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Sample records for include attachment patterns

  1. Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Andrea; Ruiz, Nina; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2016-01-01

    Three boys (an extremely preterm, a moderate preterm twin and a full-term toddler; all 12 to 15 months old) were selected from a large sample to investigate mechanisms of parent-child attachments, specifically of babies born preterm. Attachments were observed at home with the Attachment-Q-Sort (AQS) as well as in the lab with the Strange Situation…

  2. Adult Attachment Interview Discourse Patterns Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cynthia R.; Usher, Nicole; Dearing, Eric; Barkai, Ayelet R.; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Crowell, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adult attachment discourse patterns and current family relationship quality were examined as predictors of health behaviors and number of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) criteria met. Methods A sample of 215 White/European American and Black/African American adults, aged 35 to 55, were examined cross-sectionally. Discourse was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), specifically: 1) coherence, a marker of attachment security, 2) unresolved trauma/loss, a marker of disorganized and distorted cognition related to trauma, and 3) idealization, the tendency to minimize the impact of stressful experiences. Health behaviors of diet, exercise, smoking and alcohol use were also assessed, as were adverse childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms and relationship functioning. MetS includes hypertension, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and obesity. Results Using path analysis and accounting for childhood adversity and depressive symptoms, AAI coherence and unresolved trauma or loss were directly linked to number of MetS criteria met (β = −.22 and .21 respectively). Idealization was indirectly linked to MetS through poor diet (β = −.26 and −.36 respectively), predicting 21% of the variance in number of MetS criteria met. Conclusions Attachment representations related to stress appraisal and care-seeking behaviors appear to serve as cognitive mechanisms increasing risk of MetS. PMID:25264975

  3. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  4. 'Adoption and attachment theory' the attachment models of adoptive mothers and the revision of attachment patterns of their late-adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C S; Zavattini, G C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the attachment patterns of late-adopted children (aged 4-7) and their adoptive mothers during the first 7- to 8-month period after adoption and aimed to evaluate the effect of adoptive mothers' attachment security on the revision of the attachment patterns of their late-adopted children. We assessed attachment patterns in 20 adoptive dyads and 12 genetically related dyads at two different times: T1 (time 1) within 2 months of adoption and T2 (time 2) 6 months after T1. The children's behavioural attachment patterns were assessed using the Separation-Reunion Procedure and the children's representational (verbal) attachment patterns using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. The attachment models of the adoptive mothers were classified using the Adult Attachment Interview. We found that there was a significant enhancement of the late-adopted children's attachment security across the time period considered (P= 0.008). Moreover, all the late-adopted children who showed a change from insecurity to security had adoptive mothers with secure attachment models (P= 0.044). However, the matching between maternal attachment models and late-adopted children's attachment patterns (behaviours and representations) was not significant. Our data suggest that revision of the attachment patterns in the late-adopted children is possible but gradual, and that the adoptive mothers' attachment security makes it more likely to occur. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Attachment Patterns and Reflective Functioning in traumatised refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Traumatized refugees have often suffered severe, prolonged, repeated traumas and pose a challenge to treatment. Attachment patterns and level of mentalizing seem to work as protection mechanisms in traumatizing events and to be important for positively utilizing the therapeutic alliance which...... psychotherapy research has shown is central to change and effect. Aims: 1) To examine attachment patterns and reflective functioning in traumatised refugees with PTSD, and 2) shed light on their significance to therapeutic alliance and treatment effect. Methods: All Arabic speaking patients in the study...

  6. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    , attachment systems, emotion-regulation, and personality. Attachment research on the consequences of organized violence and forced migration is sparse and research in PTSD-treatment for refugees is lacking behind. Cumulative pre-migration traumatic experiences and ongoing post-migration stressors might lead......Introduction: In recent years, empirical research has documented attachment patterns as a central variable that affects treatment process and outcome in important ways. Refugees are a particular vulnerable group often met with repeated and severe interpersonal trauma that alter basic trust...... to chronically activated fight-flight and attachment systems. Moreover, considering the nature of traumatic events, unresolved loss and trauma would be expected among refugees. The question is to what extend this population is able to enter treatment, reflect on, and modify traumatic experiences? The aim...

  7. ADHD, Temperament, and Parental Style as Predictors of the Child's Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Manor, Iris; Tyano, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of temperament and parenting styles on attachment patterns in children with ADHD. The study included 65 children aged 7-15 and their parents. Children diagnosed as Combined or Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive Type had significantly higher scores than those diagnosed as Predominantly Inattentive Type in anxious…

  8. Direct laser interference patterning for decreased bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Denise; Valle, Jaoine; Burgui, Saioa; Gil, Carmen; Solano, Cristina; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Helbig, Ralf; Werner, Carsten; Lasa, Inigo; Lasagni, Andrés. F.

    2016-03-01

    In the past 15 years, many efforts were made to create functionalized artificial surfaces showing special anti-bacterial and anti-biofouling properties. Thereby, the topography of medical relevant materials plays an important role. However, the targeted fabrication of promising surface structures like hole-, lamella- and pyramid-like patterns with feature sizes in the sub-micrometer range in a one-step process is still a challenge. Optical and e-beam lithography, molding and selfassembly layers show a great potential to design topographies for this purpose. At the same time, most of these techniques are based on sequential processes, require masks or molds and thus are very device relevant and time consuming. In this work, we present the Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) technology as a capable method for the fast, flexible and direct fabrication of periodic micrometer- and submicrometer structures. This method offers the possibility to equip large plain areas and curved devices with 1D, 2D and 3D patterns. Simple 1D (e.g. lines) and complex 3D (e.g. lamella, pillars) patterns with periodic distances from 0.5 μm to 5 μm were fabricated on polymeric materials (polyimide, polystyrene). Subsequently, we characterized the adhesion behavior of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus bacteria under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The results revealed that the topographies have a significant impact on bacteria adhesion. On the one side, one-dimensional line-like structures especially with dimensions of the bacteria enhanced microbe attachment. While on the other hand, complex three-dimensional patterns prevented biofilm formation even after implantation and contamination in living organisms.

  9. Adult attachment and male aggression in couple relationships: the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R

    2011-07-01

    This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing physical and psychological aggression, the two dimensions of attachment insecurity (anxiety over abandonment and avoidance of intimacy), the demand-withdraw communication pattern, relationship satisfaction, and social desirability (a control measure). As predicted, there was an association between attachment anxiety and aggression (both physical and psychological), which was mediated by the man demands/woman withdraws (MD/WW) pattern (as reported by the men). There was no evidence of mediation by the woman demands/man withdraws pattern, as reported by the men. Relationship satisfaction mediated the association between attachment anxiety and psychological (but not physical) aggression, but did not mediate the link between avoidance and aggression (physical or psychological). Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Tailoring Patterns of Surface-Attached Multiresponsive Polymer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Benjamin; D'Eramo, Loïc; Martwong, Ekkachai; Li, Mengxing; Macron, Jennifer; Mai, Thuy Quyen; Tabeling, Patrick; Tran, Yvette

    2016-09-21

    A new strategy for the fabrication of micropatterns of surface-attached hydrogels with well-controlled chemistry is reported. The "grafting onto" approach is preferred to the "grafting from" approach. It consists of cross-linking and grafting preformed and functionalized polymer chains through thiol-ene click chemistry. The advantage is a very good control without adding initiators. A powerful consequence of thiol-ene click reaction by UV irradiation is the facile fabrication of micropatterned hydrogel thin films by photolithography. It is achieved either with photomasks using common UV lamp or without photomasks by direct drawing due to laser technology. Our versatile approach allows the fabrication of various chemical polymer networks on various solid substrates. It is demonstrated here with silicon wafers, glass and gold surfaces as substrates, and two responsive hydrogels, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for its responsiveness to temperature and poly(acrylic acid) for its pH-sensitivity. We also demonstrate the fabrication of stable hydrogel multilayers (or stacked layers) in which each elementary layer height can widely range from a few nanometers to several micrometers, providing an additional degree of freedom to the internal architecture of hydrogel patterns. This facile route for the synthesis of micrometer-resolute hydrogel patterns with tailored architecture and multiresponsive properties should have a strong impact.

  11. Attachment representations, patterns of emotion regulation, and social exclusion in patients with chronic and episodic depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauriedl-Schmidt, C; Jobst, A; Gander, M; Seidl, E; Sabaß, L; Sarubin, N; Mauer, C; Padberg, F; Buchheim, A

    2017-03-01

    The experience of social exclusion (ostracism) is linked to the etiology and maintenance of depression. Most individuals experience emotional stress in states of social exclusion. Insecurely attached individuals, especially with an unresolved trauma, show maladaptive coping in response to social stress. The present study examines (a) the differences with regards to attachment representations in episodic (ED) and chronic depressive (CD) inpatients and (b) how ostracism affects their emotional reactions. Patients with CD (n=29) and ED (n=23) and healthy control subjects (n=29) were interviewed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a valid measure to assess attachment representation; and played a virtual ball tossing game simulating social exclusion (Cyberball). Multiple depression-related risk and protective factors were considered. We hypothesized that CD patients show the most severe attachment disorganization and are emotionally most affected by the social exclusion situation. Moreover, we explored the interaction between ostracism and attachment. Contradicting our hypotheses, ED and CD individuals were almost akin with regards to their attachment insecurity/disorganization and reactions to Cyberball. An emotionally altered reaction to social exclusion was identified in the insecure-disorganized depressive subgroup. Small sample size hampering further subgroup analyses. The ED sample may include single CD subjects with recent manifestation. The pattern of emotion regulation in the depressive groups matches with findings from clinical studies, including attachment research. The relationship between attachment representations and ostracism should be further investigated in larger samples of depressive individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Establishment and consolidation of the sleep-wake cycle as a function of attachment pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennestri, Marie-Hélène; Moss, Ellen; O'Donnell, Katherine; Lecompte, Vanessa; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Gruber, Reut; Fleming, Alison S; Meaney, Michael J; Gaudreau, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The development of sleep-wake regulation in infants depends upon brain maturation as well as various environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep duration and quality as a function of child attachment to the mother. One hundred and thirty-four mother-child dyads enrolled in the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project were included in this study. Attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation procedure at 36 months and maternal sleep reports were collected at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. Differences in sleep characteristics were assessed with mixed models with one factor (attachment group) and one repeated measure (age). Children classified as disorganized had a significantly lower duration of nocturnal sleep, went to bed later, signaled more awakenings, had shorter periods of uninterrupted sleep (only at 12 months) and had shorter periods of time in bed (only at 6 months) than children classified as secure and/or ambivalent (p sleep pattern in comparison with those with secure or ambivalent attachment between 6 and 36 months of age. Sleep disturbances could exacerbate difficulties in these families that are already considered vulnerable.

  13. Adult Attachment and Male Aggression in Couple Relationships: The Demand-Withdraw Communication Pattern and Relationship Satisfaction as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing…

  14. A study of associations among attachment patterns, maltreatment, and behavior problem in institutionalized children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Emiko; Tanimukai, Mitsue; Akazawa, Junko

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates the relationships among children's history of maltreatment, attachment patterns, and behavior problems in Japanese institutionalized children. Twenty-nine children (12 boys and 17 girls) from three different institutions in the Kinki area (Western part of Japan) participated in this study. Their average age was 6. 41-years (ranging from 4 to 10). Thirteen of the children (44.8%) had history of maltreatment before they were institutionalized. Children's attachment was assessed by the Attachment Doll Play Assessment (George & Solomon, 1990, 1996, 2000). The child's main caregiver answered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Archenbach, 1991) to identify children's behavior problems. Results indicated a significant relationship between maltreatment history and attachment pattern. The relationship between attachment pattern and behavior problem was also confirmed. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between attachment style and uni- and bi-directional pursuer-distancer patterns in couples: A clinical sample of couples in counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Lorin Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and pursuer-distancer patterns in couples. Both uni- and bi-directional pursuer-distancer patterns were studied. Participants were 67 individuals (including 32 couples) in therapy. Each partner, independent of the other, completed an anonymous questionnaire containing the Multi-item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998) and a four-item measure of pursuer-distancer pattern designed for this stud...

  16. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  17. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented...

  18. Peer attachment, specific patterns of internet use and problematic internet use in male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Iris; Tibubos, Ana N; Hardt, Jochen; Müller, Kai; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E

    2017-10-01

    Problematic internet use may lead to serious psychosocial dysfunction. Recent studies have found comparable prevalence in both male and female adolescents. We pursue the neglected questions how male and female adolescents differ regarding their patterns of internet use and how gender, peer attachment and patterns of use are related to pathological internet use. In 2410 adolescents (1307 girls and 1103 boys) aged 12-18 years from different types of school we assessed peer attachment, frequency and use of eight specific applications and indicators of pathological internet use. Three patterns of internet use, 'social'; 'sex and games" and 'functional' were identified and connections between variables were modeled by ordered sequences of regression. We found that problematic internet use-sex and games as well as social usage-was more prevalent in boys. Insecure peer attachment predicted problematic internet use in both sexes. Also, excessive usage of internet games and sex mediated the influence of peer attachment insecurity on problematic internet use, but only for boys. Our study identified that adolescents with insecure peer attachment are at higher risk for problematic internet use. With regard to specific types of internet use, the consumption of online games and sex was identified as risk factor in boys with increasing age. Further studies are needed to understand and possibly subgroup problematic internet use behavior in girls. Our findings suggest that increasing the quality of peer relationships may be promising approach in the prevention and treatment of problematic internet use.

  19. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns for species determination in five species of Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Szpila, Krzysztof; Mall, Gita

    2016-01-01

    To further establish species determination using the muscle attachment site (MAS) pattern method, third instar larvae of five forensically important species of Sarcophaga Meigen were investigated: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt, Sarcophaga melanura Meigen, Sarcophaga albiceps Meigen and Sarcophaga similis Meade. As in the previously investigated Calliphoridae, patterns were found to be species specific. The main feature of the Sarcophaga patterns is the divided central horizontal row of segment four. A genus pattern was established to be used as base for comparison in further species determination.

  20. The Predictive Power of Adult Attachment Patterns on Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Hatice Deveci

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the explanatory power of the anxious and avoidant dimensions of attachment to explain the interpersonal cognitive distortions. The research was conducted on correlational pattern, one of the quantitative research models. A total of 413 volunteer undergraduates students, from Selçuk University were research…

  1. Photolithographically defined deposition of attachment factors as a versatile method for patterning the growth of different cell types in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Stephan; Flückiger-Labrada, Regula; Kucera, Jan P

    2003-04-01

    Spatially defined growth of cells in culture is a useful model for studies ranging from the characterization of cellular motility to the analysis of network behaviour in structurally defined ensembles of excitable cells. Current methodological approaches for obtaining patterned growth include sophisticated modifications of surface chemistry, stamping techniques and microfluidics. The implementation of most of these techniques requires the availability of highly specialized apparatus and some of the methods are specific for certain cell types and/or substrate materials. The goal of the present study was to develop a cell-patterning technique that can be implemented by any laboratory working with cell culture and that is highly adaptable in terms of cell types and substrate materials. The method is based on a photolithographic process that permits the patterned deposition of attachment factors of choice on surfaces previously coated with agar with a spatial resolution (maximal deviation from a straight line) of +/-3 micro m. Because agar efficiently prevents cell adhesion, patterned growth obtained with this technique displays virtually no off-pattern cell attachment. The method permitted the patterning of cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and HeLa cells on either glass substrates or polymer-coated materials with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers.

  2. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns for species determination in European species of Lucilia (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Szpila, Krzysztof; Mall, Gita

    2015-03-01

    Species identification is generally assessed to be more difficult in larval stages than in adult forms. Especially closely related species such as Lucilia caesar and Lucilia illustris are difficult to identify. The aim of this study was to simplify species determination in Lucilia larvae for entomological and forensic purposes. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns were previously found to be a good tool for species determination in blowfly larvae. Here, distinctive MAS patterns are presented for European Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar, L. illustris, L. richardsi, L. sericata, and L. silvarum. A joint pattern for the genus Lucilia is provided for a quick classification of a larva to the genus.

  3. Attachment Security and Developmental Patterns of Growth in Executive Functioning During Early Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagné, Célia; Bernier, Annie; Sirois, Marie-Soleil; Lalonde, Gabrielle; Hertz, Sarah

    2017-05-29

    Despite the extensive research demonstrating the importance of child executive functioning (EF) for school adjustment, little longitudinal work has formally examined developmental change in EF during the early school years. Based on a sample of 106 mother-child dyads, the current longitudinal study investigated patterns of growth in child performance on three executive tasks between kindergarten (M age  = 6 years) and Grade 3 (M age  = 9 years), and the predictive role of earlier mother-child attachment security in these patterns. The results suggest that early elementary school is a period of significant developmental improvement in child EF, although child performance on different EF tasks follows distinct trajectories across time. The study also provides evidence for a sustained relation between children's early attachment security and their ongoing acquisition of executive skills. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Particle-associated flagellates: swimming patterns, colonization rates, and grazing on attached bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Grossart, H.P.; Ploug, H.

    2004-01-01

    Some pelagic flagellates colonize particles, such as marine snow, where they graze on bacteria and thus impact the dynamics of the attached microbial communities. Particle colonization is governed by motility. Swimming patterns of 2 particle-associated flagellates, Bodo designis and Spumella sp......., are very different, the former swimming slowly in an erratic, random pattern, and the latter faster and along smooth helixes of variable amplitude and frequency. At spatial scales exceeding ca. 50 mum, the motility of B. designis can be described as a random walk and modeled as diffusion. Spumella sp...

  5. Luminance and image quality analysis of an organic electroluminescent panel with a patterned microlens array attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hoang Yan; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Fang, Jheng-Hao; Hsu, Sheng-Chih; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Lin, Jia-Rong; Wei, Mao-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Luminance and image quality observed from the normal direction of a commercial 2.0 inch panel based on organic electroluminescence (OEL) technology attached to regular and patterned microlens array films (MAFs) were studied and analyzed. When applying the regularly arranged MAF on the panel, a luminance enhancement of 23% was observed, accompanied by a reduction of the image quality index as low as 74%. By removing the microlenses on the emitting areas, the patterned MAF enhances the luminance efficiency of the OEL by 52% keeping the image quality index of the display as high as 94%, due to the effective light extraction in the glass substrate being less than the critical angle. 3D simulation based on a ray-tracing model was also established to investigate the spatial distribution of light rays radiated from an OEL pixel with different microstructures which showed consistent results with the experimental results

  6. [The etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder from the aspects of attachment theory, with special regard to perceived parental treatment, attachment patterns and emotion regulation difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejtô, Nóra; Papp, Gábor; Molnár, Judit

    The focus of our study was the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder from attachment aspects. Our aim was to examine the representations of perceived parental treatment, attachment patterns and the level of emotion regulation of people who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder. 223 people participated in our study. The clinical group consisted of 92 persons with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while the control group involved 131 people without OC symptoms. In the study we used the Young Parenting Inventory, the Relationship Questionnaire, and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Besides we compiled a questionnaire based on the DSM-5 and a demographic questionnaire. Respondents could fill the questionnaires online. The clinical group is characterized by significantly higher toxic frustration of each five basic emotional needs than the control group. Specifically, in the case of people with OC smptoms the toxic parental treatments for Defectiveness/ Shame, Dependence/Incompetence, Enmeshment/Undeveloped self, Entitlement/Grandiosity, Approval-seeking/ Recognition-seeking, Negativity/Pessimism, Emotional inhibition, Unrelenting standards/Hypercriticalness and Punitiveness were significantly more frequent than in the control group. The OC group is also characterized by significantly lower rate of secure attachment style, while dismissive attachment style proved to be the most frequent attachment style among them. The OC group also struggle with significantly higher level of emotion regulation difficulties.

  7. The site of attachment of umbilical cord and branching pattern of umbilical arteries within the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, T; Khalil, M; Rahman, M M; Shen, S; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Ara, Z G; Chowdhury, A I; Haque, M A; Ara, A

    2014-10-01

    Placenta is the mirror of maternal and fetal status; it reflects the changes due to complication in pregnancy of mother. Numerous common and uncommon findings of the placenta, umbilical cord and membranes are associated with abnormal fetal development and perinatal morbidity. So, the examination of the placenta can yield information that may be important in the immediate and later management of mother and newborn. This information may also be essential for protecting the attending physician in the event of an adverse maternal or fetal outcome. This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out to determine the incidence of different types of placenta depending on attachment site and branching pattern of arteries of umbilical cord in Bangladeshi Women. To achieve this aim sixty placenta with umbilical cord were collected. Placenta was from 28 weeks to 42 weeks gestational age of normal pregnancy during normal labour at gynaecology and obstetric department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. After preservation in 10% formol saline, study was done in the Department of Anatomy of Mymensingh Medical College. In the present study, incidence of different types of placenta depending on attachment site of umbilical cord was 50% Central, 46% Paracentral and 18% Marginal in type. In this study it was also observed that 58% placenta were Disperse in type and 42% were Magistral in type depending on the distribution of umbilical arteries. Observed findings of this study were compared with those of Western and Bangladeshi researchers.

  8. Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Taiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the presence of sialic acid α-2,3 and α-2,6 linked glycan receptors in seven avian species. The respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, golden pheasant, ostrich, and mallard were tested by means of lectin histochemistry, using the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, which show affinity for α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors, respectively. Additionally, the pattern of virus attachment (PVA was evaluated with virus histochemistry, using an avian-origin H4N5 virus and a human-origin seasonal H1N1 virus. There was a great variation of receptor distribution among the tissues and avian species studied. Both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors were present in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, and golden pheasant. In ostriches, the expression of the receptor was basically restricted to α-2,3 in both the respiratory and intestinal tracts and in mallards the α-2,6 receptors were absent from the intestinal tract. The results obtained with the lectin histochemistry were, in general, in agreement with the PVA. The differential expression and distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors among various avian species might reflect a potentially decisive factor in the emergence of new viral strains.

  9. [Attachment patterns, self-esteem, gender schema in anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefik, Barbara; Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Ulasińska, Romualda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was comparison of perception of attachment patterns between adolescent girls suffering from anorexia nervosa (restrictive type), bulimia nervosa and healthy peers. Moreover, we tried to find the differences between the groups in self-esteem and identification with the culture-defined sex role. We examined 40 patients with anorexia, 32 with bulimia and 63 girls from the comparison group. Three questionnaires were used: Parental Bonding Instrument, The Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory and Psychological Sex Inventory. Results indicate that the parents' emotional commitment in relations with daughters from the clinical sample is weaker, and they are controlled by parents more then those from the control group. In all groups, the mothers' emotional commitment correlates positively with daughters' social self-esteem. In the anorectic group, fathers' control correlates negatively with daughters' identification with the culture-defined feminine role. In the bulimic group, fathers' emotional commitment correlates positively with self-esteem as well as daughters' identification with the culture-defined masculine role. The results concerning the bonds between the ED patients and their parents indicating dysfunctions of the bonds are generally consistent with the data from literature. Additionally they show the relationship between quality of the bonds between the patients and parents and its influence on development of self-evaluation and a sense of feminity/masculinity in anorectic and bulimic girls.

  10. Improving Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Devices by Attaching Nanostructures with Self-Assembled Photonic Crystal Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Yu Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-monolayered hexagonal self-assembled photonic crystal (PC pattern fabricated onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET films by using simple nanosphere lithography (NSL method has been demonstrated in this research work. The patterned nanostructures acted as a scattering medium to extract the trapped photons from substrate mode of optical-electronic device for improving the overall external quantum efficiency of the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. With an optimum latex concentration, the distribution of self-assembled polystyrene (PS nanosphere patterns on PET films can be easily controlled by adjusting the rotation speed of spin-coater. After attaching the PS nanosphere array brightness enhancement film (BEF sheet as a photonic crystal pattern onto the device, the luminous intensity of OLEDs in the normal viewing direction is 161% higher than the one without any BEF attachment. The electroluminescent (EL spectrum of OLEDs with PS patterned BEF attachment also showed minor color offset and superior color stabilization characteristics, and thus it possessed the potential applications in all kinds of display technology and solid-state optical-electronic devices.

  11. The differences in self-efficacy in career decision-making and decision-making styles among secondary school students with different patterns of family attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvajdžić Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision on the choice of profession is one of the most important life decisions, which is influenced by many factors. One of them which has a very important role is the family. The aim of this study is to examine whether there are differences in self-efficacy in career decision-making and decision-making styles among secondary school students who have different patterns of family attachment, as well as to determine whether self-efficacy in making career decisions can be predicted on the basis of different decision-making styles. The study included 216 fourth-year secondary school students, 39% of boys and 61% of girls. The questionnaire PAVb, made by Brenen and associates and modified by Kamenov and Jelic, was used for the evaluation of family attachment. Decision-making styles were operationalized through the scale of General Decision Making Styles Questionnaire by Scott and Bruce, while a shortened version of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale, made by Betz et al., was used for measuring self-efficacy in making career decisions. The research results have shown that there are no significant differences in self-efficacy in making career decisions regarding the patterns of family attachment. However, there are significant differences in the styles of decision-making. The rational style is the most dominant among the students who have a secure form of family attachment, the avoidant style is characteristic of those with the occupied form, while the spontaneous style is most commonly used by the students who have the fearful form of family attachment. The results suggest that 31% of the variance of self-efficacy in making career decisions can be explained based on decision-making styles. The rational and intuitive styles of decision-making are positive predictors, while the dependent and avoidant styles are negative predictors of self-efficacy in making career decisions.

  12. Continuity and discontinuity of attachment patterns: a short-term longitudinal pilot study using a sample of late-adopted children and their adoptive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C S; Zavattini, G C; D'Alessio, M

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the attachment patterns of 28 late-adopted children (placed when they were between four and seven years of age) and their adoptive mothers. The change in the children's internal working models (IWMs) within seven to eight months of their placement was evaluated. In addition, we wanted to observe the influence of a secure-autonomous maternal state of mind in facilitating the change in the children's IWMs and the possible associations between the maternal IWMs and the children's IWMs in the adoptive dyads. The separation-reunion procedure (SRP) was used for the late-adopted children in order to assess their attachment behavioural patterns, and the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) was used to evaluate their attachment narrative patterns. The adoptive mothers completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) in order to classify their state of mind with regard to attachment. The results showed a significant change in the attachment behavioural patterns of late-adopted children, from insecure to secure (p = .002). Furthermore, the children who presented this change were predominantly placed with secure-autonomous adoptive mothers (p = .047), although the link between the adoptive mothers' representations of their attachment history and their adopted children's completed narratives was not significant. In conclusion, it seems possible to revise the attachment behaviour of late-adopted children but, for about one-third of children, the adverse history will persist at a narrative/representational level.

  13. Adolescent Mothers in a Transitional Living Facility: An Exploratory Study of Support Networks and Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann E.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Downs, A. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Most of the research literature on attachment and adolescent transitions has addressed youth in family settings. This article explores these issues with a sample of 25 pregnant and parenting teens living in a transitional shelter. Using case records and interview data as well as results of standardized measures of depression, self-esteem, child…

  14. Patterns of Attachment of Interracial Adopted Children in a Dutch Sample Compared to an American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenboom, Lizette

    This paper reports the results of a study on the quality of attachment in two groups of interracially adopted infants in the Netherlands, and compares these results with results from a similar study of American interracial adoption. The two groups in the Netherlands consisted of 30 adoptive Asian children placed in White families, and 20 Asian and…

  15. High School Students' Career Decision-Making Pattern across Parenting Styles and Parental Attachment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Kirdok, Oguzhan; Isik, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate career decision among high school students regarding to their parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful) and parental attachment levels. Method: With this purpose, 382 (200 females; 182 males) Turkish high school students aged 14-18 completed Career…

  16. Intensity and Attachment: How the Chaotic Enrollment Patterns of Community College Students Relate to Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between community college enrollment patterns and student outcomes--credential completion and transfer to a 4-year institution--introducing a new way of visualizing the various attendance patterns of community college students. Patterns of enrollment intensity (full- or part-time status) and continuity…

  17. Attachment Patterns and Complex Trauma in a Sample of Adults Diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giovanardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienced four or more traumatic forms. Further, gender dysphoric adults showed significantly higher levels of attachment disorganization and polyvictimisation, relative to controls. Comparisons of subgroups, defined by natal gender, showed that trans women, compared to control males, had more involving and physically and psychologically abusive fathers, and were more often separated from their mothers; trans men, relative to female controls, had more involving mothers and were more frequently separated from and neglected by their fathers. The research has several implications for treatment, clinical health psychology, family support and education.

  18. Attachment and Related Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Morsunbul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Attachment which is defined as strong emotional bond people develop for significant others have been investigated by researchers for long years. Attachment theory proposes that attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life are carried onto next stages of life with internal working models. Additionally it is also proposed that attachment patterns are important to determine individual’s social-emotional competence. This study aims to review how attachment patterns differ according to life stages, continuity/discontiniuty of attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life and evaluate the relations between attachment patterns and social-emotional competence. The basic features of social relations model, relationship between attachment patterns and identity development, and risk taking behavior in adolescence have also been investigated in this review.

  19. Cellular attachment and spatial control of cells using micro-patterned ultra-violet/ozone treatment in serum enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Poulsson, A H C; Davidson, M R; Emmison, N; Shard, A G; Bradley, R H

    2004-08-01

    Ultra-violet Ozone (UVO) modified polystyrene (PS) surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle (CA), optical microscopy (OM) and cell culture experiments. UV/Ozone treatment up to 900 s was used to increase the surface oxygen concentration of PS surfaces from 0% to approximately 35% (unwashed) and 0% to approximately 27% (washed). The observed differences in oxygen concentration, between washed and unwashed surfaces, have been previously attributed to the removal of low molecular weight debris produced in this treatment process. Surface roughness (Rq) is known to affect cellular attachment and proliferation. AFM studies of the UV/Ozone treated PS surfaces show the surface roughness is an order of magnitude less than that expected to cause an effect. UV/Ozone treatment of PS showed a marked change in CA which decreased to approximately 60 degrees after 900 s treatment. The increased attachment and proliferation of Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) and mouse embryo 3T3-L1 (3T3) cells on the treated surfaces compared to untreated PS were found to correlate strongly with the increase in surface oxygen concentration. Surface chemical oxidation patterns on the PS were produced using a simple masking technique and a short UV/Ozone treatment time, typically 20-45 s. The chemical patterns on PS were visualized by water condensation and the spatially selective attachment of CHO and 3T3-L1 cells cultured with 10% (v/v) serum. This paper describes an easily reproducible, one step technique to produce a well-defined, chemically heterogeneous surface with a cellular resolution using UV/Ozone modification. By using a variety of cell types, that require different media conditions, we have been able to expand the potential applications of this procedure.

  20. Individualized Approaches Have Profitable Clinical Value for Strengthening Fathers' Confidence in the Care of Preterm Infants. Commentary on: "Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Buchheim states that she recognizes that infant-parent relationship has been shown to be of particular significance to preterm infants' socioemotional development, and that preterm children have been reported to be at higher risk of developing attachment insecurity and disorganized attachment. In the feature paper on attachment…

  1. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina di Virgilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets, age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour. Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of

  2. Extracts of North Sea macroalgae reveal specific activity patterns against attachment and proliferation of benthic diatoms: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C; Grage, A; Schulz, D; Schulte, A; Harder, T

    2008-01-01

    A variety of macroalgae (Ceramium rubrum, Corallina officinalis, Palmaria palmata, Mastocarpus stellatus, Fucus vesiculosus, Cladophora rupestris, Ulva sp.) were investigated by scanning electron microscopy to visualize epiphytic colonizers. The macroalgae differed in terms of their epiphytic coverage of bacteria, fungi and diatoms. Macroalgae, largely devoid of epiphytic diatoms, were hypothesized to employ effective antifouling means to reduce epiphytic coverage, whilst heavily fouled macroalgae were proposed to lack antifouling strategies. To test these hypotheses from an allelochemical perspective with regard to fouling diatoms, dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) crude extracts of macroalgae were concentrated in dimethylsulfoxide and investigated in diatom attachment and proliferation assays using four benthic diatoms (Nitzschia sp., Navicula phyllepta, Navicula arenaria and Amphora sp.). Algal extracts exhibited a distinct pattern of activity against the test diatoms, suggesting a targeted and selective effect of macroalgal metabolites on individual fouling diatoms. The main outcome of this study was that visual inspection and quantitative categorization of epiphytic colonizers on macroalgal thalli could not be used to predict reliably whether macroalgae employed a chemical defense mechanism.

  3. The mediator role of the cognitive features in the relationship between adult attachment patterns and psychopathology symptoms: the locus of control and repetitive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülüm, I Volkan; Dağ, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to investigate the mediator roles of locus of control and repetitive thinking in the known relationship between adult attachment patterns and depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety symptoms. Together with this aim we sought to generate an integrative point of view to these relationships using a cognitive framework. There were 992 participants (661 women, 331 men) for the locus of control model, and 875 participants (581 women, 294 men) for the repetitive thinking model. All of the participants were college students and come from 14 different colleges across 9 different provinces. Participants were evaluated using the Locus of Control Scale, the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale-II, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Structural Equation Modeling and mediator analysis were applied to the data. The results revealed that there are some partial mediator roles of the locus of control in the relationship between attachment anxiety and depression, OCD and social anxiety for women but there is only an association with depression for men. Regarding repetitive thinking, there are some partial mediator roles between attachment anxiety and depression, OCD and social anxiety for both women and men. These cognitive features do not mediate the relationship between avoidant attachment and psychopathology symptoms for either women or men. This study uncovered that cognitive features are important and incontrovertible variables in the relationship between attachment patterns and psychopathology symptoms.

  4. Preliminary findings on the association between attachment patterns and levels of growth hormone in a sample of children with non-organic failure to thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojanesi, Marta; Gallo, Mariana; Spaziani, Matteo; Russo, Federica; Valentini, Martina; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Biondi, Massimo; Radicioni, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in absence of pituitary injuries is one of the causes of short stature and of the non organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) condition. Advances in developmental psychology have highlighted the role of emotions and caregiving behaviors in the organization of child’s personality and psychobiology, with the mother-son attachment bond being considered a fundamental developmental experience. The objective of the present preliminary study was to assess whether there are significant correlations between attachment patterns and GH levels in a sample of subjects with NOFTT. Overall, 27 children (mean age 9.49±2.63 years) with NOFTT were enrolled. Perceived attachment security was assessed through the Security Scale (SS) and its subscales focused on maternal and paternal security. Pearson partial correlation was used to test associations between GH levels and SS measures adjusting for confounding factors (i.e. age, gender and body mass index). Across all subjects, GH was significantly positively correlated with general security (r=0.425; p=0.038) and maternal security (r=0.451; p=0.027) and not significantly correlated with paternal security (r=0.237; p=0.264). These findings preliminarily suggest that the association between GH levels and perceived attachment security may play a role in the pathophysiology of NOFTT and add to the accumulating evidence that attachment patterns may be related with specific psychoendocrine underpinnings.

  5. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  6. Self-reported attachment patterns and Rorschach-related scores of ego boundary, defensive processes, and thinking disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berant, Ety; Wald, Yaarit

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we addressed associations between self-reported attachment scales (anxiety and avoidance) and Rorschach (1921/1942) indexes indicating ego-boundary perception (barrier and penetration), use of projective identification, devaluation and splitting defenses, and Comprehensive System (Exner, 2005) scores that represent boundary blurring (incongruous and fabulized combinations). In this study, we extended the sample and findings described by Berant, Mikulincer, Shaver, and Segal (2005) using a nonclinical sample of 89 Israeli adults. We found significant associations between attachment orientations and Rorschach indexes dynamically related to anxiety. We also found a trend toward association between attachment orientation and avoidance. We discuss the theoretical and clinical implications of these findings.

  7. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  8. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  9. Risks and Outcomes Associated with Disorganized/Controlling Patterns of Attachment at Age Three in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin; Bureau, Jean-Francois; McCartney, Kathleen; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2011-07-01

    Disorganized/controlling attachment in preschool has been found to be associated with maternal and child maladjustment, making it of keen interest in the study of psychopathology. Additional work is needed, however, to better understand disorganized/controlling attachment occurring as early as age three. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling behavior at age three and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes differentiating the four subtypes of disorganized/controlling attachment. Analyses were conducted with the first two phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth. At 36 months of age, across the attachment-relevant domains of maternal well-being, mother-child interactions, and child social adaptation, the disorganized/controlling group evidenced the most maladaptive patterns in comparison to both secure and insecure-organized groups. At 54 months of age, the disorganized/controlling group displayed the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, as rated by mothers and teachers, and the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Significant differences found among the disorganized/controlling subtypes indicated that the behaviorally disorganized and controlling-punitive subtypes had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the controlling-caregiving and controlling-mixed subtypes.

  10. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  11. ATTACHMENT AND TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Pasare, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Bowlby's concept of attachment and Freud's concept of transference are two of the most influential theories of how we construct mental representations of human relationships. The attachment’s theory offers one more strategy for the therapeutic approach. Factors that lead to a secure attachment between mother and child may also be applied to the relationship between patient and psychotherapist. Psychotherapy may help a patient create himself new attachment and relationship patterns. Creating a...

  12. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  13. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14, and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobusawa, Aiko; Sano, Takaaki; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of the exact grade of oral epithelial dysplasia is difficult, and interobserver variations in grading are common. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of cytokeratins (CKs) in dysplastic oral epithelia, to identify useful double immunostaining diagnostic markers. Immunoexpression of CK13, CK14, CK17, and Ki-67 were investigated in 21 normal epithelial specimens and 146 epithelial dysplasia specimens. In epithelial dysplasia specimens, orthokeratotic dysplasia (OKD) was identified using CK10 immunostaining. Most mild dysplasia specimens were CK13+ and CK17-. In moderate dysplasia, CK13 expression tended to be lower and CK17 expression tended to be higher than in mild dysplasia. All carcinoma in situ (CIS) specimens were CK17+. In differentiated type CIS specimens, CK13 expression was weakly positive. Most epithelial dysplasia specimens were CK14+. There were no significant differences in the expression patterns of CKs between OKD and non-OKD specimens in any of the grades of dysplasia. These results indicate that CK14 expression can be used to detect early epithelial dysplasia, and that CK13 and CK17 expression are useful for detecting neoplastic changes. © 2014 The Authors. Pathology International © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. PTEN loss and p27 loss differ among morphologic patterns of prostate cancer, including cribriform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Shira; Abbott, Daniel W; Kravtsov, Oleksandr; Abdelkader, Amrou; Xu, Yayun; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Iczkowski, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    The presence and extent of cribriform pattern of prostate cancer portend recurrence and cancer death. The relative expressions within this morphology of the prognostically adverse loss of PTEN, and the downstream inactivation of cell cycle inhibitor p27/Kip1 had been uncertain. In this study, we examined 52 cases of cribriform cancer by immunohistochemistry for PTEN, p27, and CD44 variant (v)7/8, and a subset of 17 cases by chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) using probes for PTEN or CDKN1B (gene for p27). The fractions of epithelial pixels positive by immunohistochemistry and ISH were digitally assessed for benign acini, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 8 morphologic patterns of cancer. Immunostaining results demonstrated that (1) PTEN loss was significant for fused small acini, cribriform-central cells, small cribriform acini, and Gleason grade 5 cells in comparison with other acini; (2) p27 loss was significant only for cribriform-peripheral cells and borderline significant for fused small acini in comparison with benign acini; and (3) CD44v7/8 showed expression loss in cribriform-peripheral cells; other comparisons were not significant. ISH showed that cribriform cancer had significant PTEN loss normalized to benign acini (PPTEN or p27 loss as prognostic factors demands distinct assessment in the varieties of Gleason 4 cancer, and in the biphenotypic peripheral versus central populations in cribriform structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  16. Applying a pattern-centered approach to understanding how attachment, gender beliefs, and homosociality shape college men's sociosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P

    2014-01-01

    Although early research and the popular press have characterized college men as universal beneficiaries of uncommitted sex, emerging research notes considerable variability in men's sociosexuality (i.e., uncommitted sexual beliefs, desires, and behaviors). This study examined how diversity in sociosexuality is tied to the ways in which attachment orientations, conformity to masculinity norms, and homosocial engagement (i.e., nonromantic same-sex bonds) are organized across individuals. Latent profile analysis of 495 college males (ages 17 to 25, 62% White, 83.5% heterosexual) detected five subgroups: Fully Unrestricted (10% of sample; high on sociosexuality and conformity to masculinity norms); Cognitively Unrestricted (36%; comparable to Fully Unrestricteds but low on sociosexual behavior), Fully Restricted (30%; opposite on all constructs when compared to Fully Unrestricteds); Avoidant (16%; similar to Fully Restricteds but with greater attachment avoidance); and Discrepant (8%; above average on sociosexual behavior but discordant within and across constructs). There were notable demographic, personality, and behavioral differences among the subgroups (e.g., nearly 50% of the Discrepants self-identified as sexual minorities; Fully Restricteds were the most religious; Avoidants were the most shy). Findings indicate that college men's sociosexuality is highly nuanced and suggest the need for additional work to understand how attachment, masculinity norms, and homosociality shape men's sexual relationships.

  17. In vitro assessment of attachment pattern and replication efficiency of H5N1 influenza A viruses with altered receptor specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinimitkul, Salin; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J; van den Brand, Judith M A; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; de Wit, Emmie

    2010-07-01

    The continuous circulation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been a cause of great concern. The possibility of this virus acquiring specificity for the human influenza A virus receptor, alpha2,6-linked sialic acids (SA), and being able to transmit efficiently among humans is a constant threat to human health. Different studies have described amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) of clinical HPAI H5N1 isolates or that were introduced experimentally that resulted in an increased, but not exclusive, binding of these virus strains to alpha2,6-linked SA. We introduced all previously described amino acid substitutions and combinations thereof into a single genetic background, influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 HA, and tested the receptor specificity of these 27 mutant viruses. The attachment pattern to ferret and human tissues of the upper and lower respiratory tract of viruses with alpha2,6-linked SA receptor preference was then determined and compared to the attachment pattern of a human influenza A virus (H3N2). At least three mutant viruses showed an attachment pattern to the human respiratory tract similar to that of the human H3N2 virus. Next, the replication efficiencies of these mutant viruses and the effects of three different neuraminidases on virus replication were determined. These data show that influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 potentially requires only a single amino acid substitution to acquire human receptor specificity, while at the same time remaining replication competent, thus suggesting that the pandemic threat posed by HPAI H5N1 is far from diminished.

  18. In Vitro Assessment of Attachment Pattern and Replication Efficiency of H5N1 Influenza A Viruses with Altered Receptor Specificity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinimitkul, Salin; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J.; van den Brand, Judith M. A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; de Wit, Emmie

    2010-01-01

    The continuous circulation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been a cause of great concern. The possibility of this virus acquiring specificity for the human influenza A virus receptor, α2,6-linked sialic acids (SA), and being able to transmit efficiently among humans is a constant threat to human health. Different studies have described amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) of clinical HPAI H5N1 isolates or that were introduced experimentally that resulted in an increased, but not exclusive, binding of these virus strains to α2,6-linked SA. We introduced all previously described amino acid substitutions and combinations thereof into a single genetic background, influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 HA, and tested the receptor specificity of these 27 mutant viruses. The attachment pattern to ferret and human tissues of the upper and lower respiratory tract of viruses with α2,6-linked SA receptor preference was then determined and compared to the attachment pattern of a human influenza A virus (H3N2). At least three mutant viruses showed an attachment pattern to the human respiratory tract similar to that of the human H3N2 virus. Next, the replication efficiencies of these mutant viruses and the effects of three different neuraminidases on virus replication were determined. These data show that influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 potentially requires only a single amino acid substitution to acquire human receptor specificity, while at the same time remaining replication competent, thus suggesting that the pandemic threat posed by HPAI H5N1 is far from diminished. PMID:20392847

  19. A Managerial Perspective on Common Identity-based and Common Bond-based Groups in Non-governmental Organizations. Patterns of Interaction, Attachment and Social Network Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena - Mădălina VĂTĂMĂNESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the common identity and common bond theories in analyzing the group patterns of interaction, their causes, processes and outcomes from a managerial perspective. The distinction between identity and bond referred to people’s different reasons for being in a group, stressing out whether they like the group as a whole — identity-based attachment, or they like individuals in the group — bond-based attachment.  While members of the common identity groups reported feeling more attached to their group as a whole than to their fellow group members and tended to perceive others in the group as interchangeable, in bond-based attachment, people felt connected to each other and less to the group as a whole, loyalty or attraction to the group stemming from their attraction primarily to certain members in the group. At this level, the main question concerned with the particularities of common identity-based or common bond-based groups regarding social interaction, the participatory architecture of the group, the levels of personal and work engagement in acting like a cohesive group. In order to address pertinently this issue, the current work was focused on a qualitative research which comprised in-depth (semi-structured interviews with several project coordinators from non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Also, to make the investigation more complex and clear, the research relied on the social network analysis which was indicative of the group dynamics and configuration, highlighting the differences between common identity-based and common bond-based groups.

  20. Pattern dynamics and filamentation of femtosecond terawatt laser pulses in air including the higher-order Kerr effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T W; Zhou, C T; He, X T

    2013-05-01

    Plasma defocusing and higher-order Kerr effects on multiple filamentation and pattern formation of ultrashort laser pulse propagation in air are investigated. Linear analyses and numerical results show that these two saturable nonlinear effects can destroy the coherent evolution of the laser field, and small-scale spatial turbulent structures rapidly appear. For the two-dimensional case, numerical simulations show that blow-up-like solutions, spatial chaos, and pseudorecurrence can appear at higher laser intensities if only plasma defocusing is included. These complex patterns result from the stochastic evolution of the higher- or shorter-wavelength modes of the laser light spectrum. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, filamentation can be attributed to the modulational instability of these spatial incoherent localized structures. Furthermore, filament patterns associated with multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without higher-order Kerr effects are compared.

  1. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  2. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and

  3. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  4. Changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns through a wastewater reuse process, including WWTP and SAT concerning depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, Yugo; Kameda, Ippei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Fumitake; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2014-09-01

    In this study, changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns by BIOLOG assay were discussed through a sequential wastewater reuse process, which includes activated sludge and treated effluent in wastewater treatment plant and soil aquifer treatment (SAT), especially focussing on the surface sand layer in conjunction with the vadose zone, concerning sand depth. A SAT pilot-scale reactor, in which the height of packed sand was 237 cm (vadose zone: 17 cm and saturated zone 220 cm), was operated and fed continuously by discharged anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) treated water. Continuous water quality measurements over a period of 10 months indicated that the treatment performance of the reactor, such as 83.2% dissolved organic carbon removal, appeared to be stable. Core sampling was conducted for the surface sand to a 30 cm depth, and the sample was divided into six 5 cm sections. Microbial activities, as evaluated by fluorescein diacetate, sharply decreased with increasing distance from the surface of the 30 cm core sample, which included significant decreases only 5 cm from the top surface. A similar microbial metabolic pattern containing a high degree of carbohydrates was obtained among the activated sludge, A2O treated water (influent to the SAT reactor) and the 0-5 cm layer of sand. Meanwhile, the 10-30 cm sand core layers showed dramatically different metabolic patterns containing a high degree of carboxylic acid and esters, and it is possible that the metabolic pattern exhibited by the 5-10 cm layer is at a midpoint of the changing pattern. This suggests that the removal of different organic compounds by biodegradation would be expected to occur in the activated sludge and in the SAT sand layers immediately below 5 cm from the top surface. It is possible that changes in the composition of the organic matter and/or transit of the limiting factor for microbial activities from carbon to phosphorus might have contributed to the observed dramatic changes

  5. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Wright MD, FRCPsych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years. This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research.

  6. Patterns and peculiarities of romatic attachment in adults from 62 cultural regions. Are "Model of Self" and "Model of Other" pancultural constructs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ, a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the “Model of Self” and “Model of Other” scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within the most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that Secure romantic attachment was normative in 79% of cultures, and Preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies. 

  7. Simulation of AZ-PN100 resist pattern fluctuation in X-ray lithography, including synchrotron beam polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheckler, E.W.; Ogawa, Taro; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Takeda, Eiji; Oizumi, Hiroaki.

    1993-01-01

    A new simulation model for nanometer-scale pattern fluctuation in X-ray lithography is presented and applied to a study of AZ-PN100 negative chemical amplification resist. The exposure simulation considers polarized photons from a synchrotron radiation (SR) source. Monte Carlo simulation of Auger and photoelectron generation is followed by electron scattering simulation to determine the deposited energy distribution at the nanometer scale, including beam polarization effects. An acid-catalyst random walk model simulates the post-exposure bake (PEB) step. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and developed resist thickness measurements are used to fit PEB and rate models for AZ-PN100. A polymer removal model for development simulation predicts the macroscopic resist shape and pattern roughness. The simulated 3σ linewidth variation is in excess of 24 nm. Simulation also shows a detrimental effect if the beam polarization is perpendicular to the line. Simulation assuming a theoretical ideal exposure yields a 50 nm minimum line for standard process conditions. (author)

  8. The neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  9. Gender and Cultural Patterns of Mothers' and Fathers' Attachment and Links with Children's Self-Competence, Depression and Loneliness in Middle and Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study examined: (1) the independence of children's attachments to mother and father; (2) the relationships between father and mother quality of attachment and children's social and cognitive self-competence, depression and loneliness; and (3) differences in those relationships by gender. Spanish translations of standardised and self-report…

  10. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with (/sup 3/H)- and (/sup 14/C)adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture.

  11. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  12. Risks and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling patterns of attachment at age three years in the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connor, Erin; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Mccartney, Kathleen; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2011-07-01

    Disorganized/controlling attachment in preschool has been found to be associated with maternal and child maladjustment, making it of keen interest in the study of psychopathology. Additional work is needed, however, to better understand disorganized/controlling attachment occurring as early as age 3 years. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling behavior at age 3 years and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes differentiating the four subtypes of disorganized/controlling attachment. Analyses were conducted with the first two phases of the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth. At 36 months of age, across the attachment-relevant domains of maternal well-being, mother-child interactions, and child social adaptation, the disorganized/controlling group evidenced the most maladaptive patterns in comparison to both secure and insecure-organized groups. At 54 months of age, the disorganized/controlling group displayed the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, as rated by mothers and teachers, and the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Significant differences found among the disorganized/controlling subtypes indicated that the behaviorally disorganized and controlling-punitive subtypes had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the controlling-caregiving and controlling-mixed subtypes. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Spatially Invariant Vector Quantization: A pattern matching algorithm for multiple classes of image subject matter including pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Hipp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Historically, effective clinical utilization of image analysis and pattern recognition algorithms in pathology has been hampered by two critical limitations: 1 the availability of digital whole slide imagery data sets and 2 a relative domain knowledge deficit in terms of application of such algorithms, on the part of practicing pathologists. With the advent of the recent and rapid adoption of whole slide imaging solutions, the former limitation has been largely resolved. However, with the expectation that it is unlikely for the general cohort of contemporary pathologists to gain advanced image analysis skills in the short term, the latter problem remains, thus underscoring the need for a class of algorithm that has the concurrent properties of image domain (or organ system independence and extreme ease of use, without the need for specialized training or expertise. Results: In this report, we present a novel, general case pattern recognition algorithm, Spatially Invariant Vector Quantization (SIVQ, that overcomes the aforementioned knowledge deficit. Fundamentally based on conventional Vector Quantization (VQ pattern recognition approaches, SIVQ gains its superior performance and essentially zero-training workflow model from its use of ring vectors, which exhibit continuous symmetry, as opposed to square or rectangular vectors, which do not. By use of the stochastic matching properties inherent in continuous symmetry, a single ring vector can exhibit as much as a millionfold improvement in matching possibilities, as opposed to conventional VQ vectors. SIVQ was utilized to demonstrate rapid and highly precise pattern recognition capability in a broad range of gross and microscopic use-case settings. Conclusion: With the performance of SIVQ observed thus far, we find evidence that indeed there exist classes of image analysis/pattern recognition algorithms suitable for deployment in settings where pathologists alone can effectively

  15. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (pactivity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-reported patterns of impairments in mentalization, attachment, and psychopathology among clinically referred adolescents with and without borderline personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Sune; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    Previous research, which primarily focused on adult samples, suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display high levels of psychopathology, dysfunctional mentalization and problematic attachment to others. The current study investigated whether impairments in mentalization, attachment, and psychopathology are more severe in outpatient adolescents with BPD than in a clinical comparison group. Consecutive referrals to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic were clinically assessed with a battery of self-report instruments to assess mentalization, attachment, and psychopathology. Specifically, in regard to BPD a self-report questionnaire was employed to decide if patients were classified into the BPD or the clinical comparison group. The main outcome variables of adolescents with a primary diagnosis of BPD were then compared with those of a clinical comparison group comprising patients receiving psychiatric diagnoses other than BPD. Relative to the clinical group without BPD, and after controlling for sociodemographic variables, the BPD group displayed poorer mentalizing abilities, more problematic attachments to parents and peers, and higher self-reported levels of psychopathology. The results of this study suggest that BPD is a severe mental condition in adolescents and is characterized by poor mentalizing abilities, attachment problems and high levels of psychopathology compared to adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than BPD. Hence, clinicians should consider BPD when conducting diagnostic assessments, and evidence-based treatments for this vulnerable group should be developed.

  17. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  18. Food choice motives including sustainability during purchasing are associated with a healthy dietary pattern in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allès, B; Péneau, S; Kesse-Guyot, E; Baudry, J; Hercberg, S; Méjean, C

    2017-09-18

    Sustainability has become a greater concern among consumers that may influence their dietary intake. Only a few studies investigated the relationship between sustainable food choice motives and diet and they focused on specific food groups. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between food choice motives during purchasing, with a focus on sustainability, and dietary patterns in a large sample of French adults. Food choice motives were collected in 31,842 adults from the NutriNet-Santé study, using a validated 63 items questionnaire gathered into 9 dimension scores: ethics and environment, traditional and local production, taste, price, environmental limitation (i.e. not buying a food for environmental concerns), health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. Dietary intake was assessed using at least three web-based 24-h food records. Three dietary patterns were obtained through factor analysis using principal component analysis. The associations between food choice motive dimension scores and dietary patterns were assessed using linear regression models, stratifying by sex. Individuals were more likely to have a "healthy diet" when they were more concerned by not buying a food for environmental concerns (only for 3 rd tertile versus 1 st tertile β women =0.18, 95% CI=0.15-0.20, β men =0.20 95% CI=(0.15-0.25)), ethics and environment (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.02-0.08), absence of contaminants (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.01-0.07), local production (women only, β=0.08, 95% CI=0.04-0.11), health (women only) and innovation (men only), and when they were less concerned by price. Individuals were also less likely to have traditional or western diets when they gave importance to food choice motive dimensions related to sustainability. Individuals, especially women, having higher concerns about food sustainability dimensions such as ethics and environment and local production, appear to have a healthier diet. Further

  19. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  20. Foot and ankle kinematics in chronic ankle instability subjects using a midfoot strike pattern when running, including influence of taping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Dingenen, Bart; De Boeck, Jente; Bronselaer, Sarah; Staes, Filip

    2018-05-01

    Investigate differences in multi-segment foot kinematics between controls and participants with chronic ankle instability during running with a midfoot striking pattern and to evaluate the effect of Low-Dye and High-Dye taping. Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics of 12 controls and 15 participants with chronic ankle instability were collected while running barefoot, and in both taping conditions. Ranges of motion occurring at each joint, each sub phase of stance, were compared between groups and between taping conditions (0-dimensional inference). Kinematic data were also compared using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. The symptomatic group demonstrated while barefoot running a significantly decreased rearfoot dorsiflexion range of motion during the peak impact phase as well as a less dorsiflexed position from 6 to 12% of the running cycle. During the absorption and generation phase, the symptomatic group also showed a significantly increased rearfoot dorsiflexion and adduction motion as well as an increased midfoot inversion motion. In the peak impact phase of both taping conditions, a decreased midfoot inversion motion was found. The High-Dye taping resulted in a decreased rearfoot plantarflexion motion whereas the Low-Dye caused a decreased midfoot inversion motion. Persons with chronic ankle instability seem to have altered rearfoot and midfoot kinematics while running with a midfoot striking index. High-Dye taping seems to have better therapeutic features than Low-Dye taping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Individual Patterns of Complexity in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiota, Including Predator Bacteria, over a 1-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios Caballero, Juan; Vida, Rafael; Cobo, Marta; Máiz, Luis; Suárez, Lucrecia; Galeano, Javier; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Del Campo, Rosa

    2017-09-26

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiota composition has recently been redefined by the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) tools, identifying, among others, previously undescribed anaerobic and uncultivable bacteria. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuations of this ecosystem in 15 CF patients during a 1-year follow-up period, describing for the first time, as far as we know, the presence of predator bacteria in the CF lung microbiome. In addition, a new computational model was developed to ascertain the hypothetical ecological repercussions of a prey-predator interaction in CF lung microbial communities. Fifteen adult CF patients, stratified according to their pulmonary function into mild ( n = 5), moderate ( n = 9), and severe ( n = 1) disease, were recruited at the CF unit of the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain). Each patient contributed three or four induced sputum samples during a 1-year follow-up period. Lung microbiota composition was determined by both cultivation and NGS techniques and was compared with the patients' clinical variables. Results revealed a particular microbiota composition for each patient that was maintained during the study period, although some fluctuations were detected without any clinical correlation. For the first time, Bdellovibrio and Vampirovibrio predator bacteria were shown in CF lung microbiota and reduced-genome bacterial parasites of the phylum Parcubacteria were also consistently detected. The newly designed computational model allows us to hypothesize that inoculation of predators into the pulmonary microbiome might contribute to the control of chronic colonization by CF pathogens in early colonization stages. IMPORTANCE The application of NGS to sequential samples of CF patients demonstrated the complexity of the organisms present in the lung (156 species) and the constancy of basic individual colonization patterns, although some differences between samples from the same patient were

  2. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  3. Neural response during the activation of the attachment system in patients with borderline personality disorder: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchheim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder and seventeen healthy female controls matched for age and education were telling stories in the scanner in response to the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, an eight-picture set assessment of adult attachment. The picture set includes theoretically-derived attachment scenes, such as separation, death, threat and potential abuse. The picture presentation order is designed to gradually increase the activation of the attachment system. Each picture stimulus was presented for two minutes. Analyses examine group differences in attachment classifications and neural activation patterns over the course of the task. Unresolved attachment was associated with increasing amygdala activation over the course of the attachment task in patients as well as controls. Unresolved controls, but not patients, showed activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the rostral cingulate zone. We interpret this as a neural signature of BPD patients’ inability to exert top-down control under conditions of attachment distress. These findings point to possible neural mechanisms for underlying affective dysregulation in BPD in the context of attachment trauma and fear.

  4. Multi-method assessment of mother-child attachment: links to parenting and child depressive symptoms in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kathryn A; Brumariu, Laura E; Seibert, Ashley

    2011-07-01

    This study included two different methods to assess mother-child attachment, questionnaires, and a doll play story stem interview, so their overlap could be evaluated. In addition, we investigated how attachment is related to parenting and child depression. The sample was comprised of 10- to 12-year-olds (N = 87) and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires (assessing security, avoidance, and ambivalence), and were administered a doll play interview to assess attachment patterns (security, avoidance, ambivalence, and disorganization). Two aspects of parenting (warmth/ engagement and psychological control) were assessed with child reports and observer ratings of maternal behavior. We also obtained child reports of depressive symptoms. Questionnaire and interview measures of attachment security were related to one another, and each showed predictable associations with parenting and child depression. By contrast, results were less consistent for the ambivalent and avoidant insecure attachment patterns, although disorganized attachment showed some associations with parenting and child adjustment.

  5. Dermoscopic patterns in patients with a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis-results of a prospective study including data of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús-Silva, Miriam América; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease, representing 50% of cases affecting the nail apparatus. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination along with the KOH exam of the nail and culture of the sample. However, not all dermatologists have access to a mycology lab. To determine the correlation between KOH examination and dermoscopic patterns in patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis. A descriptive, open, observational, prospective, cross-sectional study of 178 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis was conducted. All patients underwent clinical examination, dermoscopy with a DermLite PHOTO dermatoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA), KOH assessment and culture analysis. The most frequent dermoscopic patterns were identified and their correlation with the clinical subtype of onychomycosis was analyzed. The study included 178 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. Of these, 155 (87.1%) had positive direct KOH examination for onychomycosis. Eighty-seven patients (56.13%) presented with clinical onychomycosis pattern of total dystrophic onychomycosis (TDO), 67 (43.23%) with distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), 1 (0.65%) with trachyonychia). Dermoscopic patterns of onychomycosis showed the following frequencies: the spiked pattern was present in 22 patients (14.19%), longitudinal striae pattern in 51 patients (32.9%) and linear edge pattern in 21 patients (13.55%). We identified a pattern described as "distal irregular termination" in 41 patients with TDO and 26 with DLSO. This is the fist study conducted in a Mexican population that uses dermoscopy as a diagnostic tool along with the KOH examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Dermoscopy may be used as an important diagnostic tool when evaluating nail disease. However, it should not be used as the only diagnostic criteria for onychomycosis.

  6. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that

  7. Attachment style, family and romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, P G; Salter, K; Purves, D G

    2001-06-01

    In 1987 Hazan and Shaver showed that patterns of romantic love reflected attachment styles. In an extension of that study with 39 men and 33 women in college (ages 18-36 years), this research shows that family relationships may also affect romantic relationships indirectly through their association with attachment styles.

  8. Attachment, symptom severity, and depression in medically unexplained musculoskeletal pain and osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Schroeter

    Full Text Available Attachment insecurity relates to the onset and course of chronic pain via dysfunctional reactions to pain. However, few studies have investigated the proportion of insecure attachment styles in different pain conditions, and results regarding associations between attachment, pain severity, and disability in chronic pain are inconsistent. This study aims to clarify the relationships between insecure attachment and occurrence or severity of chronic pain with and without clearly defined organic cause. To detect potential differences in the importance of global and romantic attachment representations, we included both concepts in our study.85 patients with medically unexplained musculoskeletal pain (UMP and 89 patients with joint pain from osteoarthritis (OA completed self-report measures of global and romantic attachment, pain intensity, physical functioning, and depression.Patients reporting global insecure attachment representations were more likely to suffer from medically unexplained musculoskeletal pain (OR 3.4, compared to securely attached patients. Romantic attachment did not differ between pain conditions. Pain intensity was associated with romantic attachment anxiety, and this relationship was more pronounced in the OA group compared to the UMP group. Both global and romantic attachment anxiety predicted depression, accounting for 15% and 17% of the variance, respectively. Disability was independent from attachment patterns.Our results indicate that global insecure attachment is associated with the experience of medically unexplained musculoskeletal pain, but not with osteoarthritis. In contrast, insecure attachment patterns seem to be linked to pain intensity and pain-related depression in unexplained musculoskeletal pain and in osteoarthritis. These findings suggest that relationship-informed focused treatment strategies may alleviate pain severity and psychological distress in chronic pain independent of underlying pathology.

  9. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  10. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  11. Pet in the therapy room: an attachment perspective on Animal-Assisted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

    2011-11-01

    John Bowlby's ( 1973, 1980, 1982) attachment theory is one of the most influential theories in personality and developmental psychology and provides insights into adjustment and psychopathology across the lifespan. The theory is also helpful in defining the target of change in psychotherapy, understanding the processes by which change occurs, and conceptualizing cases and planning treatment (Daniel, 2006; Obegi & Berant, 2008; Sable, 2004 ; Wallin, 2007). Here, we propose a model of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) based on attachment theory and on the unique characteristics of human-pet relationships. The model includes clients' unmet attachment needs, individual differences in attachment insecurity, coping, and responsiveness to therapy. It also suggests ways to foster the development of more adaptive patterns of attachment and healthier modes of relating to others.

  12. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  13. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  15. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  16. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire: a new methodology for science and practice in criminology and forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Lounder, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Most modern theories suggest that interpersonal relationships are of central importance in the development of criminal behavior. We tested the parent attachment scales of a new research and clinical measure, the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ). It is a 29-scale battery assessing attachments to mother, father, partner, and peers, which also includes several related clinical scales. Sixty-one (18-20 years of age) male offenders from a maximum security detention center and 131 contrasts completed the ACIQ. ANOVA demonstrated that mother and father attachments displayed different patterns. The attachment scales also predicted the numbers of crimes within the population of juvenile offenders. Thus, the parent attachment scales of the ACIQ showed promise as an instrument to test dynamic systems approaches to developmental models of criminal behavior. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment: Findings From a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research.

  18. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  19. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  20. Poor Parenting, Attachment Style, and Dating Violence Perpetration Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Brian Ermon; Tyler, Kimberly A; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2018-02-01

    Although dating violence is prevalent among college students, little is known about how both attachment style and participation in risky behaviors contribute to this pattern of violence. To address this literature gap, we examine the role of poor parenting, child abuse, attachment style, and risky sexual and drug use behaviors on dating violence perpetration among 1,432 college students (51% female). Path analysis results revealed that females were more likely to report greater attachment anxiety but lower attachment avoidance compared with males. Correlates of attachment anxiety included child physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and poorer maternal relationship quality whereas attachment avoidant behavior was linked to more physical abuse and poorer maternal relationship quality. Females were more likely to perpetrate dating violence as were those with greater attachment anxiety and lower attachment avoidance. Other correlates of dating violence perpetration included sexual and drug risk behaviors. Finally, distal factors (i.e., more child physical abuse and poorer maternal relationship quality) also were associated with dating violence perpetration. Study implications are also discussed.

  1. Nano-colloid printing of functionalized PLA-b-PEO copolymers: tailoring the surface pattern of adhesive motif and its effect on cell attachment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Knotek, P.; Yang, Y.; Machová, Luďka; Proks, Vladimír; Kučka, Jan; Popelka, Štěpán; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; El Haj, A.; Kubies, Dana; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. 1 (2015), S61-S73 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP108/12/P624; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08336S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : tissue engineering * surface pattern * AFM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/64%20Suppl%201/64_S61.pdf

  2. Method of manufacturing a display device including forming electric connections on a substrate, conductor patterns on a second substrate and coupling the connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Roozeboom, F.; Elfrink, R.J.G.; Johnson, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    ICs (20) are nearly separated from the semiconductor substrate (10) on/in which they are formed. Subsequently, the substrate is positioned upside down on a substrate (carrier) (3) which is provided with glue (21) at the location of a crystal. After attachment of the crystal to the carrier, the

  3. Preschool Teacher Attachment, School Readiness and Risk of Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attachment is the emotional bond between children and their caregivers (parents or otherwise). Infants and young children usually have more than one selective attachment, and all of these attachment relationships, including those between children and teachers, have important effects on cognitive and social development. Secure attachment to a…

  4. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  5. Attachment and prejudice: The mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Dismissing attachment characteristics dynamically modulate brain networks subserving social aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda eKrause

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s ‘Inner Working Model’. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described ‘social aversion network’ including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the ‘social aversion network’, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule. Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of direct

  7. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to leaf tissue in response to infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher W; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Nitin, N

    2014-01-01

    Transient expression of recombinant proteins in plant tissues following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a promising technique for rapid protein production. However, transformation rates and transient expression levels can be sub-optimal depending on process conditions. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant cells is an early, critical step in the gene transfer pathway. Bacterial attachment levels and patterns may influence transformation and, by extension, transient expression. In this study, attachment of A. tumefaciens to lettuce leaf tissue was investigated in response to varying infiltration conditions, including bacterial density, surfactant concentration, and applied vacuum level. Bacterial density was found to most influence attachment levels for the levels tested (10(8) , 10(9) , and 10(10) CFU/mL), with the relationship between bacterial density and attachment levels following a saturation trend. Surfactant levels tested (Break-Thru S240: 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 µL/L) also had a significant positive effect on bacterial attachment while vacuum level (5, 25, and 45 kPa) did not significantly affect attachment in areas exposed to bacteria. In planta transgene transient expression levels were measured following infiltration with 10(8) , 10(9) , and 10(10) CFU/mL bacterial suspension. Notably, the highest attachment level tested led to a decrease in transient expression, suggesting a potential link between bacterial attachment levels and downstream phenomena that may induce gene silencing. These results illustrate that attachment can be controlled by adjusting infiltration conditions and that attachment levels can impact transgene transient expression in leaf tissue. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Attachment in medical care: A review of the interpersonal model in chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Xavier F

    2017-03-01

    Objective Patient-physician interaction is continually examined in an era prioritizing patient-centered approaches, yet elaboration beyond aspects of communication and empathy is lacking. Major chronic conditions would benefit tremendously from understanding interpersonal aspects of patient-physician encounters. This review intends to provide a concise introduction to the interpersonal model of attachment theory and how it informs both the patient-physician interaction and medical outcomes in chronic care. Methods A narrative review of the theoretical, neurobiological, epidemiological, investigational, and clinical literature on attachment theory and its impact on medical outcomes was conducted, utilizing a variety of key words as searched on PubMed database. Studies and reviews included were of a variety of sources, including textbooks and peer-reviewed journals. Reports in languages other than English were excluded. Results Measurable, discrete attachment styles and behavioral patterns correlate with poor medical outcomes, including nonadherence in insecure dismissing attachment and care overutilization in insecure preoccupied attachment. Furthermore, insecure dismissing attachment is associated with significant mortality. These variables can be easily assessed, and their effects are reversible, as evidenced by collaborative care outcome data. Discussion Attachment theory is useful a model with application in clinical and investigational aspects of chronic illness care. Implications and guidelines are explored.

  9. Electron attachment in tetrafluoromethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.; Lucas, A.K.; Williams, A.W.; Goodings, A.

    1987-01-01

    A pulsed drift-tube technique has been employed to measure electron attachment coefficients in CF 4 . Previous measurements have been extended from approx. 45 Td to approx. 20 Td [1 Td = 10 -21 Vm 2 ] showing a decrease in the reduced attachment coefficient of approx. 2 orders of magnitude through this range of E/N [electric field/gas number density]. Absolute attachment coefficients as low as 1 x 10 -4 cm -1 have been determined. (author)

  10. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  11. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... and pain, as well as the mediation role of attachment between captivity and pain. The results imply that although attachment can be an important resource for coping with pain, it can be severely disrupted by PTSS among trauma survivors....

  12. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  13. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  14. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  15. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  16. The Attachment Imperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Laura Emdal; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2017-01-01

    argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment...

  17. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  18. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  19. The Adult Attachment Interview and self-reports of attachment style: an empirical rapprochement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Fraley, R Chris; Clausell, Eric; Clarke, Alexis

    2007-04-01

    Although 10 studies have been published on the empirical overlap of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and measures of self-reported attachment style, results in this literature have been inconsistently interpreted in narrative reviews. This report was designed as a rapprochement of the AAI and attachment style literatures and includes 3 studies. Study 1 (combined N = 961) is a meta-analytic review showing that by J. Cohen's (1992) criteria (mean r = .09), the association between AAI security and attachment style dimensions is trivial to small. Study 2 (N = 160) confirms meta-analytic results with state-of-the-art assessments of attachment security and also examines attachment dimensions in relation to the Big 5 personality traits. Finally, Study 3 is an investigation of 50 engaged couples that shows that developmental and social psychological measures of attachment security predict somewhat distinct--though theoretically anticipated--aspects of functioning in adult relationships.

  20. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hai-Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of

  1. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Xia; Sun, Shi-Chun; Sundberg, Per; Ren, Wei-Cheng; Norenburg, Jon L

    2012-04-17

    The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some lophotrochozoans suggests that the

  2. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  3. The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-09-01

    Is it sensible to study attachment dynamics between potential romantic partners before they share a full-fledged attachment bond? The present data indicate that such an approach may reveal novel insights about initial attraction processes. Four studies suggest that the state-like experience of attachment anxiety has functional implications within fledgling (i.e., desired or undeveloped) romantic relationships, well before the formation of an attachment bond. Studies 1 and 3 reveal that attachment anxiety directed toward a particular romantic interest is elevated before (in comparison with after) participants report being in an established relationship. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that such partner-specific attachment anxiety predicts attachment-relevant outcomes in fledgling relationships, including proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, passionate love, and other approach behaviors. These associations were reliable above and beyond (and were typically as strong as or stronger than) the effect of sexual desire. Finally, Study 4 presents evidence that partner-specific attachment anxiety may cause several of these attachment-relevant outcomes. Attachment anxiety seems to be a normative experience and may signal the activation of the attachment system during the earliest stages of romantic relationships.

  4. Attachment patterns and Mentalization in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    migration er sparsom, og der er mangel på forskning i PTSD-behandling til flygtninge. Kumulative traumatiske oplevelser præ-flugt og fortsatte post-flugt stressorer leder sandsynligvis til kronisk aktiverede kamp-flugt og tilknytningssystemer. Endelig forventes en høj grad af ubearbejdede tab og traumer hos...

  5. The personal origins of attachment theory. An interview with Mary Salter Ainsworth. Interview by Peter L. Rudnytsky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, M S

    1997-01-01

    This interview took place in Charlottesville, Virginia, on August 20, 1991, at the home of Mary Salter Ainsworth. One of the foremost exponents of attachment theory and a colleague of the late John Bowlby, Dr. Ainsworth is best known for her innovative Strange Situation procedure, an experimental method to test the strength and styles of infants' attachments to their primary caregiver. She is the author of numerous papers and books, including Infancy in Uganda: Infant Care and the Growth of Love (1967), Patterns of Attachment (1978), and, with John Bowlby, Child Care and the Growth of Love (2nd ed., 1965).

  6. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  7. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  8. Addressing Parent-Child Conflict: Attachment-Based Interventions with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Desmond, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of attachment theory to address parent-child conflict. The authors propose that parent-child conflict is attributable to the unmet attachment needs of both children and parents and that attachment insecurity results in problematic patterns of attachment in parent-child relationships. Three conversational frames are…

  9. The role of attachment in predicting CBT treatment outcome in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Normann, Nicoline; Tolstrup, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children...... that it is important to consider the parental attachment insecurity as a possible outcome hindering factor....

  10. Early trauma, attachment experiences and comorbidities in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Gabínio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate attachment patterns in subjects with schizophrenia and their relationships to early traumatic events, psychotic symptoms and comorbidities. Methods Twenty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5 underwent retrospective symptom assessment and careful assessment of the number and manner of childhood caregiver changes. The Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis and Affective Disorders (DI-PAD was used to assess symptoms related to schizophrenia (positive and negative symptoms, depression and mania. Anxiety disorder comorbidities were assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Yale-Brown Obsessions and Compulsions Scale (Y-BOCS and Panic and Schizophrenia Interview (PaSI. Experience in Close Relationships – Relationship Structures (ECR-RS and Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF were used to assess attachment patterns and traumatic history, respectively. Results Moderate and significant correlations between attachment patterns and early trauma showed that greater severity of anxious attachment was predicted by a higher frequency of total early traumas (Spearman ρ = 0.446, p = 0.04, mainly general traumas (ρ = 0.526, p = 0.017; including parental illness and separation, as well as natural disaster and serious accidents. Among the correlations between early trauma and comorbid symptoms, panic attacks occurring before the onset of schizophrenia showed significant and positive correlations with ETISR-SF total scores and the sexual trauma subscale. Conclusion Children with an unstable early emotional life are more vulnerable to the development of psychopathology, such as panic anxiety symptoms. Traumatic events may also predict later schizophrenia.

  11. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  12. Attachment and internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Dolejšová, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is concerned with attachment and internet addiction. Therefore it attempts to establish correlation between these two terms through four research questions. These questions focus on presence of both the attachment types and scores for dimension of avoidance and anxiety in terms of extent gravity of internet addiction either by respondents at risk of potential addiction problems or by respondents already showing some symptoms of addiction. Theoretical part deals with definit...

  13. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may ...

  14. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory.

  15. Decreasing rates of disorganised attachment in infants and young children, who are at risk of developing, or who already have disorganised attachment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of early parenting interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Wright

    Full Text Available Disorganised attachment patterns in infants have been linked to later psychopathology. Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for families of children with disorganised attachment patterns, which is the attachment pattern leading to most future psychopathology. Several recent government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at risk groups.The objective of this review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of available parenting interventions for families of children at high risk of developing, or already showing, a disorganised pattern of attachment.Population: Studies were included if they involved parents or caregivers of young children with a mean age under 13 years who had a disorganised classification of attachment or were identified as at high risk of developing such problems. Included interventions were aimed at parents or caregivers (e.g. foster carers seeking to improve attachment. Comparators included an alternative intervention, an attention control, treatment as usual or no intervention. The primary outcome was a disorganised pattern in childhood measured using a validated attachment instrument. Studies that did not use a true Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT design were excluded from the review. Both published and unpublished papers were included, there were no restrictions on years since publication and foreign language papers were included where translation services could be accessed within necessary timescales.A comprehensive search of relevant databases yielded 15,298 papers. This paper reports a systematic review as part of an NIHR HTA study identifying studies pre-2012, updated to include all papers to October 2016. Two independent reviewers undertook two stage screening and data extraction of the included studies at all stages. A Cochrane quality assessment was carried out to assess the risk of bias. In total, fourteen studies were

  16. Decreasing rates of disorganised attachment in infants and young children, who are at risk of developing, or who already have disorganised attachment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of early parenting interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Hackney, Lisa; Hughes, Ellen; Barry, Melissa; Glaser, Danya; Prior, Vivien; Allgar, Victoria; Marshall, David; Barrow, Jamie; Kirby, Natalie; Garside, Megan; Kaushal, Pulkit; Perry, Amanda; McMillan, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Disorganised attachment patterns in infants have been linked to later psychopathology. Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for families of children with disorganised attachment patterns, which is the attachment pattern leading to most future psychopathology. Several recent government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at risk groups. The objective of this review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of available parenting interventions for families of children at high risk of developing, or already showing, a disorganised pattern of attachment. Population: Studies were included if they involved parents or caregivers of young children with a mean age under 13 years who had a disorganised classification of attachment or were identified as at high risk of developing such problems. Included interventions were aimed at parents or caregivers (e.g. foster carers) seeking to improve attachment. Comparators included an alternative intervention, an attention control, treatment as usual or no intervention. The primary outcome was a disorganised pattern in childhood measured using a validated attachment instrument. Studies that did not use a true Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) design were excluded from the review. Both published and unpublished papers were included, there were no restrictions on years since publication and foreign language papers were included where translation services could be accessed within necessary timescales. A comprehensive search of relevant databases yielded 15,298 papers. This paper reports a systematic review as part of an NIHR HTA study identifying studies pre-2012, updated to include all papers to October 2016. Two independent reviewers undertook two stage screening and data extraction of the included studies at all stages. A Cochrane quality assessment was carried out to assess the risk of bias. In total, fourteen studies were included in the

  17. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  18. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Elisabeth M; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  19. Relationship between attachment and executive dysfunction in the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pellejero, José M; Núñez, Juan L

    2018-02-01

    The executive functions of the homeless may be contributing to the success or failure of social integration processes. The goal of this study was to analyze the relationship between attachment and executive dysfunction in the homeless, specifically, to analyze the prevalence of adult attachment and executive dysfunction patterns, as well as the predictive power of different types of attachment for executive functioning. Participants were 107 homeless. Descriptive analysis revealed the prevalence of insecure attachment, and a high prevalence of clinically significant executive dysfunction. Regression analysis showed that attachment predicts all the executive functions, although the predictive power of attachment decreased when entering the variable drug addiction. People in a situation of chronic social exclusion are characterized by an insecure attachment style and moderate levels of executive dysfunction.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Evaluation of Metallo-Beta Lactamase Genes Including bla- IMP and bla- VIM Types in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients in Tehran Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β -lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla- VIM and bla- IMP ) were determined. A total of 212 strains of P. aeruginosa recovered from patients in hospitals in Tehran were confirmed by both biochemical methods and PCR. Their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following MIC determination, imipenem resistant strains were selected by DDST method which was followed by PCR tests for determination of MBLs genes: bla- IMP and bla- VIM . The results indicated that, in the DDST phenotypic method, among the 100 imipenem resistant isolates, 75 strains were MBLs positive. The PCR test indicated that 70 strains (33%) carried bla- VIM gene and 20 strains (9%) harbored bla- IMP . The results indicated that the extent of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. This may be due to production of MBLs enzymes. Therefore, determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and MBLs production by these bacteria, can be important in control of clinical Pseudomonas infection.

  1. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  2. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  3. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  4. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  5. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  6. The treatment patterns of castration-resistant prostate cancer in Japan, including symptomatic skeletal events and associated treatment and healthcare resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Hiroji; DiBonaventura, Marco; Wang, Ed; Ledesma, Dianne Athene; Concialdi, Kristen; Aitoku, Yasuko

    2017-10-01

    Real-world treatment patterns of bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in Japan were examined, focusing on treatment patterns and resource use differences attributed to symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs). Urologists (N = 176) provided retrospective chart data for patients with mCRPC (N = 445) via online surveys. Descriptive analyses and chi-square tests evaluated treatment patterns and their differences by SSE presence; generalized linear mixed models examined healthcare resource utilization differences as a function of SSEs. Patients were on average 73.6 years old (SD = 8.3), diagnosed with prostate cancer 5.1 years (SD = 6.2), castration-resistant 2.3 years (SD=2.0), and had 7.9 bone metastases sites (SD=12.4). Novel anti-hormones showed increased adoption as mCRPC treatment. Simultaneously, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist/antagonist use was common (43.6% of patients in 1 st line), even as CRPC treatment had started. SSEs were uncommon (2-3% per treatment line; 5% at any time), but were associated with increased opioids, strontium-89, bisphosphonates, and NSAIDs use, plus increased healthcare visits (all p < .05). LHRH agonist/antagonist treatment combinations remain the mCRPC treatment mainstay in Japan. However, novel anti-hormone therapies are becoming well-accepted in practice. SSEs were associated with increased healthcare resource and analgesic use, highlighting the need for efficient symptom management.

  7. The Nature of Attachment Relationships and Grief Responses in Older Adults: An Attachment Path Model of Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Yan; Kane, Robert T; Priddis, Lynn; Hudson, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Various researchers have theorized that bereaved adults who report non-secure attachment are at higher risk of pathological grief. Yet past findings on avoidant attachment representations and grief have yielded limited and contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted with older adults to identify the psychological processes that mediate between self-reported attachment representations and the patterns of grief. To examine the impacts of avoidant attachment and anxious attachment dimensions on emotion and non-acceptance, in response to the loss of a conjugal partner, and the mediating effect of yearning thoughts. Men (N = 21) and women (N = 68) aged 60 years and above who had lost a partner within the last 12 to 72 months were invited to participate. Participants rated their levels of yearning thoughts about the deceased, emotions and non-acceptance on the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG-Present), and their type and level of general romantic attachment on the Experiences In Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR). Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that individuals who reported higher levels of avoidant attachment reported less emotional responses and less non-acceptance. SEM also showed that individuals who reported higher levels of anxious attachment reported greater emotional responses and greater non-acceptance. SEM further indicated that these relationships were mediated by yearning thoughts. People adopt different grief coping patterns according to their self-reported attachment representations, with the nature of their yearning thoughts influencing the process. Grief therapy may be organized according to individual differences in attachment representations.

  8. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  9. Quick-attach clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Clamp of the slideable jaw type can be applied to moving lines such as cables or ropes. The clamp has a trigger-operated jaw that can be attached to a redrop parachute on a moving tow cable. The trigger mechanism maintains the jaws retracted in the housing until they are released for clamping.

  10. Attachment and eating disorders: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Attachment insecurity may confer risk for developing an eating disorder. We describe domains of attachment functioning that are relevant to eating disorders including: affect regulation, interpersonal style, coherence of mind, and reflective functioning. Research since 2000 on attachment and eating disorders related to these domains is reviewed. We searched MedLine/Pubmed and PsycINFO from January 2000 to February 2014 and kept articles that: were empirical, included adults with a diagnosed eating disorder, and used a standard attachment measure. We retained 50 relevant studies. Compared to controls, those with eating disorders had higher levels of attachment insecurity and disorganized mental states. Lower reflective functioning was specifically associated with anorexia nervosa. Attachment anxiety was associated with eating disorder symptom severity, and this relationship may be mediated by perfectionism and affect regulation strategies. Type of attachment insecurity had specific negative impacts on psychotherapy processes and outcomes, such that higher attachment avoidance may lead to dropping out and higher attachment anxiety may lead to poorer treatment outcomes. Research to date suggests a possible relationship between attachment insecurity and risk for an eating disorder. More research is needed that uses attachment interviews, and longitudinal and case control designs. Clinicians can assess attachment insecurity to help inform therapeutic stances and interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Attachment and group psychotherapy: introduction to a special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2014-03-01

    The application of attachment theory to adult psychotherapy represents a growing area of research and practice. Despite the conceptual overlap between group therapeutic factors, attachment theory, and therapeutic tasks as outlined by Bowlby (1988), there is little research on attachment functioning in group therapy. Hence, there remain substantial questions about the role of attachment theory in understanding group therapy processes and outcomes. The three studies in this special section advance the research in some of these important areas, including showing that positive changes in self-reported attachment insecurity among clients persist long after group therapy ends; attachment anxiety affects the level and rate of interpersonal learning in groups; and change in attachment to the therapy group has an impact on longer term change in individual group members' attachment. Each article also examines the impact of these attachment concepts on treatment outcomes. Numerous areas remain to be explored when it comes to the implications of attachment theory for understanding and conducting group therapy, including the conceptual and practical overlap between attachment concepts such as security and exploration with group therapeutic factors such as cohesion and interpersonal learning. The articles in this special section begin to address some of these issues related to attachment theory and its implications for group therapists. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  14. Dehydration, with and without heat, in kangaroos from mesic and arid habitats: different thermal responses including varying patterns in heterothermy in the field and laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Blaney, Cyntina E; McCarron, Hugh C K; Maloney, Shane K

    2007-10-01

    Field data showing the daily patterns in body temperature (T(b)) of kangaroos in hot, arid conditions, with and without water, indicate the use of adaptive heterothermy, i.e. large variation in T(b). However, daily T(b) variation was greater in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), a species of mesic origin, than in the desert-adapted Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus). The nature of such responses was studied by an examination of their thermal adjustments to dehydration in thermoneutral temperatures (25 degrees C) and at high temperature (45 degrees C) via the use of tame, habituated animals in a climate chamber. At the same level of dehydration M. rufus was less impacted, in that its T(b) changed less than that for M. giganteus while it evaporated significantly less water. At a T(a) of 45 degrees C with water restriction T(b) reached 38.9 +/- 0.3 degrees C in M. rufus compared with 40.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C for M. giganteus. The ability of M. rufus to reduce dry conductance in the heat while dehydrated was central to its superior thermal control. While M. giganteus showed more heterothermy, i.e. its T(b) varied more, this seemed due to a lower tolerance of dehydration in concert with a strong thermal challenge. The benefits of heterothermy to M. giganteus were also limited because of thermal (Q(10)) effects on metabolic heat production and evaporative heat loss. The impacts of T(b) on heat production were such that low morning T(b)'s seen in the field may be associated with energy saving, as well as water saving. Kangaroos respond to dehydration and heat similarly to many ungulates, and it is apparent that the accepted notions about adaptive heterothermy in large desert mammals may need revisiting.

  15. A Year in the Life: Annual Patterns of CO2 and CH4 from a Northern Finland Peatland, Including Anaerobic Methane Oxidation and Summer Ebullition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Biasi, C.; Dorodnikov, M.; Männistö, M.; Lai, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    The major ecological controls on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in northern wetland systems are well known, yet estimates of source/sink magnitudes are often incongruous with measured rates. This mismatch persists because holistic flux datasets are rare, preventing 'whole picture' determinations of flux controls. To combat this, we measured net CO2 and CH4 fluxes from September 2012-2013 within a peatland in northern Lapland, Finland. In addition, we performed in situ manipulations and in vitro soil incubations to quantify anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenic rates as they related to alternative electron acceptor availability. Average annual fluxes varied substantially between different depressions within the wetland, a pattern that persisted through all seasons. Season was a strong predictor of both CO2 and CH4 flux rates, yet CH4 rates were not related to melt-season 10cm or 30cm soil temperatures, and only poorly predicted with air temperatures. We found evidence for both autumnal and spring thaw CH4 bursts, collectively accounting for 26% of annual CH4 flux, although the autumnal burst was more than 5 fold larger than the spring burst. CH4 ebullition measured throughout the growing season augmented the CH4 source load by a factor of 1.5, and was linked with fine-scale spatial heterogeneity within the wetland. Surprisingly, CH4 flux rates were insensitive to Fe(III) and humic acid soil amendments, both of which amplified CO2 fluxes. Using in vitro incubations, we determined anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenesis rates. Measured anaerobic oxidation rates showed potential consumption of between 6-39% of the methane produced, contributing approximately 1% of total carbon dioxide flux. Treatments of nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron showed that nitrate suppressed methanogenesis, but were not associated with anaerobic oxidation rates.

  16. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered.

  17. Structured attachment of bacterial molecular motors for defined microflow induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerdemann Mike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial rotational motor complexes that propel flagellated bacteria possess unique properties like their size of a few nanometres and the ability of selfreproduction that have led to various exciting applications including biohybrid nano-machines. One mandatory prerequisite to utilize bacterial nano motors in fluid applications is the ability to transfer force and torque to the fluid, which usually can be achieved by attachment of the bacterial cell to adequate surfaces. Additionally, for optimal transfer of force or torque, precise control of the position down to the single cell level is of utmost importance. Based on a PIV (particle image velocimetry evaluation of the induced flow of single bacteria,we propose and demonstrate attachment of arbitrary patterns of motile bacterial cells in a fast light-based two-step process for the first time to our knowledge. First, these cells are pre-structured by holographic optical tweezers and then attached to a homogeneous, polystyrene-coated surface. In contrast to the few approaches that have been implemented up to now and which rely on pre-structured surfaces, our scheme allows for precise control on a single bacterium level, is versatile, interactive and has low requirements with respect to the surface preparation.

  18. Attachment systems for mandibular implant overdentures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Jeong-Yol; Shin, Sang-Wan; Bryant, S Ross

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to address treatment outcome according to attachment systems for mandibular implant overdentures in terms of implant survival rate, prosthetic maintenance and complications, and patient satisfaction. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and hand searching of relevant journals considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical trial studies on mandibular implant overdentures until August, 2010 were selected if more than one type of overdenture attachment was reported. Twenty four studies from 1098 studies were finally included and the data on implant survival rate, prosthetic maintenance and complications, patient satisfaction were analyzed relative to attachment systems. Four studies presented implant survival rates (95.8 - 97.5% for bar, 96.2 - 100% for ball, 91.7% for magnet) according to attachment system. Ten other studies presented an implant survival rate ranging from 93.3% to 100% without respect to the attachment groups. Common prosthetic maintenance and complications were replacement of an assay for magnet attachments, and activation of a matrix or clip for ball or bar attachments. Prosthetic maintenance and complications most commonly occurred in the magnet groups. Conflicting findings were found on the rate of prosthetic maintenance and complications comparing ball and bar attachments. Most studies showed no significant differences in patient satisfaction depending upon attachment systems. The implant survival rate of mandibular overdentures seemed to be high regardless attachment systems. The prosthetic maintenance and complications may be influenced by attachment systems. However patient satisfaction may be independent of the attachment system.

  19. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  20. Effects of Adult Romantic Attachment and Social Support on Resilience and Depression in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Zane; Driver, Simon; Warren, Ann Marie; Riggs, Shelley; Clark, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause psychological consequences that negatively affect quality of life. It is increasingly recognized that factors such as resilience and social support may produce a buffering effect and are associated with improved health outcomes. However the influence of adult attachment style on an individual's ability to utilize social support after SCI has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between adult romantic attachment perceived social support depression and resilience in individuals with SCI. In addition we evaluated potential mediating effects of social support and adult attachment on resilience and depression. Participants included 106 adults with SCI undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Individuals completed measures of adult attachment (avoidance and anxiety) social support resilience and depression. Path analysis was performed to assess for presence of mediation effects. When accounting for the smaller sample size support was found for the model (comparative fit index = .927; chi square = 7.86, P = .01; β = -0.25, standard error [SE] = -2.93, P effect of social support on the association between attachment avoidance and resilience was the only hypothesized mediating effect found to be significant (β = -0.25, SE = -2.93, P < .05). Results suggest that individuals with SCI with higher levels of attachment avoidance have lower perceived social support which relates to lower perceived resilience. Assessing attachment patterns during inpatient rehabilitation may allow therapists to intervene to provide greater support.

  1. A systematic review of adult attachment and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Ray P C; Dickson, Joanne M; Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Cunliffe, Alexandra; Taylor, Peter J

    2017-03-15

    Attachment has been implicated in the development of social anxiety. Our aim was to synthesise the extant literature exploring the role of adult attachment in these disorders. Search terms relating to social anxiety and attachment were entered into MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using and adapted version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality assessment tool. Eligible studies employed validated social anxiety and attachment assessments in adult clinical and analogue samples. The review included cross sectional, interventional and longitudinal research. Of the 30 identified studies, 28 showed a positive association between attachment insecurity and social anxiety. This association was particularly strong when considering attachment anxiety. Cognitive variables and evolutionary behaviours were identified as potential mediators, concordant with psychological theory. Due to a lack of longitudinal research, the direction of effect between attachment and social anxiety variables could not be inferred. There was substantial heterogeneity in the way that attachment was conceptualised and assessed across studies. The literature indicates that attachment style is associated with social anxiety. Clinicians may wish to consider attachment theory when working clinically with this population. In the future, it may be useful to target the processes that mediate the relationship between attachment and social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SAM: The School Attachment Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Dong-Bach; Tayarani, Mohammad; Rooksby, Maki; Huan, Rui; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Minnis, Helen; Brewster, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Secure Attachment relationships have been shown to minimise social and behavioural problems in children and boosts resilience to risks such as antisocial behaviour, heart pathologies, and suicide later in life. Attachment assessment is an expensive and time-consuming process that is not often performed. The School Attachment Monitor (SAM) automates Attachment assessment to support expert assessors. It uses doll-play activities with the dolls augmented with sensors and the child's play recorde...

  3. SAM: The School Attachment Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Dong-Bach; Rooksby, Maki; Tayarani, Mohammad; Huan, Rui; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Minnis, Helen; Brewster, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Secure Attachment relationships have been shown to minimise social and behavioural problems in children and boosts resilience to risks later on such as antisocial behaviour, heart pathologies, and suicide. Attachment assessment is an expensive and time-consuming process that is not often performed. The School Attachment Monitor (SAM) automates Attachment assessment to support expert assessors. It uses doll-play activities with the dolls augmented with sensors and the child's play recorded wit...

  4. Ten-year outcome including patterns of failure and toxicity for adjuvant whole abdominopelvic irradiation in high-risk and poor histologic feature patients with endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kimberly D.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Weiner, Sheldon; Podratz, Karl; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Schray, Mark; Mitchell, Christina; Sherman, Alfred; Chen, Peter; Brabbins, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term results of treatment using adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation (WAPI) with a pelvic/vaginal boost in patients with Stage I-III endometrial carcinoma at high risk of intra-abdominopelvic recurrence, including clear cell (CC) and serous-papillary (SP) histologic features. Methods and Materials: In a prospective nonrandomized trial, 119 patients were treated with adjuvant WAPI between November 1981 and April 2000. All patients were analyzed, including those who did not complete therapy. The mean age at diagnosis was 66 years (range 39-88). Thirty-eight patients (32%) had 1989 FIGO Stage I-II disease and 81 (68%) had Stage III. The pathologic features included the following: 64 (54%) with deep myometrial invasion, 48 (40%) with positive peritoneal cytologic findings, 69 (58%) with high-grade lesions, 21 (18%) with positive pelvic/para-aortic lymph nodes, and 44 (37%) with SP or CC histologic findings. Results: The mean follow-up was 5.8 years (range 0.2-14.7). For the entire group, the 5- and 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rate was 75% and 69% and the disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 58% and 48%, respectively. When stratified by histologic features, the 5- and 10-year CSS rate for adenocarcinoma was 76% and 71%, and for serous papillary/CC subtypes, it was 74% and 63%, respectively (p=0.917). The 5- and 10-year DFS rate for adenocarcinoma was 60% and 50% and was 54% and 37% serous papillary/CC subtypes, respectively (p=0.498). For surgical Stage I-II, the 5-year CSS rate was 82% for adenocarcinoma and 87% for SP/CC features (p=0.480). For Stage III, it was 75% and 57%, respectively (p=0.129). Thirty-seven patients had a relapse, with the first site of failure the abdomen/pelvis in 14 (38%), lung in 8 (22%), extraabdominal lymph nodes in 7 (19%), vagina in 6 (16%), and other in 2 (5%). When stratified by histologic variant, 32% of patients with adenocarcinoma and 30% with the SP/CC subtype developed recurrent disease. Most

  5. Attachment behavior and mother-child conversations as predictors of attachment representations in middle childhood: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    This study examines longitudinal links between mother-child conversations and attachment patterns in early childhood and later attachment representations. It also tests the role of conversations as mediators in the association between behavioral security and attachment representations. Mother-child conversations (snack-time) and attachment behaviors (Separation-Reunion procedure) were assessed for 83 5.5-year-olds while attachment representations (attachment narratives) were measured at 8.5 years of age. Results showed correspondence between attachment behaviors and representations for secure-confident, ambivalent-preoccupied, and disorganized/controlling-frightened groups. Affective quality of mother-child conversations predicted both child attachment behaviors and representations. Secure and confident children showed greater integration of affective information, ambivalent and preoccupied children more affect exaggeration, and disorganized/controlling and frightened children more chaotic conversations. Avoidant children tended to show more affect minimization in conversations. Finally, mother-child conversations centered on the sharing of emotions and thoughts mediated the relation between behavioral and representational attachment security, which underscores the importance of mother-child conversations in the development of attachment representations in childhood.

  6. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  7. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  8. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  9. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  11. Clinical attachment: a learning experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... A clinical attachment is an opportunity for doctors from South Sudan to experience the hospital and clinical practice in a setting different from their own. What they learn in the attachment will help them improve their medical practice on their return. I attended a clinical attachment in Oral and Maxillofacial ...

  12. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother–child interactions during feeding practice

    OpenAIRE

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S.; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother–child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger–satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions betwee...

  13. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  14. Attachment in institutionalized children: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Francesca; Pastore, Massimiliano; Barone, Lavinia

    2015-04-01

    In this article we review the literature on attachment patterns in institutionalized children and then perform a meta-analysis on data from 10 attachment studies involving 399 children in institutional settings. We computed the overall attachment distribution of secure, insecure, and disorganized rates and explored the effect of a set of moderating variables (i.e., country of institutionalization, attachment assessment procedure, age at entry, and age at assessment). To overcome bias related to the small number of studies, we conducted both classical and Bayesian meta-analysis and obtained comparable results. Distribution of children's attachment patterns was: 18% secure, 28% insecure, and 54% disorganized/cannot classify. Compared to their family-reared peers, children living in an institution were found to be at greater risk for insecure and disorganized attachment, with a similar medium effect size for both distributions (d=0.77 and d=0.76, respectively). The following moderating variables were associated with insecure attachment: representational assessment procedures (d=0.63) and Eastern European countries of origin (d=1.13). Moderators for disorganized attachment were: Eastern European countries of origin (d=1.12), age at institution entry before the first birthday (d=0.93), and age at assessment under three years of age (d=0.91). Implications for child development and policies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding God images and God concepts : Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2015-01-01

    The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent–child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns.

  16. Native American Students in U.S. Higher Education: A Look from Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Demi; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the behavioral patterns of Native American college students in U.S. higher education. Attachment theory is the theoretical framework used in this analysis. Developed by Bowlby ("Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger," 1973), attachment theory postulates that behaviors can be predicted based on one's…

  17. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  18. Spouses of persons with dementia: Attachment, loss and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidun Ingebretsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTThe purpose is to study how spouses of persons with dementia cope with losses and caregiving tasks during thedementia process and how their coping is related to the individual's and the couple's history of attachment. Thesample consists of 28 couples where one of the spouses has dementia. The caregiving spouses, aged 60-87, areinterviewed at an early stage of dementia and are followed up every 6-9 months over a periode of three years.The life situation is continually changing, and coping methods are repeatedly challenged. Coping with lossesand readjustments are dependent upon their need of the partner to feel safe. Different patterns of attachment behaviourare seen. Compulsive caregiving spouses attend to their spouse beyond their needs. Spouses in anxiousattachment often panic and try to fight back the symptoms of dementia. A pattern of compulsive self-sufficiencymanifests itself as arguing or withdrawal from the partner. Secure attachment makes it easier to accept thechanges, keep in contact and care. To understand the strains and coping of the spouses, we need to understandhow dementia triggers patterns of attachment behaviour. They need more than information on dementia andtraining in handling various symptoms. They need empathy and individually adapted interventions.INTRODUCTIONEmerging dementia with gradual mental deterioriationand increasing dependency ending in death, is frighteningto those involved, both to the person himself andto the family. The new situation disturbes an establishedbalance in the relationship and interferes withcommunication. Meaningful mutual contact and sharedmeaning is gradually lost.In the book ‘Living in the Labyrinth’ Diana FrielMcGowin, who had received a diagnosis of dementia,writes: ’My every molecule seems to scream out that Ido, indeed, exist, and that existence must be valued bysomeone! Without someone to walk this labyrinth bymy side, without the touch of a fellow traveller

  19. A Review on Attachment and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bröning, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the relation of attachment and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescence. Based on a theoretical introduction, we review evidence for a possible general link between SUD and insecure attachment, for links between specific forms of SUD and specific patterns of attachment, and for studies on family patterns of attachment in adolescence. Using medical and psychological databases, we identified 10 studies on adolescent SUD and another 13 studies on adult SUD. Empirical evidence strongly supports the assumption of insecure attachment in SUD samples. With regard to specific patterns of attachment, results mainly point towards fearful and dismissing-avoidance, whereas single studies report preoccupied and unresolved patterns. Results indicate different patterns of attachment in different groups of substance abusers, that is, fearful-avoidant attachment in heroin addicts and more heterogeneous results in abusers of other substances. Explorative data suggest different types of insecure family attachment patterns, which might imply different functions of substance abuse and lead to different treatment recommendations. Methodological problems such as poor assessment of SUD and the use of different measures of attachment limit comparability. Although a lot of research is still needed to address the unknowns in the relation between attachment and SUD, there is strong evidence for a general link between SUD and insecure attachment. Data on connections between different patterns of attachment and different pathways towards SUD are less conclusive but mainly point to disorganized and externalizing pathways. Evidence suggests that fostering attachment security might improve the outcome of state-of-the-art approaches in both early interventional treatment and prevention. Implications for individual and family approaches are outlined.

  20. The Emergence of Attachment following Early Social Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Mliner, Shanna B.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the formation and quality of attachment of 65 post-institutionalized (PI) toddlers with their parents at 1-3 and 7-9 months post adoption compared to 52 non-adopted (NA) children. The formation of attachment relationships of PI children with adoptive parents occurred relatively quickly. Children exposed to greater pre-adoption adversity took longer to form an attachment to their adoptive parents, although by 7-9 months post adoption, nearly all (90%) of the children achieved the highest level on an attachment formation rating scale. PI children did not differ from NA children in attachment security, based either on the Attachment Q-Sort or Strange Situation categorical scoring. However, the PI children were more likely to be disorganized in their attachment pattern. Pre-adoption adversity was related to lower Q-sort security scores especially at the initial assessment 1-3 months post adoption. The results indicated that attachment formation and attachment quality in PI children are differentiable constructs with different precursors. PMID:24621881

  1. Electron attachment cross sections obtained from electron attachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Baumbach, J.I.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Mothes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture detectors have a high sensitivity for substances with high thermal electron attachment cross sections. The electron attachment spectroscopy makes it possible to change the mean electron energy in such a way that the maximum for dissociative electron attachment is reached. Thus, best operation modes of the detection system as well as significant dependencies of electron attachment coefficients are available. Cross sections for electron attachment as a function of the electron energy are obtained with the knowledge of electron energy distribution functions from Boltzmann equation analysis by a special computer code. A disadvantage of this electron attachment spectroscopy is the superposition of space charge effects due to the decrease of the electron drift velocity with increasing mean electron energy. These influences are discussed. (author)

  2. Unresolved attachment and agency in women victims of intimate partner violence: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallini, Susanna; Alfani, Agnese; Marech, Lucrezia; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2017-06-01

    Women victims of IPV are more likely insecurely attached and have experienced childhood abuse, which according to the attachment theory is deeply related to disorganized attachment. This case-control study was performed with the aim to compare the attachment status and the defensive processing patterns of women victims of IPV (cases) with women with no experiences of IPV (controls). Cases were 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 51 years. The control group included 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 59 years. Women's states of mind in regard to attachment were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, which allows classifying attachment status and defensive mechanisms. Compared with control group, most IPV women resulted having an unresolved attachment status and describing characters less capable to draw upon internal resources, that is, internalized secure base, and less capable to act than controls. Women victims of IPV used significantly more words referring danger and failed protection than controls. The results evidenced the strong effectiveness of the AAP on analysing the psychological attitudes of women victims of IPV. The dramatic events lived by the women victims of IPV are so dominant in their minds that they invade their stories. This could represent a clue of emotional dysregulation. The use of AAP improves the understanding of the agency of self and of the specific levels of trauma experienced by IPV victims, on clarifying their frightening/frightened dynamic, typical of the disorganized attachment relationship, which undermines their activity of mentalization. The therapist will assume the stance of a secure base and then both promoting exploration and contrasting impotence, humiliation, and subordination that IPV women have experienced. This therapeutic interpersonal context will be functional to reach two different but related therapeutic goals: (1) to facilitate the rebuilding of agency (through an

  3. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  4. Dissociative attachment to lithium dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadehra, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The cross sections and the rates of production of negative ions of atomic lithium by the process of dissociative electron attachment to lithium dimers are obtained by using the resonant scattering theory. Both the cross sections as well as the rates of attachment are enhanced if the lithium molecule is initially vibrationally excited. General expressions for approximately obtaining the rates of electron attachment to any vibrational level of Li 2 are presented

  5. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  6. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  7. Attachment representation in institutionalized children: a preliminary study using the child attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagnino, Maria; Cussino, Martina; Preziosa, Alessandra; Veglia, Fabio; Carassa, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The experience of being removed from one's home and the transition to a residential care system pose enormous challenges for a child. Substantial evidence has been found regarding severe developmental effects due to early exposition to extreme psychosocial and affective deprivation. The research on Bowlby's theoretical proposals has highlighted the link between insecure, disorganized and atypical attachment patterns and children both living in foster care facilities and adopted out of those institutions. The goal of this pilot study is to investigate the attachment representation in an Italian sample of children in middle childhood (9-13 years old) who have been removed from their homes. Two compared groups of children participated in this study. The first group was composed of 24 Italian children who had been removed from their homes. The second group, considered as the control group, was composed of 35 Italian children who had never been in foster care placement. The quality of children's attachment to their primary caregivers was assessed by the Child Attachment Interview, an innovative semi-structured interview that seeks to bridge the measurement gap identified in middle childhood The children in foster care placement show a higher percentage of insecure and disorganized attachment representations and lower scores on the Child Reflective Functioning Scale. The clinical implications and enhancements to effective intervention for foster children's caretaking are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  10. The Nature of Attachment Relationships and Grief Responses in Older Adults: An Attachment Path Model of Grief.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Kho

    Full Text Available Various researchers have theorized that bereaved adults who report non-secure attachment are at higher risk of pathological grief. Yet past findings on avoidant attachment representations and grief have yielded limited and contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted with older adults to identify the psychological processes that mediate between self-reported attachment representations and the patterns of grief.To examine the impacts of avoidant attachment and anxious attachment dimensions on emotion and non-acceptance, in response to the loss of a conjugal partner, and the mediating effect of yearning thoughts.Men (N = 21 and women (N = 68 aged 60 years and above who had lost a partner within the last 12 to 72 months were invited to participate. Participants rated their levels of yearning thoughts about the deceased, emotions and non-acceptance on the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG-Present, and their type and level of general romantic attachment on the Experiences In Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR.Structural equation modelling (SEM indicated that individuals who reported higher levels of avoidant attachment reported less emotional responses and less non-acceptance. SEM also showed that individuals who reported higher levels of anxious attachment reported greater emotional responses and greater non-acceptance. SEM further indicated that these relationships were mediated by yearning thoughts.People adopt different grief coping patterns according to their self-reported attachment representations, with the nature of their yearning thoughts influencing the process. Grief therapy may be organized according to individual differences in attachment representations.

  11. Links between parent characteristics and attachment variables for college students of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Laura V; Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between offsprings' attachment patterns and parent characteristics in 157 females and 62 males of parental divorce. Secure females and males reported affection, respect, and closeness toward both biological parents. Offsprings' insecure attachment pattern was associated with negative parent characteristics. Participants who perceived their same-sex parent negatively were more likely to report an insecure attachment. Our findings suggest delayed negative consequences of parental divorce for college women and men.

  12. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  13. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  14. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  15. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  16. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  17. An outsider in my own home: attachment injury in stepcouple relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Julia B; McCollum, Eric E; Spring, Elizabeth L

    2010-10-01

    This multiple-case study explored women's relational experiences as attachment injury patterns in distressed stepcouple relationships and how these experiences might be attributable to stepcouple status. The first author interviewed five stepmothers with biological children, using open-ended interview questions developed from attachment theory and existing research regarding attachment injury and stepfamily formation. Data analysis using the pattern-matching method derived and explored markers of attachment injury in the women's stepcouple relationships. The four categories of attachment injury showed significant attribution to stepfamily issues. This supports past stepfamily research suggesting that stepcouples face unique challenges. Further, these findings suggest that the language of attachment injury accurately describes stepcouples' problems and the usefulness of conceptualizing and addressing these problems in an attachment injury framework. © 2010 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  18. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined on the basis of developmentally inappropriate inattention, motor activity and impulsivity that emerges early in development and causes impairment in social and academic functioning. ADHD is described as a multifactorial disease, with a well studied genetic vulnerability, and early environmental factors also playing an important role in the development and course of the disorder. Current aetiological models emphasize interaction between genes and environment. The concept of attachment, as proposed by John Bowlby, reflects quality of early interactions, and should therefore be considered as an early developmental factor. First, clinical findings emphasize similitude between both disorders; emotional dysregulation is an important feature in reactive attachment disorder as well as in ADHD. Emotion regulation is highly related to attachment security in young children and could play a part in the development of early attention processes. Moreover, difficult temperament is associated with higher risk for ADHD on the one hand, and can disturb the process of attachment on the other. Parental caregiving - including maternal sensitivity, positive parenting practices - is a main factor involved in the development of attachment, and has shown to be associated with better outcomes in ADHD children, especially with less oppositional/conduct disorders. Second, the aim of our review is to present clinical studies that have looked for a link between ADHD and attachment: the type of attachment could play a part in the course of the disorder: insecure and disorganised attachment types tend to be associated with a higher risk of externalised behaviors in children. For ADHD, this effect seems to be weaker than for other externalised disorders, and has been shown only in populations of at-risk children. Clinical studies also raise the question of possible links between reactive attachment disorder and ADHD. In children suffering

  19. Electron attachment to excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Datskos, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies on electron attachment to molecules rotationally/vibrationally excited thermally or via infrared-laser excitation showed that the effect of internal energy of a molecule on its electron attachment properties depends on the mode--dissociative or nondissociative--of electron attachment. They quantified the effect of the internal energy of the molecule on the rate of destruction (by autodissociation or by autodetachment) of its parent transient anion. Generally, increases in ro-vibrational molecular energy increase the cross section for dissociative electron attachment and decrease the effective cross section for parent anion formation due mainly to increased autodetachment. These findings and their understanding are discussed. A discussion is given, also, of recent investigations of electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, especially photoenhanced dissociative electron attachment to long- and short-lived excited electronic states of molecules produced directly or indirectly by laser irradiation. These studies showed that the cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to electronically excited molecules usually are many orders of magnitude larger than those for the ground-state molecules. The new techniques that have been developed for such studies are briefly described also

  20. From security to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment relationship. Ainsworth worked in Toronto with William Blatz (1895-1964) for almost two decades before she moved to London and worked with Bowlby in 1950. Ainsworth was heavily influenced by Blatz and ...

  1. The Multimodal Assessment of Adult Attachment Security: Developing the Biometric Attachment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Federico; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Persiaux, Gwenaelle; Morales, Michelle; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-04-06

    Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct. The aim of this study was to present a new exposure-based, automatic, and objective adult-attachment assessment, the Biometric Attachment Test (BAT), which exposes participants to a short standardized set of visual and music stimuli, whereas their immediate reactions and verbal responses, captured by several computer sense modalities, are automatically analyzed for scoring and classification. We also aimed to empirically validate two of its assumptions: its capacity to measure attachment security and the viability of using themes as placeholders for rotating stimuli. A total of 59 French participants from the general population were assessed using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), and the Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) as ground truth for attachment security. They were then exposed to three different BAT stimuli sets, whereas their faces, voices, heart rate (HR), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Psychophysiological features, such as skin-conductance response (SCR) and Bayevsky stress index; behavioral features, such as gaze and facial expressions; as well as linguistic and paralinguistic features, were automatically extracted. An exploratory analysis was conducted using correlation matrices to uncover the features that are most associated with attachment security. A confirmatory analysis was conducted by creating a single composite effects index and by testing it

  2. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  3. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  4. Patterned Taping: A High-Efficiency Soft Lithographic Method for Universal Thin Film Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sangyoon; Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jin Hong; Cho, Illhun; Kim, Hyeong-Ju; Park, Soo Young

    2016-03-22

    As a universal lithographic technique for microscale/nanoscale film patterns, we develop a strategy for the use of soft lithographically patterned pressure-sensitive tape (patterned tape) as a pattern-transporting stamp material. Patterning was successfully implemented through the selective detachment and/or attachment of various thin films, including organic and metallic layers demanding no subsequent physical, thermal, or chemical treatment, as this incurs the risk of the deformation of the thin film and the deterioration of its functionalities. Its features of universal adhesion and flexibility enable pressure-sensitive tapes to form patterns on a variety of surfaces: organic, polymeric, and inorganic surfaces as well as flat, curved, uneven, and flexible substrates. Moreover, the proposed technique boasts the unique and distinct advantages of short operation time, supreme patterning yield, and multilayer stacking capability, which suggest considerable potential for their application to advanced optoelectronic device fabrication.

  5. Links between Children's Attachment Behavior at Early School-Age, Their Attachment-Related Representations, and Behavior Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Beliveau, Marie-Julie; Zdebik, Magdalena; Lepine, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine associations between children's attachment behavior at early school-age, dimensions of narrative performance, and behavior problems as assessed in middle childhood. Children's attachment patterns with mother were assessed at age 6 (N = 127) using the Main and Cassidy (1988) separation--reunion…

  6. Understanding Polymer-Cell Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturato, Andrea; MacFarlane, Gillian; Geng, Jin; Bradley, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The development of polymeric materials with cell adhesion abilities requires an understanding of cell-surface interactions which vary with cell type. To investigate the correlation between cell attachment and the nature of the polymer, a series of random and block copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are synthesized through single electron transfer living radical polymerization. The polymers are synthesized with highly defined and controlled monomer compositions and exhibited narrow polydispersity indices. These polymers are examined for their performance in the attachment and growth of HeLa and HEK cells, with attachment successfully modeled on monomer composition and polymer chain length, with both cell lines found to preferentially attach to moderately hydrophobic functional materials. The understanding of the biological-material interactions assessed in this study will underpin further investigations of engineered polymer scaffolds with predictable cell binding performance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  8. Facilitating attachment after international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Natalie L

    2009-01-01

    Americans have increasingly turned to international adoption (IA) as an alternative way to build a family. Unfortunately, IA families are often being developed under conditions of loss, and sometimes these families struggle to form healthy attachments to each other. Disordered attachment (the failure to form a reciprocal, loving bond between parent and child) can occur, and can have devastating consequences. In some instances, IA children have been relinquished into state foster care systems; other families simply struggle for years caring for a developmentally delayed child who appears to have no emotion for his/her adoptive family. Nurses are likely to have contact with IA families and can use their education about attachment and bonding to help facilitate attachment in these developing families. Swanson's caring theory provides a clinically useful guide to meet this need.

  9. Religious Conflict, Attachment, and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Counted, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The presentation explores an alternative interpretation of religious conflict as an aspect of attachment-psychopathology. Paper was shared at the Religion, Conflict, and Peace Summer School, University of Groningen.

  10. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  11. The role of attachment in predicting CBT treatment outcome in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Normann, Nicoline; Tolstrup, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children’s attach......Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children......’s attachment to parents, and parental attachment in predicting treatment outcome in anxious children receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Method: A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were diagnosed at intake and post-treatment, using Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (Silverman and Albano...... style in responders and non-responders in the present sample. We found a significant difference in maternal attachment anxiety scale (p=.011), with mothers of non-responders showing significantly higher attachment anxiety. Binominal logistic regression analysis was used to measure a predictive value...

  12. Transfer of attachment functions and adjustment among young adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Chan, Darius K-S; Teng, Fei

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the process of attachment transfer from parents to peers, as well as factors related to this transfer process among Mainland Chinese. A total of 147 Chinese college students (with a mean age of 21.44) completed questionnaires that measured attachment style, attachment transfer, attachment support from various figures, loneliness, positive/negative affects, and self-esteem. Major findings of the current study include the following: (a) Hazan and Shaver's sequential model of attachment transfer was generalized to the Chinese sample; (b) the extent of attachment transfer was found to be associated with participants' emotional states (loneliness and positive affect) and was a significant predictor of these emotional states beyond the effects of attachment style and attachment support. As one of the first studies exploring the phenomenon of attachment transfer among young Chinese adults, conceptual and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. The statistical behaviour of attached eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, J. D.; Marusic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis forms the basis of an established model of the logarithmic layer in wall-bounded turbulent flows in which this inertially dominated region is characterised by a hierarchy of geometrically self-similar eddying motions that scale with their distance to the wall. The hypothesis has gained considerable support from high Reynolds number measurements of the second-order moments of the fluctuating velocities. Recently, Meneveau and Marusic ["Generalized logarithmic law for high-order moments in turbulent boundary layers," J. Fluid Mech. 719, R1 (2013)] presented experimental evidence that all even-ordered moments of the streamwise velocity will exhibit a logarithmic dependence on the distance from the wall. They demonstrated that this was consistent with the attached eddy hypothesis, so long as the velocity distribution is assumed to be Gaussian (which allows the use of the central limit theorem). In this paper, we derive this result from the attached eddy model without assuming a Gaussian velocity distribution, and find that such logarithmic behaviours are valid in the large Reynolds number limit. We also revisit the physical and mathematical basis of the attached eddy hypothesis, in order to increase rigour and minimise the assumptions required to apply the hypothesis. To this end, we have extended the proof of Campbell's theorem to apply to the velocity field corresponding to a forest of variously sized eddies that are randomly placed on the wall. This enables us to derive all moments of the velocity in the logarithmic region, including cross-correlations between different components of the velocity. By contrast, previous studies of the attached eddy hypothesis have considered only the mean velocity and its second order moments. From this, we obtain qualitatively correct skewnesses and flatnesses for the spanwise and wall-normal fluctuations. The issue of the Reynolds number dependence of von Kármán's constant is also addressed.

  14. Site-attachment behaviour of Oblada melanura (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Sparidae benthic larvae: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Kiparissis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The site-attachment behaviour of O. melanura settlers was examined in an estuarine area of western Greece. The approach that was followed included underwater assignments of shoal identities and continuous recording of specific behavioural traits. Variations between ontogenetic stages with respect to the pattern of residence at the sites were quantified via an index (the residence-persistence index (RPI devised for this purpose. Our findings suggest that this species initiates settlement in small shoals that occupy specific sites at the substratum where they reside for various days. This behavioural trait is stage-specific and gradually diminishes as the fish complete metamorphosis, while at the same time they change their social organisation. Such an ontogeny-dependent site-attachment behaviour has not been described before and is markedly different from that described for other members of the Sparidae family.

  15. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested.

  16. Emergence of global preferential attachment from local interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Menghui; Fan Ying; Wu Jinshan; Di Zengru; Gao Liang

    2010-01-01

    Global degree/strength-based preferential attachment is widely used as an evolution mechanism of networks. But it is hard to believe that any individual can get global information and shape the network architecture based on it. In this paper, it is found that the global preferential attachment emerges from the local interaction models, including the distance-dependent preferential attachment (DDPA) evolving model of weighted networks (Li et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 72), the acquaintance network model (Davidsen et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 128701) and the connecting nearest-neighbor (CNN) model (Vazquez 2003 Phys. Rev. E 67 056104). For the DDPA model and the CNN model, the attachment rate depends linearly on the degree or vertex strength, whereas for the acquaintance network model, the dependence follows a sublinear power law. It implies that for the evolution of social networks, local contact could be more fundamental than the presumed global preferential attachment.

  17. Assessing the Role of Attachment to God, Meaning, and Religious Coping as Mediators in the Grief Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Melissa M.; Chan, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Research has examined the relationship of styles of attachment to others and meaning with grief and the stress-related growth process. Less has been written on styles of attachment to God and patterns of religious coping and how these constructs may impact adjustment in persons dealing with loss. This study examines the roles of attachment to God,…

  18. Design of Electrostatic Directional Dry Adhesives for Robotic Attachment Mechanisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Attachment mechanisms that are effective over a wide range of material types and surface conditions can be used for a variety of applications including manipulator...

  19. DPF heater attachment mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-04-26

    An exhaust filter system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A fastener limits expansion movement of the heating element relative to the PF.

  20. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Foord, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  1. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  2. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.

  3. Effect of attachment strategies on bipartite networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, N.; Saha, S.; Maiti, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bipartite systems show remarkable variations in their topological asymptotic properties, e. g., in their degree distribution. Such variations depend on the underlying growth dynamics. A scenario of particular importance is when the two partitions of the bipartite structure do not grow at an equal...... rate. Here, we focus on the case where one of the partitions can be assumed to be fixed while the other partition grows in time as observed in the codon-gene or alphabet-word network. We show that subtle changes in growth dynamics, particularly in the attachment kernel, can lead to drastic changes...... of the emergent topological properties. We present a detail analysis of various growth strategies, including sequential and parallel addition of nodes, as well as with and without replacement attachment kernels. Analytical results have been compared with stochastic simulations as well as with real systems showing...

  4. Attachment theory and John Bowlby: some reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan

    2007-12-01

    The 100th anniversary of Edward John Mostyn Bowlby's birth (February 26th, 1907) was celebrated at the Tavistock Clinic in London by his family and colleagues, with presentations of ongoing research as well as reflections on both the person and his theory. My own reflections include the influence of ethological thinking on the development of attachment theory, Bowlby's focus on observations followed by explanation, his appreciation of emotional communication as well as behavior, and his recognition of the role of the family as well as the child/caregiver dyad. While always remaining open to new avenues of research, John Bowlby was firmly insistent on the precise use of attachment terminology, and quite rightly too!

  5. A finite element study on stress distribution of two different attachment designs under implant supported overdenture

    OpenAIRE

    El-Anwar, Mohamed I.; Yousief, Salah A.; Soliman, Tarek A.; Saleh, Mahmoud M.; Omar, Wael S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate stress patterns generated within implant-supported mandibular overdentures retained by two different attachment types: ball and socket and locator attachments. Materials and methods: Commercial CAD/CAM and finite element analysis software packages were utilized to construct two 3D finite element models for the two attachment types. Unilateral masticatory compressive loads of 50, 100, and 150 N were applied vertically to the overdentures, parallel to ...

  6. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experien...

  7. The Relation between Insecure Attachment and Child Anxiety: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Draijer, Evalijn M.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Van der Bruggen, Corine O.; Bogels, Susan M.; Noom, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory suggests that children's attachment insecurity plays a key role in the development of anxiety. In the present study we evaluated the empirical evidence for the link between insecure attachment and anxiety from early childhood to adolescence. A meta-analysis of 46 studies, from 1984 to 2010, including 8,907 children, was…

  8. Relations between quality of friendships and attachment styles in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruzović Nikolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work relations between quality of friendship and attachment styles among adolescents were investigated. The question of the differences, among individuals of different styles of attachment in the quality of their friendly relations, both at the individual and at the dyadic level were investigated. Also, the predictive significance of attachment when it comes to the quality of friendship, were discussed. The study included 425 subjects of both genders, first grade secondary school students, aged 14 to 17 years. Following instruments were used: Friendship Quality Questionnaire, which was created for the purposes of this study, and assesses dimensions of affection, intimacy, interaction and conflicts in friendship, and a questionnaire for assessing styles of attachment UPIPAV (Nataša Hanak.Results indicate that participants of secure and insecure attachment styles differ significantly in all dimensions of quality of friendships. Secure participants have a higher level of affection, companionship, intimacy and conflict in relation to insecure subjects. Exceptions are subjects of fearful styles of attachment who have a similar level of affection in friendship to those of secure ones. When the above differences are observed at the dyadic level, the situation is as follows: couples of friends with secure styles of attachment at all dimensions of friendship have higher scores compared to couples with insecure styles. Regression analysis showed that attachment significantly contributes to the explanation of all the dimensions of friendship. The strongest individual contribution to the explanation of all dimensions of quality friendships have secure style of attachment. The results are discussed within the attachment theory perspective.

  9. Attachment and Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Donnelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although attachment theory is not new, its theoretical implications for the pediatric chronic pain context have not been thoroughly considered, and the empirical implications and potential clinical applications are worth exploring. The attachment framework broadly focuses on interactions between a child’s developing self-regulatory systems and their caregiver’s responses. These interactions are believed to create a template for how individuals will relate to others in the future, and may help account for normative and pathological patterns of emotions and behavior throughout life. This review outlines relevant aspects of the attachment framework to the pediatric chronic pain context. The theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed regarding the potential role of attachment-based constructs such as vulnerability and maintaining factors of pediatric chronic pain. The nature and targets of attachment-based pediatric interventions are considered, with particular focus on relevance for the pediatric chronic pain context. The potential role of attachment style in the transition from acute to chronic pain is considered, with further research directions outlined.

  10. How children remember the Strange Situation: The role of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Miranda; Goodman, Gail S; Troxel, Natalie; McWilliams, Kelly; Thompson, Ross A; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F

    2018-02-01

    This study tested predictions from Bowlby's attachment theory about children's memory and suggestibility. Young children (3-5years old, N=88; 76% Caucasians) and their parents took part in the Strange Situation Procedure, a moderately distressing event and "gold standard" for assessing children's attachment quality. The children were then interviewed about what occurred during the event. Children's age and attachment security scores positively predicted correct information in free recall and accuracy in answering specific questions. For children with higher (vs. lower) attachment security scores, greater distress observed during the Strange Situation Procedure predicted increased resistance to misleading suggestions. In addition, for children who displayed relatively low distress during the Strange Situation Procedure, significant age differences in memory and suggestibility emerged as expected. However, for children who displayed greater distress during the Strange Situation Procedure, younger and older children's memory performances were equivalent. Findings suggest that attachment theory provides an important framework for understanding facets of memory development with respect to attachment-related information and that distress may alter assumed age patterns in memory development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-cultural perspectives: implications for attachment theory and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Cross-cultural perspectives have always been useful for understanding behavior. They clarify the distinction between aspects that are essentially part of the human condition and those that are the most responsive to variation. The interesting article by Rothbaum and his colleagues is in that tradition, contrasting the cultural values and family patterns in Japanese society with those of Western cultures, including our own, and suggesting that these differences shape the nature and course of attachment. It stimulates questions about what we have taken for granted in our theories and in our evaluations of dysfunctional behavior.

  12. Attachment and the risk of mental health disorders during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Attachment is one of the more important developmental aspects for predicting a person’s level of adaptation and mental health. Previous research in this area suggests a relationship between insecure attachment and behavioural disorders, deviations as well as depression and other affective disorders. The goal of this study was to determine the relationships between adolescents’ attachment patterns and aggression as well as internalisation and externalisation of problems – expressed as a tendency to assume the role of the victim or the perpetrator. We hypothesised that insecure patterns of attachment foster both aggression (as a personality feature and a tendency towards mental health issues, through increasing the frequency of entering the role of a victim or a perpetrator. participants and procedure One hundred and twenty individuals aged 14-19 took part in the study, mainly high school and university students. The study was conducted in groups, with the consent of participants and their parents. The following methods were used to assess the variables: The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ and the Mini Direct and Indirect Aggression Inventory (Mini-DIA. Results Our results suggest that a relationship exists between aggressiveness and trust in the relationship with one’s mother, as well as between hostility and alienation with regards to one’s mother and father. Insecure attachment is a significant risk factor for mental health disorders, and it fosters both externalisation and internalisation behaviours. Conclusions We interpret the results as suggesting that attachment organisation plays an important role in a wide array of aspects of adolescent psychosocial development.

  13. Attachment for mass exchange apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, M.Z.; Maksimenko, M.M.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An attachment is proposed which contains a cylindrical housing in which the windows are profiled with inward bent windows. In order to improve the effectiveness of the attachment by increasing its surface, and mobility, the ends of the housing are equipped with inner annular partitions with radial cross sections. The sections of the partitions between them are bent inwards towards the forming housing in series, from the side of each section. The inward-bent sections of the partitions and the edges are directed to one side or to different sides.

  14. Love and attachment: the psychobiology of social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Vythilingum, Bavanisha

    2009-05-01

    Basic animal studies and human imaging studies have contributed to our understanding of the psychobiology of love and attachment. There are overlaps and distinctions in the neuronal circuitry of maternal love, romantic love, and long-term attachment. In these circuits, important molecules, which have been demonstrated to play a role in the psychobiology of social bonding include dopamine, serotonin, opioids, oxytocin, and vasopressin. Particular genetic and environmental variations contribute to social-bonding phenotypes, consistent with an evolutionary perspective on the value of these behaviors. Advances in the psychobiology of social bonds have led to hypotheses about the pharmacotherapy of disorders of attachment.

  15. Application of Attachment Theory in Clinical Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas Joseph; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    This article proposes the use of attachment theory in clinical social work practice. This theory is very appropriate in this context because of its fit with social work concepts of person-in-situation, the significance of developmental history in the emergence of psychosocial problems, and the content of human behavior in the social environment. A literature review supports the significance of the theory. Included are ideas about how attachment styles and working models may be used in assessment and treatment to help clients achieve a secure attachment style.

  16. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother–child interactions during feeding practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S.; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother–child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger–satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother–child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  17. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother-child interactions during feeding practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children's autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents' emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children's age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions.

  18. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  19. Attachment Theory: Progress and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fearon, R. M. P.; Roisman, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of ...

  20. Adult attachment and psychotic phenomenology in clinical and non-clinical samples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Berry, Katherine; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that attachment theory could enhance our knowledge and understanding of psychotic phenomenology. We systematically reviewed and critically appraised research investigating attachment and psychotic phenomenology in clinical and non-clinical samples. We searched databases Pub Med, PsycINFO, Medline and Web of Science using the keywords. Attachment, Adult Attachment, Psychosis, Schizotypy and Schizophrenia and identified 29 studies assessing adult attachment in combination with psychotic phenomenology. The findings indicated that both insecure anxious and insecure avoidant attachment are associated with psychotic phenomenology. Insecurely attached individuals are more vulnerable to developing maladaptive coping strategies in recovering from psychosis. The importance of attachment experiences for processing social information, mentalization skills and developing social relationships, including therapeutic relationships, in samples with psychosis is also highlighted. Attachment style is a clinically relevant construct in relation to development, course and treatment of psychosis. Understanding the role of attachment in symptoms may help to gain insight into the development or persistence of symptoms. Associations between attachment and recovery style suggest that it may be helpful to improve attachment security in a context of therapeutic relationships or other social relationships before encouraging people to explore their experiences of psychosis. Associations between insecure attachment and impaired mentalization skills may help in understanding interpersonal difficulties and this knowledge can be used to improve recovery. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Facing danger: how do people behave in times of need? The case of adult attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2014-01-01

    Bowlby's (1982) attachment theory has generated an enormous body of research and conceptual elaborations. Although attachment theory and research propose that attachment security provides a person with many adaptive advantages, during all phases of the life cycle, numerous studies indicate that almost half of the human species can be classified as insecurely attached or insecure with respect to attachment. It seems odd that evolution left humans in this vulnerable position, unless there are some advantages to individuals or groups, under at least some conditions, of anxious and avoidant attachment styles. I argue that a social group containing members with different attachment patterns may be more conducive to survival than a homogeneous group of securely attached individuals because each attachment disposition has specific adaptive advantages that promote the survival of the individual and people around him or her when facing threats and perils. In making this argument, I extend the scope of attachment theory and research by considering a broader range of adaptive functions of insecure attachment strategies, and present data to support my argument.

  2. Attachment anxiety benefits from security priming: Evidence from working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Ahu; Harma, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the attachment dimensions (anxious vs. avoidance) and the cognitive performance of individuals, specifically whether the attachment dimensions would predict the working memory (WM) performance. In the n-back task, reflecting the WM capacity, both attachment related and non-attachment related words were used. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups that received either the secure or the neutral subliminal priming. In the secure priming condition, the aim was to induce sense of security by presenting secure attachment words prior to the n-back task performance. In neutral priming condition, neutral words that did not elicit sense of security were presented. Structural equation modeling revealed divergent patterns for attachment anxiety and avoidance dimensions under the different priming conditions. In neutral priming condition, WM performance declined in terms of capacity in the n-back task for individuals who rated higher levels of attachment anxiety. However in the secure priming condition, WM performance was boosted in the n-back task for individuals who rated higher levels of attachment anxiety. In other words, the subliminal priming of the security led to increased WM capacity of individuals who rated higher levels of attachment anxiety. This effect, however, was not observed for higher levels of attachment avoidance. Results are discussed along the lines of hyperactivation and deactivation strategies of the attachment system.

  3. Assessing attachment in the school years: the application of the Dynamic Maturational Model of Attachment to the coding of a child attachment interview with community and looked-after children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnfield, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a Child Attachment Interview using the Dynamic Maturational Model (DMM) of attachment coding system developed by Crittenden for use with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). The aim of the study was to see if the two coders could classify the child interviews using the DMM-AAI approach and produce the range of DMM attachment strategies to be expected from previous research and the literature. Two coders independently classified interviews with 41 children aged between 6 and 13 years with an average age of 9.8 years. In total, 24 of the children were from a local authority middle school (the community children) and 17 were in foster care (looked-after children). The full array of DMM strategies was identified, with significant differences between the community and looked-after children in terms of attachment security and lack of resolution of loss and trauma. There was 100% agreement between coders on secure versus insecure attachment patterns, a Kappa of .910 for the full range of DMM attachment strategies and Kappas of between .655 and .773 for unresolved loss, trauma and depression. Discussion focuses on the strengths and deficits of the use of the DMM compared with other published work on child attachment interviews, the use of interviews to assess post-traumatic stress disorder in children and the implications of defensive attachment strategies for services offered to looked-after children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  5. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult

  6. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC ATTACHMENT TO MOSQUES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Najaf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Place is formed by people’s relationship with the physical environment, individual and group activities, and meanings. Sense of Place, Place Identity, and Place Attachment are some concepts that could describe the quality of the people’s relationship with a place. Place attachment is described as an affective bond that develops between people and their environment or setting. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in the studying of people’s attachment to places, including the religious places as of the most important and attended places in human lives. In this realm the published literature shows that not only the religious concepts but also the architectural features and attributes of these places could play an important role in forming people’s attachment. This research investigated Malaysian people’s attachment to the contemporary Malaysian state mosques focusing on the three predominant architectural styles, namely Modern, Post Modern, and Vernacular. This paper reports on a conducted qualitative study to identify the indicators that could be used in evaluating people’s perception to the aforementioned mosques. To accomplish this, in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 participants in the 5 selected mosques. The study revealed that Malaysian people have strong emotional attachment to all studied mosques. The research showed that this attachment was due to the studied mosques’ significance as religious and cultural symbols. Finally, the research identified the key indicators to investigate Malaysian public’s perception to the contemporary Malaysian state mosques.

  8. Children's Representations of Attachment and Positive Teacher–Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Veríssimo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to explore whether children's representations of attachment contribute to the co-construction of positive teacher–child relationships. An assessment of verbal intelligence was included as a predictor on the assumption that teachers might perceive themselves as having better relationships with more verbally competent children. Participants were 52 children from two pre-schools, in the district of Lisbon. The Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT was used to assess children's attachment security. The PCV-P (a scale developed in portuguese language was used to describe teacher–child relationships through teachers' ratings of child secure base behavior and emotion regulation and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-R was used to access verbal skills. Bivariate correlations showed that the teachers' rating of child secure base behavior was significantly associated with both child attachment security and verbal IQ. In a multiple regression analysis, the overall model R2 was significant, as was the interaction term showing a moderating effect of attachment security on the relation between verbal IQ and teachers' ratings of secure base. The results suggest that co-construction of a close attachment-relevant relationship with teachers in early childhood is, in part, a function of the security in the context of parent-child attachment, but also of child verbal development.

  9. E-mail security: new restriction on attachments

    CERN Multimedia

    The Mail Team

    2006-01-01

    In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010 The Mail Team

  10. E-mail security: new restriction on attachments

    CERN Multimedia

    The Mail Team

    2006-01-01

    In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010. The Mail Team

  11. Attachment and Emotion in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Parrigon, Kaela; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Movahed Abtahi, Mahsa; Koehn, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate the current state of the literature with regards to attachment and its relationship to emotion in middle childhood and adolescence. This is a relatively new topic of interest and one which is well grounded in theory. The attachment relationship between parents and children is a key mechanism by which children and adolescents learn emotion skills, including emotion understanding, coping strategies, and how to manage different affective ex...

  12. In vitro attachment of phylloplane yeasts to Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tom W; Burpee, Leon L; Buck, James W

    2004-12-01

    The ability of yeasts to attach to hyphae or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi has been speculated to contribute to biocontrol activity on plant surfaces. Attachment of phylloplane yeasts to Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa was determined using in vitro attachment assays. Yeasts were incubated for 2 d on potato dextrose agar (PDA) prior to experimentation. A total of 292 yeasts cultured on PDA were screened for their ability to attach to conidia of B. cinerea; 260 isolates (89.1%) attached to conidia forming large aggregates of cells, and 22 isolates (7.5%) weakly attached to conidia with 1 or 2 yeast cells attached to a few conidia. Ten yeasts (3.4%), including 8 isolates of Cryptococcus laurentii, 1 isolate of Cryptococcus flavescens, and an unidentified species of Cryptococcus, failed to attach to conidia. All non-attaching yeasts produced copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) on PDA. Seventeen yeast isolates did not attach to hyphal fragments of B. cinerea, R. solani, and S. homoeocarpa after a 1 h incubation, but attachment was observed after 24 h. Culture medium, but not culture age, significantly affected the attachment of yeast cells to conidia of B. cinerea. The 10 yeast isolates that did not attach to conidia when grown on agar did attach to conidia (20%-57% of conidia with attached yeast cells) when cultured in liquid medium. Attachment of the biocontrol yeast Rhodotorula glutinis PM4 to conidia of B. cinerea was significantly greater at 1 x 10(7) yeast cells x mL(-1) than at lower concentrations of yeast cells. The ability of yeast cells to attach to fungal conidia or hyphae appears to be a common phenotype among phylloplane yeasts.

  13. Childhood attachment and schizophrenia: the "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric syndrome whose exact causes remain unclear. However, current scientific consensus has highlighted the importance of neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive processes in the development of schizophrenic symptoms. Research over the past three decades, motivated by the findings of the World Health Organization's large-scale studies, has highlighted the importance of psychosocial adversities - including childhood abuse and neglect - in this disorder. In this paper, I propose a hypothesis based on John Bowlby's framework of attachment theory, which I have termed the attachment-developmental-cognitive (ADC) hypothesis. The ADC hypothesis integrates recent developments related to (1) existing models of schizophrenia, (2) studies examining the effect of attachment on brain biology and cognitive development, and (3) various known facts about the course and outcome of this disorder. In doing so, it explains how disturbed childhood attachment leads to core psychological and neurochemical abnormalities which are implicated in the genesis of schizophrenia and also affect its outcome. The ADC hypothesis compasses and expands on earlier formulations, such as the "social defeat" and "traumagenic" models, and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia. Ways of testing and refining this hypothesis are outlined as avenues for future research. Though provisional, the ADC hypothesis is entirely consistent with both biological and psychosocial research into the origins of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Client attachment security predicts alliance in a randomized controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relation between clients’ attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance in two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa. Method: Data derive from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia...

  15. The role of attached phase soil and sediment organic matter physicochemical properties on fullerene (nC60) attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Coy P; LeBoeuf, Eugene J

    2015-11-01

    Attached phase soil and sediment organic matter is ubiquitous in the subsurface environment, with a tendency to strongly sorb contaminants, and therefore it may play an important role in contaminant transport. In this study, the deposition of C60 nanoparticles onto attached phase Harpeth Humic Acid and Harpeth Fulvic Acid (HHA and HFA) is explored by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and systematically varying thermal energy. By comparing the C60 attachment onto HHA and HFA surfaces to that of bare silica and DLVO predictions, we find that the HHA and HFA layers hinder attachment at low temperatures, while HHA enhances attachment at higher temperatures. Based on thermal characterization of the HHA and HFA layers compared to the corresponding attachment trends, the attachment efficiency is strongly correlated with hydration of the layer. Possible mechanisms explaining this phenomenon include water-assisted disruption of polar SOM contacts and hydration-induced swelling of the AP-SOM matrix. Since humic substances typically dominate subsurface organic matter, these results may prove crucial to understanding the complex interactions of engineered nanomaterials in both the natural and engineered environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The paths leading from attachment to ageism: a structural equation model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Cohen-Fridel, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The study introduces a model in which attachment patterns serve as predictors, empathy and fear of death as mediators, and ageism as the predicted variable. Data were collected from young adults (N = 440). Anxious attachment was directly and positively correlated with ageism, and also indirectly and positively by the mediator "fear of death." Avoidant attachment was indirectly and negatively correlated with ageism by the mediator "empathy". It is suggested that interventions for reducing ageist attitudes among younger adults would focus on existential fears, as well as on empathic ability, according to the attachment tendencies of these individuals.

  17. Attachment as a predictor of non response to CBT treatment in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Children’s and parents’ attachment patterns have been linked with the presence of pediatric anxiety disorders. The present study examined the role of attachment in predicting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment outcomes. A total of 69 children aged 7–13 years were assessed using a semi...... not significantly differ with regard to child’s attachment to parent. Maternal attachment anxiety was found to be the strongest predictor of treatment outcome, remaining significant after controlling for symptoms severity. Results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to how the relationships formed...

  18. Body Image and Attachment Style Among University Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    2018-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to investigate how body image and attachment style among university students are related. We approach these different student types on a cross sectional dataset including 898 university students from Denmark, Germany, Portugal, Croatia and Czechoslovakia. Based...... on the combination of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Attachment Style Scale (WASQ) we create four types: "double jeopardy students", "well-balanced students", "nurturing solitude students" and "social mirroring students". The "double jeopardy students" are students with low social attachment and a high dislike...... of their body. Based on this combination of body image and social attachment we investigate how these four student types are related to three different dimensions: parental characteristics, northern versus southern countries and different field of study....

  19. The assessment of dimensions relevant to adult reciprocal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Sheldon-Keller, A

    1992-11-01

    The development and potential clinical uses of the Adult Attachment Dimensions Questionnaire is described. The seven scales of the Adult Attachment Dimensions Questionnaire relate to the aspects of a relationship formed to promote and maintain security. The underlying theory is founded on John Bowlby's work on the attachment behavioural system. The empirical validation was accomplished through three studies involving a clinical group and a non clinical group in a hospital setting and respondents to a community survey. Psychometric validation included measures of internal reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity through factor analysis. The resultant 35 item questionnaire should be useful to both clinicians and researchers interested in the characterization of the attachment system for adults.

  20. A study of the efficacy of fathers’ attachment training on paternal-fetal attachment and parental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Setodeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Attachment behaviors play an important role in accepting the identity of the fathers, the pleasant outcome of pregnancy and the child’s growth and development in the future. Objectives . This study aimed to investigate the effect of father’s attachment training (awaiting a child on paternal-fetal attachment and parental anxiety. Material and methods . This clinical trial was conducted on 150 spouses of eligible pregnant women. In the intervention group, four 90-minute training sessions were designed on maternal-fetal attachment, while the control group received routine prenatal care. The questionnaire of paternal-fetal attachment was completed both before and after intervention in both cases and control groups. Data analysis was done in SPSS software using a paired t-test and independent t-test (the significant level was 0.05. Results . The mean score of attachment was reported as 56.61 ± 6.05 and 64.53 ± 6.94 both before and after intervention, respectively. According to the paired t-test, there was a significant difference in the attachment score after intervention (p < 0.001. According to the independent t-test applied a month after intervention, the comparison of fathers’ anxiety scores before and after intervention showed a significant difference between the control and intervention groups (p < 0.001. Conclusions . Training fathers about attachment skills leads to increased paternal-fetal attachment and a lower anxiety score. Therefore, it seems necessary to include education of fathers in prenatal care.

  1. Allelic Variation in Outer Membrane Protein A and Its Influence on Attachment of Escherichia coli to Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Liao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic factors that govern microbe-sediment interactions in aquatic environments is important for water quality management and reduction of waterborne disease outbreaks. Although chemical properties of bacteria have been identified that contribute to initiation of attachment, the outer membrane proteins that contribute to these chemical properties still remain unclear. In this study we explored the attachment of 78 Escherichia coli environmental isolates to corn stover, a representative agricultural residue. Outer membrane proteome analysis led to the observation of amino acid variations, some of which had not been previously described, in outer membrane protein A (OmpA at 10 distinct locations, including each of the four extracellular loops, three of the eight transmembrane segments, the proline-rich linker and the dimerization domain. Some of the polymorphisms within loops 1, 2, and 3 were found to significantly co-occur. Grouping of sequences according to the outer loop polymorphisms revealed five distinct patterns that each occur in at least 5% of our isolates. The two most common patterns, I and II, are encoded by 33.3 and 20.5% of these isolates and differ at each of the four loops. Statistically significant differences in attachment to corn stover were observed among isolates expressing different versions of OmpA and when different versions of OmpA were expressed in the same genetic background. Most notable was the increased corn stover attachment associated with a loop 3 sequence of SNFDGKN relative to the standard SNVYGKN sequence. These results provide further insight into the allelic variation of OmpA and implicate OmpA in contributing to attachment to corn stover.

  2. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Attachment and parental divorce: a test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Heffernan, Marie E

    2013-09-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that disruptions in parental relationships are prospectively related to insecure attachment patterns in adulthood. The majority of research that has evaluated this hypothesis, however, has been based on retrospective reports of the quality of relationships with parents-research that is subject to retrospective biases. In the present research, the authors examined the impact of parental divorce-an event that can be assessed relatively objectively-on attachment patterns in adulthood across two samples. The data indicate that parental divorce has selective rather than diffuse implications for insecure attachment. Namely, parental divorce was more strongly related to insecure relationships with parents in adulthood than insecure relationships with romantic partners or friends. In addition, parental insecurity was most pronounced when parental divorce took place in early childhood. This finding is consistent with hypotheses about sensitive periods in attachment development.

  4. Attachment systems for implant overdenture: influence of implant inclination on retentive and lateral forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Chieh; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Gonda, Tomoya; Kotecha, Sunny

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the retentive force and lateral force of an implant with various types of attachments for overdentures in relation to implant inclination. An implant (3.75 × 13 mm) was embedded into an acrylic resin block, simulating the edentulous ridge. Four different attachment systems were used, including: (1) Locator black and blue, (2) a ball attachment, (3) a flat-type magnetic attachment and (4) a self-adjusting magnetic attachment, which has vertical and rotational movement. All of the attachments were under a constant dislodging force with an angle of the implant at 0°, 15°, 30° and 45°, and the experiments were repeated 10 times using a universal testing machine to measure the retentive force. The lateral force to the implant was measured by strain gauges attached on the implant surface. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple comparisons with Bonferroni's correction. Pattachments. The Locator blue and ball attachment maintained the retentive force until a 30° inclination; however, the lateral force increased significantly, especially with the ball attachment. The retentive force of the magnetic attachment was significantly lower at 0°, as well as the lateral force in the self-adjusting magnetic attachment. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that the retentive force decreases with an increase in implant inclination, whereas the lateral force increases, except for in magnetic attachments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Domain Walls with Strings Attached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2001-08-20

    We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.

  6. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  7. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  8. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  9. Localized attachment loss in Pendred syndrome: incidental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C G Dileep; Pradeep, A R

    2007-05-01

    Pendred syndrome is a rare, inherited, autosomal recessive disorder with an iodine organification defect of thyroxin produced by the thyroid gland. Its clinical features include sensorineural hearing loss, classically congenital and prelingual, and goiter. This is the first case report of Pendred syndrome in the dental literature with oral findings that include localized extensive attachment loss involving mandibular incisor teeth and idiopathic hypercementosis involving multiple teeth in addition to other oral manifestations, suggesting hypothyroidism-like macroglossia and macrocheilia. Furthermore, serum alkaline phosphatase along with inorganic calcium and phosphate levels were also elevated. Peripheral neutrophil function test suggested a defective function of neutrophils. Management of the case included augmenting thyroxin supplementation, in consultation with an endocrinologist, and extraction of hopeless mandibular central incisors followed by placement of immediate transitional dentures. A comprehensive medical history and systemic and laboratory evaluations should be considered a prerequisite to identify, manage, and report such rare conditions in routine clinical practice.

  10. Attachment Representation of Institutionalized Children in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Emiko

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study represents one of the first attachment investigations of Japanese children who have been institutionalized. Mental representation of attachment was assessed using George and Solomon's (1990, 1996, 2000) Attachment Doll Play Classification System of the Bretherton et al. (1990) doll play story stems. Participants were 32…

  11. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  12. Hot-Melt Adhesive Attachment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzell, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St. Clair, T. L.; Gleason, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesive system is as effective on Earth as in space. Fiberglass cloth mounted in head assembly. When adhesive reaches melt temperature head is attached to metals composites, ceramics, and other materials. Once attached, head cooled rapidly for quick stick. Used to tether tools or attach temporary scaffolding to walls, buildings, or beams.

  13. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  14. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May-August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed.

  15. Contributions of attachment theory and research: a framework for future research, translation, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-11-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses.

  16. Attachment Style and Less Severe Forms of Sexual Coercion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzas, Gery C; McCabe, Marita P; Karantzas, Kellie M; Pizzirani, Bengianni; Campbell, Hilary; Mullins, Ellie R

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance) is associated with the more subtle and less severe forms of sexual coercion, such as verbal threats and partner manipulation. This is despite the fact that past research has indicated some of the relationship behaviors exhibited by insecurely attached individuals represent behaviors indicative of either the perpetration or victimization of less severe forms of sexual coercion. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association between attachment style and less severe forms of sexual coercion. Our search, which included published journal papers, book chapters, and theses published between January 1970 and October 2014, yielded 1091 records. Examination of these records against exclusion criteria yielded 11 studies that focused on the associations between attachment orientation and perpetration of sexual coercion (n = 3), sexual coercion victimization (n = 3), or both perpetration and victimization (n = 5). Findings revealed that attachment anxiety appeared to be more consistently associated with being the victim of sexual coercion than attachment avoidance. In terms of perpetration, attachment avoidance was more consistently associated with sexual coercion. These findings were observed when examining the association between attachment dimensions and motives for sexual coercion. The findings also revealed gender to be a moderator for victimization. This review provides insights into how attachment style may influence the perpetration and victimization of sexual coercion.

  17. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parenting interventions for children with severe attachment problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Barry, Melissa; Hughes, Ellen; Trépel, Dominic; Ali, Shehzad; Allgar, Victoria; Cottrill, Lucy; Duffy, Steven; Fell, Jenny; Glanville, Julie; Glaser, Danya; Hackney, Lisa; Manea, Laura; McMillan, Dean; Palmer, Stephen; Prior, Vivien; Whitton, Clare; Perry, Amanda; Gilbody, Simon

    2015-07-01

    Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for 'severe attachment problems' (disorganised attachment patterns and attachment disorders). Several government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at-risk groups. This report was commissioned to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parenting interventions for children with severe attachment problems (the main review). One supplementary review explored the evaluation of assessment tools and a second reviewed 10-year outcome data to better inform health economic aspects of the main review. A total of 29 electronic databases were searched with additional mechanisms for identifying a wide pool of references using the Cochrane methodology. Examples of databases searched include PsycINFO (1806 to January week 1, 2012), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (1946 to December week 4, 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to week 1, 2012). Searches were carried out between 6 and 12 January 2012. Papers identified were screened and data were extracted by two independent reviewers, with disagreements arbitrated by a third independent reviewer. Quality assessment tools were used, including quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies - version 2 and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of parenting interventions was undertaken. A health economics analysis was conducted. The initial search returned 10,167 citations. This yielded 29 RCTs in the main review of parenting interventions to improve attachment patterns, and one involving children with reactive attachment disorder. A meta-analysis of eight studies seeking to improve outcome in at-risk populations showed statistically significant improvement in disorganised attachment. The interventions saw less disorganised attachment at outcome than the control (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.65; p

  18. A matter of attachment? How adoptive parents foster post-institutionalized children's social and emotional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Lionetti, Francesca; Green, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    The current study investigates the contribution of children's age at adoption (M = 46.52 months, SD = 11.52 months) and parents' attachment on post-institutionalized children's attachment and social-emotional adjustment. A total of 132 subjects, 48 post-institutionalized children aged 3-5 years, and their adoptive parents, took part in the study. One year from adoption, children's attachment distribution was as follows: 31% secure, 42% disorganized, and 27% insecure. Parents' secure attachment increased children's probability of presenting a secure attachment pattern; specifically, mothers' attachment patterns were most strongly associated with those of their adopted children, with fathers' making an additional contribution. Two years from adoption, secure children showed more adequate social competences than their insecure and disorganized peers and presented better emotional comprehension. The effect of age at adoption was delimited to a marginal association with behavioral problems. This pattern of associations suggests that attachment - both of adoptive parents and of children - substantially fosters social-emotional adjustment of post-institutionalized children who have experienced a period in emotionally neglecting environments beyond their first year of life, regardless of their age at adoption. Implications for policies and practices are discussed.

  19. Increased attachment security is related to early therapy drop-out in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchshuber, J; Hiebler-Ragger, M; Ragger, K; Rinner, A; Kapfhammer, H P; Unterrainer, H F

    2018-02-20

    Previous research work suggests a positive association between secure attachment and increased therapy adherence (TA) in different patient groups. However, there is still a strong need for research focusing on the influence of attachment on TA in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Hence, this study attempts to investigate the predictive value of different attachment patterns concerning TA in SUD inpatients. 122 (34 female) SUD inpatients completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) during the entry phase of therapeutic community treatment. After 6 weeks, subjects who remained in therapy (n = 47) completed the ASQ for a second time. In line with the literature, agglomerative Cluster Analysis suggested a two-cluster solution (Cluster I: increased secure attachment pattern; Cluster II: increased insecure attachment pattern). Notably, inpatients in Cluster I were more likely to drop out of treatment within the first 6 weeks (p security for TA in SUD inpatients. This finding probably mirrors a more realistic kind of self-assessment. More generally, the importance of considering attachment styles in SUD treatment is underlined.

  20. Changes in attachment organization, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal problems among women in treatment for abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Muller, Robert T; Classen, Catherine C

    2018-01-01

    Women who have experienced childhood abuse often have interpersonal difficulties. The current study examines whether changes in emotion dysregulation mediate the relationship between changes in attachment patterns and changes in interpersonal problems among women who completed treatment for the sequelae of childhood abuse. Participants were 36 women who completed a program targeting the psychological consequences of childhood maltreatment. At pre-and posttreatment, participants completed a projective assessment of adult attachment, and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems. Changes in emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between shifts toward resolved attachment and changes in interpersonal problems. Compared to participants who maintained their pretreatment attachment patterns, those who shifted toward a resolved pattern became significantly more able to clarify and describe their emotions. Improvements in these abilities were associated with decreased problems with being nonassertive, overly accommodating, self-sacrificing, and socially inhibited. Additionally, improvements in emotional clarity uniquely mediated the relationship between shifts to resolved attachment and reductions in problems with being domineering and intrusive. Moreover, decreased difficulty describing feelings uniquely mediated the relationship between shifts to resolved attachment and decreases in problems with being cold. Among women who complete treatment for the sequelae of childhood abuse, shifts to resolved attachment were indirectly related to decreases in interpersonal problems through improved emotional processing.

  1. Measuring attachment and parental bonding in psychosis and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, S; Onwumere, J; Bissoli, S; Ruggeri, M; Kuipers, E; Valmaggia, L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment theory proposes that psychological functioning and affect regulations are influenced by the attachment we form with others. Early relationships with parents or caregivers lay the foundations for attachment styles. These styles are proposed to influence how we relate to others during our life can be modified by the relationships and events we experience in our lifespan. A secure attachment style is associated with a capacity to manage distress, comfort with autonomy and the ability to form relationships with others, whereas insecure attachment can lead to dysfunctional relationships, emotional and behaviour avoidance. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to inform our understanding of relationship difficulties in people with psychosis. This paper aims to complement recent systematic reviews by providing an overview of attachment theory, its application to psychosis, including an understanding of measurement issues and the clinical implications offered. A narrative review was completed of the measures of attachment and parental bonding in psychosis. Its clinical implications are also discussed. The paper also explores the link between insecure attachment styles and illness course, social functioning and symptomatology. The following questions are addressed: What are the key attachment measures that have been used within the attachment and psychosis literature? What are the results of studies that have measured attachment or parental bonding in psychosis and what clinical implications can we derive from it? What are some of the key questions for future research from these findings in relation to the onset of psychosis research field? The most commonly used measures of attachment in psychosis research are reviewed. Self-report questionnaires and semi-structured interviews have mainly been used to examine attachment styles in adult samples and in recent years comprise a measure specifically developed for a psychosis group. The review suggests that

  2. A finite element study on stress distribution of two different attachment designs under implant supported overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anwar, Mohamed I; Yousief, Salah A; Soliman, Tarek A; Saleh, Mahmoud M; Omar, Wael S

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate stress patterns generated within implant-supported mandibular overdentures retained by two different attachment types: ball and socket and locator attachments. Commercial CAD/CAM and finite element analysis software packages were utilized to construct two 3D finite element models for the two attachment types. Unilateral masticatory compressive loads of 50, 100, and 150 N were applied vertically to the overdentures, parallel to the longitudinal axes of the implants. Loads were directed toward the central fossa in the molar region of each overdenture, that linear static analysis was carried out to find the generated stresses and deformation on each part of the studied model. According to FEA results the ball attachment neck is highly stressed in comparison to the locator one. On the other hand mucosa and cortical bone received less stresses under ball and socket attachment. Locator and ball and socket attachments induce equivalent stresses on bone surrounding implants. Locator attachment performance was superior to that of the ball and socket attachment in the implants, nylon caps, and overdenture. Locator attachments are highly recommended and can increase the interval between successive maintenance sessions.

  3. Father and son attachment styles in alcoholic and non-alcoholic families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Hazarika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The theory of attachment is important to understand a lot of human behaviour. Styles of attachment could be important predictors in developing dependence on alcoholism. Insecure attachment patterns could be significant risk factors for future alcohol use. Methods: Participants for this study consist of fathers with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS from treatment centres and fathers from the community with no dependency on alcohol, and their sons (n=200. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST, socioeconomic status scale were administered, and attachment styles were derived by the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. We hypothesised a prior concept reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment styles and alcohol in both the generations. Results: Statistics on SPSS-16 was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, fathers with ADS had insecure attachments styles in comparison to the control group. Substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation were at an all-time low for the secure group. Conclusion: The findings from this study identify attachment styles as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between alcohol dependence in treatment seekers. The findings further imply that differential treatment may need to be provided taking into account one’s attachment representation to promote successful recovery. It also highlights the need to develop secure ties in children of alcoholic parents to protect them from use of substances as a coping and a learned mechanism. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are highlighted and implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  4. [The Relationship Between Attachment Representations of Foster Parents and Foster Children and the Role of the Child's Sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Katja; Kliewer-Neumann, Josephine; Bovenschen, Ina; Lang, Katrin; Zimmermann, Janin; Spangler, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Children who have been placed in foster care after having experienced difficult family situations need to experience secure relationships. The development of a secure attachment model is regarded as a key protective factor for a healthy development. The present study examines predictors of attachment representations in a sample of 37 foster children aged three to eight years. Children's attachment representations were assessed using the Attachment Story Completion Task, and foster parents' attachment representations with the Adult Attachment Interview. Female foster children scored higher in secure attachment representations than males. Attachment representations of male foster children were positively influenced by a secure attachment representation of their primary foster parent and slightly by the duration of placement in the foster family as well as their age of placement but differently than expected. These results suggest that male foster children may be more vulnerable in their development of attachment representations and that foster parents' state of mind regarding attachment as well as the duration of the placement seem to have an impact on the development of attachment patterns in their foster children. This should be considered in the choice and counseling of foster parents.

  5. The Relationship between Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Mother-Infant Attachment Behaviors in Primiparous Women Referring to Mashhad Health Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Taffazoli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mother-infant bonding and interactions after childbirth are shaped by maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy. Although many studies have shown the positive correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors, some controversial studies have shown otherwise. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors in primiparous women. Methods:This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 100 primiparous women, referring to the selected heath care centers of Mashhad. Data were collected using Cranley's maternal–fetal attachment scale, Avant’s mother-infant attachment tool, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and a demographic/obstetric questionnaire including demographic data, obstetric information, delivery outcomes, and postpartum data. Pregnant women with a gestational age of 35-41 weeks, who met the inclusion criteria, completed Cranley's questionnaire, as well as the demographic/obstetric questionnaire. Four and eight weeks after delivery, the subjects were asked to complete the Edinburgh questionnaire and postpartum information; then, they were asked to breastfeed their infants on a chair in a quiet place for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the mothers’ behaviors toward their neonates. For data analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. Results: There was a direct positive relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ emotional behaviors toward infants four and eight weeks after delivery. However, four and eight weeks after childbirth, no significant correlation was found between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ caring behaviors. Conclusion: According to the findings, maternal-fetal attachment is one of the most important factors for mother-infant attachment. These findings could be applied for enriching mother-infant attachment

  6. Attachment theory and spirituality: two threads converging in palliative care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetz, Cécile; Müller, Jakob; Frick, Eckhard; Petersen, Yvonne; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mauer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient's needs and challenges. Both concepts have been treated by research in diverse and multiform ways, but little effort has yet been made to integrate them into one theoretical framework in reference to the palliative context. In this paper, we begin an attempt to close this scientific gap theoretically. Following the lines of thought in this paper, we assume that spirituality can be conceptualized as an adequate response of a person's attachment pattern to the peculiarity of the palliative situation. Spirituality can be seen both as a recourse to securely based relationships and as an attempt to explore the ultimate unknown, the mystery of one's own death. Thus, spirituality in the palliative context corresponds to the task of attachment behavior: to transcend symbiosis while continuing bonds and thus to explore the unknown environment independently and without fear. Spiritual activity is interpreted as a human attachment behavior option that receives special quality and importance in the terminal stage of life. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  7. Attachment Theory and Spirituality: Two Threads Converging in Palliative Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Loetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient’s needs and challenges. Both concepts have been treated by research in diverse and multiform ways, but little effort has yet been made to integrate them into one theoretical framework in reference to the palliative context. In this paper, we begin an attempt to close this scientific gap theoretically. Following the lines of thought in this paper, we assume that spirituality can be conceptualized as an adequate response of a person’s attachment pattern to the peculiarity of the palliative situation. Spirituality can be seen both as a recourse to securely based relationships and as an attempt to explore the ultimate unknown, the mystery of one’s own death. Thus, spirituality in the palliative context corresponds to the task of attachment behavior: to transcend symbiosis while continuing bonds and thus to explore the unknown environment independently and without fear. Spiritual activity is interpreted as a human attachment behavior option that receives special quality and importance in the terminal stage of life. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  8. Pattern recognition principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

  9. How does microanalysis of mother-infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month infant-mother face-to-face communication operates like a "social microscope" and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues published in 2010 that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity.

  10. Difference in place attachment between students in Helsinki and in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Radusinović Dubravka; Vukčević Maša; Čizmić Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Place attachment refers to the process of human-place bonding; the bonding process includes both physical and social ties formed within an environment. In the last two decades, place attachment has been the subject of many studies, but there have not been many cross-cultural studies. The aim of this study was to determine differences in global attachment to house, neighbourhood and city among young people in Belgrade and Helsinki, with consideration of social and physical dimensions of place ...

  11. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  12. A Weighted Evolving Network with Community Size Preferential Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Zhiwei; Shan Erfang

    2010-01-01

    Community structure is an important characteristic in real complex network. It is a network consists of groups of nodes within which links are dense but among which links are sparse. In this paper, the evolving network include node, link and community growth and we apply the community size preferential attachment and strength preferential attachment to a growing weighted network model and utilize weight assigning mechanism from BBV model. The resulting network reflects the intrinsic community structure with generalized power-law distributions of nodes' degrees and strengths.

  13. Reliability Testing the Die-Attach of CPV Cell Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.; Sweet, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    Results and progress are reported for a course of work to establish an efficient reliability test for the die-attach of CPV cell assemblies. Test vehicle design consists of a ~1 cm2 multijunction cell attached to a substrate via several processes. A thermal cycling sequence is developed in a test-to-failure protocol. Methods of detecting a failed or failing joint are prerequisite for this work; therefore both in-situ and non-destructive methods, including infrared imaging techniques, are being explored as a method to quickly detect non-ideal or failing bonds.

  14. Past Peer Victimization and Current Adult Attachment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Heather E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; DeLucia, Janice

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the potential long-term effects of peer victimization experiences during childhood on attachment quality in current adult relationships in a sample of 386 university students attending 2 northeastern universities. Findings included (a) no significant gender differences regarding verbal or relational peer victimization; (b)…

  15. Attachment Styles and Self-Image in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Fusun Cuhadaroglu; Tuzun, Zeynep; Pehlivanturk, Berna; Unal, Fatih; Gokler, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the attachment styles and the relation of these styles to the self-image in Turkish adolescents. The study included 378 adolescents (196 females and 182 males) from high schools with different socioeconomic status (SES) who were administered Relationship Scale Questionnaires and Offer Self-Image…

  16. Children‟s Attachment Styles, Academic Achievement and Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... their children (Melgosa, 1997), include:- Authoritarian parenting - in which the parents are harsh, .... rude, moody, depressed, violent and aggressive with little or low self-esteem. They display no physical or ..... Infant–mother attachment classification: Risk and protection in relation to changing maternal.

  17. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  18. Attachment reorganization following divorce: normative processes and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Borelli, Jessica L

    2018-03-21

    This paper uses attachment theory as a lens for reviewing contemporary research on how adults cope with marital separation and loss. The first section of the paper discusses the process of normative attachment reorganization, or the psychology of adaptive grief responses following relationship transitions. We argue that changes two processes, in particular, can be uses to track changes in this normative reorganization process: narrative coherence and self-concept clarity. The second section of the paper suggest that individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance shape the variability in this normative reorganization process, largely as a result of the characteristic ways in which these styles organize emotion-regulatory tendencies. The paper closes with a series of integrative questions for future research, including a call for new studies aimed at understanding under what contexts anxiety and avoidance may be adaptive in promoting emotion recovery to separation and divorce experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissociative electron attachment: Threshold phenomena and multimode effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, Ilya I

    2009-01-01

    We present a summary of recent progress on studies of threshold phenomena in low-energy dissociative electron attachment to polyatomic molecules: vibrational Feshbach resonances and threshold cusps. The theoretical approach is based on the resonance R-matrix theory. It allows us to analyze threshold effects in other channels, particularly vibrational excitation. If the molecular long-range field is not strong enough, virtual-state cusps are observed at vibrational excitation thresholds. The second part of the paper illustrates the multimode effects in dissociative attachment using attachment to the CF 3 Cl molecule as an example. Symmetric stretch C-Cl vibrations v 3 and symmetric deformation (or so-called u mbrella ) vibrations v 2 are included. Calculations allow us to study the final-state vibrational distribution in the CF 3 (v 2 ) fragment.

  20. Security for Network Attached Storage Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gobioff, Howard

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a novel cryptographic capability system addressing the security and performance needs of network attached storage systems in which file management functions occur at a different...

  1. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  2. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  3. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and a Survey of Metallo-β-Lactamase Genes Including bla-IMP and bla-VIM Types in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Hospital Patients in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Hanafi Abdar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) producing strains of Acinetobacter baumannii are serious etiological agents of hospital infections worldwide. Among the β- lactams, carbapenems are the most effective antibiotics used against A. baumannii. However, resistance to these drugs among clinical strains of A. baumannii has been increasing in recent years. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of A. baumannii strains isolated from eleven different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, and the prevalence of MBL genes (bla-VIM and bla-IMP) were determined. During a period of 5 months, 176 isolates of A. baumannii were collected from different clinical specimens from hospitalized patients in Tehran. All isolates were confirmed by biochemical methods. The isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following minimum inhibitory concentration determination, imipenem-resistant isolates were further tested for MBL production by the double disk synergy test (DDST) method. PCR assays were performed for the detection of the MBL genes bla-IMP and bla-VIM. The DDST phenotypic method indicated that among the 169 imipenem-resistant isolates, 165 strains were MBL positive. The PCR assays revealed that 63 of the overall isolates (36%) carried the bla-VIM gene and 70 strains (40%) harbored bla-IMP. It is obvious that nosocomial infections associated with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. are on the rise. Therefore, the determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and screening for MBL production among A. baumannii isolates is important for controlling clinical Acinetobacter infections. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Attachment style differences in online relationship involvement: an examination of interaction characteristics and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiali

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated attachment style differences in online relationships with regard to interaction characteristics and relationship satisfaction. The effect of relationship type was also taken into account in these investigations. The findings suggested that attachment style differences in interaction breadth and depth were present only in casual friendships. Preoccupied and dismissing individuals had a lower level of interaction breadth and depth than did secure and fearful individuals within this type of online relationship. A same pattern of attachment style differences was found in relationship satisfaction of casual online friendships.

  6. MENTAL STATE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: THE LONGITUDINAL ROLES OF ATTACHMENT AND MATERNAL LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker Razuri, Erin; Hiles Howard, Amanda R; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2017-05-01

    Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task. Results showed that (a) mental state talk, including belief and desire language, increased over time; (b) there were differences between the type of mental state words used by the mother in insecure versus secure dyads; (c) there were differences in patterns of mental state words used in both mothers and children in insecure versus secure dyads; and (d) attachment appeared to exert a consistent influence over time. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. The formation of secure new attachments by children who were maltreated: an observational study of adolescents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Michelle A; O'Connor, Thomas G; Briskman, Jacqueline A; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Children who were maltreated and enter foster care are at risk for maladjustment and relationship disturbances with foster carers. A popular hypothesis is that prior attachment relationships with abusive birth parents are internalized and carried forward to impair the child's subsequent attachment relationships. However, the empirical base for this model is limited, especially in adolescence. We examined the attachment patterns of 62 adolescents with their birth parents and their foster parents; we compared them to a comparison sample of 50 adolescents in normal-risk families. Attachment was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview; adolescent-parent interaction quality was assessed from direct observation; disruptive behavior symptoms were assessed from multiple informants. Whereas nearly all of the adolescents in foster families exhibited insecure attachments to their birth mothers (90%) and birth fathers (100%), nearly one-half were classified as having a secure attachment with their foster mother (46%) and father (49%); rates of secure attachment toward foster parents did not differ significantly from the rate in comparison families. Within the foster care sample, attachment security to the foster mother was predicted from current observed relationship quality and the duration of current placement. In addition, attachment quality in foster adolescents was associated with fewer disruptive behavior symptoms, and this association was equally strong in foster and comparison families. Our findings demonstrate that there is substantial potential for maltreated children to change and develop subsequent secure attachments in adolescence.

  8. The links between adult attachment and post-traumatic stress: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzone, Natalie; Santos, Ines; McGowan, John; Donaghay-Spire, Eloise

    2018-03-30

    The theory of attachment has informed our understanding of survival and well-being throughout the lifespan. There is a growing interest in the relationship between attachment and symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS). Emerging evidence points to important links between attachment and PTS, yet current theoretical and clinical understandings of PTS symptoms and attachment remain relatively disparate. The current systematic review aimed to synthesize, describe, and critique evidence demonstrating the links between attachment and PTS in adults. It also aimed to explore whether the relationship between attachment and PTS differs according to the nature of the traumatic event. Searches were conducted using PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and Google Scholar to identify empirical studies focusing on PTS in adults. Twenty-one papers were identified. Attachment was shown to have moderating and mediating influences on the relationship between trauma and PTS. This varied according to the type of trauma, and how symptoms of PTS were reported across the different attachment styles. Methodological rigour varied across studies. Clinical and research implications are discussed, including the consideration of attachment security in assessment and formulation. Although findings were mixed, this review suggests that there is an important link between attachment and PTS. It supports the current emerging evidence demanding the development of a more unified theoretical framework for attachment, types of trauma, and symptoms of PTS. The findings discussed in this review have important implications for the treatment of PTS symptoms. Consideration of attachment styles in formulations is likely to inform treatment plans. There is increasing evidence to suggest that assessing and accounting for attachment style in therapy may improve the chances of successful treatment. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Avoidance, anxiety, and sex: the influence of romantic attachment on HIV-risk among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace S; Milan, Stephanie; Westdahl, Claire; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Fletcher, Rachel; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2007-03-01

    Most unprotected sex occurs in close relationships. However, few studies examine relational factors and sexual risk among high-risk populations. Romantic Attachment Theory states that individuals have cognitive working models for relationships that influence expectations, affect, and behavior. We investigated the influence of attachment avoidance and anxiety on sexual beliefs (e.g., condom use beliefs, self-efficacy), behavior (e.g., condom use, multiple partners, unprotected sex with risky partners), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 755 high-risk, young pregnant women (ages 14-25) recruited from urban prenatal clinics. Attachment anxiety predicted sexual beliefs, condom use, and unprotected sex with risky partners controlling for demographic variables. Sexual beliefs did not mediate the relationship between attachment orientation and sexual behavior. Current relationship with the father of the baby did mediate the effect of attachment anxiety on multiple partners and STIs. Results indicate the importance of including general relational factors, such as attachment, in HIV prevention.

  10. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  11. Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder: theoretical perspectives and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lyons T

    2007-02-01

    Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder (RAD). To highlight current perspectives on attachment theory, RAD, and treatment implications using a case study of an 8-year-old patient with RAD. Selected multidisciplinary literature related to attachment theory and RAD. The literature provides a body of work that substantiates the importance of early attachment relationships to human development and highlights gaps in our knowledge related to treatment of children with RAD. The quality of early attachment relationships is correlated with future personality and brain development. Attachment disturbances are associated with psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. Although evidence for the effective treatment of children with attachment disorders is minimal and inconclusive, the two major perspectives, developmental psychology and neuropsychoanalysis, offer guidelines for practice.

  12. HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Identification Preconceptual Phase I Summary Report (Including Attachments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the process used by the Team to systematically develop alternative methods or technologies for final disposition of HLW salt. Additionally, this report summarizes the process utilized to reduce the total list of identified alternatives to an ''initial list'' for further evaluation. This report constitutes completion of the team charter major milestone Phase I Deliverable

  13. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  14. Parent attachment, childrearing behaviour, and child attachment: Mediated effect that predict externalizing behaviour in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6 clinically referred for EB and their parents from a middle-high income population. Child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-set; parent's rememb...

  15. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  16. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  17. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  18. Mother-Infant Attachment in Adoptive Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Leslie M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    No differences were found in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Suggests that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships…

  19. Study on thermocouple attachment in reflood experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1977-03-01

    The method of thermocouple attachment to a heater rods has been studied for surface temperature measurement in reflood experiments. The method used as far in JAERI's reflood experiments had some possibilities of not estimating exactly the quench times. Various attachment method have been tested and some proved to be effective in the respect. (auth.)

  20. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  1. Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting…

  2. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  3. Electron attachment to Van der Waals clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatovic, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with attachment of thermal electrons to Van der Waals clusters at zero energy. The underlying theory is treated briefly. Three different major types of experiments for studying thermal electron attachment to molecules and clusters: swarm experiments, beam experiments and collisions with Rydberg atoms, are described and some results are reviewed. 42 refs.; 5 figs

  4. An Attachment Model of University Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…

  5. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  6. Parents' attachment histories and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors: exploring family systems models of linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, P A; Cowan, C P; Cohn, D A; Pearson, J L

    1996-02-01

    Twenty-seven mothers and 27 fathers were given the Adult Attachment Interview (M. Main & R. Goldwyn, in press) when their children were 3.5 years old. Continuous ratings of narrative coherence, probable experience quality (parents perceived as loving), and state of mind (current anger at parents) were entered as latent variables in partial least squares structural equation models that included observational measures of marital quality and parenting style. Models that include fathers' attachment histories predicted more variance in kindergarten teachers' descriptions of children's externalizing behavior, whereas models that include mothers' attachment histories predicted more variance in children's internalizing behavior. Marital data added predictive power to the equations. Discussion is focused on the importance of integrating attachment and family systems approaches, and of parents' gender and marital quality, in understanding specific links between parents' attachment histories and their young children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

  7. Theory of Mind and attachment styles in people with psychotic disorders, their siblings, and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    Objective: Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to

  8. Attachment Theory and Religiosity: A Summary of Empirical Research with Implications for Counseling Christian Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Duane F.; Edwards, Carla E.; Hendrix, Rebecca R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors summarize the growing body of empirical research literature in the area of psychology of religion that has been guided by attachment theory and indicate implications for counseling, including practical suggestions for case conceptualization, possible spiritual interventions, and ethical guidelines for practice. Attachment theory…

  9. Theory of Mind and attachment styles in people with psychotic disorders, their siblings, and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie

  10. Attachment and Internalizing Behavior in Early Childhood: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Atkinson, Leslie; Laurin, Kristin; Benoit, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research supporting the contention that insecure attachment is related to internalizing behaviors has been inconsistent. Across 60 studies including 5,236 families, we found a significant, small to medium effect size linking insecure attachment and internalizing behavior (observed d = 0.37, 95% CI [0.27, 0.46]; adjusted d = 0.19, 95% CI…

  11. "Handbook of Attachment Interventions", edited by Terry M. Levy. [Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patricia Irwin

    2001-01-01

    Notes that "Handbook" presents 10 topics related to attachment interventions, including attachment disorders as an antecedent to violence, ADHD treatment, permanency planning, and adoption. Maintains that the handbook's tone and style varies from the highly practical to the broadly philosophical although the specific professional…

  12. Attachment and parenting in adult patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother's care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions.

  13. Attachment and eating disorders: a research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2018-03-16

    Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  15. Parental Interaction Patterns in Children with Adhd and Controls; a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami -Aghda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Communicational patterns of the parents can either positively or negatively influence children's personality. Parenting manner has long-term effects on behavior, function, expectations and eventually people's future personality. This study investigates parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit- hyperactive disorder. Methods :In this study, 50 male children aged 7-12 years were selected in two groups including 1 25 students with ADHD referring to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan according to the diagnostic scale of DSM- IV and 2 25 healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan from Septamber 2005 until March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them. Results: In "Communication" interaction pattern, the mean score of healthy children was 15.08, while the mean score of ADHD children was 13.42. In "admission" interactional pattern; the mean of the first group was 14.76, while the second group was 11.76. In "control" interactional pattern, mean of group one was 13.28 and the second group was 11.76. In "aggression control" interactional pattern, the mean of group one was 13 and the second group was 14.68. In "lack of aggressive attachment" interactional pattern, mean of the first group was 13.36 and the second group was 16.67. The mean scores of parental interactional pattern in healthy children were all higher than ADHD children except for "aggression control" and "lack of aggressive attachment" interactional patterns. Conclusion: The more the parental "admission" interactional pattern score, the lower the signs of ADHD in children. The signs of severity are lower in cases with more positive parental "control" interactional patterns. If the scores of "lack of aggressive/ attachment" and "aggressive/ control" interactional patterns are higher, ADHD signs are more severe.

  16. The Effect of Drag and Attachment Site of External Tags on Swimming Eels: Experimental Quantification and Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorache, Christian; Burgerhout, Erik; Brittijn, Sebastiaan; van den Thillart, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Telemetry studies on aquatic animals often use external tags to monitor migration patterns and help to inform conservation effort. However, external tags are known to impair swimming energetics dramatically in a variety of species, including the endangered European eel. Due to their high swimming efficiency, anguilliform swimmers are very susceptibility for added drag. Using an integration of swimming physiology, behaviour and kinematics, we investigated the effect of additional drag and site of externally attached tags on swimming mode and costs. The results show a significant effect of a) attachment site and b) drag on multiple energetic parameters, such as Cost Of Transport (COT), critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and optimal swimming speed (Uopt), possibly due to changes in swimming kinematics. Attachment at 0.125 bl from the tip of the snout is a better choice than at the Centre Of Mass (0.35 bl), as it is the case in current telemetry studies. Quantification of added drag effect on COT and Ucrit show a (limited) correlation, suggesting that the Ucrit test can be used for evaluating external tags for telemetry studies until a certain threshold value. Uopt is not affected by added drag, validating previous findings of telemetry studies. The integrative methodology and the evaluation tool presented here can be used for the design of new studies using external telemetry tags, and the (re-) evaluation of relevant studies on anguilliform swimmers. PMID:25409179

  17. Evaluation of a morphing based method to estimate muscle attachment sites of the lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellikaan, P; van der Krogt, M M; Carbone, V; Fluit, R; Vigneron, L M; Van Deun, J; Verdonschot, N; Koopman, H F J M

    2014-03-21

    To generate subject-specific musculoskeletal models for clinical use, the location of muscle attachment sites needs to be estimated with accurate, fast and preferably automated tools. For this purpose, an automatic method was used to estimate the muscle attachment sites of the lower extremity, based on the assumption of a relation between the bone geometry and the location of muscle attachment sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of this morphing based method. Two cadaver dissections were performed to measure the contours of 72 muscle attachment sites on the pelvis, femur, tibia and calcaneus. The geometry of the bones including the muscle attachment sites was morphed from one cadaver to the other and vice versa. For 69% of the muscle attachment sites, the mean distance between the measured and morphed muscle attachment sites was smaller than 15 mm. Furthermore, the muscle attachment sites that had relatively large distances had shown low sensitivity to these deviations. Therefore, this morphing based method is a promising tool for estimating subject-specific muscle attachment sites in the lower extremity in a fast and automated manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Attachment to Parents, Peers and Siblings in the Involved and Noninvolved Adolescents in Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حلیمه بیابانی علی آباد

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare attachment to parents, peers and siblings among involved (bulling, victim, and bulling-victim and noninvolved in bullying in Yazd city. All of male and female students in the academic year 2013-2014 in Yazd included research population. A sample of 384 students were selected randomly through cluster sampling. Participants answered a sociometric questionnaire and also completed the Peer Relationship Questionnaire, the Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachment, and the Inventory of Siblings Attachment. Multivariate analysis (MANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in attachment to parents, peers and siblings between involved adolescents in bulling and noninvolved ones (p>0/0001. Regarding the attachment to parents, peers and siblings, noninvolved group scored higher than the involved groups. Also, among involved groups, the bully and the victim- bully groups received higher scores in attachment to mother prior to the peer attachment. Finally, the attachment to siblings in both groups was the lowest scores of attachment.

  19. Association of Antibiotic Resistance in Agricultural Escherichia coli Isolates with Attachment to Quartz▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L.; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type I, EcpA, P pili, and Ag43 were detected, though none was significantly related to attachment. Quartz attachment was positively and significantly (P quartz in agricultural isolates. We propose that this may be due to encoding by the responsible genes on a mobile genetic element. Further exploration of the relationship between antibiotic resistance and attachment to environmental particles will improve the understanding and modeling of environmental transport processes, with the goal of preventing human exposure to antibiotic-resistant or virulent microorganisms. PMID:21821756

  20. Low childhood subjective social status and telomere length in adulthood: The role of attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; Seiler, Annina; Chirinos, Diana A; Garcini, Luz M; Acebo, Sally L; Cohen, Sheldon; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2018-04-01

    Low subjective social status (SSS) in childhood places one at greater risk of a number of health problems in adulthood. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that exposure to supportive parenting may buffer the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health. Given the importance of supportive caregivers and close others for the development of attachment orientations throughout the lifespan, attachment theory may be important for understanding why some individuals are resilient to the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health while others are not. We examined if attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance altered the association between childhood subjective social status (SSS) and length of telomeres in white blood cells in adulthood. Shorter telomere length is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Participants (N = 128) completed self-report measures of childhood SSS and attachment orientations, as well as a blood draw. We found that among those with low childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with longer telomere length in white blood cells in comparison to high attachment anxiety controlling for participant age, sex, race, body mass index, and adult SSS. Among those with high childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with a slight decrease in telomere length. Attachment avoidance was unrelated to length of telomeres. Such findings provide further evidence for the role that close relationships may have on buffering SSS related health disparities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Locomotor activity influences muscle architecture and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabey, Karyne N.; Green, David J.; Taylor, Andrea B.; Begun, David R.; Richmond, Brian G.; McFarlin, Shannon C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how the level and type of activity influences forelimb muscle architecture of spinodeltoideus, acromiodeltoideus, and superficial pectoralis, bone growth rate and gross morphology of their insertion sites. Over an 11-week period, we collected data on activity levels in one control group and two experimental activity groups (running, climbing) of female wild-type mice. Our results show that both activity type and level increased bone growth rates influenced muscle architecture, including differences in potential muscular excursion (fibre length) and potential force production (physiological cross-sectional area). However, despite significant influences on muscle architecture and bone development, activity had no observable effect on enthesis morphology. These results suggest that the gross morphology of entheses is less reliable than internal bone structure for making inferences about an individual’s past behaviour. PMID:25467113

  2. Psychological attachment in patients with spondylosis of cervical and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedziwiatr, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    Persons with spondylosis of the cervical spine have a low sense of security, difficulties in relationships with their mothers, difficulties in contact with their own body and in coping with dysphoric affect. The question arises: Are those problems the result of the current medical condition, or one of its causes? In order to find the answer one should look closer at the period of an individual's life when a sense of security and a pattern of emotional relationships are formed, and a sense of own body and defence attitudes are developed. The earliest period of life in which these processes occur is the initial relationship between the child and mother; the period of attachment and object relation. If the attachment style in the group studied does not deviate significantly from the control group, it ought to be assumed that the present problems are situational. The problems would then a result of a chronic difficult (stressful) situation which is spondylosis of cervical or lumbar spine. In an attempt to answer the above question, preliminary studies in a 90-person group were conducted. The group included 30 patients with spondylosis of the cervical spine, 30 patients with spondylosis of the lumbar spine, and 30 control persons without spondylosis.

  3. Using arc voltage to locate the anode attachment in plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhouse, D J; Heberlein, J V R; Lindsay, J W

    2013-01-01

    Plasma arc cutting is a widely used industrial process in which an electric arc in the form of a high velocity plasma jet is used to melt and blow away metal. The arc attaches inside the resulting cut slot, or kerf, where it both provides a large heat flux and determines the flow dynamics of the plasma. Knowledge of the position of the arc attachment is essential for understanding the phenomena present at the work piece. This work presents a new method of measuring the location of the arc attachment in which the arc voltage is measured during the cutting of a range of work piece thicknesses. The attachment location is then interpreted from the voltages. To support the validity of this method, the kerf shape, dross particle size and dross adhesion to the work piece are also observed. While these do not conclusively give an attachment location, they show patterns which are consistent with the attachment location found from the voltage measurements. The method is demonstrated on the cutting of mild steel, where the arc attachment is found to be stationary in the upper portion of the cut slot and in reasonable agreement with existing published findings. For a process optimized for the cutting of 12.7 mm mild steel, the attachment is found at a depth of 1.5–3.4 mm. For a slower process optimized for the cutting of 25.4 mm mild steel, the attachment is found at a depth of 3.4–4.8 mm, which enhances heat transfer further down in the kerf, allowing cutting of the thicker work piece. The use of arc voltage to locate the position of the arc attachment is unique when compared with existing methods because it is entirely independent of the heat distribution and visualization techniques. (paper)

  4. Initial force systems during bodily tooth movement with plastic aligners and composite attachments: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan Pablo; Peña, Fabio Marcelo; Martínez, Valentina; Giraldo, Diana C; Cardona, Carlos Iván

    2015-05-01

    To describe, using a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, the initial force system generated during bodily movement of upper canines with plastic aligners with and without composite attachments. A CAD model of an upper right canine, its alveolar bone and periodontal ligament, thermoformed plastic aligner, and two light-cured composite attachments were constructed. A FE model was used to analyze the effects of imposing a distal movement condition of 0.15 mm on the aligner (simulating the mechanics used to produce a distal bodily movement) with and without composite attachments. In terms of tension and compression stress distribution, without composite attachments a compression area in the cervical third of the distal root surface and a tension area in the apical third of the mesial surface were observed. With composite attachments, uniform compression areas in the distal root surface and uniform tension area in the mesial root surface were observed. Compression areas in the active surfaces of the composite attachments were also observed. In terms of movement patterns, an uncontrolled distal inclination, with rotation axis between the middle and cervical root thirds, was observed without composite attachment. Distal bodily movement (translation) was observed with composite attachment. In a three-dimensional FE analysis of a plastic aligner system biomechanically supplementary composite attachments generate the force system required to produce bodily tooth movement; the absence of biomechanically supplementary composite attachments favors the undesired inclination of the tooth during the translation movements.

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. A framework for the analysis of vibrations of structures with uncertain attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuo; Mace, Brian R.; Halkyard, Roger; Ferguson, Neil S.

    2016-01-01

    Attachments affect the dynamic response of an assembled structure. When engineers are modelling structures, small attachments will often not be included in the “bare” model, especially in the initial design stages. The location of these attachments might be poorly known, yet they affect the response of the structure. This paper considers how attachments jointed to the structure at uncertain points, can be included in the dynamic model of a structure. Two approaches are proposed. In the time domain, a combination of component mode synthesis, characteristic constraint modes and modal analysis gives a computationally efficient basis for subsequent analysis using, for example, Monte Carlo simulation. The frequency domain approach is based on assembly of frequency response functions of bare structure and attachment. Numerical examples of a beam and a plate with a point mass added at an uncertain location are considered and predictions compared with experiment results. (paper)

  7. Slides with no attached paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, Dominique; Wallenius, Janne; Ouzounian, Gerald; Wikberg, Peter; Todd, Terry A.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhael V.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Mayorshin, A.A.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nash, Ken L.; Nilsson, M.; Grimes, T.; Braley, J.C.; TAKESHITA, Kenji; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Spendlikova, I.; Distler, P.; John, J.; Sebesta, F.; VU, Trong-Hung; SIMONIN, Jean-Pierre; PAULENOVA, Alena; PRECEK, Martin; HARTIG, Kyle; KNAPP, Nathan; Vidick, Geoffrey; Bouslimani, Nouri; Desreux, Jean F.; Lewis, F.W.; Hudson, M.J.; Harwood, L.M.; Nunez, Ana; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Raj, Baldev; Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Pouchon, Manuel A.; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Nordlund, Anders; John, Jan; Maershin, Alexander; Zakirov, R.; Panov, A.; Toropov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu 3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe 4 -BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique

  8. Similarities and differences regarding changes in attachment preferences and attachment styles in relation to romantic relationship length: longitudinal and concurrent analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kotrčová, Kristína; Fraley, R Chris

    2018-04-01

    This study examines whether attachment preferences and attachment styles with different figures (mother, father, romantic partner, and friends) change over the course of a romantic relationship. Study 1 employed a three-wave longitudinal sample of Czech young adults who were currently in a romantic relationship (N = 870; mean age = 21.57; SD = 1.51; 81% females). Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that, as romantic relationships progressed, attachment preferences for romantic partners increased and preferences for friends decreased. However, preferences for the mother or for the father did not change over time. The parallel pattern was found for attachment avoidance; as romantic relationships progressed, attachment avoidance with romantic partners decreased and avoidance with the best friend increased. Avoidance with mother or with father, however, did not change over time. Study 2 employed a cross-sectional international sample (n = 2,593; mean age = 31.99; SD = 12.13; 79% females). Multiple regression analyses replicated the findings of attachment avoidance in the longitudinal data.

  9. The Early Attachment Experiences are the Roots of Psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khetrapal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review proposes the ‘attachment and the deficient hemispheric integration hypothesis’ as explanation for psychopathy. The hypothesis states that since secure attachment to the parents is essential for the proper development of both the hemispheres in children, psychopaths with histories of neglect and abuse are unable to develop efficient interaction of both the hemispheres, important for emotional processing and regulation. Various studies have shown that without an efficient interaction between the two hemispheres psychopaths fail to perform adequately on tasks that require both language abilities and non-verbal emotional processing. The hypothesis also explains why psychopaths will perform inefficiently in conditions that selectively prime the left hemisphere resources as these people would have learnt to rely more on the language based mode of this hemisphere. The childhood of psychopaths is marked by insecure attachment with their parents where the parents fail to respond to the needs of the pre-verbal infant thus leading to improper development of the right hemisphere abilities, one of which is decoding and showing appropriate non-verbal emotional signals resembling a pattern shown by the parents. The hypothesis is useful in explaining different findings on laterality in psychopathy as well as answering the nature-nurture debate of the disorder. Research carried out under the proposed framework can be helpful in understanding the nature of the disorder which will be ultimately useful in the prevention of its full blown manifestation.

  10. Mycoplasma genitalium attaches to human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, Jens; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    , M.genitalium was seen at the head but not at the tail. By X-ray microscopy, it was possible to observe the diffentiated structure of M.genitalium, and the attachment seemed to be mediated by the tip. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoplasma genitalium can bind to human spermatozoa and thus could be carried by motile...... to adhere to the head, midpiece and tail of the spermatozoa. The spermatozoa became immotile when many M.genitalium were attached. However, the motile spermatozoa were demonstrated to carry M.genitalium and in this case the mycoplasmas were seen to attach mostly to the midpiece or neck region. Occasionally...

  11. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  12. The use of attachment theory in the clinical dialogue with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory specifically addresses the ability to use an attachment figure as a haven of safety and base of exploration. While many other relational issues are important during development, a foundation of trust based on having positive expectations that others will be available when needed is clearly relevant in the practice of psychotherapy. Yet many patients come in with histories of insecure or even disorganized attachment and have suffered different forms of maltreatment. Understanding affect-regulating strategies, defensive processes, and transference and countertransference patterns associated with insecure or disorganized patterns is enormously useful during the clinical exchange. In addition to paying attention to affect regulation strategies, it is important to note that two other motivational systems may become coopted for defensive purposes in order to cope with disorganized attachment: the caregiving system and the ranking system (the latter being the legacy of dominance hierarchies we observe in primates). The other theme in this article is the importance of paying attention to a cooperative and social engagement motivational system (sometimes referred sometimes to as a social or affiliative motive) in building a therapeutic alliance. This prosocial motive is not about safety (attachment) but about sharing and developing positive social relations with others (Cortina & Liotti, 2010). The article explores the significance of building on this cooperative and social engagement system when there is not a foundation of trust based on a secure attachment history.

  13. Cognitive Attachment Model of Voices: Evidence Base and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Varese, Filippo; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    There is a robust association between hearing voices and exposure to traumatic events. Identifying mediating mechanisms for this relationship is key to theories of voice hearing and the development of therapies for distressing voices. This paper outlines the Cognitive Attachment model of Voices (CAV), a theoretical model to understand the relationship between earlier interpersonal trauma and distressing voice hearing. The model builds on attachment theory and well-established cognitive models of voices and argues that attachment and dissociative processes are key psychological mechanisms that explain how trauma influences voice hearing. Following the presentation of the model, the paper will review the current state of evidence regarding the proposed mechanisms of vulnerability to voice hearing and maintenance of voice-related distress. This review will include evidence from studies supporting associations between dissociation and voices, followed by details of our own research supporting the role of dissociation in mediating the relationship between trauma and voices and evidence supporting the role of adult attachment in influencing beliefs and relationships that voice hearers can develop with voices. The paper concludes by outlining the key questions that future research needs to address to fully test the model and the clinical implications that arise from the work.

  14. Attachment representations in adulthood: relations with parental behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Karie, N

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents two standardized measurements of attachment. The Strange Situation Procedure is an observational measure of the reaction of 12-18-month-old infants to their parent after being exposed to brief separations from him/her. Four main types of responses are noted, and have been noted in a range of cultures. The second measure is the Adult Attachment Interview which is a semi-structured interview of 18 questions that discusses childhood memories and assesses the current state of mind with regard to attachment issues. Four types of characteristic response styles have been noted in a range of cultures, and this measure seems to be related to certain types of parenting. Studies of the link between the two measures have been complicated, as the adult measure does not include the capacity to be available for the child. A further instrument, the Maternal Empathic Understanding Procedure, designed to assess parent's ability to see things from the child's point of view, is suggested as a possible mediator between parental attachment style and parenting behavior. These studies permit standardized evaluation of parenting skills, facilitate the study of intergenerational transmission of these skills, and suggest the possibility of psychotherapeutic interventions that focus on these areas.

  15. Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.

  16. Attachment to God, Images of God, and Psychological Distress in a Nationwide Sample of Presbyterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Marcum, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Drawing broadly on insights from attachment theory, the present study outlines a series of theoretical arguments linking styles of attachment to God, perceptions of the nature of God (i.e., God imagery), and stressful life events with psychological distress. Main effects and potential stress-moderator effects are then evaluated using data from a nationwide sample of elders and rank-and-file members of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Key findings indicate that secure attachment to God is inversely associated with distress, whereas both anxious attachment to God and stressful life events are positively related to distress. Once variations in patterns of attachment to God are controlled, there are no net effects of God imagery on levels of distress. There is only modest support for the hypothesis that God images moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychological distress, but no stress-moderator effects were found for attachment to God. Study limitations are identified, and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for religion-health research, as well as recent extensions of attachment theory.

  17. Maternal employment in a family context: effects on infant-mother and infant-father attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P L; Owen, M T

    1987-12-01

    The relation between resumption of full-time employment by mothers of infants under 6 months of age, and subsequent infant-mother and infant-father attachments, was examined in this study. Attachment classifications and ratings of reunion behavior with mother and with father in Ainsworth's Strange Situation at 12 months were obtained for 57 nonemployed-mother families and 40 employed-mother families. No relation emerged between maternal work status and the quality of infants' attachments to their mothers, indicating that early resumption of employment may not impede the development of secure infant-mother attachment. A significantly higher proportion of insecure attachments to fathers in employed-mother families was found for sons but not for daughters. Joint examination of the infants' attachments to both parents revealed a trend suggesting that in employed-mother families, boys were more likely to be insecurely attached to both parents than were girls in employed-mother families or infants of either sex in nonemployed-mother families. These patterns are discussed in light of differences in maternal and paternal sex-typing behavior and of evidence suggesting boys' vulnerability to psychosocial stress.

  18. Clinical evaluation of mandibular implant overdentures via Locator implant attachment and Locator bar attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong-Ho; Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, So-Hyoun; Yun, Mi-Jung; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and patient satisfaction on implant overdenture designed with Locator implant attachment or Locator bar attachment in mandibular edentulous patients. Implant survival rate, marginal bone loss, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, complications, and satisfaction were evaluated on sixteen patients who were treated with mandibular overdenture and have used it for at least 1 year (Locator implant attachment: n=8, Locator bar attachment: n=8). Marginal bone loss, probing depth, plaque index of the Locator bar attachment group were significantly lower than the Locator implant attachment group (Pimplant inflammation, and patient satisfaction between the two denture types (P>.05). The replacement of the attachment components was the most common complication in both groups. Although there was no correlation between marginal bone loss and plaque index, a significant correlation was found between marginal bone loss and probing depth. The Locator bar attachment group indicates lesser marginal bone loss and need for maintenance, as compared with the Locator implant attachment group. This may be due to the splinting effect among implants rather than the types of Locator attachment.

  19. Surface and protein analyses of normal human cell attachment on PIII-modified chitosan membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saranwong, N. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Inthanon, K. [Human and Animal Cell Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W., E-mail: weerah@chiangmai.ac.th [Human and Animal Cell Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Nanotechnology Center of Excellence and Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90110 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    Surface of chitosan membrane was modified with argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for human skin fibroblasts F1544 cell attachment. The modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell attachment patterns were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The results showed that Ar PIII had an enhancement effect on the cell attachment while N-PIII had an inhibition effect. Filopodial analysis revealed more microfilament cytoplasmic spreading on the edge of cells attached on the Ar-treated membranes than N-treated membranes. Higher level FAK was found in Ar-treated membranes than that in N-treated membranes.

  20. Attachment as a predictor of non response to CBT treatment in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Children’s and parents’ attachment patterns have been linked with the presence of pediatric anxiety disorders. The present study examined the role of attachment in predicting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment outcomes. A total of 69 children aged 7–13 years were assessed using a semi......-structured interview, and treated with CBT. Differences between responders and nonresponders with regard to pretreatment characteristics were explored, and the predictive power of factors significantly different between groups was assessed using binominal logistic regression. Responders and nonresponders did...... not significantly differ with regard to child’s attachment to parent. Maternal attachment anxiety was found to be the strongest predictor of treatment outcome, remaining significant after controlling for symptoms severity. Results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to how the relationships formed...

  1. Adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and views of self, others, and the future among child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    A conceptual framework derived from attachment theory was tested examining adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; and cognitive distortions in a sample of 96 child molesters receiving sex offender treatment and 92 nonoffending males. Results showed a significant main effect for child molester status, with nonoffending controls reporting fewer negative perceptions of self, others, and the future; and fewer cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. With the exception of views of others, significant interactions were also found between child molester status and attachment categories. However, the patterns of interactions were theoretically counterintuitive and illustrated areas for future research. Overall, the findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.

  2. [The interpretation of attachment in the Szondi test and in the questionnaire processes of attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török I, András; Vincze, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    [corrected] The Szondi-test is widely applied in clinical diagnostics in Hungary too, and the evidence resulting from the theory is that we can get information about attachment during its interpreting. Its validity is proven by empirical research and clinical experiences. By analyzing the modern attachment theory more thoroughly, it becomes clear in what ways the Szondi-test constellations regarding attachment are different from the classificationbased on questionnaires, allowing the discrete measurement of the attachment style. With the Szondi-test the classification to attachment style is more insecure, but if it is completed with exploration, it is more informative in vector C (vector of relation, attachment information), while short questionnaires make the classification to attachment style possible. In our empirical analysis we represent the integration of the above mentioned clinical and theoretical experiences. In the present analysis we compare the vector C and S constellation of the two-profile Szondi-test of 80 persons with the dimensions of ECR-R questionnaire and with Collins and Read's questionnaire classification regarding attachment style. The statistical results refer to the fact that there is a legitimacy to compare questionnaire processes allowing the discrete classification of attachment and the Szondi-test's information content regarding attachment. With applying the methods together, we get a unique, complementary section of the information relating to attachment. Comparing the two methods (projective and questionnaire) establishes the need of theoretical integration as well. We also make an attempt to explain Fraley's evolutionary non-adaptivity of avoidant attachment, in the case of whose presence adaptivity of early attachment, counterbalancing the exploration and security need, and providing closeness--farness loses its balance.

  3. Restabilizing attachment to cultural objects. Aesthetics, emotions and biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzecry, Claudio E

    2015-12-01

    The scholarship on aesthetics and materiality has studied how objects help shape identity, social action and subjectivity. Objects, as 'equipment[s] for living' (Luhmann 2000), become the 'obligatory passage points humans have to contend with in order to pursue their projects (Latour 1991). They provide patterns to which bodies can unconsciously latch onto, or help human agents work towards particular states of being (DeNora 2000, 2003). Objects are central in the long term process of taste construction, as any attachment to an object is made out of a delicate equilibrium of mediators, bodies, situations and techniques (Hennion and his collaborators (Hennion and Fouquet 2001; Hennion and Gomart 1999). In all of these accounts objects are the end result of long-term processes of stabilization, in which the actual material object (a musical piece, a sculpture, an art installation, a glass of wine, the oeuvre of Bach as we know it) is both a result and yet a key co-producer of its own generation. Whereas the literature has been generous and detailed in exploring the processes of assembling and sustaining object-centered attachments, it has not sufficiently engaged with what happens when the aesthetic elements of cultural artifacts that have produced emotional resonance are transformed: what do these artifacts morph into? What explains the transition (or not) of different cultural objects? And relatedly, what happens to the key aesthetic qualities that were so central to how the objects had been defined, and to those who have emotionally attached to them? To answer these questions, this article uses as exemplars two different cases of attachment, predicated on the distinctive features of a cultural object--the transcendence of opera and the authenticity of a soccer jersey--that have undergone transformations. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  4. Preferential attachment in evolutionary earthquake networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Soghra; Moghaddasi, Hanieh; Darooneh, Amir Hossein

    2018-04-01

    Earthquakes as spatio-temporal complex systems have been recently studied using complex network theory. Seismic networks are dynamical networks due to addition of new seismic events over time leading to establishing new nodes and links to the network. Here we have constructed Iran and Italy seismic networks based on Hybrid Model and testified the preferential attachment hypothesis for the connection of new nodes which states that it is more probable for newly added nodes to join the highly connected nodes comparing to the less connected ones. We showed that the preferential attachment is present in the case of earthquakes network and the attachment rate has a linear relationship with node degree. We have also found the seismic passive points, the most probable points to be influenced by other seismic places, using their preferential attachment values.

  5. Topological systems versus attachment relations | Guido ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... localification procedure introduced by S. Vickers for topological systems. Keywords: Adjoint functor, algebra, attachment relation, embedding functor, localification of topological systems, spatialization of topological systems, topological system, topological theory, variety of algebras. Quaestiones Mathematicae 37(2014), ...

  6. Mobile electrons in electron-attaching liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyikos, L.

    1981-01-01

    Based on recent observations of mobile electrons in electron-attaching liquids some ideas are presented concerning the nature of the fas carrier. To explain the observed phenomena quantum chemical calculations and modified percolation theory are applied. (author)

  7. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment

  8. Multivariate analysis of attachment of biofouling organisms in response to material surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley-Montross, Caitlyn M; Finlay, John A; Aldred, Nick; Cassady, Harrison; Destino, Joel F; Orihuela, Beatriz; Hickner, Michael A; Clare, Anthony S; Rittschof, Daniel; Holm, Eric R; Detty, Michael R

    2017-12-29

    Multivariate analyses were used to investigate the influence of selected surface properties (Owens-Wendt surface energy and its dispersive and polar components, static water contact angle, conceptual sign of the surface charge, zeta potentials) on the attachment patterns of five biofouling organisms (Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus improvisus, Bugula neritina, Ulva linza, and Navicula incerta) to better understand what surface properties drive attachment across multiple fouling organisms. A library of ten xerogel coatings and a glass standard provided a range of values for the selected surface properties to compare to biofouling attachment patterns. Results from the surface characterization and biological assays were analyzed separately and in combination using multivariate statistical methods. Principal coordinate analysis of the surface property characterization and the biological assays resulted in different groupings of the xerogel coatings. In particular, the biofouling organisms were able to distinguish four coatings that were not distinguishable by the surface properties of this study. The authors used canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) to identify surface properties governing attachment across all five biofouling species. The CAP pointed to surface energy and surface charge as important drivers of patterns in biological attachment, but also suggested that differentiation of the surfaces was influenced to a comparable or greater extent by the dispersive component of surface energy.

  9. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential cour- age. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 44, 279–298. doi: 10.1177...but not challenge, predict positive mood. These results suggest that more secure attachment style and psychological hardiness serve as resilience...S. (1978). Pat- terns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A

  11. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  12. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Department's needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications

  13. Attachment and the processing of social information across the life span: theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the patterns of results that have emerged from these studies. The central proposition is that individuals who possess secure experience-based internal working models of attachment will process--in a relatively open manner--a broad range of positive and negative attachment-relevant social information. Moreover, secure individuals will draw on their positive attachment-related knowledge to process this information in a positively biased schematic way. In contrast, individuals who possess insecure internal working models of attachment will process attachment-relevant social information in one of two ways, depending on whether the information could cause the individual psychological pain. If processing the information is likely to lead to psychological pain, insecure individuals will defensively exclude this information from further processing. If, however, the information is unlikely to lead to psychological pain, then insecure individuals will process this information in a negatively biased schematic fashion that is congruent with their negative attachment-related experiences. In a comprehensive literature review, we describe studies that illustrate these patterns of attachment-related information processing from childhood to adulthood. This review focuses on studies that have examined specific components (e.g., attention and memory) and broader aspects (e.g., attributions) of social information processing. We also provide general conclusions and suggestions for future research.

  14. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  15. Attachment of gaseous fission products to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, G.

    1985-01-01

    Accidents may occur in which the integrity of fuel cladding is breached and volatile fission products are released to the containment atmosphere. In order to assess the magnitude of the subsequent radiological hazard it is necessary to know the transport behaviour of such fission products. It is frequently assumed that the fission products remain in the gaseous phase. There is a possibility, however, that they may attach themselves to particles and hence substantially modify their transport properties. This paper provides a theoretical assessment of the conditions under which gaseous fission products may be attached to aerosol particles. Specific topics discussed are: the mass transfer of a gaseous fission product to an isolated aerosol particle in an infinite medium; the rate at which the concentration of fission products in the gas phase diminishes within a container as a result of deposition on a population of particles; and the distribution of deposited fission product between different particle sizes in a log-normal distribution. It is shown that, for a given mass, small particles are more efficient for fission product attachment, and that only small concentrations of such particles may be necessary to achieve rapid attachment. Conditions under which gaseous fission products are not attached to particles are also considered, viz, the competing processes of deposition onto the containment walls and onto aerosol particles, and the possibility of the removal of aerosols from the containment by various deposition processes, or agglomeration, before attachment takes place. (author)

  16. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  17. Attachment and hikikomori: a psychosocial developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Alexander; Dickie, Jane R

    2013-02-01

    Hikikomori (acute social withdrawal) is a social issue in Japan that affects both the society and the lives of the individual sufferers. This study aims to connect attachment theory and hikikomori by using a culturally sensitive psychosocial developmental model that outlines the various stages of attachment throughout the developmental years. Twenty-four hikikomori sufferers and 60 comparison group participants were given questionnaires assessing parent and peer relationships, temperament and school experiences. We found the hikikomori participants had a higher incidence of ambivalent attachment, reported more parental and peer rejection and bullying, and expressed greater temperamental shyness. Path analysis supported our developmental model. We found that shy temperament and parental rejection predicted ambivalent attachment, which when coupled with peer rejection predicted hikikomori. Our model implies that treatment and prevention may require attention to attachment insecurities in early childhood, peer rejection in middle childhood and/or early adolescence. We believe it is helpful in understanding hikikomori to first understand how the attachment system balances security with exploration and the anxiety associated with novelty and challenge. Finally, we examine implications of the model for intervention, treatment and future research.

  18. Wait Up!: Attachment and Sovereign Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Sociologists and feminist scholars have, over many decades, characterised attachment as a social construction that functions to support political and gender conservatism. We accept that attachment theory has seen use to these ends and consider recent deployments of attachment theory as justification for a minimal State within conservative political discourse in the UK since 2009. However, we contest that attachment is reducible to its discursive construction. We consider Judith Butler’s depiction of the infant attached to an abusive caregiver as a foundation and parallel to the position of the adult citizen subjected to punitive cultural norms and political institutions. We develop and qualify Butler’s account, drawing on the insights offered by the work of Lauren Berlant. We also return to Foucault’s Psychiatric Power lectures, in which familial relations are situated as an island of sovereign power within the sea of modern disciplinary institutions. These reflections help advance analysis of three important issues: the social and political implications of attachment research; the relationship between disciplinary and sovereign power in the affective dynamic of subjection; and the political and ethical status of professional activity within the psy disciplines. PMID:28904425

  19. Difference in place attachment between students in Helsinki and in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusinović Dubravka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Place attachment refers to the process of human-place bonding; the bonding process includes both physical and social ties formed within an environment. In the last two decades, place attachment has been the subject of many studies, but there have not been many cross-cultural studies. The aim of this study was to determine differences in global attachment to house, neighbourhood and city among young people in Belgrade and Helsinki, with consideration of social and physical dimensions of place attachment. Additionally, the effects of gender on all types of place attachments were tested. Data were collected using the Place Attachment Scale (Hidalgo & Hernandez, 2001 and the Questionnaire on residential and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The instrument was translated into Serbian and Finnish, respecting the translation procedure for cross-cultural studies (Brislin, 1986 and administered to subjects in their native language. The study was conducted on the sample of two hundred students of psychology, comprising: 100 inhabitants of Belgrade, and 100 of Helsinki, balanced by gender (60% female, 40% male and age (average 24.4 years. The following results can be pointed out: 1 young people living in Belgrade show greater degree of global attachment to their city than young people living in Helsinki to their city, 2 young people from Belgrade also show greater social ties within their city and house, in relation to peers from Helsinki, 3 physical attachment to house and city is also significantly higher in young inhabitants of Belgrade. An interesting finding is 4 the existence of significant differences between men and women in the degree of global, social and physical attachment to house and physical attachment to city in the Serbian sample, and non-existence of differences in place attachment between men and women in the Finnish sample. The findings are interpreted within the Hofstede's five Cultural Dimensions.

  20. Protein and cell patterning for cell-based biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Mandana

    Patterned platforms that alternately promote or prevent the attachment of biomolecules promise to advance bio-micro-electro-mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) and cell-based biosensors (CBBs) for medical diagnostic, therapeutic, and prosthetic applications. When integrated with microelectronic or optical technologies, arrays of cells can be fabricated onto "biochips" to simultaneously process numerous analytes. Among the benefits are rapid and sensitive analysis, portability and ability to obtain functional information from analytes. This integration requires cells to be selectively patterned on platforms composed of more than one material, particularly in an electrode-insulator format. Current cell patterning technologies cannot yet provide effective solutions to patterning cells on desired substrates, largely because most of the techniques pattern cells on substrates of single material. In addition, they generally employ a mechanical device to guide selective protein or cell attachment, which may degrade their biological functionality. The other major challenges, especially in development of CBBs, include long-term cell selectivity and creation of uniform "single-cell" patterns. The central component of this research is to develop novel techniques to pattern multiple and/or single cells with high precision, selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term cell selectivity. First, a novel surface engineering approach was developed to covalently immobilize proteins or peptides on the gold substrates and bio-inert poly(ethylene glycol)-silane molecules on silicon substrates. Next, photolithography and surface engineering were combined to pattern microarrays of cell-adhesive proteins on gold electrodes to mediate cell adhesion. The versatility of this approach for immobilization of various proteins on different types of gold patterns was characterized by florescence microscopy, ToF-SIMS, and AFM. Optical-DIC microscopy illustrated selective attachment of various cells on

  1. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-01-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. - Highlights: ► Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS) was developed to study electron attachment reaction. ► The rate constants of electron attachment to CCl 4 and CHCl 3 were determined. ► The present experimental results are in good agreement with the previously reported data.

  2. God as the ultimate attachment figure for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2004-12-01

    Attachment to God among older adults is an area of research that has been neglected thus far. The existence of such an attachment was explored in a study of 109 elders aged 70-97. A modest proportion of elders displayed a strong attachment to God, assessed by coding interview data for indicators of attachment. Strength of attachment to God was related (p God than those with other affiliations. Findings are interpreted in relation to existing literature on attachment to God.

  3. Nanotopography effects on astrocyte attachment to nanoporous gold surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Ozge; Seker, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous gold, synthesized by a self-assembly process, is a new biomaterial with desirable attributes, including tunable nanotopography, drug delivery potential, electrical conductivity, and compatibility with conventional microfabrication techniques. This study reports on the effect of nanotopography in guiding cellular attachment on nanoporous gold surfaces. While the changes in topography do not affect adherent cell density, average cell area displays a non-monotonic dependence on nanotopography.

  4. Investigations into the Settlement and Attachment of Biofouling Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    attachment of biofouling marine invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-12-1 -0432 5b. GRANT NUMBER n/a 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER n/a 6...larval settlement in a variety of marine invertebrate species, including B. neritina. Light also inhibits B. neritina larval settlement, yet the...underlying mechanisms by which light and adrenergic compounds exert their effects on larvae are largely unknown. Octopamine is considered the invertebrate

  5. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-25

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints. 3 figs.

  6. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: the influence of attachment primes on the content of state attachment representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David P.; Dewitte, Marieke; De Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  7. Adult attachment, hostile conflict, and relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Cassandra J; Hart, Tae L

    2017-11-01

    Couples facing multiple sclerosis (MS) report significantly elevated rates of relationship distress, yet the effects of attachment have never been examined in this population. We examined whether hostile conflict mediated the dyadic effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in couples facing MS and whether these associations were moderated by gender or role. We also explored whether dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between attachment and hostile conflict. The study was cross-sectional and included 103 couples in which one partner had been diagnosed with MS. Participants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Aversive Interactions Scale, as well as demographic variables. We used the actor-partner interdependence model for data analysis. There were significant actor and partner effects of greater anxious attachment and worse dyadic adjustment. Actor and partner effects of anxious attachment were significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Gender significantly moderated the effects between avoidant attachment and dyadic adjustment. The actor effect was significant for males and females; the partner effect was only significant for females. The actor effect for females but not males was significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Role was not a significant moderator. Exploratory analyses also showed that dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and hostile conflict. Findings highlight the important effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in MS couples. Both hostile conflict and dyadic adjustment appear to be mechanisms through which insecure attachment has a detrimental effect. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Despite higher-than-normal rates of marital distress and separation/divorce, the effects of attachment on relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis have never been examined

  8. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  9. Attachment Representation and Sensitivity: The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Refugee Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2017-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that adult attachment representations guide caregiving behavior and influence parental sensitivity, and thus affect the child's socio-emotional development. Several studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reduced parental sensitivity, so it is possible that PTSD moderates the relationship between insecure attachment representations and insensitivity. In this study symptoms of PTSD (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), parental sensitivity (Emotional Availability Scales), and attachment representations (Attachment Script Assessment) were assessed in 53 parents who were asylum seekers or refugees. Results showed that when parents were less able to draw on secure attachment representations, symptoms of PTSD increased the risk of insensitive parenting. These findings suggest that parental sensitivity is affected not just by attachment representations, but by a conjunction of risk factors including symptoms of PTSD and insecure attachment representations. These parents should therefore be supported to establish or confirm secure models of attachment experiences, to facilitate their ability interact sensitively and form a secure relationship with their children. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  10. The role of attachment in recovery after a school-shooting trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tuija; Haravuori, Henna; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Suomalainen, Laura; Marttunen, Mauri

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of life-endangering trauma use varying resources that help them to recover. Attachment system activates in the times of distress, and is expected to associate with stress responses, arousal regulation, and mental health. We examined the associations of attachment style with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) symptoms and dissociative symptoms, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among students exposed to a school shooting in Finland in a three-wave follow-up setting. Participants were students (M age=24.9 years; 95% female) who were followed 4 (T1, N=236), 16 (T2, N=180), and 28 months (T3, N=137) after the shooting. The assessments included the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale, part of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Securely attached survivors had lower levels of posttraumatic stress and dissociative symptoms than preoccupied at T1 and T2 as hypothesized. At T3 survivors with avoidant attachment style had higher levels of intrusive and hyperarousal symptoms than those with secure style. Concerning PTG, survivors with avoidant attachment style scored lower in PTG at T3 than survivors with both secure and preoccupied style. Secure attachment style was beneficial in trauma recovery. A challenge to the health care systems is to acknowledge that survivors with preoccupied and avoidant attachment styles react uniquely to trauma, and thus need help in different doses, modalities, and timings.

  11. The role of attachment in recovery after a school-shooting trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Turunen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survivors of life-endangering trauma use varying resources that help them to recover. Attachment system activates in the times of distress, and is expected to associate with stress responses, arousal regulation, and mental health. Objective: We examined the associations of attachment style with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD symptoms and dissociative symptoms, and posttraumatic growth (PTG among students exposed to a school shooting in Finland in a three-wave follow-up setting. Method: Participants were students (M age=24.9 years; 95% female who were followed 4 (T1, N=236, 16 (T2, N=180, and 28 months (T3, N=137 after the shooting. The assessments included the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale, part of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Results: Securely attached survivors had lower levels of posttraumatic stress and dissociative symptoms than preoccupied at T1 and T2 as hypothesized. At T3 survivors with avoidant attachment style had higher levels of intrusive and hyperarousal symptoms than those with secure style. Concerning PTG, survivors with avoidant attachment style scored lower in PTG at T3 than survivors with both secure and preoccupied style. Conclusion: Secure attachment style was beneficial in trauma recovery. A challenge to the health care systems is to acknowledge that survivors with preoccupied and avoidant attachment styles react uniquely to trauma, and thus need help in different doses, modalities, and timings.

  12. The behavioral, anatomical and pharmacological parallels between social attachment, love and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, James P; Young, Larry J

    2012-11-01

    Love has long been referred to as an addiction in literature and poetry. Scientists have often made comparisons between social attachment processes and drug addiction, and it has been suggested that the two may share a common neurobiological mechanism. Brain systems that evolved to govern attachments between parents and children and between monogamous partners may be the targets of drugs of abuse and serve as the basis for addiction processes. Here, we review research on drug addiction in parallel with research on social attachments, including parent-offspring attachments and social bonds between mating partners. This review focuses on the brain regions and neurochemicals with the greatest overlap between addiction and attachment and, in particular, the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Significant overlap exists between these two behavioral processes. In addition to conceptual overlap in symptomatology, there is a strong commonality between the two domains regarding the roles and sites of action of DA, opioids, and corticotropin-releasing factor. The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are hypothesized to integrate social information into attachment processes that is not present in drug addiction. Social attachment may be understood as a behavioral addiction, whereby the subject becomes addicted to another individual and the cues that predict social reward. Understandings from both fields may enlighten future research on addiction and attachment processes.

  13. Attachment and thought problems in an adolescent inpatient sample: The mediational role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jessica R; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist. Bivariate correlations indicated that attachment coherence (a marker of security) was significantly and positively correlated with ToM abilities, and that low attachment coherence and poor ToM performance were each associated with increased youth- and parent-reported thought problems. Mediational models indicated that ToM mediated the relation between insecure attachment and thought problems according to both parent- and self-report. The results of the current study provide support for a model in which impairments in ToM contribute to the frequently documented association between insecure attachment and emerging psychotic symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed, including the potential support for ToM-based interventions for early psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M; Scottish Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals Scottish Spca

    2017-05-06

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children's social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  15. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  16. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood. PMID:28481256

  17. Cross-structural priming: prepositional phrase attachment primes relative clause attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, Maaike; Van Laere, Sébastien M J; Desmet, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that attachment height (high vs. low attachment) of a modifier to a complex noun phrase (CNP; e.g., "the servant of the actress"), can be primed between dissimilar syntactic structures. In a sentence completion experiment, we found that the attachment height of a prepositional phrase (PP) in the prime sentence primed the attachment height of a relative clause (RC) in the target sentence. This cross-structural priming effect cannot be explained in terms of the priming of specific phrase-structure rules or even sequences of specific phrase-structure rules (Scheepers, 2003), because the attachment of a PP to a CNP is generated by a different phrase-structure rule than the attachment of an RC. However, the present data suggest that the location at which the RC is attached to the CNP is mentally represented, independent of the specific phrase-structure rule that is attached, or by extension, that the abstract hierarchical configuration of the full CNP and the attached RC is represented (Desmet & Declercq, 2006). This is the first demonstration of a cross-structural priming effect that cannot be captured by phrase-structure rules.

  18. Concordance of attachment representations in preschool siblings assessed by the attachment story completion task

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Helene; Zahn, Salome; Titze, Karl; Walitza, Susanne; Zulauf Logoz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated only a modest concordance of attachment security in siblings in infancy. Until now, very little was known about the concordance of siblings’ attachment security beyond infancy, as assessed by the attachment story completion task. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the concordance of attachment representations of 38 first-born (4–7 years) and 38 second-born (3–5 years) siblings living in middle-class two-parent families. Personality factors and the level ...

  19. Attachment and eating: A meta-analytic review of the relevance of attachment for unhealthy and healthy eating behaviors in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2018-04-01

    Attachment relationships play an important role in people's wellbeing and affliction with physical and mental illnesses, including eating disorders. Seven reviews from the clinical field have consistently shown that higher attachment insecurity-failure to form trusting and reliable relationships with others-systematically characterized individuals with eating disorders. Nevertheless, to date, it is unclear whether (and if so how) these findings apply to the population at large. Consequently, the objective of the present meta-analysis is to quantify the relationship between attachment and unhealthy and healthy eating in the general population. Data from 70 studies and 19,470 participants were converted into r effect sizes and analysed. Results showed that higher attachment insecurity (r = 0.266), anxiety (r = 0.271), avoidance (r = 0.119), and fearfulness (r = 0.184) was significantly associated with more unhealthy eating behaviors, ps = 0.000; conversely, higher attachment security correlated with lower unhealthy eating behaviors (r = -0.184, p = 0.000). This relationship did not vary across type of unhealthy eating behavior (i.e., binge eating, bulimic symptoms, dieting, emotional eating, and unhealthy food consumption). The little exploratory evidence concerning healthy eating and attachment was inconclusive with one exception-healthy eating was associated with lower attachment avoidance (r = -0.211, p = 0.000). Our results extend previous meta-analytic findings to show that lack of trusting and reliable relationships does not only set apart eating disordered individuals from controls, but also characterizes unhealthy eating behaviors in the general population. More evidence is needed to determine how attachment and healthy eating are linked and assess potential mechanisms influencing the attachment-eating relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insecure attachment predicts depression and death anxiety in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffold, Katharina; Philipp, Rebecca; Koranyi, Susan; Engelmann, Dorit; Schulz-Kindermann, Frank; Härter, Martin; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-05-15

    The prevalence of depression as well as adjustment and anxiety disorders is high in advanced cancer patients, and research exploring intraindividual factors leading to high psychological distress is underrepresented. Cancer patients' feelings about security and trust in their healthcare providers have a significant influence on how they deal with their disease. The perception of social support is affected by patients' attachment styles and influences their reactions to feelings of dependency and loss of control. We therefore aimed to explore attachment and its association with psychological distress in patients with advanced cancer. We obtained data from the baseline measurements of a randomized controlled trial in advanced cancer patients. Patients were sampled from the university medical centers of Hamburg and Leipzig, Germany. The main outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Death and Dying Distress Scale, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale for assessing attachment insecurity. A total of 162 patients were included. We found that 64% of patients were insecurely attached (fearful-avoidant 31%, dismissing 17%, and preoccupied 16%). A dismissing attachment style was associated with more physical symptoms but did not predict psychological distress. A fearful-avoidant attachment style significantly predicted higher death anxiety and depression, whereas preoccupied attachment predicted higher death anxiety only. Overall, insecure attachment contributed to the prediction of depression (10%) and death anxiety (14%). The concept of attachment plays a relevant role in advanced cancer patients' mental health. Healthcare providers can benefit from knowledge of advanced cancer patients' attachment styles and how they relate to specific mental distress. Developing a better understanding of patients' reactions to feelings of dependency and distressing emotions can help us to develop individually

  1. Attachment Theory and Primary Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmer, Kaye; Rutherford, Lynne; Murphy, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Offering intensive parent support programs within an early childhood setting recognises that early childhood educators are uniquely placed to form highly supportive and ongoing relationships with children and their families as part of their everyday work. This feature of early childhood programs can be utilised to include educators as partners in…

  2. Parenting Styles and Attachment in School-Aged Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Su Re; Beilby, Janet M.; Byrnes, Michelle L.; Hennessey, Neville W.

    2012-01-01

    Parental input has been described as influential in early childhood stuttering yet the exact nature of this influence remains equivocal. The present study aimed to examine whether quantitative measures of parenting styles, parent and peer attachment patterns, and parent- and self-reported child behaviour could differentiate between school-aged…

  3. Electronic Communications Technologies and the Transition to College: Links to Parent-Child Attachment and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiani, Pamela A.; Trumbell, Jill M.; Camarena, Phame M.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic communications technologies (ECTs) help college students and parents remain in contact. Because recent reports have emphasized a link between ECTs, helicopter parenting, and autonomy issues, this study focused on the significance of contact patterns for attachment and student adjustment. First-semester college students (199 female, 81…

  4. Attachment, intellectual disabilities and mental health: research, assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuengel, Carlo; de Schipper, Johanna Clasien; Sterkenburg, Paula S; Kef, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities face in mental health and social participation. Research on attachment and intellectual disabilities is reviewed on its importance for knowledge, assessment and intervention. Progress was found in understanding and distinguishing attachment behaviours, attachment relationships, attachment representations, attachment styles and attachment disorders and their respective implications for assessment and intervention. Of the various attachment-related concepts, insights into attachment behaviours and relationships showed the most promise for practical applications in the field of intellectual disabilities. Findings on representations, styles and disorders were inconclusive or preliminary. Attachment-informed research and practice can be part of emerging developmental understanding of functioning with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Anxious and avoidant attachment styles and indicators of recovery in schizophrenia: associations with self-esteem and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Jamie M; Buchanan, Erin E; Olesek, Kyle; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-06-01

    Having an insecure attachment style in schizophrenia has been linked to treatment response and symptom severity in schizophrenia. This study sought to further examine whether attachment style is related to subjective indicators of recovery including hope and self-esteem, independent of symptom level and secondly, whether attachment style in schizophrenia differs from attachment style of persons facing adversity in the form of a prolonged non-psychiatric medical illness. Participants were 52 men with schizophrenia, and 26 with HIV/AIDS who had no history of experiencing severe mental illness. These groups were compared in terms of their endorsement of attachment style. All participants were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of adult attachment style. The schizophrenia group was also given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to assess self-esteem, the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a measure of hope, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, as an assessment of symptoms. Avoidant attachment in the schizophrenia group was linked with higher levels of hopelessness while anxious attachment was linked to lower levels of self-esteem. The association between anxious attachment and self-esteem persisted after controlling for severity of positive, negative, and depressive symptoms in a stepwise multiple regression analyses. Compared to the HIV/AIDS group, participants with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of anxious attachment but not avoidant attachment style. Attachment style may impact attainment of key subjective domains of recovery in schizophrenia such as self-esteem, independent of symptom severity. If self-esteem and/or hopelessness are identified as a focus of treatment, focusing on attachment style may be an important treatment component. Therapist understanding of patients' attachment style may allow for a better understanding of resistance in the therapeutic relationship. Helping persons with schizophrenia to recognize and

  6. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  7. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  8. Growing networks with mixed attachment mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Zhigang; Zou Xianwu; Tan Zhijie; Jin Zhunzhi

    2006-01-01

    Networks grow and evolve when new nodes and links are added in. There are two methods to add the links: uniform attachment and preferential attachment. We take account of the addition of links with mixed attachment between uniform attachment and preferential attachment in proportion. By using numerical simulations and analysis based on a continuum theory, we obtain that the degree distribution P(k) has an extended power-law form P(k) ∼ (k + k 0 ) -γ . When the number of edges k of a node is much larger than a certain value k 0 , the degree distribution reduces to the power-law form P(k) ∼ k -γ ; and when k is much smaller than k 0 , the degree distribution degenerates into the exponential form P(k)∼exp(-yk/k 0 ). It has been found that degree distribution possesses this extended power-law form for many real networks, such as the movie actor network, the citation network of scientific papers and diverse protein interaction networks

  9. Disorganized attachment and defense: exploring John Bowlby's unpublished reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Samantha; Duschinsky, Robbie; Siegel, Daniel J

    2018-04-01

    Main and Solomon were the first to create a formal infant Strange Situation classification of attachment disorganization. Bowlby's reflections on the underlying psychological processes of such behaviors, however, began early in his career, including the term "disorganization." Most of these remained unpublished but are available through the John Bowlby Archive. Bowlby saw affective experiences as the source of the attachment behavioral system's organization and regulation, and he introduced the term "effector equipment" to describe the emergent organization of attention, expectation, affect, and behavior to orchestrate responses to the environment. In his thinking, disorganization results from threat conflict, safe haven ambiguity, and/or activation without assuagement, which interfere with coordination and integration across a behavioral system. Bowlby's unpublished writings also amplify his published work on segregated systems and defensive exclusion. Bowlby's insights are relevant today and can provide greater background and clarity to current work, as researchers and clinicians consider the origins, manifestations, and meaning of disorganization.

  10. Covalently Attached Monolayers on Crystalline Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon: Extremely Mild Attachment by Visible Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Q.Y.; Smet, de L.C.P.M.; Lagen, van B.; Giesbers, M.; Thüne, P.C.; Engelenburg, van J.; Wolf, de F.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    A very mild method was developed for the attachment of high-quality organic monolayers on crystalline silicon surfaces. By using visible light sources, from 447 to 658 nm, a variety of 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes were attached to hydrogen-terminated Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces at room temperature. The

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  12. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  13. Attachment to Parents As a Moderator in the Association between Sibling Bullying and Depression or Suicidal Ideation among Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Bar-Zomer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is one of the most widespread phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, most research on bullying focuses on bullying at school and not on bullying among siblings at home. Sibling bullying is the most frequent form of repeated aggression that children experience in their lifetime. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that sibling bullying is associated with depression and self-harm behavior. However, the association between sibling bullying and suicidal ideation was never previously examined. Attachment to parents is one variable that can moderate the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. To our knowledge, there is no existing study that examines the association between sibling bullying and attachment patterns. In addition, no previous study has examined the moderating role of attachment on the association between sibling bullying and depression or suicidal ideation among adolescents. The current study includes 279 Israeli students aged 10–17 (M = 13.5; SD = 1.98; 164, 58.8% females who completed self-report questionnaires regarding school and sibling bullying, attachment to mother and father, depression, and suicidal ideation. The results indicated an association between bullying among siblings and school bullying. In addition, children and adolescents who were consistently involved in sibling bullying were at greater risk for depression and suicide ideation when compared to children and adolescents who were not involved in sibling bullying. A secure attachment to one’s father (but not to one’s mother moderated the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. It should be noted that when suicide ideation was examined above and beyond depression, attachment to one’s father did not moderate the association between sibling bullying involvement and suicide ideation. This finding indicates that depression plays a central role in the association between

  14. Attachment to Parents As a Moderator in the Association between Sibling Bullying and Depression or Suicidal Ideation among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zomer, Jasmin; Brunstein Klomek, Anat

    2018-01-01

    Bullying is one of the most widespread phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, most research on bullying focuses on bullying at school and not on bullying among siblings at home. Sibling bullying is the most frequent form of repeated aggression that children experience in their lifetime. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that sibling bullying is associated with depression and self-harm behavior. However, the association between sibling bullying and suicidal ideation was never previously examined. Attachment to parents is one variable that can moderate the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. To our knowledge, there is no existing study that examines the association between sibling bullying and attachment patterns. In addition, no previous study has examined the moderating role of attachment on the association between sibling bullying and depression or suicidal ideation among adolescents. The current study includes 279 Israeli students aged 10-17 (M = 13.5; SD = 1.98; 164, 58.8% females) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding school and sibling bullying, attachment to mother and father, depression, and suicidal ideation. The results indicated an association between bullying among siblings and school bullying. In addition, children and adolescents who were consistently involved in sibling bullying were at greater risk for depression and suicide ideation when compared to children and adolescents who were not involved in sibling bullying. A secure attachment to one's father (but not to one's mother) moderated the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. It should be noted that when suicide ideation was examined above and beyond depression, attachment to one's father did not moderate the association between sibling bullying involvement and suicide ideation. This finding indicates that depression plays a central role in the association between sibling bullying and

  15. Somatic Complaints and Attachment in Former Prisoners of War: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Yael; Rodin, Rebecca; Solomon, Zahava

    2015-01-01

    War captivity includes a unique constellation of simultaneous somatic and interpersonal assaults. This raises questions about the link between attachment and somatic complaints among ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs). Although the attachment literature assumes that attachment affects somatic complaints and not vice versa, to date no empirical studies assess the association between the two variables over time. In this article we prospectively examine the association between attachment and somatic complaints over time among ex-POWs and comparable veterans. The current study included two groups of male Israeli veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War: ex-POWs and comparable veterans who were not taken captive. Both groups were assessed via self-report measures at three times: T1 (1991), T2 (2003), and T3 (2008)--18, 30, and 35 years after the war, respectively. Ex-POWs reported higher levels of somatic complaints and attachment insecurities. These levels increased over time compared to combatant veterans. Moreover, while there was a unidirectional influence of somatic complaints on attachment security over time among combatant veterans, this relationship was bidirectional among ex-POWs. The present study suggests that the combined physical and interpersonal assaults experienced during captivity have adverse effects on combatants and on attachment security, even three decades later. More important, in ex-POWs the relationship between these domains appears to be interactive and mutual, with one reinforcing the other, and vice versa.

  16. Relationship among temporary separation, attachment styles, and adjustment in first-grade Iranian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Mafakheri Bashmaq, Saman; Karimzadeh, Mansoureh; Teymouri, Robab; Amini, Mahdi; vaghefi, Maryam Sadat M; Mazaheri, M Ali

    2016-01-01

    If mothers work outside the home, some degree of mother–child separation will be experienced and mother–child attachment will be affected. In this study, regarding the attachment styles, sociobehavioral problems in first-grade children with experience of preschool and in those taught by their mothers at-home are compared. A casual-comparative method was used to compare children in the two groups. A total of 320 first-grade children participated in the study. The study measures included a separation anxiety test, an adaptive behavior scale, and a children’s symptom inventory. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Secure attachment in the group with experience of preschool was significantly higher than that in the at-home group. None of the variables, including parents’ education and father’s income, significantly affected attachment style. Neither father’s education, father’s income, or attachment significantly influenced adjustment. Father’s education significantly influenced children’s symptoms. Attachment style and hours of preschool attendance had no effect on Child Symptom Inventory scores. Associations among age at joining preschool, attachment style, and behavioral and adaptive problems in first-grade children were nonlinear and multivariate. By taking into account parents’ awareness, sensitivity, and responsiveness, relative welfare, appropriate quality of child-care centers, and having fewer hours of preschool attendance, the risk factors for early parent–child separation and institutional care can be reduced. PMID:27994490

  17. Attachment styles of nursing students: a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Nurten

    2010-10-01

    This research included two consecutive studies, the first of which aimed to examine university nursing students' attachment styles and to study a set of variables that affect their attachment styles, while the second study aimed to identify the effect of nursing education on nursing students' attachment styles. This research was conducted as a cross-sectional survey with nursing students from a school of nursing in Turkey. The research also included a longitudinal follow-up of first year students, to evaluate the effect of nursing education on attachment styles. Data were collected by using a "Personal Information Form" and "Relationship Scales Questionnaire". Nursing students' personal characteristics of age, longest place of residence, and economic status; family characteristics of number of siblings and families' longest place of residence; and romantic characteristics of any current romantic relationships and the number of past romantic relationships were found to be the factors that were influential in attachment styles. In addition, the nursing students had a statistically significant decrease in their insecure attachment style mean scores at the end of nursing education. Assessing attachment styles may be a potentially useful way to understand and counsel nursing students. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attachment and alexithymia in adolescents with food allergy: a developmental hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, Laura; Baldi, Ileana; Ferruzza, Emilia; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Celegato, Nicolò; Gregori, Dario; Antonella, Muraro

    2018-03-25

    Adolescents with FA showed higher levels of alexithymia - the inability to identify and describe emotions - and attachment avoidance including higher discomfort with closeness and relationships as secondary, compared with healthy peers. This study aimed to investigate possible association between attachment - as attitude to close interpersonal relationships - and alexithymia among adolescents with FA and to examine whether different anxious and avoidant attachment would be associated with different alexithymic characteristics. 69 adolescents (female=40.5%; Mean age=15.59) with IgE FA completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between TAS-20 variables and attachment characteristics. A proportional odds regression model was applied to TAS-20 scores and included gender, age, and ASQ score as independent variables. Findings suggested significant associations between Attachment Anxiety (AAn) and Avoidance (AAv), and alexithymia. We found a positive effect of AAn on "difficulty identifying feelings" and "difficulty describing feelings", and a significant decrease in the average "externally oriented thinking" in females. Anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions are differentially related to separate facets of alexithymia. Results concerning AAn may reflect adolescents' conflict for autonomy and the impact on the emotion regulation system. Clinicians should support adolescents with FA and caregivers in finding a balance among safety, autonomy, and psychosocial wellbeing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship of Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Postpartum Depression: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Mina; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan

    2018-04-01

    To determine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and postpartum depression. This longitudinal study was done on 242 primiparous women in 2016. The data collection tools used included a socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire and Cranley's Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale - which was completed at 32-37weeks of pregnancy - and obstetrics information questionnaire and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale -which was completed at 6-8weeks after birth. A multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the extent to which maternal-fetal attachment affected postpartum depression. The mean Maternal-Fetal Attachment score was 90.0 (SD: 10.3) from the attainable score of 23 to 115. The mean depression score was 8.0 (SD: 3.8) from the attainable score of 0 to 30. Pearson's correlation test showed a significant inverse relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and postpartum depression (r=-0.196, p<0.001). The multivariate linear regression model showed that postpartum depression correlated significantly with the mother's age and two dimensions of attachment including differentiation of self from fetus and attributing characteristics to the fetus. According to the findings, maternal-fetal attachment is one of the factors contributing to postpartum depression. Greater emphasis should be placed on the preparation of pregnant women for accepting their maternal role, so that the maternal-neonatal relationship can be enhanced and postpartum depression thus reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How do people with different attachment styles balance work and family? A personality perspective on work-family linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, H C; Knight, P A

    2001-08-01

    This study explored whether different models of work-family relationship were possible for individuals with different attachment styles. A mail survey was conducted using employees (N = 481) at a midwestern university in the United States. Results suggested that (a) individuals with a preoccupied attachment pattern were more likely to experience negative spillover from the family/home to the work domain than those with a secure or dismissing style, (b) securely attached individuals experienced positive spillover in both work and family domains more than those in the other groups, and (c) preoccupied individuals were much less likely to use a segmentation strategy than the other 3 attachment groups. However, when the conventional job satisfaction life satisfaction relationship was examined, the data provided unique support for the spillover model. Implications of the findings for both attachment and work family relationship literatures are discussed.

  1. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  2. The Contribution of Attachment Theory to Parenting Interventions with Substance-abusing Mothers and Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Parolin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Empirical evidence indicates that parenting is negatively influenced by maternal drug use and its associated adverse psychosocial conditions. As a consequence, many interventions have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyse how drug addiction can affect the quality of an adult’s attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviours towards the child and can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies have also identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-addicted mothers and their children, but a specific model of insecurity is still needed to be attested, requiring further investigations. In recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs which address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.

  3. The dimensions of affective attachment as predictors of the level of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core issue of this investigation was to examine whether the dimensions of familial affective attachment (anxious and avoidant can serve as predictors of the level of emotional intelligence in university students. In addition, explored was the connection between the above constructs, as well as whether they differ in prominence by sex, academic success, birth order and parent's education. The prominence of the dimensions of familial affective attachment on the sample used was also investigated. Used questionnaires were: Questionnaire for assessment of family attachment PAVb (Kamenov and Jelić, 2003 questionnaire for assessing emotional competence (UEK-45; (Takšić, 2002 and a questionnaire created for research purposes. The sample consists of students from the second and third year students 'Vocational high school for teachers' in Krusevac and 'Faculty of Pedagogical Sciences' in Jagodina, a total of 200. The findings show that emotional intelligence in general, as well as its Ability to Name and Express Emotion can be predicted on the basis of dimensions of Anxiety and Avoidance. The prominence of dimensions of familial attachment is low in the sample, and the Secure pattern of attachment predominates. Differences in the prominence of constructs under observation were not found by sex, year of study, birth order and parent's education, while connection between academic success and emotional intelligence is positive. The findings concerning connection between dimensions of familial affective attachment and capability of emotional intelligence show that the dimension Avoidance is negatively correlated with the Ability to Name and Express Emotion.

  4. Exploring Individual Differences in Online Addictions: the Role of Identity and Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Research examining the development of online addictions has grown greatly over the last decade with many studies suggesting both risk factors and protective factors. In an attempt to integrate the theories of attachment and identity formation, the present study investigated the extent to which identity styles and attachment orientations account for three types of online addiction (i.e., internet addiction, online gaming addiction, and social media addiction). The sample comprised 712 Italian students (381 males and 331 females) recruited from schools and universities who completed an offline self-report questionnaire. The findings showed that addictions to the internet, online gaming, and social media were interrelated and were predicted by common underlying risk and protective factors. Among identity styles, 'informational' and 'diffuse-avoidant' styles were risk factors, whereas 'normative' style was a protective factor. Among attachment dimensions, the 'secure' attachment orientation negatively predicted the three online addictions, and a different pattern of causal relationships were observed between the styles underlying 'anxious' and 'avoidant' attachment orientations. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that identity styles explained between 21.2 and 30% of the variance in online addictions, whereas attachment styles incrementally explained between 9.2 and 14% of the variance in the scores on the three addiction scales. These findings highlight the important role played by identity formation in the development of online addictions.

  5. Adult attachment and drinking context as predictors of alcohol problems and relationship satisfaction in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Elise C; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Freeman, Harry

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests that for young adults, intimate partners influence each other's drinking patterns. Therefore, exploration of variables related to intimate partner relationships (such as attachment style) could broaden the current understanding of risk factors for alcohol problems in this demographic. The current study examined the role of drinking context in the relationships among insecure attachment, alcohol problems, and relationship satisfaction. A path model was hypothesized where the relationship between insecure attachment and alcohol problems would be explained via two distinct drinking contexts (i.e., drinking with one's partner and drinking away from one's partner). It was also hypothesized that the relationship between insecure attachment and relationship satisfaction would be explained via these same two drinking contexts. Participants were 194 undergraduate students ages 18-25 who reported being in a monogamous intimate partner relationship for at least 90 days and had also consumed alcohol in the past 90 days. The sample was comprised of 76% women and 24% men. The hypothesized direct relationship from anxious attachment to alcohol problems was significant; there were also significant direct paths from both anxious and avoidant attachment to relationship satisfaction. The hypotheses regarding indirect relationships were not supported. The results of this study contribute to the existing literature, in that they suggest that drinking in the context of an intimate relationship may not directly affect relationship satisfaction in this population. However, relationship functioning still appears to be an important variable to consider in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related problems affecting college students.

  6. Attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and association to depressive symptoms in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Kristina; Reitenbach, Ivanina; Kraemer, Jan; Hautzinger, Martin; Meyer, Thomas D

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive factors might be the link between early attachment experiences and later depression. Similar cognitive vulnerability factors are discussed as relevant for both unipolar and bipolar disorders. The goals of the study were to test if there are any differences concerning attachment style and cognitive factors between remitted unipolar and bipolar patients compared to controls, and to test if the association between attachment style and depressive symptoms is mediated by cognitive factors. A path model was tested in 182 participants (61 with remitted unipolar and 61 with remitted bipolar disorder, and 60 healthy subjects) in which adult attachment insecurity was hypothesized to affect subsyndromal depressive symptoms through the partial mediation of dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. No differences between patients with remitted unipolar and bipolar disorders concerning attachment style, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and subsyndromal depressive symptoms were found, but both groups reported a more dysfunctional pattern than healthy controls. The path models confirmed that the relationship between attachment style and depressive symptoms was mediated by the cognitive variables 'dysfunctional attitudes' and 'self-esteem'. With the cross-sectional nature of the study, results cannot explain causal development over time. The results emphasize the relevance of a more elaborate understanding of cognitive and interpersonal factors in mood disorders. It is important to address cognitive biases and interpersonal experiences in treatment of mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Children's emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.

  8. A review of the evidence linking adult attachment theory and chronic pain: presenting a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela; Ownsworth, Tamara; Strong, Jenny

    2008-03-01

    It is now well established that pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, affected by a gamut of psychosocial and biological variables. According to diathesis-stress models of chronic pain, some individuals are more vulnerable to developing disability following acute pain because they possess particular psychosocial vulnerabilities which interact with physical pathology to impact negatively upon outcome. Attachment theory, a theory of social and personality development, has been proposed as a comprehensive developmental model of pain, implicating individual adult attachment pattern in the ontogenesis and maintenance of chronic pain. The present paper reviews and critically appraises studies which link adult attachment theory with chronic pain. Together, these papers offer support for the role of insecure attachment as a diathesis (or vulnerability) for problematic adjustment to pain. The Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain developed from this body of literature, combines adult attachment theory with the diathesis-stress approach to chronic pain. The evidence presented in this review, and the associated model, advances our understanding of the developmental origins of chronic pain conditions, with potential application in guiding early pain intervention and prevention efforts, as well as tailoring interventions to suit specific patient needs.

  9. Attachment and Family Processes in Children's Psychological Adjustment in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Kimberly P; Riggs, Shelley A; Kaminski, Patricia L

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the links between parent-child attachment, whole family interaction patterns, and child emotional adjustment and adaptability in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Both parents and each target child completed the appropriate form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Target children also completed the Children's Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that Secure mother-child attachment was a robust predictor of children's emotional symptoms, but father-child attachment strategies were not significant independent predictors. Positive Affect in family interactions significantly increased the amount of variance accounted for in children's emotional symptoms. In addition, Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children's emotional symptoms. When data from all BASC-2 informants (mother, father, child) were considered simultaneously and multidimensional constructs were modeled, mother-child security directly predicted children's adjustment and adaptive skills, but the influence of father-child security was fully mediated through positive family functioning. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and fostering positive emotional and behavioral outcomes in children. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  10. Understanding God images and God concepts: Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Counted

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent�child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. The article points out that insecure God images often develop head-to-head with God concepts in a believer�s emotional experience of God. On the other hand, the author describes God concepts as indicators of a religious faith and metaphorical standards for regulating insecure attachment patterns. The goals of this article, however, is to highlight the relationship between God images and God concepts, and to provide a hermeneutical process for interpreting and surviving the God image experience.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Given that most scholars within the discipline of Practical Theology discuss the subject of God images from cultural and theological perspectives, this article has discussed God images from an attachment perspective, which is a popular framework in psychology of religion. This is rare. The study is therefore interdisciplinary in this regards. The article further helps the reader to understand the intrapsychic process of the God image experience, and thus provides us with hermeneutical answers for dealing with the God image experience from methodologies grounded in Practical Theology and pastoral care.

  11. Custom Cast Ball Attachments Used on Outdated Implants to Restore a Maxillary Implant-Supported Overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Andressa Rosa Perin; Marin, Danny Omar Mendoza; Giro, Gabriela; Pero, Ana Carolina; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira; Reis, José Maurício Dos Santos Nunes

    2017-08-01

    The lack of compatible prosthetic components can be a complication during oral rehabilitation using outdated implants. The aim of the present clinical report was to describe an alternative technique for the fabrication of a maxillary implant-supported overdenture in a patient with 20-year-old dental implants using castable spherical patterns and ball attachments. The patient had been wearing a relined bar/clip overdenture in the mandible on 4 external-hexagon dental implants and a relined complete denture in the maxilla on 4 internal-hexagon implants due to abutment screw fracture inside of the implants, losing the attachment system. The remaining maxillary dental implants did not possess attachments compatible with current systems due to configuration changes by the manufacturer in the dental implant's platform and the components over time. Therefore, castable spherical patterns and cast ball attachments were used to fabricate a maxillary implant-supported overdenture. The mandible rehabilitation was performed using 4 osseointegrated dental implants with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis. The use of cast ball attachments on the maxillary dental implants avoided invasive procedures on the remaining implants. Considering the lack of available compatible prosthetic components for the osseointegrated implants, this technique was considered a viable and satisfactory treatment option.

  12. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  13. Interpretation bias in middle childhood attachment: Causal effects on attachment memories and scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Simon; Salemink, Elske; Bosmans, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Attachment theory implies the causal influence of interpretation bias on the attachment-related expectations. Previous research demonstrated that training children to interpret maternal behavior as more supportive increased their trust in maternal support. The current study explored possible training effects on two attachment script-related processes: recollection of attachment-related memories and secure base script knowledge. Children (9-12 years old; N = 84) were assigned to either a secure training condition, training children to interpret mother's behavior as supportive, or a neutral placebo condition, where interpretations about maternal behavior were unrelated to support. Findings replicated the training effect on interpretation bias and trust. Furthermore, children's recollection of attachment-related memories became more positive. No training effect was found for secure base script knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attachment in Institutionalized and Community Children in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Smyke, Anna T.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined attachment in institutionalized and community children 12-31 months of age in Bucharest, Romania. Attachment was assessed using ratings of attachment behaviors and ratings of caregiver descriptions in a structured interview. As predicted, children raised in institutions exhibited serious disturbances of attachment as assessed…

  15. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  16. Clinical decision - making review on magnetic attachments versus mechanical attachments in dental prosthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fabiano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional dentures in edentulous patients show some limitations due to the lack of retention, support and stability thus resulting in difficulty to chew. The modern implantology allows to use different implant overdentures and different attachment systems. The selection of the attachment by practitioners is mainly influenced by the clinical experience or technical preferences. Aims The aim of the present review is to provide an adequate background to the clinicians, in order to select the prosthetic attachments according to the current literature. The mechanical attachments have been compared to the magnetic devices, with the aim to guide the decision of the practitioners. Methods Articles topics selection was based on the use of magnetic attachments in dentistry and the comparison between them and mechanical connectors. The databases used were PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science. A critical evaluation of the selected paper has been made to choose the ones that matched the inclusion criteria. Results Nowadays, few studies have compared different attachments in a manner useful for clinical decision-making. The main problem limiting long-term durability of magnetic attachments in the oral fluid is the poor corrosion resistance of permanent magnets and the consequent leaching of cytotoxic ions. Conclusion Magnetic attachments in comparison with other attaching systems can be useful in patients with special needs, in patients with limited interocclusal space, or in patients with neuromuscular limitations, thanks to the automatic reseating properties. However, it’s important to highlight that the mechanical attachments still represent the best choice in common conditions requiring dental prostheses.

  17. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  18. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    , socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative......Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences...

  19. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    on Thévenot's notion of ‘commonality in the plural’, the article shows how a range of personal affinities to the architectural form of the kyō-machiya, positioned as an urban ‘common-place’, serves to coordinate across otherwise divergent interests. By taking seriously the role of attachments to common-places...... change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...

  20. Giant gravitons-with strings attached (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the free field theory limit of operators dual to giant gravitons with open strings attached, are studied. We introduce a graphical notation, which employs Young diagrams, for these operators. The computation of two point correlation functions is reduced to the application of three simple rules, written as graphical operations performed on the Young diagram labels of the operators. Using this technology, we have studied gravitational radiation by giant gravitons and bound states of giant gravitons, transitions between excited giant graviton states and joining of open strings attached to the giant

  1. Electron attachment to Van der Waals molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of recent experimental studies of low-energy electron attachment to O 2 , N 2 O and other molecules in dense gases and in sonic nozzle beams with emphasis on the important role of pre-existing van der Waals molecules in the attachment mechanism. The experimental results particularly for O 2 are compared with recent theories. A survey is also given briefly of recent studies on electron solvation and localization in the condensed phase from the viewpoint of the studies on electron interaction with van der Waals molecules. (Auth.)

  2. Stress analysis of mandibular implant-retained overdenture with independent attachment system: effect of restoration space and attachment height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadian, Behnaz; Talebi, Saeid; Khodaeian, Niloufar; Farzin, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, 2 implants were embedded in the interforaminal region of an acrylic model. Two kinds of retention mechanisms were used to construct complete overdentures: ball type and direct abutment (Locator). The ball-type retention mechanism models included 3 different collar heights (1, 2, and 3 mm) with 15 mm occlusal plane height, and 3 different occlusal plane heights (9, 12, and 15 mm) with 1 mm collar height. The direct abutment models included 3 different occlusal plane heights (9, 12, and 15 mm) with 1 mm cuff height. Vertical unilateral and bilateral loads of 150 N were applied to the central fossa of the first molar. The stress of the bone around the implant was analyzed by finite element analysis. The results showed that by increasing vertical restorative space, the maximum stress values around implants were decreased in both unilateral and bilateral loading models. The results also showed that the increase in maximum stress values around implants correlated with the ball attachment collar height. The Locator attachment with a 1 mm cuff height and 9 mm occlusal plane height demonstrated 6.147 and 3.914 MPa in unilateral and bilateral loading conditions, respectively. While a reduction in the collar height of a ball-type retention mechanism and an increase in the vertical restorative space in direct abutment retention mechanisms are both biomechanically favorable, and may result in reduced stress in peri-implant bone, a ball attachment seems to be more favorable in the stress distribution around an implant than a Locator attachment.

  3. DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsu, Joel; Zhou, Zongyan; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM) is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i) flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii) force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii) wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.

  4. DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsu Joel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.

  5. A Review of the Importance of Maternal-fetal Attachment According to the Islamic Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghodrati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Maternal-fetal attachment has an important effect on mother's identity as well as maternal and fetal health. Moreover, this concept is considered as a crucial issue for the improvement of children emotional development. Regarding the Islamic recommendations on maternal-fetal attachment and its correlation with maternal affection, this study was conducted to review the importance of maternal-fetal attachment according to the Islamic recommendations. Methods: This review was conducted on the religious texts, which covered the subject of interest and were published within 2000-2017. Various databases including Medline, PubMed, Google, IranMedex, SID, and Magiran as well as the websites of Muslim authorities (i.e., the section responding to religious questions were searched. The searching was carried out using keywords as: “Islamic religious teachings”, “pregnant women and Fatwa of the Islamic jurists”, and “aspects of maternal fetal attachment in Islam”. Results: According to the results of the reviewed texts, the mutual readiness of mother and fetus leads to the improvement of their affection. The maternal factors affecting the maternal-neonatal attachment included personality traits, marriage, selection of partner, post-marriage issues, pregnancy, as well as physical and psychological characteristics. There were also some effective factors on the newborn’s innate readiness for the development of attachment, such as fetal appearance, family and social support, maternal nutrition during pregnancy, and neonatal mood. Conclusion: According to the Holy Quran versus and hadiths, maternal-fetal attachment and its promotion are affected by both maternal and fetal factors. Moreover, following the factors affecting attachment will lead to their role functioning. Therefore, it is intensively recommended to incorporate a glance of Islamic instruction into the pregnancy education to improve the maternal-fetal attachment.

  6. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.

  7. Multiple roles of genome-attached bacteriophage terminal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes, including viruses, gram-positive bacteria, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism a specific amino acid primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Despite the fact that TPs lack sequence homology, they share a similar structural arrangement, with the priming residue in the C-terminal half of the protein and an accumulation of positively charged residues at the N-terminal end. In addition, various bacteriophage TPs have been shown to have DNA-binding capacity that targets TPs and their attached genomes to the host nucleoid. Furthermore, a number of bacteriophage TPs from different viral families and with diverse hosts also contain putative nuclear localization signals and localize in the eukaryotic nucleus, which could lead to the transport of the attached DNA. This suggests a possible role of bacteriophage TPs in prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. - Highlights: • Protein-primed genome replication constitutes a strategy to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes. • Bacteriophage terminal proteins (TPs) are covalently attached to viral genomes by their primary function priming DNA replication. • TPs are also DNA-binding proteins and target phage genomes to the host nucleoid. • TPs can also localize in the eukaryotic nucleus and may have a role in phage-mediated interkingdom gene transfer

  8. Passive Control of Attachment in Legged Space Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gasparetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the space environment the absence of gravity calls for constant safe attachment of any loose object, but the low-pressure conditions prohibit the use of glue-type adhesives. The attachment system of freely hunting spiders, e.g. Evarcha arcuata, employs van der Waals forces and mechanical interlocking. Furthermore, detachment is achieved passively and requires little force. Hence, the spider serves as a model for a versatile legged robot for space applications, e.g. on the outer surface of a space station. In this paper, we analyse the dry attachment systems of E. arcuata and geckos as well as the kinematics of freely hunting spiders. We generalise the results of biological studies on spider locomotion and mobility, including the major movement and the position constraints set by the dry adhesion system. From these results, we define a simplified spider model and study the overall kinematics of the legs both in flight and in contact with the surface. The kinematic model, the data on spider gait characteristics and the adhesion constraints are implemented in a kinematic simulator. The simulator results confirm the principal functionality of our concept.

  9. Development of antifouling surfaces to reduce bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mary Viola

    Bacteria are exceptionally good at adhering to surfaces and forming complex structures known as biofilms. This process, known as biofouling, can cause problems for infrastructure (eg, clogging and damaging pipes), for the food industry (eg, contamination of processing surfaces and equipment, and for the medical industry (eg, contamination of indwelling medical devices). Accordingly, multiple strategies have been explored to combat biofouling, including chemical modification of surfaces, development of antibiotic coatings, and more recently, the use of engineered surface topography. When designed properly, engineered surface topographies can significantly reduce bacterial surface attachment, ultimately limiting surface colonization. In this work, we hypothesized that the morphology, size, spacing, and surface pre-treatment of topographical features should directly correlate with the size and shape of target organisms, in order to reduce biofouling. Topographical features with size and spacing from 0.25 to 2 mum were fabricated in silicone elastomer and tested against rod shaped bacteria with an average size of 0.5 x 2 mum and spherical bacteria (cocci) ranging from 0.5 - 1 μm in diameter. Antifouling properties of the different topographical features were tested in both static and flow-based assays, and under oxygen plasma-treated (hydrophilic) and untreated (hydrophobic) surface conditions. We found that surface pre-treatment universally affects the ability bacteria to attach to surfaces, while surface topography limits attachment in a manner dependent on the bacterial size/shape and the size/spacing of the topography.

  10. Multiethnic GWAS Reveals Polygenic Architecture of Earlobe Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Li, Jinxi; Lee, Myoung Keun; Roosenboom, Jasmien; Orlova, Ekaterina; Adhikari, Kaustabh; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Pfeffer, Paige E; Wollenschlaeger, Christopher A; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Wehby, George L; Moreno, Lina M; Ding, Anan; Jin, Li; Yang, Yajun; Carlson, Jenna C; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Marazita, Mary L; Hinds, David A; Cox, Timothy C; Wang, Sijia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Weinberg, Seth M

    2017-12-07

    The genetic basis of earlobe attachment has been a matter of debate since the early 20 th century, such that geneticists argue both for and against polygenic inheritance. Recent genetic studies have identified a few loci associated with the trait, but large-scale analyses are still lacking. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of lobe attachment in a multiethnic sample of 74,660 individuals from four cohorts (three with the trait scored by an expert rater and one with the trait self-reported). Meta-analysis of the three expert-rater-scored cohorts revealed six associated loci harboring numerous candidate genes, including EDAR, SP5, MRPS22, ADGRG6 (GPR126), KIAA1217, and PAX9. The large self-reported 23andMe cohort recapitulated each of these six loci. Moreover, meta-analysis across all four cohorts revealed a total of 49 significant (p < 5 × 10 -8 ) loci. Annotation and enrichment analyses of these 49 loci showed strong evidence of genes involved in ear development and syndromes with auricular phenotypes. RNA sequencing data from both human fetal ear and mouse second branchial arch tissue confirmed that genes located among associated loci showed evidence of expression. These results provide strong evidence for the polygenic nature of earlobe attachment and offer insights into the biological basis of normal and abnormal ear development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Type of Attachment and Social Cognition Characteristics in Orphans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakian T.V.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Violations of social cognition significantly reduce quality of life. Studies of social cognition in orphans are rare while the data are conflicting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the type of attachment and peculiarities of social cognition in orphans. The author hypothesized that it will be difficult task for the orphans to recognize emotions. The study involved 57 people. The main group included 39 orphans living in an orphanage (25 boys, 14 girls. The average age was 14 years. The control subjects were 18 secondary school students living in the birth families (12 boys and 6 girls. The average age - 14 years. The results show that adolescent orphans have more difficulty interacting with other people, experience less pleasure from communicating, often use avoidance strategy. The number of orphans with avoidant attachment type is 1.5 times greater than in the control group. It is concluded that the type of attachment plays an important role in forming of social cognition. The results could be useful in basic and additional training of young people of this category

  12. Sex differences in jealousy: a contribution from attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N; Kelly, Kristen M

    2010-02-01

    Studies have found that more men than women endorse sexual infidelity as more distressing than emotional infidelity, whereas more women than men endorse emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Some evolutionary psychologists have proposed that this sex difference can be best conceptualized as reflecting evolution-based differences in parental investment that produce a need for paternity certainty among men and a need for male investment in offspring among women. Nonetheless, a conspicuous subset of men report emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Current theorizing explains between-sex differences but not within-sex differences. We hypothesized that attachment-style differences may help to explain both between- and within-sex differences in jealousy. As hypothesized, dismissing avoidant participants reported more jealousy regarding sexual than emotional infidelity (64.8%), and secure participants, including secure men, reported more jealousy regarding emotional than sexual infidelity (77.3%), chi(2)(3, N = 411) = 45.03, p jealousy relationship by attachment style. Implications of an attachment perspective are discussed.

  13. Multiple roles of genome-attached bacteriophage terminal proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, Margarita, E-mail: msalas@cbm.csic.es

    2014-11-15

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes, including viruses, gram-positive bacteria, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism a specific amino acid primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Despite the fact that TPs lack sequence homology, they share a similar structural arrangement, with the priming residue in the C-terminal half of the protein and an accumulation of positively charged residues at the N-terminal end. In addition, various bacteriophage TPs have been shown to have DNA-binding capacity that targets TPs and their attached genomes to the host nucleoid. Furthermore, a number of bacteriophage TPs from different viral families and with diverse hosts also contain putative nuclear localization signals and localize in the eukaryotic nucleus, which could lead to the transport of the attached DNA. This suggests a possible role of bacteriophage TPs in prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. - Highlights: • Protein-primed genome replication constitutes a strategy to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes. • Bacteriophage terminal proteins (TPs) are covalently attached to viral genomes by their primary function priming DNA replication. • TPs are also DNA-binding proteins and target phage genomes to the host nucleoid. • TPs can also localize in the eukaryotic nucleus and may have a role in phage-mediated interkingdom gene transfer.

  14. MEASURING PLACE ATTACHMENT TO CĂLIMANI NATIONAL PARK (ROMANIA AMONG LOCAL RESIDENTS AND TOURISTS. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA AMALIA MIHALCA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring Place Attachment to Călimani National Park (Romania among Local Residents and Tourists. Preliminary Findings. Understanding the attachments that people develop for certain places is an interesting area of study, but with little attention in Romanian empirical research. This study introduces the concepts of place identity and place dependence in relation to a specific area within the local culture of the Land of Dorna. Starting from previous studies carried on western samples, a research instrument measuring the degree and content of place attachment was translated and adapted. 86 respondents (52 residents and 34 tourists filled in the questionnaire. Comparing the degree of attachment, there was no significant difference among the two samples. However, local residents tended to display higher levels of place identity, while tourists displayed more emotional functionality to the study area. Place attachment is deeply embodied in the local culture. Due to the research design the generalization of the results is limited. However, this study may act as a starting point in researching other geographical mental spaces. The lands of Romania are unique social and cultural spaces with specific attachment patterns. Future studies should consider larger and representative samples in order to find additional patterns of attachment among residents and other individuals (e.g. tourists, visitors, new residents, other communities etc..

  15. Attachment insecurities, maladaptive perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms: a latent mediated and moderated structural equation modeling analysis across diagnostic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Timko, C Alix; Zanetti, M Assunta; Rinaldi, Lucio; Prunas, Antonio; Carrà, Giuseppe; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2014-01-30

    Although 96-100% of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) report insecure attachment, the specific mechanisms by which adult insecure attachment dimensions affect ED symptomatology remain to date largely unknown. This study examined maladaptive perfectionism as both a mediator and a moderator of the relationship between insecure attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and ED symptomatology in a clinical, treatment seeking, sample. Insecure anxious and avoidant attachment, maladaptive perfectionism, and ED symptomatology were assessed in 403 participants from three medium size specialized care centres for EDs in Italy. Structural equation modeling indicated that maladaptive perfectionism served as mediator between both insecure attachment patterns and ED symptomatology. It also interacted with insecure attachment to predict higher levels of ED symptoms - highlighting the importance of both insecure attachment patterns and maladaptive aspects of perfectionism as treatment targets. Multiple-group comparison analysis did not reveal differences across diagnostic groups (AN, BN, EDNOS) in mediating, main and interaction effects of perfectionism. These findings are consistent with recent discussions on the classification and treatment of EDs that have highlighted similarities between ED diagnostic groups and could be viewed through the lens of the Trans-theoretical Model of EDs. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of social support by a dog on stress modulation in male children with insecure attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea eBeetz; Henri eJulius; Dennis eTurner; Dennis eTurner; Kurt eKotrschal; Kurt eKotrschal

    2012-01-01

    Up to 90% of children with special education needs and about 40% of children in the general population show insecure or disorganized attachment patterns, which are linked to a diminished ability to use social support by others for the regulation of stress. The aim of the study was to investigate if children with insecure-avoidant/disorganized attachment can profit more from social support by a dog compared to a friendly human during a stressful task. We investigated 47 male children (age 7-11...

  17. Defining Place Attachment in Asian Urban Places through Opportunities for Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norsidah Ujang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high intensity of urban dwellers and the growing needs for socialization outdoor, the opportunity for interaction is limited due to the lack of public open spaces. This paper discusses the use of public open spaces in a city of Kuala Lumpur and how it shapes users’ attachment. Field observations and face to face interviews were conducted to examine the opportunities for social activities and pattern of users’ engagement. The findings indicate the incapability of the places to provide multifunctional spaces for diverse interactions while the social attachment to the places is strongly defined by interaction with familiar people in place.

  18. Attachment organization in Arabic-speaking refugees with post traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing clinical study of refugees with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the primary objective of the current study was to examine and describe the distribution of adult attachment patterns as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) in Arabic-speaking refugees......, 42% Preoccupied, 5% Cannot Classify) was found, in addition to high intake levels of post traumatic stress symptoms and comorbidity. Findings are compared with AAI studies of other PTSD or trauma samples, and the paper elaborates upon the methodological challenges in administering the AAI...

  19. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  20. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  1. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore, the effect of cutting parameters, such as, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the cutting forces, machining power and specific cutting energy have ...

  2. Clinical Perspective Attachment, parenting styles and bullying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent–adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents.

  3. Dissociative electron attachment to ozone: rate constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J.D.; Cicman, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    The rate constant for dissociative electron attachment to ozone has been derived over the energy range of 0-10 eV by using previously measured cross section data revisited here in regards to discrimination effect occurring during the extraction of ions. The obtained data for both possible channels exhibit the maximum at mean electron energies close to 1 eV. (author)

  4. Attachment at School Age and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the association between attachment at age 6 and school-related cognitive functioning 2 years later in a French Canadian sample. Found that secure children had higher scores than insecure peers on communication, cognitive engagement, and mastery motivation. Controlling children were at greatest risk for school…

  5. Parental Attachment as Predictor of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaik, Lee Phaik; Abdullah, Maria Chong; Elias, Habibah; Uli, Jegak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between adolescents' parental attachment and delinquent behaviour in the aspects of trust, communication and alienation. In this study, delinquent behaviour refers to the set of behaviours which is against any mainstream established rules or norms. It is believed that delinquent…

  6. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  7. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  8. Attachment Contexts of Adolescent Friendship and Romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judi Beinstein; Hoicowitz, Tova

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare memories of attachments to parents, friends, and romantic partners in relation to the maintenance of high school friendships and romantic relationships. College students recorded the length of their friendships and romantic relationships during high school and rated the quality of each. They also rated…

  9. Attachment Theory: Implications for School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Janice H.; Kennedy, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    The effective practice of school psychology requires a strong research and theoretical base, a framework that encompasses developmental processes and outcomes, both adaptive and maladaptive, which facilitates assessment and intervention and offers insight into classroom and family dynamics. Attachment theory provides the school psychologist with…

  10. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  11. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  12. Challenges related to migration and child attachment: A pilot study with South Asian immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Vanessa; Miconi, Diana; Rousseau, Cécile

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study examined psychological, social and cultural risk factors for child insecure attachment in a sample of South Asian immigrant families experiencing high migration stress in Montreal, Canada. Thirty-three participants were recruited through a local Health and Social Service organization. Maternal anxiety and depression, social support, and national and religious sense of belonging were assessed. Child attachment behaviors were coded from a 15 min free play period. Results indicated that maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower child attachment security scores. Lower support from friends was related to greater child ambivalent attachment behaviors. A higher sense of belonging to the country of origin was related to greater child disorganized attachment behaviors. These findings suggest that migration stresses, which include maternal depression, lack of social support and the sense of belonging, are associated with child attachment, and these variables should be considered in the design of appropriate interventions.

  13. Parent-child attachment, academic performance and the process of high-school dropout: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdal, Gro; Bergvik, Svein; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Poor academic performance is a strong predictor of school dropout. Researchers have tried to disentangle variables influencing academic performance. However, studies on preschool and early care variables are seldom examined when explaining the school dropout process. We reviewed the literature on the relationship between caregiver-child attachment and academic performance, including attachment studies from preschool years, seeking out potential contributions to academic performance and the dropout process. The review was organized according to a model of four main mediating hypotheses: the attachment-teaching hypothesis, the social network hypothesis, the attachment-cooperation hypothesis, and the attachment self-regulation hypothesis. The results of the review are summed up in a model. There is some support for all four hypotheses. The review indicates that attachment and early care contribute substantially to dropout and graduation processes. Mediation effects should be given far more attention in future research.

  14. Theory of Mind and attachment styles in people with psychotic disorders, their siblings, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Simons, Claudia J P; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2015-02-01

    Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM, and comprises avoidant (discomfort with close relationships, high value of autonomy) and anxious (separation anxiety, dependency on others) attachment. Insight into the association between attachment style and ToM is clinically relevant, as it enhances our understanding and clinical approach to social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Therefore, we studied the association between insecure attachment styles and ToM in patients with schizophrenia, their siblings, and healthy controls. A total of 111 patients with a diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum, 106 non-affected siblings and 63 controls completed the Psychosis Attachment Measure, the Conflicting Beliefs and Emotions, a subsection of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Severity of symptoms was assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. After controlling for sex, intelligence, history of trauma and symptom severity, avoidant attachment was significantly associated with cognitive as well as with affective ToM, showing U-shaped associations, indicating better ToM performance for patients with lower or higher levels of avoidant attachment compared to medium levels. Anxious attachment in patients was associated with more problems in cognitive ToM. The results from this study support the idea that an anxious attachment style is associated with worse ToM performance in patients. Results also suggested a potential protective role of higher levels of avoidant attachment on ToM. These findings bear clinical relevance, as activation of (insecure) attachment mechanisms may affect interpersonal

  15. Attachment style contributes to the outcome of a multimodal lifestyle intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiesewetter Sybille

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Aims The long-term success of life-style interventions in the treatment of obesity is limited. Although psychological factors have been suggested to modify therapeutic effects, specifically the implications of attachment styles and the patient-therapist relationship have not been examined in detail yet. Methods This study included 44 obese patients who participated in a one-year multimodal weight-reduction program. Attachment style was analyzed by the Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR inventory and its relation to a one-year weight reduction program was studied. The patient-therapist-relationship was assessed using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire. Results Attachment style was secure in 68% of participants and insecure (preoccupied and dismissing in 32%. Interestingly a significantly higher weight-reduction was found in securely (SAI compared to insecurely attached individuals (UAI; p Conclusions The frequency of insecure attachment in obese individuals was comparable to that of the normal population. Our data suggest a greater weight-reduction for SAI than for UAI, and the patient-therapist relationship was rated more positively. The conclusion can be drawn that a patient's attachment style plays a role in an interdisciplinary treatment program for obesity and has an influence on the effort to lose weight.

  16. Attachment anxiety and avoidance as mediators of the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.

  17. Cell and fiber attachment to demineralized dentin from normal root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, P J; Polson, A M; Ladenheim, S

    1985-12-01

    The study assessed connective tissue and epithelial responses to dentin specimens (obtained from normal roots of human teeth) after surface demineralization. Rectangular dental specimens with opposite faces of root and pulpal dentin were prepared from beneath root surfaces covered by periodontal ligament. One-half of the specimens were treated with citric acid, pH 1, for 3 minutes, while the remainder served as untreated control specimens. Specimens were implanted vertically into incisional wounds on the dorsal surface of rats with one end of the implant protruding through the skin. Four specimens in each group were available 1, 3, 5 and 10 days after implantation. Histologic and histometric analyses included counts of adhering cells, evaluation of connective tissue fiber relationships and assessment of epithelial migration. Analyses within each group comparing root and pulpal surfaces showed no differences between any of the parameters. Comparisons between experimental and control groups showed that demineralized surfaces had a greater number of cells attached, fiber attachment occurred and epithelial downgrowth was inhibited. The fiber attachment to experimental specimens differed morphologically from fiber attachment to normal root surfaces: the number of fibers attached per unit length and the diameter of attached fibers were significantly less on experimental specimens. Demineralized specimens at 10 days had a distinct eosinophilic surface zone. Surface demineralization of dentin predisposed toward a cell and fiber attachment system which inhibited migration of epithelium.

  18. Effects of a Paternal Participation Program during Cesarean Section on Paternal Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyoung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeIn this study effects of a paternal participation program during cesarean section on paternal infant attachment were investigate. The experimental treatment was an integrative nursing intervention to promote father to infant attachment.MethodsStudy design was a non-equivalent control group posttest design. The program consisted of emotional support to spouse and father towards infant attachment immediately following cesarean birth. Participants were 66 men, partners of women with normal full term pregnancy having a cesarean section with spinal or epidural anesthesia, (experimental group, 34; control group, 32. The experiment was carried out from August 1 to October 30, 2010. Control group data were obtained from May 1 to June 30, 2012. Posttest was performed 72 hours after cesarean birth. A self-report questionnaire including a paternal attachment instrument was used. Data were analyzed using t-test, propensity score matching, and analysis of covariance with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program.ResultsTotal score for paternal infant attachment in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<.001. After matching, significant differences were found between the two groups through all subcategories. Adjusted mean score for paternal infant attachment verified experimental effects.ConclusionResults indicate that this paternal participation program during cesarean section is effective in improving paternal infant attachment.

  19. Mother-infant attachment and the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J

    2014-02-01

    Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective data sets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship and (b) an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship increases the risk of developing PTSD following trauma exposure in later life. In the first study of urban, primarily low-income ethnic/racial minority mothers and infants (N = 45 dyads), elevated maternal PTSD symptoms at 6 months were associated with increased risk for an insecure, particularly disorganized, mother-infant attachment relationship at 13 months. In the second birth cohort of urban, low-income mothers and children (N = 96 dyads), insecure (avoidant or resistant) attachment in infancy was associated in a dose-response manner with increased lifetime risk for a diagnosis of PTSD by adolescence. A history of disorganized attachment in infancy predicted severity of PTSD symptoms, including reexperiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and total symptoms, at 17.5 years. In both studies, associations between attachment and PTSD were not attributable to numerous co-occurring risk factors. The findings suggest that promoting positive mother-child relationships in early development, particularly in populations at high risk for trauma exposure, may reduce the incidence of PTSD.

  20. Personality Makes a Difference: Attachment Orientation Moderates Theory of Planned Behavior Prediction of Cardiac Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Shira; Vilchinsky, Noa; Fisher, William A; Khaskia, Abed; Mosseri, Morris

    2017-12-01

    To achieve a comprehensive understanding of patients' adherence to medication following acute coronary syndrome (ACS), we assessed the possible moderating role played by attachment orientation on the effects of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC), as derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), on intention and reported adherence. A prospective longitudinal design was employed. During hospitalization, ACS male patients (N = 106) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including sociodemographic variables, attachment orientation, and measures of TPB constructs. Six months post-discharge, 90 participants completed a questionnaire measuring adherence to medication. Attachment orientations moderated some of the predictions of the TPB model. PBC predicted intention and reported adherence, but these associations were found to be significant only among individuals with lower, as opposed to higher, attachment anxiety. The association between attitudes and intention was stronger among individuals with higher, as opposed to lower, attachment anxiety. Only among individuals with higher attachment avoidance, subjective norms were negatively associated with intention to take medication. Cognitive variables appear to explain both adherence intention and behavior, but differently, depending on individuals' attachment orientations. Integrating personality and cognitive models may prove effective in understanding patients' health behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Disorganized attachment and defense: exploring John Bowlby’s unpublished reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Reisz, Samantha; Duschinsky, Robbie; Siegel, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Main and Solomon were the first to create a formal infