicals, making this technology important in a post-petrochemical world. Biorefineries could use cogeneration to produce electricity. The paper identifies a range of research and development priorities which must be met if this opportunity is to be exploited fully

  20. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  1. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  2. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  3. Towards a sustainably certifiable futures contract for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.

    2008-01-01

    How are biofuels to be certified as produced in a sustainable and responsible fashion? In the global debate over this issue, one party to the proceedings seems rarely to be mentioned - namely the commodities exchanges through which a global biofuels market is being created. In this contribution, I propose a solution to the problem of sustainability certification through a biofuels futures contract equipped with 'proof of origin' documentation. The proposal does not call for any radical break with current practice, extending existing certification procedures with a requirement for the vendor to provide documentation, probably in barcoded form, of the history of the biofuel offered for sale, including plantation and biorefinery where the biofuel was produced and subsequent blendings it may have undergone. The proposal is thus compatible with the blending practices of large global traders, whose activities are the source of the difficulties of other approaches to certification. It is argued that if such a sustainable futures contract for bioethanol (in the first instance) were to be introduced, then it would likely trade at a premium and become the primary vehicle for North-South trade in biofuels. (author)

  4. Biofuel initiatives in Japan: Strategies, policies, and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoko; Sano, Daisuke; Elder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Japan has developed a variety of national strategies and plans related to biofuels which address four main policy objectives, including reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy security, rural development, and realisation of a recycle-based society. This paper reviews these national strategies and plans as well as associated implementing policies, and discusses the extent to which these objectives may be achieved. This paper found that the long-term potential of biofuels to contribute to GHG reduction goals will depend not only on the rates of technological development of the second generation biofuels but also on the development of other advanced vehicles. In the medium term, the potential contribution of biofuels to rural development and realising a recycle-based society could become significant depending on the progress of technology for both second generation biofuel production and the collection and transportation of their feedstocks. The potential contribution of biofuels to Japan's energy security is constrained by the availability of imports and the potential of domestic production.

  5. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  6. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  7. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  8. A comprehensive analysis of the current and future role of biofuels for transport in the European Union (EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels is strongly supported all over the world as a renewable energy source for reducing dependence on the unstable oil market. Bioethanol, the main biofuel produced in the world, is widely used to power vehicles in both the USA and Brazil, but concerns exist in both places regarding its sustainability. In Brazil, it is produced from a by-product of the sugar cane industry, while in the USA it is manufactured from food crops. The production of biogas and biodiesel is growing rapidly, but neither has outpaced the production of bioethanol. The European Union (EU is greatly interested in this issue, and in 2011 adopted an extensive strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to transport by 60% by the year 2050. In order to achieve this result, the current European transportation system must be transformed. This ambitious goal will require the implementation of complex measures including the reduction of fossil fuels in favor of renewable fuels. This program has various options regarding the development of biofuels (e. g., biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel and their related technologies, which are still on trial (mainly regarding the bioethanol production, and must also analyze their sustainability from a social and economic standpoint. The paper discusses the use of biofuels for transport in the European setting, and shows that their sustainability may result in relevant negative social effects due mainly to the use of land for energy crops (e.g., change of food price and world food shortage.

  9. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  10. Meeting the global demand for biofuels in 2021 through sustainable land use change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, José; Mello, Francisco F.C.; Cerri, Carlos E.P.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 renewable energy policy mandates adopted in twenty-seven countries will increase the need for liquid biofuels. To achieve this, ethanol produced from corn and sugarcane will need to increase from 80 to approximately 200 billion l in 2021. This could be achieved by increasing the productivity of raw material per hectare, expansion of land into dedicated biofuels, or a combination of both. We show here that appropriate land expansion policies focused on conservationist programs and a scientific basis, are important for sustainable biofuel expansion whilst meeting the increasing demand for food and fiber. The Brazilian approach to biofuel and food security could be followed by other nations to provide a sustainable pathway to renewable energy and food production globally. One sentence summary: Conservationist policy programs with scientific basis are key to drive the expansion of biofuel production and use towards sustainability

  11. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...... be the well suited candidates as feedstock for biofuel production in the future. The aim of our studies is to examine the possibility producing liquid biofuel (ethanol and butanol) from macroalgaes....

  12. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  13. Review of Water Consumption and Water Conservation Technologies in the Algal Biofuel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Lu, Mingming; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Keener, Tim C

    2016-01-01

    Although water is one of the most critical factors affecting the sustainable development of algal biofuels, it is much less studied as compared to the extensive research on algal biofuel production technologies. This paper provides a review of the recent studies on water consumption of the algae biofuel process and presents the water conservation technologies applicable at different stages of the algal biofuel process. Open ponds tend to have much higher water consumption (216 to 2000 gal/gal) than photobioreactors (25 to 72 gal/gal). Algae growth accounts for the highest water consumption (165 to 2000 gal/gal) in the open pond system. Water consumption during harvesting, oil extraction, and biofuel conversion are much less compared with the growth stage. Potential water conservation opportunities include technology innovations and better management practices at different stages of algal biofuel production.

  14. A program for confidence interval calculations for a Poisson process with background including systematic uncertainties: POLE 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jan

    2004-04-01

    A Fortran 77 routine has been developed to calculate confidence intervals with and without systematic uncertainties using a frequentist confidence interval construction with a Bayesian treatment of the systematic uncertainties. The routine can account for systematic uncertainties in the background prediction and signal/background efficiencies. The uncertainties may be separately parametrized by a Gauss, log-normal or flat probability density function (PDF), though since a Monte Carlo approach is chosen to perform the necessary integrals a generalization to other parameterizations is particularly simple. Full correlation between signal and background efficiency is optional. The ordering schemes for frequentist construction currently supported are the likelihood ratio ordering (also known as Feldman-Cousins) and Neyman ordering. Optionally, both schemes can be used with conditioning, meaning the probability density function is conditioned on the fact that the actual outcome of the background process can not have been larger than the number of observed events. Program summaryTitle of program: POLE version 1.0 Catalogue identifier: ADTA Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTA Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Computer for which the program is designed: DELL PC 1 GB 2.0 Ghz Pentium IV Operating system under which the program has been tested: RH Linux 7.2 Kernel 2.4.7-10 Programming language used: Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: ˜1.6 Mbytes No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 373745 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2700 Distribution format: tar gzip file Keywords: Confidence interval calculation, Systematic uncertainties Nature of the physical problem: The problem is to calculate a frequentist confidence interval on the parameter of a Poisson process with known background in presence of

  15. MSTor: A program for calculating partition functions, free energies, enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities of complex molecules including torsional anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Mielke, Steven L.; Clarkson, Kenneth L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2012-08-01

    We present a Fortran program package, MSTor, which calculates partition functions and thermodynamic functions of complex molecules involving multiple torsional motions by the recently proposed MS-T method. This method interpolates between the local harmonic approximation in the low-temperature limit, and the limit of free internal rotation of all torsions at high temperature. The program can also carry out calculations in the multiple-structure local harmonic approximation. The program package also includes six utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment of inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes for torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Catalogue identifier: AEMF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 77 434 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 264 737 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, C, and Perl Computer: Itasca (HP Linux cluster, each node has two-socket, quad-core 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon X5560 “Nehalem EP” processors), Calhoun (SGI Altix XE 1300 cluster, each node containing two quad-core 2.66 GHz Intel Xeon “Clovertown”-class processors sharing 16 GB of main memory), Koronis (Altix UV 1000 server with 190 6-core Intel Xeon X7542 “Westmere” processors at 2.66 GHz), Elmo (Sun Fire X4600 Linux cluster with AMD Opteron cores), and Mac Pro (two 2.8 GHz Quad-core Intel Xeon

  16. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  17. Practical implementation of liquid biofuels: The transferability of the Brazilian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A.; Alonsoamador Morales Alberteris, Lidice; García del Pino, Gilberto; Duvoisin, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic analysis of the particularities and trends pertaining to the development of biofuels in Brazil—a country which has demonstrated its leadership in this field during the last 40 years. The Brazilian experiences with biofuels are often used as references for decision making by other developed and developing countries. The transferability of Brazil's biofuels practices would be appreciated by many researchers and energy policy markers across the world. This work uses an adapted 5W2H (what, when, where, why, who, how, and how much) analysis technique to answer a variety of questions about the subject. The data, facts, and figures herein are offered as resources for other researchers and policy makers seeking benchmarking. Also, this work discusses the main certainties and uncertainties of the sugarcane agro-industry, and also goes into detail about the ethanol supply chain structure, its management, and particularities. Finally, this research analyzes the central aspects of biofuels implementation in Brazil, lists the most important aspects to consider during a selection of possible standard biofuels, and presents the main aspects of the National Program of Biodiesel Production and its sustainability. - Highlights: • A systemic cause–effect analysis was carried out on biofuel program success. • Main questions concerning implementation of liquid biofuels in Brazil were studied. • Main weakness aspects of biofuel logistic were treated. • During selection of benchmarking strategy. What needs to take into account?

  18. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has introduced a program to study the environmental impacts and sustainability of biofuel supply chains. Analyses will provide indicators and metrics for valuating sustainability. In this context, indicators are supply chain rat...

  19. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  20. Time-Frequency Dynamics of Biofuel-Fuel-Food System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Janda, K.; Krištoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2013), s. 233-241 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : biofuels * correlations * wavelet coherence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/vacha-time-frequency dynamics of biofuels-fuels-food system.pdf

  1. Regime-dependent topological properties of biofuels networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Janda, K.; Zilberman, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2013), 40-1-40-12 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118310; GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : topology * biofuels * correlations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-regime-dependent topological properties of biofuels networks.pdf

  2. The metal fabrication program for the Clinton Engineer Works and the Hanford Engineer Works. Including the Dummy Slug Program and the Unbonded Slug Program -- Project 1553

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1945-08-01

    The uranium slugs were used as the charge into the pile for the manufacture of minute quantities of plutonium. So little was known of uranium`s commercially adaptable physical properties that it was relegated almost to the category of a laboratory curiosity. A series of experimental and developmental programs were inaugurated to determine not only the extrudability, machinability and other physical properties, but also the influence on these of microscopic quantities of impurities present in the uranium. This historical document describes these early studies in the following sections: exceptional characteristics of the slug program; extrusion; drawing, waging and rolling; outgassing and straightening; Project 1030 (procurement of an additional sixty tons of finished slugs over and above that quantity originally supplied to the Clinton Laboratories) Machining, grinding and grooving; development of canning methods; production of canned slugs; and The Dummy Slug program.

  3. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigun, Bamikole; Stafford, William; Musango, Josephine Kaviti

    2011-01-01

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  4. The biofuels excellence network; Rede de excelencia em biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo de Tarso; Nascimento Filho, Lenart Palmeira do; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network, inside PROMINP - the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas, has the objective of improving the actions of technical innovation and management in the chain of Oil, Gas Natural and Biofuels, through the optimized use of physical, financial, technological resources, of information and staff, with maximum qualification in areas of the human knowledge, whose purpose is to make decisions on specific problems of improvement of processes and/or products, besides promoting actions for the development and reinforcement of the markets of ethanol and biodiesel. The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network became necessary, in order to enable Brazil to reach vanguard standards in biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) in a sustainable, competitive and environmentally responsible way. Among the main reasons for the creation of the Biofuels Excellence Network are: to speed up the acquisition of knowledge and innovation, through partnerships with academical, technological, and government institutions; to contribute with PETROBRAS Strategical Planning planned goals; to capture synergies through the accomplishment of Projects of the Strategical Partners interest; to create sustainable economic value as a result of the Network Projects; to foster specialized professional qualification for the alcohol industry. (author)

  5. Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios. Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakker, A.; Egging, R.; Van Thuijl, E.; Van Tilburg, X.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; De Lange, T.J.; Berndes, G.; Hansson, J.

    2005-11-01

    This report is published within the framework of the European Commission-supported project 'Clear Views on Clean Fuels' or VIEWLS. The overall objectives of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuel and to identify the possibilities and strategies towards large-scale sustainable production, use and trading of biofuels for the transport sector in Europe, including Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). This reports constitutes the outcome of the Work Package 5 (WP5) of the VIEWLS project. In WP5 the EU biofuels and bioenergy markets are modelled with the aim to conduct quantitative analyses on the production and costs of biofuels and on the resulting market structure and supply chains. In a bigger context, where possible, WP5 aims also to provide insight into larger socio-economic impacts of bioenergy trade within Europe. The objective of this research is to develop a cost efficient biofuel strategy for Europe in terms of biofuel production, cost and trade, and to assess its larger impact on bioenergy markets and trade up to 2030. Based on the biomass availability and associated costs within EU25, under different conditions, scenarios for biofuels production and cost can be constructed using quantitative modelling tools. Combining this with (cost) data on biofuel conversion technologies and transport of biomass and biofuels, the lowest cost biofuel supply chain given a certain demand predetermined by the biofuels Directive can be designed. In a broader context, this is supplemented by a design of a sustainable bioenergy supply chain in view of the fact that biomass-heat, biomass-electricity and biofuels are competing for the same biomass resources. In other words, the scarcity of bioenergy crops, as manifested through overall bioenergy demand, is an essential variable in bioenergy scenarios

  6. Imported palm oil for biofuels in the EU: Profitability, greenhouse gas emissions and social welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikkonen, Liisa; Ollikainen, Markku; Lankoski, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the social desirability of renewable diesel production from imported palm oil in the EU when greenhouse gas emissions are taken into account. Using a partial market equilibrium model, we also study the sectoral social welfare effects of a biofuel policy consisting of a blend mandate in a small EU country (Finland), when palm oil based diesel is used to meet the mandated quota for biofuels. We develop a market equilibrium model for three cases: i) no biofuel policy, ii) biofuel policy consisting of socially optimal emission-based biofuel tax credit and iii) actual EU biofuel policy. Our results for the EU biofuel market, Southeast Asia and Finland show very little evidence that a large scale use of imported palm oil in diesel production in the EU can be justified by lower greenhouse gas emission costs. Cuts in emission costs may justify extensive production only if low or negative land-use change emissions result from oil palm cultivation and if the estimated per unit social costs of emissions are high. In contrast, the actual biofuel policies in the EU encourage the production of palm oil based diesel. Our results indicate that the sectoral social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland may be negative and that if emissions decrease under actual biofuel policy, the emission abatement costs can be high regardless of the land use change emissions. - Highlights: • We study the social desirability of renewable diesel production from palm oil in EU. • We also study sectoral social welfare impacts of actual biofuel policy in Finland. • Life cycle GHG emission costs of diesels are included in the economic analysis. • Extensive use of palm oil diesel in EU is difficult to justify by climate benefits. • The social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland can be negative

  7. Environmental effect of constructed wetland as biofuel production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Being as a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted worldwide attention. Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Biofuel may offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but serious concerns arise about the adverse greenhouse gas consequences from using nitrogen fertilizers. Waste-nitrogen recycling is an attractive idea. Here we advocate a win-win approach to biofuel production which takes advantage of excessive nitrogen in domestic wastewater treated via constructed wetland (CW) in China. This study will carry on environmental effect analysis of CW as a biomass generation system through field surveys and controllable simulated experiments. This study intends to evaluate net energy balance, net greenhouse effect potential and ecosystem service of CW as biomass generation system, and make comparation with traditional wastewater treatment plant and other biofuel production systems. This study can provide a innovation mode in order to solve the dilemma between energy crops competed crops on production land and excessive nitrogen fertilizer of our traditional energy plant production. Data both from our experimental CWs in China and other researches on comparable CWs worldwide showed that the biomass energy yield of CWs can reach 182.3 GJ ha-1 yr-1, which was two to eight times higher than current biofuel-production systems. Energy output from CW was ˜137% greater than energy input for biofuel production. If CWs are designed with specific goal of biofuel production, biofuel production can be greatly enhanced through the optimization of N supply, hydraulic structures, and species selection in CWs. Assuming that 2.0 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) waste nitrogen contained in domestic wastewater is treated by CWs, biofuel production can account for 1.2% of national gasoline consumption in China. The proportion would increase to 6.7% if extra nitrogen (9.5 Tg) from industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff was included

  8. Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are the policies conducive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumbe, Charles B.L.; Msiska, Frederick B.M.; Madjera, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops.

  9. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BioFuelDB: a database and prediction server of enzymes involved in biofuels production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Chaudhary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In light of the rapid decrease in fossils fuel reserves and an increasing demand for energy, novel methods are required to explore alternative biofuel production processes to alleviate these pressures. A wide variety of molecules which can either be used as biofuels or as biofuel precursors are produced using microbial enzymes. However, the common challenges in the industrial implementation of enzyme catalysis for biofuel production are the unavailability of a comprehensive biofuel enzyme resource, low efficiency of known enzymes, and limited availability of enzymes which can function under extreme conditions in the industrial processes. Methods We have developed a comprehensive database of known enzymes with proven or potential applications in biofuel production through text mining of PubMed abstracts and other publicly available information. A total of 131 enzymes with a role in biofuel production were identified and classified into six enzyme classes and four broad application categories namely ‘Alcohol production’, ‘Biodiesel production’, ‘Fuel Cell’ and ‘Alternate biofuels’. A prediction tool ‘Benz’ was developed to identify and classify novel homologues of the known biofuel enzyme sequences from sequenced genomes and metagenomes. ‘Benz’ employs a hybrid approach incorporating HMMER 3.0 and RAPSearch2 programs to provide high accuracy and high speed for prediction. Results Using the Benz tool, 153,754 novel homologues of biofuel enzymes were identified from 23 diverse metagenomic sources. The comprehensive data of curated biofuel enzymes, their novel homologs identified from diverse metagenomes, and the hybrid prediction tool Benz are presented as a web server which can be used for the prediction of biofuel enzymes from genomic and metagenomic datasets. The database and the Benz tool is publicly available at http://metabiosys.iiserb.ac.in/biofueldb& http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/biofueldb.

  11. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  12. Bio-fuels; Les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources.

  13. Recent Progress on Labfit: a Multispectrum Analysis Program for Fitting Lineshapes Including the Htp Model and Temperature Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cich, Matthew J.; Guillaume, Alexandre; Drouin, Brian; Benner, D. Chris

    2017-06-01

    Multispectrum analysis can be a challenge for a variety of reasons. It can be computationally intensive to fit a proper line shape model especially for high resolution experimental data. Band-wide analyses including many transitions along with interactions, across many pressures and temperatures are essential to accurately model, for example, atmospherically relevant systems. Labfit is a fast multispectrum analysis program originally developed by D. Chris Benner with a text-based interface. More recently at JPL a graphical user interface was developed with the goal of increasing the ease of use but also the number of potential users. The HTP lineshape model has been added to Labfit keeping it up-to-date with community standards. Recent analyses using labfit will be shown to demonstrate its ability to competently handle large experimental datasets, including high order lineshape effects, that are otherwise unmanageable.

  14. 2013 Cellulosic Biofuel Standard: Direct Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The direct final action is to revise the 2013 cellulosic biofuel standard. This action follows from EPA having granted API's and AFPM's petitions for reconsideration of the 2013 cellulosic biofuel standard published on August 15, 2013.

  15. 75 FR 24865 - Notice of Contract Proposal (NOCP) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ...) Diesel-equivalent fuel derived from Renewable Biomass, including vegetable oil and animal fat; (v) Biogas.... Eligible producers with a refining capacity exceeding 150,000,000 gallons of Advanced Biofuel per year... refining capacity of 150,000,000 gallons or less of Advanced Biofuel per year. State. Any of the 50 states...

  16. Progress in biofuel production from gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Sikarwar, Vineet Singh; Zhao, Ming; Fennell, Paul S.; Shah, Nilay; Anthony, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels from biomass gasification are reviewed here, and demonstrated to be an attractive option. Recent progress in gasification techniques and key generation pathways for biofuels production, process design and integration and socio-environmental impacts of biofuel generation are discussed, with the goal of investigating gasification-to-biofuels’ credentials as a sustainable and eco-friendly technology. The synthesis of important biofuels such as bio-methanol, bio-ethanol and higher alcoho...

  17. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  18. Biofuels development and adoption in Nigeria: Synthesis of drivers, incentives and enablers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abila, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels development and adoption in Nigeria has progressed significantly since the inception of the country's biofuel program in 2007. The rapid growth of the biofuels subsector in Nigeria inspired this review which aims at identifying the key drivers, agents, enablers, incentives and objectives driving the development. From the upstream to the downstream sub-sectors, there is an increasing entry of players and participants (private and public investors). This paper aims to explore the underlining drivers, enablers and incentives promoting the investments and participations in biofuels development, adoption and utilization in Nigeria. The research sourced data from basically secondary sources and undertook desk review of available information. The drivers identified are classified into the endogenous and exogenous categories. From the review, the paper presents a multi-components conceptual framework that captures key elements of the biofuel development in Nigeria. - Highlights: ► Delineate factors (drivers) promoting biofuels. ► Identify agents and their roles in incentivizing the biofuel development. ► Delineate incentives from enablers of biofuel development and adoption. ► Categorize objective motives of actors within the sustainability triangle. ► Propose a framework as a foundation for further research, policy analysis and intervention.

  19. [Preliminary analysis of lung function of population with biofuel smoke exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D X; Chen, S Y; Zhou, Y M; Li, X C; Liu, S; Chen, L; Pu, J D; Ran, P X

    2017-05-12

    Objective: To analyse the impaired lung functions of people with biofuel smoke exposure. Methods: Nonsmokers with biofuel smoke exposure were selected as research objects in a mountainous area of northern Guangdong where the families used biofuels as main energies and the nonsmokers without biofuel smoke exposure in the same area as control. Questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed on all subjects. To analyse the differences of lung functions in both. Results: Seventy hundred and seventeen subjects were enro1led in this study.There were 530 nonsmokers with biofuel smoke exposure(observation group) including 442 women and 88 men, average age 54±10. There were 187 nonsmokers without biofuel smoke exposure(control group) including 141 women and 46 men, average age 54±10. There was no significant difference between two groups in age, height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio( P >0.05). The pulmonary ventilation function index(FEV(1)%Pred, FEV(1)/FVC) in the observation group was significantly less than that in control group [(100±18) vs .(106±25); (80±10) vs .(83±6) respectively, P BIOFUEL-INDEX and FEV/FVC was -0.1, 95% CI (-0.1, -0.1, P BIOFUEL-INDEX was 46.0, where the predicted Y value was 81.76, 95% CI (80.2, 83.33). When BIOFUEL-INDEX0.05); when BIOFUEL-INDEX> 46.0, the regression coefficient 2 was -0.1, 95% CI (-0.2, -0.1)( P biofuel smokes exposure causes damages in lung function.

  20. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Overview on Biofuels from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    In light of the recently developed European Union (EU) Biofuels Strategy, the literature is reviewed to examine (a) the coherency of biofuel production with the EU nonindustrial vision of agriculture, and (b) given its insufficient land base, the implications of a proposed bioenergy pact to grow biofuel crops in the developing world to meet EU…

  2. Biofuels, a bad thing?; Boeser Biokraftstoff?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.; Bensmann, M.

    2008-05-15

    The discussions over biofuels are still going on. Critics claim that biofuels ruin engine components, destroy rainforests and cause high food prices and global hunger. According to this contribution, the Federal government's biofuels policy was wrong and was doomed to fail. (orig.)

  3. Accelerating Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Partnerships (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) algal biofuels research capabilities and partnership opportunities. NREL is accelerating algal biofuels commercialization through: (1) Advances in applied biology; (2) Algal strain development; (3) Development of fuel conversion pathways; (4) Techno-economic analysis; and (5) Development of high-throughput lipid analysis methodologies. NREL scientists and engineers are addressing challenges across the algal biofuels value chain, including algal biology, cultivation, harvesting and extraction, and fuel conversion. Through partnerships, NREL can share knowledge and capabilities in the following areas: (1) Algal Biology - A fundamental understanding of algal biology is key to developing cost-effective algal biofuels processes. NREL scientists are experts in the isolation and characterization of microalgal species. They are identifying genes and pathways involved in biofuel production. In addition, they have developed a high-throughput, non-destructive technique for assessing lipid production in microalgae. (2) Cultivation - NREL researchers study algal growth capabilities and perform compositional analysis of algal biomass. Laboratory-scale photobioreactors and 1-m2 open raceway ponds in an on-site greenhouse allow for year-round cultivation of algae under a variety of conditions. A bioenergy-focused algal strain collection is being established at NREL, and our laboratory houses a cryopreservation system for long-term maintenance of algal cultures and preservation of intellectual property. (3) Harvesting and Extraction - NREL is investigating cost-effective harvesting and extraction methods suitable for a variety of species and conditions. Areas of expertise include cell wall analysis and deconstruction and identification and utilization of co-products. (4) Fuel Conversion - NREL's excellent capabilities and facilities for biochemical and thermochemical conversion of biomass to

  4. Panorama 2007: Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur-Vernat, A.; His, St.

    2007-01-01

    The current leader on the world bio-diesel market, Europe is, after the United States and Brazil, one of the regions driving the production and utilization of biofuels. Its ambitious bio-fuel content targets for motor fuels (5.75% by 2010 and 8% by 2015) encourage Member States to significantly develop those pathways. This raises certain questions, especially about available biomass resources. It is likely that, beyond 2010, technologies other than those in existence today, using ligno-cellulosic biomass, will have to be implemented. (author)

  5. Thermochemical conversion of microalgal biomass into biofuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Bo-Jhih; Huang, Ming-Yueh; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Following first-generation and second-generation biofuels produced from food and non-food crops, respectively, algal biomass has become an important feedstock for the production of third-generation biofuels. Microalgal biomass is characterized by rapid growth and high carbon fixing efficiency when they grow. On account of potential of mass production and greenhouse gas uptake, microalgae are promising feedstocks for biofuels development. Thermochemical conversion is an effective process for biofuel production from biomass. The technology mainly includes torrefaction, liquefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification. Through these conversion technologies, solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels are produced from microalgae for heat and power generation. The liquid bio-oils can further be upgraded for chemicals, while the synthesis gas can be synthesized into liquid fuels. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art review of the thermochemical conversion technologies of microalgal biomass into fuels. Detailed conversion processes and their outcome are also addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Kara Cafferty; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Johnson; Zhichao Wang; Michael Wang; Mary Biddy; Abhijit Dutta; Daniel Inman; Eric Tan; Sue Jones; Lesley Snowden-Swan

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels as part state of technology (SOT) analyses. An SOT assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available. Overall assessments of biofuel pathways begin with feedstock production and the logistics of transporting the feedstock from the farm or plantation to the conversion facility or biorefinery. The conversion process itself is modeled in detail as part of the SOT analysis. The teams then develop an estimate of the biofuel minimum selling price (MSP) and assess the cost competitiveness of the biofuel with conventional fuels such as gasoline.

  7. Analysis and sensitivity of land use emissions in biofuel pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This paper identified key factors that impacted the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to land use choices of biofuel feedstocks. The study was developed for the GHGenius model that is used to estimate life cycle emissions of GHGs and criteria pollutants from combustion sources. The study addressed concerns over soil carbon changes related to increased agricultural production for biofuels. The study considered 4 feedstocks: (1) corn; (2) wheat; (3) canola; and (4) soybeans. Different factors related to the application of fertilizer were considered. The environmental impacts of no-till agriculture on soil carbon were examined. The report suggested that default values for soil carbon changes in GHGenius were conservative given the high adoption rate for reduced and no-tillage agricultural management practices. Recommendations included more accurate assessments of soil carbon changes based on actual levels of reduced and no-till managed soils; a recognition that land use emissions from increased crop cultivation will vary throughout Canada; and an acknowledgment that discounting carbon changes in the GHGenius model will increase GHG emissions for biofuel pathways. The most significant issue related to the study was the impact of the conversion of forests and forestland to biofuel feedstock production, a factor which will eliminate the GHG emissions benefits of most biofuels. It was concluded that only 38 per cent of potentially arable land is currently being used, and expansion of some crops is achievable. 10 refs., 23 tabs., 20 figs

  8. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Wolfe, Alexis [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); English, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ruddick, Colleen [BCS, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States); Lambert, Devinn [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, is committed to advancing the vision of a viable, sustainable domestic biomass industry that produces renewable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower; enhances U.S. energy security; reduces our dependence on fossil fuels; provides environmental benefits; and creates economic opportunities across the nation. BETO’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws, including the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). To accomplish its goals, BETO has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, in partnership with national laboratories, academia, and industry.

  9. Cyanobacteria as a platform for biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Nozzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have great potential as a platform for biofuel production because of their fast growth, ability to fix carbon dioxide gas, and their genetic tractability. Furthermore they do not require fermentable sugars or arable land for growth and so competition with cropland would be greatly reduced. In this perspective we discuss the challenges and areas for improvement most pertinent for advancing cyanobacterial fuel production, including: improving genetic parts, carbon fixation, metabolic flux, nutrient requirements on a large scale, and photosynthetic efficiency using natural light.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not include farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. Thus, the actual net greenhouse gas reduction......Agro‐biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel‐derived CO2...... or incorporation of crop residues. In this study we relate measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass...

  11. Recent developments of biofuels/bioenergy sustainability certification: A global overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Nicolae; Dallemand, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a review on the latest developments on the main initiatives and approaches for the sustainability certification for biofuels and/or bioenergy. A large number of national and international initiatives lately experienced rapid development in the view of the biofuels and bioenergy targets announced in the European Union, United States and other countries worldwide. The main certification initiatives are analysed in detail, including certification schemes for crops used as feedstock for biofuels, the various initiatives in the European Union, United States and globally, to cover biofuels and/or biofuels production and use. Finally, the possible way forward for biofuel certification is discussed. Certification has the potential to influence positively direct environmental and social impact of bioenergy production. Key recommendations to ensure sustainability of biofuels/bioenergy through certification include the need of an international approach and further harmonisation, combined with additional measures for global monitoring and control. The effects of biofuels/bioenergy production on indirect land use change (ILUC) is still very uncertain; addressing the unwanted ILUC requires sustainable land use planning and adequate monitoring tools such as remote sensing, regardless of the end-use of the product. - Research highlights: → There is little harmonisation between certification initiatives. → Certification alone is probably not able to avoid certain indirect effects. → Sustainability standards should be applied globally to all agricultural commodities. → A critical issue to certification is implementation and verification. → Monitoring and control of land use changes through remote sensing are needed.

  12. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Commercialization potential aspects of microalgae for biofuel production: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani S. Gendy

    2013-06-01

    This article discusses the importance of algae-based biofuels together with the different opinions regarding its future. Advantages and disadvantages of these types of biofuels are presented. Algal growth drives around the world with special emphasis to Egypt are outlined. The article includes a brief description of the concept of algal biorefineries. It also declares the five key strategies to help producers to reduce costs and accelerate the commercialization of algal biodiesel. The internal strengths and weaknesses, and external opportunities, and threats are manifested through the SWOT analysis for micro-algae. Strategies for enhancing algae based-fuels are outlined. New process innovations and the role of genetic engineering in meeting these strategies are briefly discussed. To improve the economics of algal biofuels the concept of employing algae for wastewater treatment is presented.

  15. Harnessing biofuels. A global Renaissance in energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman; Chan, Eng-Seng; Ravindra, Pogaku [Centre of Materials and Minerals, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2009-10-15

    Biofuel, peoples' long awaiting alternative fuel, is yet to struggle a long way to reach in retail outlet all over the world as an economical and environmental friendly fuel. Biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Among these bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas are predominant which can be produced either using chemical catalyst or biocatalyst from biomass. At present, the conventional process involves the chemical catalyst while a rigorous research is focused on using a biocatalyst. This review brings out the advantages and disadvantages of using different type of catalyst in biofuel production and emphasis on new technologies as an alternative to conventional technologies. (author)

  16. LCA of Biofuels and Biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Susanne Vedel; Hansen, Sune Balle

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials can today substitute many commodities produced from fossil resources, and the bio-based production is increasing worldwide. As fossil resources are limited, and the use of such resources is a major contributor to global warming and other environmental impacts, the potent...

  17. Biofuels: What potential for development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The current production chain of the first generation of biofuels has quite real limits. To overcome them, efforts are being made to develop processes for converting vegetable resources of little worth into fuel. This research focuses both on these resources and on the technology and processes for turning them into fuel

  18. Employment effects of biofuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, B.O.; Hektor, B.

    1992-01-01

    Effects on employment - national and regional - from an expanding market for biofuels in Sweden are estimated in this article. The fuels considered are: Peat, straw, energy crops, silviculture, forestry waste, wood waste, by-products from paper/wood industry and processed fuels from these sources. (22 refs., tabs.)

  19. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amigun, B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process...

  20. Model for calculation of benzene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations in ambient air from geographic information, including biofuel burning and traffic; Modell foer beraekning av bensen- och 1,3-butadienhalter i omgivningsluft utifraan geografisk information om bland annat biobraensleeldning och trafik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modig, Lars; Hagenbjoerk-Gustafsson, Annika; Jonsson, Lennart; Olsson, David; Forsberg, Bertil [Umeaa Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Stroemgren, Magnus [Umeaa Univ., Faculty of Social Sciences, Dept. of Geography and Economic History, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply a type of statistical calculation model, 'Land Use Regression (LUR)', to predict the concentrations of air pollutants benzene and 1,3-butadiene in a number of urban areas with a high proportion of small-scale biofuel burning in and around Umeaa.

  1. Four myths surrounding U.S. biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzstein, M.; Wetzstein, H.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of biofuels has elicited claims and predictions concerning the current and future role of these fuels in the U.S. vehicle-fuel portfolio. These assertions are at times based on a false set of assumptions concerning the biofuel's market related to the petroleum and agricultural commodities markets, and the nonmarket consequences of our automobile driving. As an aid in clarifying these market relations, the following four biofuel myths are presented: (1) biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil, (2) biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving, (3) biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue), and (4) biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel. - Highlights: → Biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil. → Biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving. → Biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue). → Biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel.

  2. Identifying and ranking the factors affecting the adoption of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Azizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the important factors influencing on adoption of biofuels from consumer’s perspective. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 211 randomly selected people who use green products in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.812, which is well above the acceptable level. Using principle component with Varimax rotation, the study has determined five important factors including social commitment, product usefulness, infrastructure, management approach and customer oriented, which influence the most on adaptation of biofuels.

  3. Panorama 2017 - 2016 overview and outlook for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    With falling fossil fuel prices, 2015 was marked by a general decline in the appeal of alternative fuels. But although growth in worldwide volume of biofuel production and consumption is slowing, blending requirements continue to increase and investment, though declining, is still taking place. To ensure the long-term sustainability of biofuel processes, a variety of conditions must be met, such as an increase in fossil energy prices and/or CO 2 taxation, the use of policy levers including implementation of post-2020 objectives (incorporation levels, reduction of greenhouse gases, etc.) and fuel blending standards

  4. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  5. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  6. Solid and liquid biofuels markets in Finland. A study on international biofuels trade. IEA bioenergy task 40 and EUROBIONET II. Country report of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinimoe, J.; Alakangas, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study considered the current situation of solid and liquid biofuels markets and international biofuels trade in Finland and identified the challenges of the emerging international biofuels markets for Finland. The fact that industry consumes more than half of the total primary energy, widely applied combined heat and power production (CHP) and a high share of biofuels in the total energy consumption are specific to the Finnish energy system. One third of the electricity is generated in CHP plants. As much as 27% of the total energy consumption is met by using wood and peat, which makes Finland the leading country in the use of biofuels. Finland has made a commitment to maintain greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level at the highest during the period 2008-2012. The Finnish energy policy aims to achieve the target, and a variety of measures are taken to promote the use of renewable energy sources and especially wood fuels. In this study, the wooden raw material streams of the forest industry were included the international biofuels trade in addition to biomass streams that are traded for energy production. In 2004, as much as 45% of the raw wood imported into Finland ended up in energy production. The total international trading of biofuels was evaluated at 72 PJ, of which the majority, 58 PJ, was raw wood. About 22% of wood based energy in Finland originated from imported raw wood. Tall oil and wood pellets composed the largest export streams of biofuels. The annual turnover of international biofuels trade was estimated at about euro 90 million for direct trade and at about euro 190 million for indirect trade. The forest industry as the biggest user of wood, and the producer and user of wood fuels has a central position in biomass and biofuels markets in Finland. Lately, the international aspects of Finnish biofuels markets have been emphasised as the import of raw wood and the export of wood pellets have increased. Expanding the use of biofuels in the road

  7. Should asymptomatic men be included in chlamydia screening programs? Cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening among male and female entrants to a national job training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Diane R; Quinn, Thomas C; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2008-01-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of various chlamydia screening strategies within a population of male and female youth entering a national job training program. Cost-effectiveness analysis of various chlamydia screening strategies among a cohort of 4000 female and male New England job training students. Strategies for women include (a) no screening, (b) universal endocervical DNA probe screening, (c) universal urine based NAAT screening, and (d) universal endocervical NAAT screening. Strategies for men include (a) no screening, (b) selective urine NAAT screening of leukocyte esterase (LE)-positive urines, and (c) universal urine-based NAAT screening. Universal endocervical NAAT screening of women and universal urine NAAT screening of men were the most effective and cost-effective strategies individually and in combination. Endocervical NAAT screening of women prevented 23 more cases of PID and saved $27,000 more than endocervical DNA probe screening. Likewise, universal urine NAAT screening of men prevented 21 more cases of PID in their female partners and saved $16,000 more than selective urine NAAT screening of LE positive men. Use of a sensitive NAAT to screen both men and women for chlamydia upon entry to a National Job Training Program is cost-effective, cost-saving, and provides a public health opportunity to substantially reduce chlamydia infections among youth at risk for sexually transmitted diseases.

  8. Life Cycle Energy and CO2 Emission Optimization for Biofuel Supply Chain Planning under Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; An, Da; Liang, Hanwei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for the decision-makers/stakeholders to design biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Life cycle energy and CO2 emission of biofuel supply chain are employed as the objective functions, multiple feedstocks, multiple transportation modes, multiple...... in this study. A bi-objective interval mix integer programming model has been developed for biofuel supply chain design under uncertainties, and the bio-objective interval programming method has been developed to solve this model. An illustrative case of a multiple-feedstock-bioethanol system has been studied...... by the proposed method, and the results show that the proposed model can help decision-makers/stakeholders plan and design the biofuel supply chain by proposing feasible solutions to them....

  9. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  10. The biofuel potential of crop based biomass in Denmark in 2020; Danmarks potentiale for afgroedebaseret biobraendstofproduktion i aar 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelsen Blume, S.

    2008-02-15

    According to climate change observations and foresights several countries including Denmark have committed to reduce GHGemissions. However, the transport sector is still increasing its GHGemissions. Substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels seems to be the best way to reduce CO{sub 2}-emission from this sector on the shorter term. This project evaluates how Denmark can produce enough biofuels to fulfil the political goal of 10 % substitution of the fossil fuel consumption in the year of 2020. This project also approaches the suitability of different crop species to the biofuel industry. Maize and sugar beet are the most suitable crops for biofuel production when only focusing on maximum biofuel yield. Alfalfa is likewise showings great potential and is the most suitable crop in terms of sustainable biofuel production, because of low energy requirements (diesel, fertilizer, pesticide and irrigation) during cropping. Even though maize has higher needs for energy during cropping, it will still be suitable for sustainable biofuel production because of the high biofuel yield. Present calculations show that it is possible to meet the required amount of biofuels by using domestic biomass, which is currently exported (cereal grain) or not utilized (eg. straw). However, these calculations assume that it will become possible to convert the whole amount of carbohydrates into biofuel before 2020. In terms of assessing the biofuel production potential three storylines are defined for the development until 2020. Changes in land use and crop composition are suggested for each storyline to adjust the biofuel production to Danish agriculture. The biofuel production potential is also assessed for two regions in Denmark. Here the region of Storstroem shows greater potential than the region of Soenderjylland because of low density of domestic animals. (au)

  11. Growing duckweed for biofuel production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Cheng, J J

    2015-01-01

    Duckweed can be utilised to produce ethanol, butanol and biogas, which are promising alternative energy sources to minimise dependence on limited crude oil and natural gas. The advantages of this aquatic plant include high rate of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake, high biomass yield and great potential as an alternative feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol, butanol and biogas. The objective of this article is to review the published research on growing duckweed for the production of the biofuels, especially starch enrichment in duckweed plants. There are mainly two processes affecting the accumulation of starch in duckweed biomass: photosynthesis for starch generation and metabolism-related starch consumption. The cost of stimulating photosynthesis is relatively high based on current technologies. Considerable research efforts have been made to inhibit starch degradation. Future research need in this area includes duckweed selection, optimisation of duckweed biomass production, enhancement of starch accumulation in duckweeds and use of duckweeds for production of various biofuels. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Biofuels, fossil energy ratio, and the future of energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, David

    2017-05-01

    Two hundred years ago, much of humanity's energy came from burning wood. As energy needs outstripped supplies, we began to burn fossil fuels. This transition allowed our civilization to modernize rapidly, but it came with heavy costs including climate change. Today, scientists and engineers are taking another look at biofuels as a source of energy to fuel our ever-increasing consumption.

  13. Income Generation from Biofuel: Opportunities and Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing rural household income is a primary objective for achieving many development goals, including reducing poverty, hunger, and food insecurity. Despite worries such as, intensive cultivation, bigger farms, deforestation, and less area for growing food, the production of biofuels (i.e from maize, cassava, Jatropha or ...

  14. Crop residues for advanced biofuels workshop: A synposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues are being harvested for a variety of purposes including their use as livestock feed and to produce advanced biofuels. Crop residue harvesting, by definition, reduces the potential annual carbon input to the soil from aboveground biomass but does not affect input from plant roots. The m...

  15. Nanobiotechnology for the production of biofuels from spent tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioenergy is the only alternative and cheap source of energy which can be made easily available to the world. The present experiment included three steps for the conversion of spent tea (Camellia sinensis) into biofuels. In the first step, spent tea was gasified using Co nano catalyst at 300°C and atmospheric pressure.

  16. Learning from our mistakes: minimizing problems with invasive biofuel plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available . Economic driving forces are crucial. Important lessons to be learnt from forestry for reducing problems with invasiveness of alien species for biofuel production include: the use of global databases and screening tools for identifying high-risk species...

  17. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ram B; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    ...-generation biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wood, and municipal solid wastes. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the...

  18. Research and Development Potentials in Biofuel Production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research and Development Potentials in Biofuel Production in Nigeria. ... Although, Nigeria's natural resource wealth (including renewable energy potentials) has been well documented and acknowledged, the contribution of renewable energy sources to the total national energy supply and demand is currently very low or ...

  19. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  20. Biofuel cells for biomedical applications: colonizing the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Narváez Villarrubia, Claudia W; Babanova, Sofia; Atanassov, Plamen; Shleev, Sergey

    2013-07-22

    Interdisciplinary research has combined the efforts of many scientists and engineers to gain an understanding of biotic and abiotic electrochemical processes, materials properties, biomedical, and engineering approaches for the development of alternative power-generating and/or energy-harvesting devices, aiming to solve health-related issues and to improve the quality of human life. This review intends to recapitulate the principles of biofuel cell development and the progress over the years, thanks to the contribution of cross-disciplinary researchers that have combined knowledge and innovative ideas to the field. The emergence of biofuel cells, as a response to the demand of electrical power devices that can operate under physiological conditions, are reviewed. Implantable biofuel cells operating inside living organisms have been envisioned for over fifty years, but few reports of implanted devices have existed up until very recently. The very first report of an implanted biofuel cell (implanted in a grape) was published only in 2003 by Adam Heller and his coworkers. This work was a result of earlier scientific efforts of this group to "wire" enzymes to the electrode surface. The last couple of years have, however, seen a multitude of biofuel cells being implanted and operating in different living organisms, including mammals. Herein, the evolution of the biofuel concept, the understanding and employment of catalyst and biocatalyst processes to mimic biological processes, are explored. These potentially green technology biodevices are designed to be applied for biomedical applications to power nano- and microelectronic devices, drug delivery systems, biosensors, and many more. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. National Bio-fuel Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezierski, Kelly [NextEnergy Center, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2010-12-27

    The National Biofuel Energy Laboratory or NBEL was a consortia consisting of non-profits, universities, industry, and OEM’s. NextEnergy Center (NEC) in Detroit, Michigan was the prime with Wayne State University as the primary subcontractor. Other partners included: Art Van Furniture; Biodiesel Industries Inc. (BDI); Bosch; Clean Emission Fluids (CEF); Delphi; Oakland University; U.S. TARDEC (The Army); and later Cummins Bridgeway. The program was awarded to NextEnergy by U.S. DOE-NREL on July 1, 2005. The period of performance was about five (5) years, ending June 30, 2010. This program was executed in two phases: 1.Phase I focused on bench-scale R&D and performance-property-relationships. 2.Phase II expanded those efforts into further engine testing, emissions testing, and on-road fleet testing of biodiesel using additional types of feedstock (i.e., corn, and choice white grease based). NextEnergy – a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization based in Detroit was originally awarded a $1.9 million grant from the U.S. Dept. of Energy for Phase I of the NBEL program. A few years later, NextEnergy and its partners received an additional $1.9MM in DOE funding to complete Phase II. The NBEL funding was completely exhausted by the program end date of June 30, 2010 and the cost share commitment of 20% minimum has been exceeded nearly two times over. As a result of the work performed by the NBEL consortia, the following successes were realized: 1.Over one hundred publications and presentations have been delivered by the NBEL consortia, including but not limited to: R&D efforts on algae-based biodiesel, novel heterogeneous catalysis, biodiesel properties from a vast array of feedstock blends, cold flow properties, engine testing results (several Society of Automotive Engineers [SAE] papers have been published on this research), emissions testing results, and market quality survey results. 2.One new spinoff company (NextCAT) was formed by two WSU Chemical Engineering professors

  2. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM...) Communication with any training, research, or educational agencies that have produced economic development plans...-sufficiency of program participants; (6) Surveys to collect information regarding client characteristics; and...

  3. Revision of Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program to Include CAD/D (Computer-Aided Drafting/Design). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Nancy V.

    North Seattle Community College decided to integrate computer-aided design/drafting (CAD/D) into its Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program. This choice necessitated a redefinition of the program through new curriculum and course development. To initiate the project, a new industrial advisory council was formed. Major electronic and recruiting firms…

  4. FUNGIBLE AND COMPATIBLE BIOFUELS: LITERATURE SEARCH, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report is to summarize the various barriers to more widespread distribution of bio-fuels through our common carrier fuel distribution system, which includes pipelines, barges and rail, fuel tankage, and distribution terminals. Addressing these barriers is necessary to allow the more widespread utilization and distribution of bio-fuels, in support of a renewable fuels standard and possible future low-carbon fuel standards. These barriers can be classified into several categories, including operating practice, regulatory, technical, and acceptability barriers. Possible solutions to these issues are discussed; including compatibility evaluation, changes to bio-fuels, regulatory changes, and changes in the distribution system or distribution practices. No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but results are used to develop recommendations for future research and additional study as appropriate. This project addresses recognized barriers to the wider use of bio-fuels in the areas of development of codes and standards, industrial and consumer awareness, and materials compatibility issues.

  5. A new simulation model estimates micronutrient levels to include in fortified blended foods used in food aid programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Lisa E; Sahyoun, Nadine R; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2010-02-01

    Current micronutrient levels in Public Law 480 fortified blended foods (FBF) may not be appropriate for all food aid beneficiaries, particularly infants and/or young children and pregnant and/or lactating women. A simulation model was developed to determine the micronutrient fortification levels to include in FBF for food aid programs with the goal of reducing the risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes without exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for any recipient group. For each micronutrient, the age and gender group with the highest daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) relative to energy requirement was identified and the effect of providing different percentages of that RNI (66, 75, and 100%) was simulated. In this modeling exercise, we also examined consumption of the FBF at 25 (the usual level), 50, and 100% of daily energy requirement. Results indicated that 2 FBF products are needed: a complementary food for age 6-36 mo and a supplementary food for the older groups. Both of the FBF could be fortified to supply at least 75% of the RNI to all groups, without exceeding the UL for most nutrients, if consumed at 25% of the energy requirement. Even if consumed at 50% of energy requirements, mean intakes of most micronutrients would not exceed the UL, although at 100% of the energy requirement, several micronutrients were undesirably high. We conclude that fortifying an FBF to provide 75% of the RNI would be appropriate for most micronutrients, but this level of fortification would not be appropriate for long-term consumption of the FBF at 100% of the energy requirements.

  6. Time course of programmed cell death, which included autophagic features, in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Naoya; Nihei, Saori; Miyakawa, Naoto; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Marubashi, Wataru; van Doorn, Wouter G; Yamada, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    PCD with features of vacuolar cell death including autophagy-related features were detected in hybrid tobacco cells, and detailed time course of features of vacuolar cell death were established. A type of interspecific Nicotiana hybrid, Nicotiana suaveolens × N. tabacum exhibits temperature-sensitive lethality. This lethality results from programmed cell death (PCD) in hybrid seedlings, but this PCD occurs only in seedlings and suspension-cultured cells grown at 28 °C, not those grown at 36 °C. Plant PCD can be classified as vacuolar cell death or necrotic cell death. Induction of autophagy, vacuolar membrane collapse and actin disorganization are each known features of vacuolar cell death, but observed cases of PCD showing all these features simultaneously are rare. In this study, these features of vacuolar cell death were evident in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality. Ion leakage, plasma membrane disruption, increased activity of vacuolar processing enzyme, vacuolar membrane collapse, and formation of punctate F-actin foci were each evident in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that macroautophagic structures formed and tonoplasts ruptured in these cells. The number of cells that contained monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-stained structures and the abundance of nine autophagy-related gene transcripts increased just before cell death at 28 °C; these features were not evident at 36 °C. We assessed whether an autophagic inhibitor, wortmannin (WM), influenced lethality in hybrid cells. After the hybrid cell began to die, WM suppressed increases in ion leakage and cell deaths, and it decreased the number of cells containing MDC-stained structures. These results showed that several features indicative of autophagy and vacuolar cell death were evident in the hybrid tobacco cells subject to lethality. In addition, we documented a detailed time course of these vacuolar cell death features.

  7. Toward nitrogen neutral biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Wernick, David G; Liao, James C

    2012-06-01

    Environmental concerns and an increasing global energy demand have spurred scientific research and political action to deliver large-scale production of liquid biofuels. Current biofuel processes and developing approaches have focused on closing the carbon cycle by biological fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and conversion of biomass to fuels. To date, these processes have relied on fertilizer produced by the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, and have not addressed the global nitrogen cycle and its environmental implications. Recent developments to convert protein to fuel and ammonia may begin to address these problems. In this scheme, recycling ammonia to either plant or algal feedstocks reduces the demand for synthetic fertilizer supplementation. Further development of this technology will realize its advantages of high carbon fixation rates, inexpensive and simple feedstock processing, in addition to reduced fertilizer requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biofuel metabolic engineering with biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stacy-Anne; Nadler, Dana C.; Yokoo, Rayka; Savage, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering offers the potential to renewably produce important classes of chemicals, particularly biofuels, at an industrial scale. DNA synthesis and editing techniques can generate large pathway libraries, yet identifying the best variants is slow and cumbersome. Traditionally, analytical methods like chromatography and mass spectrometry have been used to evaluate pathway variants, but such techniques cannot be performed with high throughput. Biosensors - genetically encoded components that actuate a cellular output in response to a change in metabolite concentration - are therefore a promising tool for rapid and high-throughput evaluation of candidate pathway variants. Applying biosensors can also dynamically tune pathways in response to metabolic changes, improving balance and productivity. Here, we describe the major classes of biosensors and briefly highlight recent progress in applying them to biofuel-related metabolic pathway engineering. PMID:27768949

  9. Driving biofuels in Europe. A research on the interaction between external regulation and value chain governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aantjes, J.C.

    2007-05-01

    major contribution of this theory is the ability to identify the contributions of different actors to the decision-making process. Although both parts of the analytical framework - value chain analysis and the network approach - independently make valuable contributions, an integrated perspective will enhance their insights considerably. Chapter Three provides an introduction into biofuels. Bio-ethanol and biodiesel, two of the most commonly used biofuels in Europe, are discussed. Conversion routes are addressed and a discussion of the environmental aspects, costs, technical properties and socio-economic impact is drawn. Since biofuels are often divided into first and second generation, a short explanation of the similarities and differences is given. The aim of this glance at biofuels is to give a first insight in biofuels and to touch the contours of the biofuel value chains in Europe. Chapter Four discusses some methodological issues linked to the research design. It provides an overview of the data collection methods and reveals how data analysis has been performed. Chapter Five analyzes the biofuel value chains in Europe and the regulatory framework. Since there are little characteristics of a common market, this chapter emphasizes Europe's largest biofuel states in terms of production and consumption: France and Germany. The analysis concentrates on the biodiesel value chains in both countries. Regarding the external regulatory framework, the 2003 EU biofuel directives are taken as unit of analysis. It includes a review of the decision-making processes and analysis of the network environment. Specific attention is given to the role of biofuel value chain actors. To discover how external regulations and value chain governance interact, emphasis is on the role of powerful actors in governing the chain and dealing with the regulatory environment. Chapter Six presents the main conclusions of this research and provides an overview of the empirical findings in the

  10. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Hospes, O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance

  11. Land availability for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dingbao

    2011-01-01

    Marginal agricultural land is estimated for biofuel production in Africa, China, Europe, India, South America, and the continental United States, which have major agricultural production capacities. These countries/regions can have 320-702 million hectares of land available if only abandoned and degraded cropland and mixed crop and vegetation land, which are usually of low quality, are accounted. If grassland, savanna, and shrubland with marginal productivity are considered for planting low-input high-diversity (LIHD) mixtures of native perennials as energy crops, the total land availability can increase from 1107-1411 million hectares, depending on if the pasture land is discounted. Planting the second generation of biofuel feedstocks on abandoned and degraded cropland and LIHD perennials on grassland with marginal productivity may fulfill 26-55% of the current world liquid fuel consumption, without affecting the use of land with regular productivity for conventional crops and without affecting the current pasture land. Under the various land use scenarios, Africa may have more than one-third, and Africa and Brazil, together, may have more than half of the total land available for biofuel production. These estimations are based on physical conditions such as soil productivity, land slope, and climate.

  12. Ca analysis: An Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. PMID:24125908

  13. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Ciaian, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  15. Greenhouse gas emission curves for advanced biofuel supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daioglou, Vassilis; Doelman, Jonathan C.; Stehfest, Elke; Müller, Christoph; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2017-12-01

    Most climate change mitigation scenarios that are consistent with the 1.5-2 °C target rely on a large-scale contribution from biomass, including advanced (second-generation) biofuels. However, land-based biofuel production has been associated with substantial land-use change emissions. Previous studies show a wide range of emission factors, often hiding the influence of spatial heterogeneity. Here we introduce a spatially explicit method for assessing the supply of advanced biofuels at different emission factors and present the results as emission curves. Dedicated crops grown on grasslands, savannahs and abandoned agricultural lands could provide 30 EJBiofuel yr-1 with emission factors less than 40 kg of CO2-equivalent (CO2e) emissions per GJBiofuel (for an 85-year time horizon). This increases to 100 EJBiofuel yr-1 for emission factors less than 60 kgCO2e GJBiofuel-1. While these results are uncertain and depend on model assumptions (including time horizon, spatial resolution, technology assumptions and so on), emission curves improve our understanding of the relationship between biofuel supply and its potential contribution to climate change mitigation while accounting for spatial heterogeneity.

  16. Biofuels in Brazil : real or false solution?; Les biocarburants au Bresil : vraie ou fausse solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, H.Q. [Grenoble Univ., Grenoble (France). Inst. d' Economie et Politique de l' Energie

    2008-07-15

    This paper described the initiatives that energy companies in Brazil, including the automotive sector, have taken in response to Brazil's energy policies which have placed the role of biofuels in the forefront since 2003. While the role of biofuels in general is growing, ethanol has had 3 decades of technical experience behind its development. The contrasting paths of ethanol and biodiesel were explained. The gains in ethanol production since 1970 have made sugar cane highly competitive with other energy sources and have made strides in international markets. On the other hand, although the biodiesel industry is only at the beginning of its development, it is responsible for the creation and the perfection of regulatory decisions established in 2004 regarding Brazil's national biodiesel program. This article emphasized the positive aspects and obstacles facing the development of a biodiesel and ethanol industry. It showed that the Brazilian experience will be difficult to reproduce in another country because of the natural resources that are available in Brazil's unique terrain. The automotive industry is currently playing a key role in driving the demand for biodiesels. However, since the biodiesel program is only in its early stages, it is difficult to determine the cost and creation of the market and all the logistics behind it. 2 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Price transmission between biofuels, fuels and food commodities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Janda, K.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), s. 362-373 ISSN 1932-104X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : biofuels * price transmission * non-linearity * elasticity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.214, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0433525.pdf

  18. Zeolite membranes for effective production of biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the increasing demand of renewable fuels, more efficient processes for the production of biofuels are needed. Zeolite membranes have the potential to improve many existing processes that could be used for production of biofuels. Methanol is a potential biofuel that may be produced from synthesis gas in an equilibrium limited reaction. The production of methanol from synthesis gas could be improved by use of a membrane reactor, which could increase the conversion of synthesis gas ...

  19. Hybrid Metamaterials for Solar Biofuel Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0302 HYBRID METAMATERIALS FOR SOLAR BIOFUEL GENERATION Ronald Koder RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Final...administrative actions on them for him not sending a final report. Title: Hybrid metamaterials for solar biofuel generation Ronald L. Koder, Ph.D...novel multifunctional solar biofuel generating platform by coupling designed protein charge separation constructs with newly developed photonic

  20. Optimization of Biofuel Production From Transgenic Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0145 OPTIMIZATION OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE Richard Sayre Donald Danforth...Technical 20080815 to 20120630 OPTIMIZATION OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE FA9550-08-1-0451 Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant...BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE Grant/Contract Number: FA9550-08-1-0451 Reporting Period: Final Report Abstract: We have compared the

  1. White paper report from working groups attending the international conference on research and educational opportunities in bio-fuel crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, K.T. [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Dep., Southwest Florida Res. and Educ. Center, Immokalee, FL 34142 (United States); Gilbert, R.A. [University of Florida, Agronomy Dep., Everglades Res. and Educ. Center, Belle Glade, FL 33430 (United States); Helsel, Z.A. [Rutgers University, Plant Biology and Pathology Dep., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520 (United States); Buacum, L. [University of Florida, Hendry County Extension, LaBelle, FL 33935 (United States); Leon, R.; Perret, J. [EARTH University, Apto. 4442-1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A conference on current research and educational programs in production of crops for bio-fuel was sponsored and organized by the EARTH University and the University of Florida in November, 2008. The meeting addressed current research on crops for bio-fuel production with discussions of research alternatives for future crop production systems, land use issues, ethics of food vs. fuel production, and carbon sequestration in environmentally sensitive tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Americas. The need and potential for development of graduate and undergraduate curricula and inter-institutional cooperation among educational institutions in the region were also discussed. Delegations from Belize, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Panama, The Dominican Republic, and the United States including ministers of Agriculture and Energy attended this meeting. Over a two-day period, four working groups provided a framework to facilitate networking, motivate task oriented creative thinking, and maintain a timely accomplishment of assigned duties in the context of the conference themes. Participants in the conference were assigned to one of four working groups, each following given topics: Agronomy, Environment, Socio-Economics and Education/Extension. It was the consensus of representatives of industry, academic and regulatory community assembled in Costa Rica that significant research, education and socio-economic information is needed to make production of bio-fuel crops sustainable. Agronomic research should include better crop selection based on local conditions, improved production techniques, pest and disease management, and mechanical cultivation and harvesting. Another conclusion was that tailoring of production systems to local soil characteristics and use of bio-fuel by-products to improve nutrient use efficiency and reduction of environmental impact on water quantity and quality is critical to sustainability of bio-fuel crop production. (author)

  2. The biobased economy: biofuels, materials and chemicals in the post-oil era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langeveld, Hans; Meeusen, Marieke; Sanders, Johan

    2010-01-01

    .... Starting with a state-of-the-art overview of major biobased technologies, including biorefinery and technologies for the production of biofuels, biogas, biomass feedstocks for chemistry and bio...

  3. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.

  4. Biophotonics for Biofuel Upgradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Gopinath; Mandal, Tanusri

    2017-12-01

    Experimental studies have been made to find out Cyanobacterias' biophotonical response in gaseous-fuelation and carbon dioxide fixation during photo-anaerobic digestion. A new horizontal type photo-bioreactor has been designed by using environment hazard plastic bottles and it works ideally for anoxygenic cyanobacterial growth. Through `V3-metagenomics' of 16S rRNA gene sequencing by paired-end Illumina MiSeq and downstream analysis by QIIME program, we have identified anaerobic cyanobacteria, represent the orders YS2 and Streptophyta. OTUs have been identified by aligning against Greengenes and Silva databases, separately. The flame temperature of the fuel gas is 860°C and the percent-content of carbon dioxide (CO2) is 17.6%.

  5. BIOPHOTONICS FOR BIOFUEL UPGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath RANA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have been made to find out Cyanobacterias’ biophotonical response in gaseous-fuelation and car-bon dioxide fixation during photo-anaerobic digestion. A new horizontal type photo-bioreactor has been designed by using environment hazard plastic bottles and it works ideally for anoxygenic cyanobacterial growth. Through ‘V3-metagenomics’ of 16S rRNA gene sequencing by paired-end Illumina MiSeq and downstream analysis by QIIME program, we have identified anaerobic cyanobacteria, represent the orders YS2 and Streptophyta. OTUs have been identified by aligning against Greengenes and Silva databases, separately. The flame temperature of the fuel gas is 860°C and the percent-content of carbon dioxide (CO2 is 17.6%.

  6. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  7. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Balachandra, P., E-mail: patilb@mgmt.iisc.ernet.in [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-15

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  8. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  9. Biofuels – On the way to sustainability?: Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltschmitt

    2016-12-01

    stabilizing element because biofuels and conventional fossil fuels can be exchanged completely and immediately. They can help to level out price variations of biomass by taking up agricultural products in case of a global production exceeding the demand from the food and feed market. Vice versa, biofuel production could be reduced in case of low yields and a resulting shortage of biomass to alleviate pressure on the food and feed market. One precondition for creating such a harmonized or stabilized market is that sustainability criteria, which are already mandatorily applied to biomass feedstocks used for biofuel production, are applied to all traded agricultural products regardless of their use. Consequently, such a concept could boost a more sustainable agricultural and forestry primary productionFurthermore, the following targets need to be achieved in the years to come in order to increase competitiveness, reduce negative environmental consequences and to promote acceptance of biofuels:Widening of the biomass resource basis; this includes better crops, the use of organic wastes as well as "new" biomass feedstocks (e.g. algae;Technological advances in biomass production and downstream processing in order to increase efficiencies throughout the overall provision chain;Better combination of biomass production and processing for the various markets to exploit synergy effects and minimize losses (e.g. promotion of the bio-refinery concept;Improved assessment of sustainability criteria throughout the overall provision chain; this includes also aspects like impacts on biodiversity and soil properties, iLUC, child labor etc. Such aspects are essential to cope with an increasing demand for biomass driven by a growing world population, changing consumption patterns as well as an increasing demand for renewable energy provision and industrial purposes. All over, tremendous progress has been made in recent years in increasing sustainability and efficiency of biofuel production

  10. Implementation and evaluation of a simulation curriculum for paediatric residency programs including just-in-time in situ mock codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Jonathan; Pierse, Michael; Al-Qahtani, Abdullah; Cheng, Adam

    2012-02-01

    To develop, implement and evaluate a simulation-based acute care curriculum in a paediatric residency program using an integrated and longitudinal approach. Curriculum framework consisting of three modular, year-specific courses and longitudinal just-in-time, in situ mock codes. Paediatric residency program at BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia. The three year-specific courses focused on the critical first 5 min, complex medical management and crisis resource management, respectively. The just-in-time in situ mock codes simulated the acute deterioration of an existing ward patient, prepared the actual multidisciplinary code team, and primed the surrounding crisis support systems. Each curriculum component was evaluated with surveys using a five-point Likert scale. A total of 40 resident surveys were completed after each of the modular courses, and an additional 28 surveys were completed for the overall simulation curriculum. The highest Likert scores were for hands-on skill stations, immersive simulation environment and crisis resource management teaching. Survey results also suggested that just-in-time mock codes were realistic, reinforced learning, and prepared ward teams for patient deterioration. A simulation-based acute care curriculum was successfully integrated into a paediatric residency program. It provides a model for integrating simulation-based learning into other training programs, as well as a model for any hospital that wishes to improve paediatric resuscitation outcomes using just-in-time in situ mock codes.

  11. 77 FR 22790 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... practice, and other public or private nonprofit health or education entities to assist the disadvantaged to... who live together. A ``household'' may be only one person. Most HRSA programs use the income of the... for the 48 Contiguous States and the District of Columbia Income Size of parents' family* level** 1...

  12. 76 FR 14417 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... adjusts the low-income levels based on the Department's poverty guidelines and makes them available to... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration ``Low Income... to identify a ``low-income family'' for the purpose of determining eligibility for programs that...

  13. Building a Steganography Program Including How to Load, Process, and Save JPEG and PNG Files in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Mary F.; Stix, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Instructors teaching beginning programming classes are often interested in exercises that involve processing photographs (i.e., files stored as .jpeg). They may wish to offer activities such as color inversion, the color manipulation effects archived with pixel thresholding, or steganography, all of which Stevenson et al. [4] assert are sought by…

  14. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism...

  15. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  16. Laccase applications in biofuels production: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudanga, Tukayi; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2014-08-01

    The desire to reduce dependence on the ever diminishing fossil fuel reserves coupled with the impetus towards green energy has seen increased research in biofuels as alternative sources of energy. Lignocellulose materials are one of the most promising feedstocks for advanced biofuels production. However, their utilisation is dependent on the efficient hydrolysis of polysaccharides, which in part is dependent on cost-effective and benign pretreatment of biomass to remove or modify lignin and release or expose sugars to hydrolytic enzymes. Laccase is one of the enzymes that are being investigated not only for potential use as pretreatment agents in biofuel production, mainly as a delignifying enzyme, but also as a biotechnological tool for removal of inhibitors (mainly phenolic) of subsequent enzymatic processes. The current review discusses the major advances in the application of laccase as a potential pretreatment strategy, the underlying principles as well as directions for future research in the search for better enzyme-based technologies for biofuel production. Future perspectives could include synergy between enzymes that may be required for optimal results and the adoption of the biorefinery concept in line with the move towards the global implementation of the bioeconomy strategy.

  17. Biofuels securing the planet's future energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Univ. Mah, Mekan Sok No: 24, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The biofuels include bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils, biomethanol, pyrolysis oils, biogas, and biohydrogen. There are two global biomass based liquid transportation fuels that might replace gasoline and diesel fuel. These are bioethanol and biodiesel. World production of biofuel was about 68 billion L in 2007. The primary feedstocks of bioethanol are sugarcane and corn. Bioethanol is a gasoline additive/substitute. Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. About 60% of global bioethanol production comes from sugarcane and 40% from other crops. Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent mono alkyl ester based oxygenated fuel. Biodiesel production using inedible vegetable oil, waste oil and grease has become more attractive recently. The economic performance of a biodiesel plant can be determined once certain factors are identified, such as plant capacity, process technology, raw material cost and chemical costs. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. (author)

  18. A review on conversion of biomass to biofuel by nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Akia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The world’s increasing demand for energy has led to an increase in fossil fuel consumption. However this source of energy is limited and is accompanied with pollution problems. The availability and wide diversity of biomass resources have made them an attractive and promising source of energy. The conversion of biomass to biofuel has resulted in the production of liquid and gaseous fuels that can be used for different means methods such as thermochemical and biological processes. Thermochemical processes as a major conversion route which include gasification and direct liquefaction are applied to convert biomass to more useful biofuel. Catalytic processes are increasingly applied in biofuel development. Nanocatalysts play an important role in improving product quality and achieving optimal operating conditions. Nanocatalysts with a high specific surface area and high catalytic activity may solve the most common problems of heterogeneous catalysts such as mass transfer resistance, time consumption, fast deactivation and inefficiency. In this regard attempts to develop new types of nanocatalysts have been increased. Among the different biofuels produced from biomass, biodiesel has attained a great deal of attention. Nanocatalytic conversion of biomass to biodiesel has been reported using different edible and nonedible feedstock. In most research studies, the application of nanocatalysts improves yield efficiency at relatively milder operating conditions compared to the bulk catalysts.

  19. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

  20. Viewls - Stakeholder views on biofuels. WP1 final report about the results of the stakeholder questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    For the VIEWLS project an internet-based questionnaire on biofuels was distributed among a large group of stakeholders in the European Union, Accession Countries and the Americas in the second half of 2003. The purpose of the questionnaire was to collect information on stakeholders' opinion on biofuel related topics including the future potential of biofuels and drivers and barriers for the market introduction. Here the main results are presented. The results should only be regarded as indicative because no detailed statistical analysis was performed due to the difference in representation from different countries and stakeholder groups. (au)

  1. Stakeholder views on biofuels. WP1 Final report about the results of the stakeholder questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    For the VIEWLS project an internet-based questionnaire on biofuels was distributed among a large group of stakeholders in the European Union, Accession Countries and the Americas in the second half of 2003. The purpose of the questionnaire was to collect information on stakeholders' opinion on biofuel related topics including the future potential of biofuels and drivers and barriers for the market introduction. Here the main results are presented. The results should only be regarded as indicative because no detailed statistical analysis was performed due to the difference in representation from different countries and stakeholder groups

  2. Hawaii Algal Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    with concrete pools, though other variations can include compacted earth lined ponds with plastic moldings. There are many intricacies of the algae...The membrane would be permeable to gasses but impermeable to the outside ocean layer to prevent spillage. For photosynthesis, the membranes would

  3. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  4. Strategic niche management for biofuels: Analysing past experiments for developing new biofuel policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laak, W.W.M. van der; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels have gained a lot of attention since the implementation of the 2003 European Directive on biofuels. In the Netherlands the contribution of biofuels is still very limited despite several experiments in the past. This article aims to contribute to the development of successful policies for stimulating biofuels by analysing three experiments in depth. The approach of strategic niche management (SNM) is used to explain success and failure of these projects. Based on the analysis as well as recent innovation literature we develop a list of guidelines that is important to consider when developing biofuel policies

  5. A dynamic programming approach for modeling low-carbon fuel technology adoption considering learning-by-doing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuche; Zhang, Yunteng; Fan, Yueyue; Hu, Kejia; Zhao, Jianyou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic programming method is used in transportation fuel portfolio planning. • The learning effect in new fuel technology is endogenously modeled through an experience curve. • Cellulosic biofuels play critical role in de-carbonization transport sector in near term. • The initial 3–4 billion gallons production is critical to bring down cellulosic biofuels’ cost. • Large penetration of Zero Emission Vehicles will discourage development of cellulosic biofuels. - Abstract: Promoting the adoption of low-carbon technologies in the transportation fuel portfolio is an effective strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector worldwide. However, as one of the most promising low-carbon fuels, cellulosic biofuel has not fully entered commercial production. Governments could provide guidance in developing cellulosic biofuel technologies, but no systematic approach has been proposed yet. We establish a dynamic programming framework for investigating time-dependent and adaptive decision-making processes to develop advanced fuel technologies. The learning-by-doing effect inherited in the technology development process is included in the framework. The proposed framework is applied in a case study to explore the most economical pathway for California to develop a solid cellulosic biofuel industry under its Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Our results show that cellulosic biofuel technology is playing a critical role in guaranteeing California’s 10% greenhouse gas emission reduction by 2020. Three to four billion gallons of cumulative production are needed to ensure that cellulosic biofuel is cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels or conventional biofuels. Zero emission vehicle promoting policies will discourage the development of cellulosic biofuel. The proposed framework, with small adjustments, can also be applied to study new technology development in other energy sectors.

  6. [Training of residents in obstetrics and gynecology: Assessment of an educational program including formal lectures and practical sessions using simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A; El Haloui, O; Breaud, J; Chevalier, D; Antomarchi, J; Bongain, A; Boucoiran, I; Delotte, J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate an educational program in the training of residents in gynecology-obstetrics (GO) with a theory session and a practical session on simulators and analyze their learning curve. Single-center prospective study, at the university hospital (CHU). Two-day sessions were leaded in April and July 2013. An evaluation on obstetric and gynecological surgery simulator was available to all residents. Theoretical knowledge principles of obstetrics were evaluated early in the session and after formal lectures was taught to them. At the end of the first session, a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Twenty residents agreed to participate to the training sessions. Evaluation of theoretical knowledge: at the end of the session, the residents obtained a significant improvement in their score on 20 testing knowledge. Obstetrical simulator: a statistically significant improvement in scores on assessments simulator vaginal delivery between the first and second session. Subjectively, a larger increase feeling was seen after breech delivery simulation than for the cephalic vaginal delivery. However, the confidence level of the resident after breech delivery simulation has not been improved at the end of the second session. Simulation in gynecological surgery: a trend towards improvement in the time realized on the peg-transfer between the two sessions was noted. In the virtual simulation, no statistically significant differences showed, no improvement for in salpingectomy's time. Subjectively, the residents felt an increase in the precision of their gesture. Satisfaction: All residents have tried the whole program. They considered the pursuit of these sessions on simulators was necessary and even mandatory. The approach chosen by this structured educational program allowed a progression for the residents, both objectively and subjectively. This simulation program type for the resident's training would use this tool in assessing their skills and develop

  7. The Monte Carlo program LESKO-F for deep inelastic e±p→e±X scattering at HERA including QED bremsstrahlung from the lepton line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Placzek, W.

    1991-04-01

    A Monte Carlo event generator for deep inelastic electron (positron) proton neutral current scattering at HERA energies is described. It includes Ο(α) QED bremsstrahlung from the lepton line and allows for longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam. Final particles are produced on the parton level, i.e. the final state is described by the four-momenta of lepton, quark, photon and proton remnant. The program is constructed in such a way that it may be easily connected with other M.C. programs for HERA, e.g. programs for hadronization. Some examples of numerical results of this program are presented. (orig.)

  8. Biotechnology in biofuels -- a cleaner technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, K.R.; Chan, E.S.; Ravindra, P. [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia). Centre of Materials and Minerals

    2011-07-01

    One quarter of the world's CO{sub 2} emissions are created by the transport sector which accounts for some 60% of the world's total oil consumption. Biofuel made from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. By using cleaner technology, it is possible to enhance economic growth in industries all over the world while at the same time saving water, energy, raw materials and waste to minimize the environmental footprint. The cleaner technology involves the use of enzymes in an industrial process. Enzymes can be used to make fuels and chemical intermediates in more sustainable, environmentally friendly ways. The development of new enzymes, including through the production and purification of enzymes from genetically modified organisms, is a major driving force in the commercialization of cleaner technology products and processes.

  9. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  10. Biofuels Drying Process Efficiency Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldas Šlepikas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with biofuel drying process efficiency opportunities.Research was carried out with a special stand and performingexperiments. Experimental rig consists of an ultrasonic generator,ultrasonic transducer, a drying chamber and the humidity,temperature gauge. Tests were used for wood pellets. During theexperiment, they were irrigated with water, dried with hot air andadditionally exposed to different frequency ultrasonic vibrations.The tests results have showed that the convective drying processis combined with the ultrasonic vibrations, the drying time isreduced, which means a positive impact on the ultrasonic process.Studies have confirmed that the effectiveness of convectivedrying method combined with operating ultrasonic vibrationsincreases.

  11. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael R.; Atsumi, Shota

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges. PMID:20827393

  12. Zinc-Laccase Biofuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A zinc-laccase biofuel cell adapting the zinc-air cell design features is investigated. A simple cell design configuration is employed: a membraneless single chamber and a freely suspended laccase in a quasi-neutral buffer electrolyte. The cell is characterised according to its open-circuit voltage, polarization profile, power density plot and discharge capacity at constant current. The biocatalytic role of laccase is evident from the polarization profile and power output plot. Performance comparison between a single chamber and dual chamber cell design is also presented. The biofuel cell possessed an open-circuit voltage of 1.2 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.9 mW/cm2 at current density of 2.5 mA/cm2. These characteristics are comparable to biofuel cell utilising a much more complex system design.KEY WORDS (keyword:  Biofuel cell, Bioelectrochemical cell, Zinc anode, Laccase and Oxidoreductase.ABSTRAK: Sel bio-bahan api zink-laccase dengan adaptasi daripada ciri-ciri rekabentuk sel zink-udara telah dikaji. Sel dengan konfigurasi rekabentuk yang mudah digunapakai: ruangan tunggal tanpa membran dan laccase diampaikan secara bebas di dalam elektrolit pemampan quasi-neutral. Sel dicirikan berdasarkan voltan litar terbuka, profil polarisasi, plot ketumpatan kuasa dan kapasiti discas pada arus malar. Peranan laccase sebagai bio-pemangkin adalah amat ketara daripada profil polarisasi dan plot ketumpatan kuasa. Perbandingan prestasi di antara sel dengan rekabentuk ruangan tunggal and dwi-ruangan turut diketengahkan. Seperti dijangkakan, sel dengan rekabentuk ruangan tunggal menunjukkan kuasa keluaran yang lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan rekabentuk dwi-ruangan kemungkinan disebabkan fenomena cas bocor. Sel bio-bahan api ini mempunyai voltan litar terbuka 1.2 V dan memberikan ketumpatan kuasa maksima 0.9 mW/cm2 pada ketumpatan arus 2.5 mA/cm2. Ciri-ciri ini adalah sebanding dengan sel bio-bahan api yang menggunapakai rekabentuk sel

  13. REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, M.; Deurwarder, E.; Lensink, S. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits, outlines the technological, legislative and other developments that should take place, and evaluate different policy strategies for realisation. Some preliminary conclusions of the project are discussed here. There is a significant domestic land potential for energy crops in the EU, which could supply between one quarter and one third of gasoline and diesel demand by 2030 if converted into advanced biofuels. A biomass supply of 8 to 10 EJ of primary energy could be available at costs around or below 3 EURO/GJ. However, the introduction of advanced biofuel options may meet a considerable introductory cost barrier, which will not be overcome when EU policy is oriented to the introduction of biofuels at least cost. Therefore, conventional biodiesel and ethanol may dominate the market for decades to come, unless biofuels incentives are differentiated, e.g. on the basis of the differences in greenhouse gas performance among biofuels.The introduction of advanced biofuels may also be enhanced by creating stepping stones or searching introduction synergies. A stepping stone can be the short-term development of lignocellulosic biomass supply chains for power generation by co-firing; synergies can be found between advanced FT-diesel production and hydrogen production for the fuel cell. (au)

  14. Biofuels, land use change and smallholder livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hought, Joy Marie; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Petersen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Crop-based biofuels represent an environmental and political alternative to fossil fuels, as well as an important source of rural development income; as global biofuel markets continue to mature, however, their impact on food security remains controversial. This study investigates the effects...

  15. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  16. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  17. International Policies on Bioenergy and Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajcaniova, M.; Ciaian, P.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of international biofuel polices and their main impacts on food prices and land use. Global biofuel production has experienced a rapid growth by increasing from almost a zero level in 1970 to 29 billion gallons in 2011; the United States, the European Union, and

  18. Is biofuel policy harming biodiversity in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, J.; Tröltzsch, K.; Falcucci, A.; Verburg, P.H.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the potential impacts of land-use changes resulting from a change in the current biofuel policy on biodiversity in Europe. We evaluated the possible impact of both arable and woody biofuel crops on changes in distribution of 313 species pertaining to different taxonomic groups. Using

  19. Global nitrogen requirement for increased biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Joris

    2008-01-01

    Biofuels are thought to be one of the options to substitute fossil fuels and prevent global warming by the greenhouse gas (GHG) effect as they are seen as a renewable form of energy. However, biofuels are almost solely subjected to criticism from an energ

  20. Next generation of liquid biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2012-01-01

    More than 99% of all currently produced biofuels are classified as “first generation” (i.e. fuels produced primarily from cereals, grains, sugar crops and oil seeds) (IEA, 2008b). “Second generation” or “next generation” biofuels, on the other hand, are produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks such

  1. Bounded Biofuels? Sustainability of Global Biogas Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to liquid biofuels biogas has hardly drawn any attention from social sciences researchers lately. Although the share of biogas and liquid biofuels in the energy portfolio of many countries are comparable, biogas systems are strongly place-based and are non-controversial in terms of

  2. NREL Algal Biofuels Projects and Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights several algal biofuels research and development projects focused on improving the economics of the algal biofuels production process. These projects should serve as a foundation for the research efforts toward algae as a source of fuels and other chemicals.

  3. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Marette, Stephan; Treguer, David

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. - Research highlights: → The likelihood of a significant cellulosic ethanol industry in the US looks dim. → Drop-in biofuels made from cellulosic feedstocks have a more promising future. → The spatial dimension of markets for cellulosic feedstocks will be limited. → Corn ethanol will be a tough competitor for cellulosic ethanol.

  4. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  5. Second-generation pilot biofuel units worldwide - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The production of biofuels from agricultural raw material is attracting great interest for many reasons, among them global warming, oil price hikes, the depletion of oil reserves and the development of new agricultural markets. However, the technologies currently under development are hindered by the fact that available land is limited and by a risk of competition with food crops. In the last few years, research and development efforts have sought to alleviate these limitations by exploring new pathways to convert little-used plant feedstocks to biofuels with better efficiencies. Large-scale research programs concentrating on these new technologies are underway in the U.S. and Europe, with industrial development expected between 2012 and 2020

  6. Panorama 2014 - Overview of second-generation biofuel projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouter, Anne; Lorne, Daphne

    2013-12-01

    Second-generation biofuels produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass are now one of the main technological options for reducing the climatic impacts imposed by fuels used in transportation. These processes are designed to significantly boost the quantities of biofuels available and to take over from their first-generation counterparts, given the ready availability of raw materials and their excellent environmental performances. They are already the subject of multiple pre-industrial scale projects in many regions of the world as part of R and D programs, and the first industrial installations are already operational or under construction, the majority of them in Europe and the United States. They now require a stable regulatory framework in order to progress to the industrial learning stage required for them to become fully competitive. This is why the current uncertainties surrounding regulations in Europe and to a lesser extent in the United States could delay their development. (authors)

  7. Teaching of the Microbiological Analysis of Water Using a Computer Simulation Program That Includes Digitalized Color Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes microcomputer-based courseware designed for the simulation of the microbiological analysis of drinking water, including digitalized color images. The use of HyperCard is described and evaluation procedures are explained, including evaluation of the learning and of the class. The evaluation questionnaires are appended. (20 references)…

  8. Three generation production biotechnology of biomass into bio-fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    The great change of climate change, depletion of natural resources, and scarcity of fossil fuel in the whole world nowadays have witnessed a sense of urgency home and abroad among scales of researchers, development practitioners, and industrialists to search for completely brand new sustainable solutions in the area of biomass transforming into bio-fuels attributing to our duty-that is, it is our responsibility to take up this challenge to secure our energy in the near future with the help of sustainable approaches and technological advancements to produce greener fuel from nature organic sources or biomass which comes generally from organic natural matters such as trees, woods, manure, sewage sludge, grass cuttings, and timber waste with a source of huge green energy called bio-fuel. Biomass includes most of the biological materials, livings or dead bodies. This energy source is ripely used industrially, or domestically for rather many years, but the recent trend is on the production of green fuel with different advance processing systems in a greener. More sustainable method. Biomass is becoming a booming industry currently on account of its cheaper cost and abundant resources all around, making it fairly more effective for the sustainable use of the bio-energy. In the past few years, the world has witnessed a remarkable development in the bio-fuel production technology, and three generations of bio-fuel have already existed in our society. The combination of membrane technology with the existing process line can play a vital role for the production of green fuel in a sustainable manner. In this paper, the science and technology for sustainable bio-fuel production will be introduced in detail for a cleaner world.

  9. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chamoli Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  10. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, Jean; Combarnous, Michel; Jarry, Bruno; Monsan, Pierre; Burzynski, Jean-Pierre; Jeuland, Nicolas; Porot, Pierre; Demoment, Pascale; Gillmann, Marc; Marchand, Philippe; Kuentzmann, Paul; Kurtsoglou, Nicolas; Lombaert-Valot, Isabelle; Pelegrin, Marc; Renvier, Jacques; Rousseau, Julien; Stadler, Thierry; Tremeau, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  11. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neha Chamoli; Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  12. Biofuels and the conundrum of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, John J

    2009-06-01

    Sustainable energy is the problem of the 21st century. If biofuels want to be part of the solution they must accept a degree of scrutiny unprecedented in the development of a new industry. That is because sustainability deals explicitly with the role of biofuels in ensuring the well-being of our planet, our economy, and our society both today and in the future. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been the standard framework for assessing sustainability of biofuels. These assessments show that corn ethanol has a marginally lower fossil energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to petroleum fuel. Sugarcane ethanol and some forms of biodiesel offer substantially lower footprints. New biofuels may offer low footprints. The science of LCA is being stretched to its limits as policy makers consider direct and indirect effects of biofuels on global land and water resources, global ecosystems, air quality, public health, and social justice.

  13. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  14. Scope of algae as third generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvashish eBehera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An initiative has been taken to develop different solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels as the alternative energy resources. The current research and technology based on the third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass have been considered as the best alternative bioresource that avoids the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels. Algal biomass have been investigated for the implementation of economic conversion processes producing different biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen and other valuable co-products. In the present review, the recent findings and advance developments in algal biomass for improved biofuel production. This review discusses about the importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security.

  15. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... frequency, number of times per week/month and intensity, amount of times each day) and the extent to which... school activities, including meals and recess periods, with students who do not have a disability. E...

  16. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  17. Mechanical pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: towards facile and environmentally sound technologies for biofuels production

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Abdellatif; MAYER, Claire; Solhy, Abderrahim; Arancon, Rick A. D.; DE VRIES, Hugo; Luque, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels represents an interesting and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel for the near future. However, one still faces some major challenges for the technology to be fully realized including feedstock costs, novel pretreatment processes, production, transportation, and environmental impact of the full chain. The development of new technologies focused to increase the efficiency of cellulose conversion to biofuels determines successful im...

  18. Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang; Rozelle, Scott; Sombilla, Mercy A.

    2009-01-01

    Similar to many other countries, all nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have planned or are planning to develop strong national biofuel programs. The overall goal of this paper is to better understand the impacts of global and regional biofuels on agriculture and the rest of the economy, with a specific focus on the GMS. Based on a modified multi-country, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this study reveals that global biofuel development will significantly increase agricultural prices and production and change trade in agricultural commodities in the GMS and the rest of world. While biofuel in the GMS will have little impacts on global prices, it will have significant effects on domestic agricultural production, land use, trade, and food security. The results also show that the extent of impacts from biofuel is highly dependent on international oil prices and the degree of substitution between biofuel and gasoline. The findings of this study have important policy implications for the GMS countries and the rest of world. (author)

  19. A geographical assessment of vegetation carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions on potential microalgae-based biofuel facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Arita, Carlos; Yilmaz, Özge; Barlak, Semin; Catton, Kimberly B; Quinn, Jason C; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-12-01

    The microalgae biofuels life cycle assessments (LCA) present in the literature have excluded the effects of direct land use change (DLUC) from facility construction under the assumption that DLUC effects are negligible. This study seeks to model the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of microalgae biofuels including DLUC by quantifying the CO 2 equivalence of carbon released to the atmosphere through the construction of microalgae facilities. The locations and types of biomass and Soil Organic Carbon that are disturbed through microalgae cultivation facility construction are quantified using geographical models of microalgae productivity potential including consideration of land availability. The results of this study demonstrate that previous LCA of microalgae to biofuel processes have overestimated GHG benefits of microalgae-based biofuels production by failing to include the effect of DLUC. Previous estimations of microalgae biofuel production potential have correspondingly overestimated the volume of biofuels that can be produced in compliance with U.S. environmental goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Mathematics Courses Included in the Primary School Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Mehmet Koray; Incikabi, Semahat

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics educators have reported on many issues regarding students' mathematical education, particularly students who received mathematics education at different departments such as engineering, science or primary school, including their difficulties with mathematical concepts, their understanding of and preferences for mathematical concepts.…

  1. Genomic selection in a pig population including information from slaughtered full sibs of boars within a sib-testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorè, A B; Buttazzoni, L; Gallo, M; Russo, V; Fontanesi, L

    2015-05-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a common practise in dairy cattle, but only few works have studied its introduction in pig selection programs. Results described for this species are highly dependent on the considered traits and the specific population structure. This paper aims to simulate the impact of genomic selection in a pig population with a training cohort of performance-tested and slaughtered full sibs. This population is selected for performance, carcass and meat quality traits by full-sib testing of boars. Data were simulated using a forward-in-time simulation process that modeled around 60K single nucleotide polymorphisms and several quantitative trait loci distributed across the 18 porcine autosomes. Data were edited to obtain, for each cycle, 200 sires mated with 800 dams to produce 800 litters of 4 piglets each, two males and two females (needed for the sib test), for a total of 3200 newborns. At each cycle, a subset of 200 litters were sib tested, and 60 boars and 160 sows were selected to replace the same number of culled male and female parents. Simulated selection of boars based on performance test data of their full sibs (one castrated brother and two sisters per boar in 200 litters) lasted for 15 cycles. Genotyping and phenotyping of the three tested sibs (training population) and genotyping of the candidate boars (prediction population) were assumed. Breeding values were calculated for traits with two heritability levels (h 2=0.40, carcass traits, and h 2=0.10, meat quality parameters) on simulated pedigrees, phenotypes and genotypes. Genomic breeding values, estimated by various models (GBLUP from raw phenotype or using breeding values and single-step models), were compared with the classical BLUP Animal Model predictions in terms of predictive ability. Results obtained for traits with moderate heritability (h 2=0.40), similar to the heritability of traits commonly measured within a sib-testing program, did not show any benefit from the

  2. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Niemisto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is performed. The benefits and potential of using lignocellulosic and waste materials as feedstocks in the biobutanol production process are also discussed. Sustainability assessment in this paper includes cultivation, harvest/collection and upstream processing (pretreatment of feedstocks, comparing four main biomass sources: food crops, non-food crops, food industry by-product and wood-based biomass. It can be concluded that the highest sustainable potential in Finland is when biobutanol production is integrated into pulp & paper mills.

  3. EFFECTS OF INITIAL MOISTURE CONTENT ON THE PRODUCTION AND QUALITY PROPERTIES OF SOLID BIOFUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Matúš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content of densified biomass is a limit parameter influencing the quality of the solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as the production process of this biofuel. The paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of moisture content of densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs. Experiments based on the single-axis densification of spruce sawdust were realized by hydraulic piston press, where the densified logs were produced under room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the quality properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, were studied. The results show the necessary moisture ranges for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel.

  4. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wu, Weihua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taatjes, Craig A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scheer, Adam Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Kevin M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yu, Eizadora T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Powell, Amy Jo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gao, Connie W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  5. Impact of biofuels on air pollutant emissions from road vehicles. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Rabe, E.L.M.; Ligterink, N.; Bleuanus, S. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands); Rijkee, X.; Kampman, B. [CE, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    This TNO-CE Delft report has been written during the second phase of the program BOLK ('Beleidsgericht Onderzoeksprogramma Lucht en Klimaat' or Policy-oriented research program Air and Climate), initiated by the Ministry of VROM. The aim of this program is to investigate what side effects certain climate measures have on air quality. This is important for the Ministry of VROM, since new National Emission Ceilings are being prepared for 2020. One of the measures that have been investigated is the large scale introduction of biofuels in road transport. During the first phase of BOLK, an extensive literature search has been performed on the emissions of vehicles driving on biofuel blends. In this phase, BOLK-2, the aim is to calculate emission factors for biofuels and based on that, the emission effect of large scale biofuel introduction in road transport on a national level. This report focuses on the Tank-to-Wheels part of the biofuel chain, Ecofys investigated the Well-to-Tank part and reports the findings in another report.

  6. ICECON: a computer program used to calculate containment back pressure for LOCA analysis (including ice condenser plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The ICECON computer code provides a method for conservatively calculating the long term back pressure transient in the containment resulting from a hypothetical Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) for PWR plants including ice condenser containment systems. The ICECON computer code was developed from the CONTEMPT/LT-022 code. A brief discussion of the salient features of a typical ice condenser containment is presented. Details of the ice condenser models are explained. The corrections and improvements made to CONTEMPT/LT-022 are included. The organization of the code, including the calculational procedure, is outlined. The user's manual, to be used in conjunction with the CONTEMPT/LT-022 user's manual, a sample problem, a time-step study (solution convergence) and a comparison of ICECON results with the results of the NSSS vendor are presented. In general, containment pressure calculated with the ICECON code agree with those calculated by the NSSS vendor using the same mass and energy release rates to the containment

  7. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers-the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers-Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program-Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  8. Biofuels - Illusion or Reality? - The european experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental issues, rising prices and security of supply are putting energy at the centre of all attentions. Policy-makers pushed by various stakeholders are struggling to find more sustainable solutions to the world legitimate demand for energy. The transport sector is especially under pressure as it relies for 98% on oil. Despite vast research and development investments, no short-term solutions appeared to be reliable. Thanks to lawmakers support to biofuels, these substitutes for oil are now seen as the potential solution for a sustainable transport. This book analyses the real possibility of biofuels. Does Europe has enough land to produce the needed feedstock? What are the real gains in terms of greenhouse gases emissions and energy efficiency? Are biofuels really a sustainable solution? Will this policy succeed? Are the targets reachable? The reader will find some indications in this book to make up his mind on this complex, multifaceted and highly political subject. Contents: Summary. Introduction. Biofuels in the U.S.A. and Brazil. Do we have enough land in Europe? Biofuels life cycle analysis. Greenhouse gases reduction and efficiency. Case of the glycerin price. Variables affecting biofuels sustainability. Standard for Biofuels. Conclusion. General Bibliography. Annexes. References

  9. Global biofuel use, 1850-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Suneeta D.; Trautmann, Nina M.; Streets, David G.; Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents annual, country-level estimates of biofuel use for the period 1850-2000. We estimate that global biofuel consumption rose from about 1000 Tg in 1850 to 2460 Tg in 2000, an increase of 140%. In the late 19th century, biofuel consumption in North America was very high, ˜220-250 Tg/yr, because widespread land clearing supplied plentiful fuelwood. At that time biofuel use in Western Europe was lower, ˜180-200 Tg/yr. As fossil fuels became available, biofuel use in the developed world fell. Compensating changes in other parts of the world, however, caused global consumption to remain remarkably stable between 1850 and 1950 at ˜1200 ± 200 Tg/yr. It was only after World War II that biofuel use began to increase more rapidly in response to population growth in the developing world. Between 1950 and 2000, biofuel use in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia grew by 170%, 160%, and 130%, respectively.

  10. Energy. Which fuels for tomorrow? Status of bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleaux-Mulot, R.; Ratel, H.

    2005-01-01

    France wants to include up to 5.75% of bio-fuels in its automotive fuels by 2008. This article presents the advantages and drawbacks of this policy: reduction of the fossil fuels dependence, positive impact on the greenhouse effect but possible environmental impacts linked with intensive cultivation techniques, no problem of compatibility with the vehicles engine but the production costs remain three times higher than for petroleum. (J.S.)

  11. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  12. Policies and life cycle analysis for the production of biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Martínez, Nadxieli Paulina

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuels make up 80% of the primary energy consumed in the world, from which 58% alone is consumed by the transportation sector. They have a major contribution in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by their combustion and consumption which leads to many negative effects including climate change and global warming. In order to tackle these problems in the transportation sector, the biofuels industry has been growing in the previous years. This study analyzes the most relevant environmental imp...

  13. External noise when using biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaleski, J.

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to cover sources of noise dealing with all steps in a biofuel chain; producing, transporting, storing and firing the biofuel. When the availability of relevant test results from noise surveys is not so good and mostly badly documented, the study has been concentrated on estimation of external noise for planning and design purposes, from a prospective biofuel-fired plant. A synoptic tabulation of estimated acoustic power levels from different noise sources, has been done. The results from measurements of external noise from different existing combined power and heating plants are tabulated. The Nordic model for simulation of external noise has been used for a prospective plant - VEGA - designed by Vattenfall. The aim has been to estimate its noise pollutions at critical points at the nearest residential area (250 m from the fenced industry area). The software - ILYD - is easy to handle, but knowledge about the model is necessary. A requisite for the reliability is the access to measurements or estimations of different sources of noise, at different levels of octaves from 63 to 8000 Hz. The degree of accuracy increases with the number of broad band sources, that are integrated. Using ILYD with available data, a night limit of 40 dB(A) should be possible to fulfill with good degree of accuracy at VEGA, between 10 pm and 7 am, with good planning and under normal operation conditions. A demand for 35 dB(A) as a limit can be harder to fulfill, especially at mornings from 6 to 7. Noise from heavy vehicles within the plant area is classified as industrial noise and not as road traffic noise. This type of noise depends very much on the way of driving and assumed acceleration. Concerning wheel-mounted loaders, they may then only be used during daytime. The simulations show, that even at daytime from 7 to 6 pm, it would be possible to use an acoustically damped chipping machine, inside the power industry area. 31 refs, 13 figs, tabs, 8

  14. Metabolomics of Clostridial Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Aristilde, Ludmilla [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Amador-Noguez, Daniel [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-09-08

    Members of the genus Clostridium collectively have the ideal set of the metabolic capabilities for fermentative biofuel production: cellulose degradation, hydrogen production, and solvent excretion. No single organism, however, can effectively convert cellulose into biofuels. Here we developed, using metabolomics and isotope tracers, basic science knowledge of Clostridial metabolism of utility for future efforts to engineer such an organism. In glucose fermentation carried out by the biofuel producer Clostridium acetobutylicum, we observed a remarkably ordered series of metabolite concentration changes as the fermentation progressed from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In general, high-energy compounds decreased while low-energy species increased during solventogenesis. These changes in metabolite concentrations were accompanied by large changes in intracellular metabolic fluxes, with pyruvate directed towards acetyl-CoA and solvents instead of oxaloacetate and amino acids. Thus, the solventogenic transition involves global remodeling of metabolism to redirect resources from biomass production into solvent production. In contrast to C. acetobutylicum, which is an avid fermenter, C. cellulolyticum metabolizes glucose only slowly. We find that glycolytic intermediate concentrations are radically different from fast fermenting organisms. Associated thermodynamic and isotope tracer analysis revealed that the full glycolytic pathway in C. cellulolyticum is reversible. This arises from changes in cofactor utilization for phosphofructokinase and an alternative pathway from phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. The net effect is to increase the high-energy phosphate bond yield of glycolysis by 150% (from 2 to 5) at the expense of lower net flux. Thus, C. cellulolyticum prioritizes glycolytic energy efficiency over speed. Degradation of cellulose results in other sugars in addition to glucose. Simultaneous feeding of stable isotope-labeled glucose and unlabeled pentose sugars

  15. Climate regulation enhances the value of second generation biofuel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.; Tyner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial scale implementation of second generation (2G) biofuels has long been 'just over the horizon - perhaps a decade away'. However, with recent innovations, and higher oil prices, we appear to be on the verge of finally seeing commercial scale implementations of cellulosic to liquid fuel conversion technologies. Interest in this technology derives from many quarters. Environmentalists see this as a way of reducing our carbon footprint, however, absent a global market for carbon emissions, private firms will not factor this into their investment decisions. Those interested in poverty and nutrition see this as a channel for lessening the biofuels' impact on food prices. But what is 2G technology worth to society? How valuable are prospective improvements in this technology? And how are these valuations affected by future uncertainties, including climate regulation, climate change impacts, and energy prices? This paper addresses all of these questions. We employ FABLE, a dynamic optimization model for the world's land resources which characterizes the optimal long run path for protected natural lands, managed forests, crop and livestock land use, energy extraction and biofuels over the period 2005-2105. By running this model twice for each future state of the world - once with 2G biofuels technology available and once without - we measure the contribution of the technology to global welfare. Given the uncertainty in how these technologies are likely to evolve, we consider a range cost estimates - from optimistic to pessimistic. In addition to technological uncertainty, there is great uncertainty in the conditions characterizing our baseline for the 21st century. For each of the 2G technology scenarios, we therefore also consider a range of outcomes for key drivers of global land use, including: population, income, oil prices, climate change impacts and climate regulation. We find that the social valuation of 2G technologies depends critically on climate change

  16. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  17. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-01

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  18. Liquid biofuels in the aeroderivative gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCampli, James; Schornick, Joe; Farr, Rachel

    2010-09-15

    While there are regional economic and political incentives for using liquid biofuels for renewable power generation, several challenges must be addressed. Given the fuel volumes required, base-load operation with renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol are not likely sustainable with today's infrastructure. However, blending of biofuels with fossil fuels is a more economic option to provide renewable power. In turn, this lays the foundation to increase to more power generation in the future as new generation biofuels come on line. And, much like the automotive industry, the power industry will need to institute design changes to accommodate these fuels.

  19. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanova, Sofia; Yolina Hubenova; Mario Mitov

    2009-01-01

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  20. Mandates, buyouts and fuel-tax rebates: Some economic aspects of biofuel policies using the UK as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinbank, Alan; Tranter, Richard; Jones, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Many governments mandate the blending of biofuels with fossil fuel supplies. The paper raises the possibility that some firms might choose not to respect such mandates, and cites the UK's experience, where a buyout of the obligation is possible. A simple economic framework is then used to explore some implications of mandate buyouts, including situations when buyouts and road-fuel-tax rebates are applied together. Finally, it discusses the design of buyout-mandate schemes that could release raw materials from biofuel production, following a future world food price shock. - Research Highlights: → Many governments mandate the blending of biofuels with fossil fuels. → Some allow firms to buyout the obligation. → Buyouts change the economic incentives firms face. → We use an economic framework to analyse buyouts of biofuel mandates. → Buyouts could alleviate the impact of biofuel mandates on rising food prices.

  1. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel is an alternative diesel engine fuel is produced from oils/fats of plants and animals (including the fisheries industry waste through the esterification and transesterifiksi reactions. A transesterification is reaction to form esters and glycerol from trigliserin (fat/oil and bioalcohol (methanol or ethanol. Transesterification is an equilibrium reaction so that the presence of a catalyst can accelerate the achievement of a state of equilibrium. Process of the transesterification reaction of sardine flour oil waste with NaOH as base catalyst in producing biofuels was conducted.The research purpose has studied the influence of NaOH concentration in transesterification process and examinate its effect on the quality of biofuels production, conversion, and physic quality. The variables that analysed was the effect of NaOH concentration as catalyst (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% from amount of oil and methanol in the transesterification reaction step. The result showed that the increasing NaOH concentration (0.5 - 1.5%, enhanced the biofuel conversion (%. The highest conversion of biofuels was achieved by using 1.50% NaOH (w/w with 45.34% biofuels conversion. The major component in the biofuels was methyl palmitate (20.31%. ASTM analysis data also supported that the biofuel product was in agreement with automotive diesel fuel specification.

  2. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  3. PTA-1 computer program for treating pressure transients in hydraulic networks including the effect of pipe plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Pressure pulses in the intermediate sodium system of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, such as may originate from a sodium/water reaction in a steam generator, are propagated through the complex sodium piping network to system components such as the pump and intermediate heat exchanger. To assess the effects of such pulses on continued reliable operation of these components and to contribute to system designs which result in the mitigation of these effects, Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) computer codes are being developed for accurately computing the transmission of pressure pulses through a complicated fluid transport system, consisting of piping, fittings and junctions, and components. PTA-1 provides an extension of the well-accepted and verified fluid hammer formulation for computing hydraulic transients in elastic or rigid piping systems to include plastic deformation effects. The accuracy of the modeling of pipe plasticity effects on transient propagation has been validated using results from two sets of Stanford Research Institute experiments. Validation of PTA-1 using the latter set of experiments is described briefly. The comparisons of PTA-1 computations with experiments show that (1) elastic-plastic deformation of LMFBR-type piping can have a significant qualitative and quantitative effect on pressure pulse propagation, even in simple systems; (2) classical fluid-hammer theory gives erroneous results when applied to situations where piping deforms plastically; and (3) the computational model incorporated in PTA-1 for predicting plastic deformation and its effect on transient propagation is accurate

  4. Tracking U.S. biofuel innovation through patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Jeff; Sperling, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We use biofuel patents as a proxy for biofuel innovation. Through use of natural language processing and machine-learning algorithms, we expand patent classification capabilities to better explain the history of biofuels innovation. Results indicate that after the initial establishment of the U.S. biofuel industry, there were two surges in biofuel innovation: 1995–2000, characterized by heavy patenting by 1st generation (food-based) biofuel firms; and 2005–2010, characterized by a second surge of innovation by those same large firms, complemented by a large number of biotechnology firms producing a relatively small number of 2nd generation biofuel patents. Our analysis corroborates the widespread understanding that the first surge in biofuel innovation was linked to innovations in agriculture, and that the second surge of biofuel innovation was driven by demand-pull policies mandating and incentivizing biofuels. But the slow emergence of a 2nd generation cellulose-based biofuels industry, far slower than called for by policy, suggests that technology-push policies more focused on R&D and investment may be needed to accelerate the commercialization of 2nd generation biofuels. - Highlights: • Patenting activity closely corresponds to sociotechnical shifts in biofuel innovation. • The Renewable Fuel Standard likely contributed to the rise in biofuel patenting activity after 2005. • 2nd generation biofuel technology innovation appears lacking compared to 1st generation technologies.

  5. Decarbonising the Swedish transport sector with electricity or biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Bo Bramstoft; Skytte, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Sweden has set long-term energy policy targets which aim at eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 [1]. Since the production of power and district heating in Sweden is already close to be carbon neutral, a further reduction of GHG emissions have to be seeked in other sectors......, if the ambitious targets of a carbon neutral transport system by 2050 and of being independent from fossil fuels in the vehicle fleet by 2030 have to be achieved [1]. To meet the energy policy targets, radical restructuring of the fuel use and vehicle stock in the transport sector is required. In this context......, this paper develops two alternative scenarios for the transport sector by 2050 – an Electric Vehicles Scenario (EVS) which include a high percentage of electric vehicles and a BIOfuel Scenario (BIOS) with a high percentage of biofuels. The scenario results are compared to the Carbon Neutral Scenario (CNS...

  6. 20 CFR 664.410 - Must local programs include each of the ten program elements listed in WIA section 129(c)(2) as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... available to youth participants: (1) Tutoring, study skills training, and instruction leading to secondary... behaviors; (7) Supportive services, which may include the services listed in § 664.440; (8) Adult mentoring...

  7. Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H2 yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H2 production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes. PMID:20139239

  8. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast to Produce Fatty Acid-derived Biofuels: Bottlenecks and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan eSheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  9. Recent advances on enzymatic glucose/oxygen and hydrogen/oxygen biofuel cells: Achievements and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnier, Serge; Gross, Andrew J.; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of producing electrical power from chemical energy with biological catalysts has induced the development of biofuel cells as viable energy sources for powering portable and implanted electronic devices. These power sources employ biocatalysts, called enzymes, which are highly specific and catalytic towards the oxidation of a biofuel and the reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes, on one hand, are promising candidates to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts in fuel cell research. On the other hand, they offer the exciting prospect of a new generation of fuel cells which harvest energy from body fluids. Biofuel cells which use glucose as a fuel are particularly interesting for generating electricity to power electronic devices inside a living body. Hydrogen consuming biofuel cells represent an emerging alternative to platinum catalysts due to comparable efficiencies and the capability to operate at lower temperatures. Currently, these technologies are not competitive with existing commercialised fuel cell devices due to limitations including insufficient power outputs and lifetimes. The advantages and challenges facing glucose biofuel cells for implantation and hydrogen biofuel cells will be summarised along with recent promising advances and the future prospects of these exotic energy-harvesting devices.

  10. Biofuels for transportation : a climate perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    As the United States seeks to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from motor vehicles and to lessen its dependence on imported oil, biofuels are gaining increasing attention as one possible solution. This paper offers an introduction to the current...

  11. Biofuels and bioenergy: processes and technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sunggyu; Shah, Yatish T

    2013-01-01

    ... since the early twentieth century. Up until recently, however, development interest in biofuels had lessened due to the availability of relatively inexpensive fossil energy resources as well as the handling and transportation...

  12. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biofuel Production is the topic covered in this edition.

  13. Technical solutions to make biofuels more competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    With the present day environmental and economical stakes, the French government has announced in 2005 a plan for the accelerated development of biofuels. In France, two traditional ways of biofuel generation exist: the bio-ethanol way and the bio-diesel way (methyl esters of vegetable oils). Two problems limit today the development of biofuels: the available cultivation surfaces and the production costs. The challenge of the next generation of biofuels concerns the better use of the available biomass, with no competition with the food productions, and in particular the development of ethyl esters of vegetable oils or the hydrogen processing of vegetable oils. Other processes are making their way, like the biomass to liquid (BTL) process, based on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, which allows to convert any type of biomass source into liquid fuels with a high production rate (about 5000 l/Ha). Short paper. (J.S.)

  14. Figure 5, Biofuel refinery facility locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This workbook contains the locations and types of current and anticipated biofuel feedstock processing facilities assumed under the simulated scenarios. This dataset...

  15. Panorama 2011: Water and bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, water is seen as a major sustainability criterion for bio-energies. Although the biofuels being produced by food crops are subject to the same risks as the farming sector as far as water resources are concerned, future sectors have a significant potential to reduce these risks, and this potential needs to be better understood in order for biofuels as a resource and their related technologies to develop properly. (authors)

  16. Biofuels: The hidden cause of deforestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alison; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Lickacz, Lindsay; Clarke, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a causal relationship between the biofuel market in the USA and the Amazonic Deforestation. The project parts from an objectivist approach and uses economic as well as environmental theories as a starting point. It attempts to demonstrate that biofuels are not as environmentally friendly as advertised, but instead have a detrimental effect on the Amazon Rainforest. The project utilizes statistics as a main source for empirical data, as well various...

  17. Biofuels: The hidden cause of deforestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alison; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Lickacz, Lindsay; Clarke, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a causal relationship between the biofuel market in the USA and the Amazonic Deforestation. The project parts from an objectivist approach and uses economic as well as environmental theories as a starting point. It attempts to demonstrate that biofuels are not as environmentally friendly as advertised, but instead have a detrimental effect on the Amazon Rainforest. The project utilizes statistics as a main source for empirical data, as well vari...

  18. Constructed wetlands as biofuel production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Xu; Chang, Jie; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Shi, Yan; Xue, Hui; Peng, Changhui; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-03-01

    Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Progress has been made in reducing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and nitrogen fertilizer consumption through biofuel production. Here we advocate an alternative approach that efficiently produces cellulosic biofuel and greatly reduces GHG emissions using waste nitrogen through wastewater treatment with constructed wetlands in China. Our combined experimental and literature data demonstrate that the net life-cycle energy output of constructed wetlands is higher than that of corn, soybean, switchgrass, low-input high-diversity grassland and algae systems. Energy output from existing constructed wetlands is ~237% of the input for biofuel production and can be enhanced through optimizing the nitrogen supply, hydrologic flow patterns and plant species selection. Assuming that all waste nitrogen in China could be used by constructed wetlands, biofuel production can account for 6.7% of national gasoline consumption. We also find that constructed wetlands have a greater GHG reduction than the existing biofuel production systems in a full life-cycle analysis. This alternative approach is worth pursuing because of its great potential for straightforward operation, its economic competitiveness and many ecological benefits.

  19. Assessing biofuel crop invasiveness: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evan Buddenhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.

  20. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L.; Black, Mairi

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a ‘carbon debt’ with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC. PMID:22482030

  1. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L; Black, Mairi

    2011-04-06

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a 'carbon debt' with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels in Sweden; Livscykelanalys av svenska biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal; Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael

    2009-05-15

    The purpose with this study is to carry out updated and developed life cycle assessments of biofuels produced and used in Sweden today. The focuses are on making the assessments as relevant and transparent as possible and identify hot spots having significant impacts on the environmental performance of the specific biofuel production chains. The study includes sensitivity analyses showing the impact on changed future conditions. The results should be seen as actual and average environmental performance based on updated calculation methods, thus individual systems developed by specific companies may have somewhat different performance. Biofuels analysed are ethanol from wheat, sugar beet and sugar cane (imported from Brazil), RME from rape seed, biogas from sugar beet, ley crops, maize and organic residues, such as municipal waste, food industry waste and liquor manure. The study also includes co-production of ethanol and biogas from wheat. Final use in both light and heavy duty vehicles, and related emissions, are assessed. Environmental impact categories considered are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidants, particles and energy balances. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, e.g. energy input in various operations and processes, and biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from direct land use changes (LUC). The potential risk of indirect land use changes (ILUC) is also assessed. By-products are included by three different calculation methods, system expansion, energy allocation and economic allocation. The results are presented per MJ biofuel, but the alternative functional unit per hectare cropland is also used regarding the greenhouse gas performance of crop-based biofuels. Finally, estimations are carried out regarding the current environmental performance of the actual various biofuel systems based on system expansion, recommended by the ISO-standardisation of LCA, and energy allocation

  3. [Clinical and cost effectiveness of rehabilitation programs including physical exercises for patients with ischemic heart disease under conditions of resort and outpatient clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhova, E V; Guliaeva, S F; Tsarev, Iu K; Chervotkina, L A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of rehabilitation programs including long-term physical training of moderate intensity intended for the management of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who had undergone acute coronary events; the programs were adapted to the treatment under conditions of spa resorts, dispensaries, and outpatient clinics. It was shown that rehabilitation of patients presenting with CDH with the use of moderately intensive physical exercises during a long period enhances the effectiveness of application of the available funds due to improved clinical course of coronary heart disease, tolerance of physical load, and quality of life.

  4. Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jie

    Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant

  5. Continuous production of palm biofuel under supercritical ethyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komintarachat, Cholada; Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous synthesized biofuel from palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate was examined. • Mass flow rate of palm oil and ethyl acetate mixture influent to biofuel production in continuous system. • Water addition to reacting mixture improves the production of fatty acid ethyl esters and triacetin. • The generated acetic acid from ETA hydrolysis can protect the products from thermal decomposition. - Abstract: The interesterification of palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate (ETA) to produce fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEEs) or biofuel was conducted in a continuous tubular reactor. The density of the mixtures in the system was estimated using the Peng–Robinson equation of state process simulator, and the residence time was calculated. The effects of the reaction conditions, including the molar ratios of palm oil to ethyl acetate, the temperature, and the pressure, were investigated under various mass flow rates of the mixtures and optimized. The results showed that reaction temperatures above 653 K and long residence times affected the content of FAEEs and triacetin, a valuable by-product. The addition of water to the mixture in a 1:30:10 M ratio of palm oil to ethyl acetate to water at 653 K, 16 MPa, and a mixture mass flow rate of 1.5 g/min increased the total production of FAEEs and triacetin from 90.9 to 101.5 wt% in 42.4 min. The main finding of the present study is that triglyceride associated with ETA hydrolysis used to form acetic acid protected the products from decomposition at high temperatures and long residence times. The results will aid the selection of an efficient and economical process for alternative biofuel production from palm oil in supercritical ETA

  6. Impacts of Residential Biofuel Emissions on Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Storelvmo, T.

    2016-12-01

    The residential biofuel sector is defined as fuelwood, agricultural residues and dung used for household cooking and heating. Aerosol emissions from this human activity play an important role affecting local, regional and global air quality, climate and public health. However, there are only few studies available that evaluate the net impacts and large uncertainties persist. Here we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM v5.3) within the Community Earth System Model version 1.2.2, to quantify the impacts of cook-stove biofuel emissions on air quality and climate. The model incorporates a novel advanced treatment of black carbon (BC) effects on mixed-phase/ice clouds. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in CAM v5.3 to a state-of-the-art emission inventory from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies integrated assessment model. Global in-situ and aircraft campaign observations for BC and organic carbon are used to evaluate and validate the model performance. Sensitivity simulations are employed to assess the impacts of residential biofuel emissions on regional and global direct and indirect radiative forcings in the contemporary world. We focus the analyses on several key regions including India, China and Sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Metabolic engineering of yeast for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Su; Cate, Jamie Hd

    2017-12-01

    Production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass remains an unsolved challenge in industrial biotechnology. Efforts to use yeast for conversion face the question of which host organism to use, counterbalancing the ease of genetic manipulation with the promise of robust industrial phenotypes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains the premier host for metabolic engineering of biofuel pathways, due to its many genetic, systems and synthetic biology tools. Numerous engineering strategies for expanding substrate ranges and diversifying products of S. cerevisiae have been developed. Other yeasts generally lack these tools, yet harbor superior phenotypes that could be exploited in the harsh processes required for lignocellulosic biofuel production. These include thermotolerance, resistance to toxic compounds generated during plant biomass deconstruction, and wider carbon consumption capabilities. Although promising, these yeasts have yet to be widely exploited. By contrast, oleaginous yeasts such as Yarrowia lipolytica capable of producing high titers of lipids are rapidly advancing in terms of the tools available for their metabolic manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomass-derived syngas fermentation into biofuels: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Pradeep Chaminda; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-07-01

    The conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas (or syngas in brief) into biofuels by microbial catalysts (such as Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium autoethanogenum, Acetobacterium woodii, Clostridium carboxidivorans and Peptostreptococcus productus) has gained considerable attention as a promising alternative for biofuel production in the recent past. The utilization of the whole biomass, including lignin, irrespective of biomass quality, the elimination of complex pre-treatment steps and costly enzymes, a higher specificity of biocatalysts, an independence of the H(2):CO ratio for bioconversion, bioreactor operation at ambient conditions, and no issue of noble metal poisoning are among the major advantages of this process. Poor mass transfer properties of the gaseous substrates (mainly CO and H(2)) and low ethanol yield of biocatalysts are the biggest challenges preventing the commercialization of syngas fermentation technology. This paper critically reviews the existing literature in biomass-derived syngas fermentation into biofuels, specifically, different biocatalysts, factors affecting syngas fermentation, and mass transfer. The paper also outlines the major challenges of syngas fermentation, key performance index and technology road map, and discusses the further research needs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biofuels and climate neutrality - system analysis of production and utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Eriksson, Erik; Olsson, Olle; Olsson, Mats; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate to what extent biofuels can be said to be climate neutral. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the production and utilisation chains of a number of solid biofuels were made based on data available in the literature. The data has been used for making radiative forcing calculations. The study also includes a comparison between imported and domestic solid biofuels. We conclude that none of the investigated biofuel chains are 'climate neutral', since all of them result in net emissions of greenhouse gases. However, all of the chains result in lower emissions than corresponding emissions from the use of fossil fuels. The emission estimates for the fuel chains varies depending on fuels and on how system boundaries have been set in the different studies. The following factors can contribute significantly to the total emissions of greenhouse gases of the production and utilisation chain of a biofuel: impact of production system on soil carbon storage, land use methods (especially use of drained peatlands), the use of fertilisers (both direct and indirect), combustion technology, refining of the fuel (i.e. pelletisation) and storage (especially of comminuted fuels). Other sources that also contribute to the emissions during a production and utilisation chain are; harvesting machines, transportation and waste handling. The climate impacts of the greenhouse gas emissions from one of the biofuels, i.e. forest residues, were compared to the impacts of fossil fuels by the concept of radiative forcing. In the radiative forcing calculations the CO 2 emissions from combustion of biofuels and the CO 2 emissions that would have occurred if the residues had been left in the forest to decompose were included, and their different dynamics taken into consideration. The decomposition results in CO 2 emissions during a long time period and in an amount equalling those that are emitted during combustion. Only a minor part is due to

  10. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  11. Cofiring of biofuels in coal fired boilers: Results of case study analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, D.A. [Ebasco Environmental, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hughes, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gold, B.A. [TVA, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ebasco Environmental and Reaction Engineering, under contract to EPRI, performed a case study analysis of cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study was also sponsored by DOE. This analysis included evaluating wood fuel receiving, preparation, and combustion in pulverized coal (PC) boilers and cyclone furnaces and an assessment of converting wood into pyrolysis oil or low Btu gas for use in a new combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) installation. Cofiring wood in existing coal-fired boilers has the most immediate potential for increasing the utilization of biofuels in electricity generation. Cofiring biofuels with coal can potentially generate significant benefits for utilities including: (1) reducing emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; (2) reducing the net emissions of CO{sub 2}; (3) potentially reducing the fuel cost to the utility depending upon local conditions and considering biomass is potentially exempt from the proposed Btu tax and may get a 1.5 cent/kWh credit for energy generated by wood combustion; (4) supporting local industrial forest industry; and (5) providing a long term market for the development of a biofuel supply and delivery industry. Potential benefits are reviewed in the context of cofiring biofuel at a rate of 15% heat input to the boiler, and compares this cofiring strategy and others previously tested or developed by other utilities. Other issues discussed include: (1) wood fuel specifications as a function of firing method; (2) wood fuel receiving and preparation system requirements; (3) combustion system requirements for cofiring biofuels with coal; (4) combustion impacts of firing biofuels with coal; (5) system engineering issues; (6) the economics of cofiring biofuel with coal. The Allen, TN 330 MW(e) cyclone boiler and Kingston, TN 135 MW(e) Boiler {number_sign}1, a tangentially fired PC unit, case studies are then summarized in the paper, highlighting the cofiring opportunities.

  12. Liquid biofuels - can they meet our expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Liquid biofuels are one of the options for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and the dependence on fossil fuels. This is reflected in the DIRECTIVE 2003/30/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport. The promotion of E10, an automotive fuel containing 10 percent bioethanol, is based on this directive. At present almost all bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as maize, corn or sugar beet and sugar cane in suitable climates. In view of shortages and rising prices of food, in particular in developing countries, the use of food and feed crops for biofuel production is increasingly criticized. Alternative sources of biomass are perennial grasses and wood, whose cellulose fraction can be converted to alcohol by the so called "second generation" processes, which seem to be close to commercial deployment. The use of the total plant biomass increases the biofuel yield per hectare as compared to conventional crops. Of special interest for biofuel production is woody biomass from forests as this avoids competition with food production on arable land. Historically woody biomass was for millennia the predominant source of thermal energy. Before fossil fuels came into use, up to 80 percent of a forest was used for fuel wood, charcoal and raw materials such as potash for trade and industry. Now forests are managed to yield up to 80 percent of high grade timber for the wood industry. Replacing sophisticatedly managed forests by fast growing biofuel plantations could make economic sense for land owners when a protected market is guaranteed by politics, because biofuel plantations would be highly mechanized and cheap to operate, even if costs for certified planting material and fertilizer are added. For forest owners the decision to clear existing long rotation forests for biofuel plantations would still be weighty because of the extended time of decades required to rebuild a

  13. Privileged Biofuels, Marginalized Indigenous Peoples: The Coevolution of Biofuels Development in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefrio, Marvin Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels development has assumed an important role in integrating Indigenous peoples and other marginalized populations in the production of biofuels for global consumption. By combining the theories of commoditization and the environmental sociology of networks and flows, the author analyzed emerging trends and possible changes in institutions…

  14. Request for Correction 12001 Analyses Associated with the Impact of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Request for Correction #11001 by the Competitive Enterprise Institute and ActionAid USA regarding the impacts of biofuel mandates on global hunger and mortality in the EPA's Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program, 40 CFR Part 80.

  15. Indirect land use change and biofuels. Mathematical analysis reveals a fundamental flaw in the regulatory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Dale, B.E.; Heijungs, R.; Azapagic, A.; Darlington, T.; Kahlbaum, D.

    2014-01-01

    In the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has used partial equilibrium models to estimate the overall indirect land use change (iLUC) associated with the biofuel scenario mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

  16. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  17. Biofuel as an Integrated Farm Drainage Management crop: A bioeconomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levers, L. R.; Schwabe, K. A.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agricultural lands in arid regions often suffer from soil salinization and lack of drainage, which affect environmental quality and productivity. Integrated Farm Drainage Management (IFDM) systems, where drainage water generated from higher-valued crops grown on high quality soils are used to irrigate salt-tolerant crops grown on marginal soils, is one possible strategy for managing salinity and drainage problems. If the IFDM crop were a biofuel crop, both environmental and private benefits may be generated; however, little is known about this possibility. As such, we develop a bioeconomic programming model of irrigated agricultural production to examine the role salt-tolerant biofuel crops might play within an IFDM system. Our results, generated by optimizing profits over land, water, and crop choice decisions subject to resource constraints, suggest that based on the private profits alone, biofuel crops can be a competitive alternative to the common practices of land retirement and nonbiofuel crop production under both low to high drainage water salinity. Yet IFDM biofuel crop production generates 30-35% fewer GHG emissions than the other strategies. The private market competitiveness coupled with the public good benefits may justify policy changes encouraging the growth of IFDM biofuel crops in arid agricultural areas globally.

  18. Impact of the Introduction of Biofuel in the Transportation Sector in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Jupesta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia faces serious energy problems; its status as an oil exporter has changed to that of a net oil importer. Additionally, a highly subsidized price of fossil fuels, combined with a high dependency on oil, burden Indonesia’s national budget. In 2006, the government enacted a Mix Energy Policy, which strives for a mixture of energy sources by introducing renewable energy into the existing energy systems. Among the several alternative renewable energy options, biofuel is perceived as having the most potential in Indonesia, due to favorable climate and the availability of land and technology. This paper assesses the impact of the introduction of biofuel in the transportation sector of Indonesia in terms of energy, economics and the environment. A linear programming model was built to simulate the impact of the introduction of biofuel. The author concludes that the introduction of biofuel may have a positive impact by partially replacing the oil used for domestic transportation, generating income due to export of excess production, creating jobs in several sectors, and reducing carbon emissions in a sustainable way. In the model, four scenarios are tested: under the scenario ‘land and technology’, with proper land allocation and technology development, biofuel production can reach 2,810 PJ/annum and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 168 million tons/annum CO2-equivalent. Furthermore, a profit of 49 billion USD can be generated in 2025 (all maximum values.

  19. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  20. 2014 Renewable Fuel Standards under Renewable Fuel Standard Program: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing the volume requirements and associated percentage standards that would apply under the RFS2 program in calendar year 2014 for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel.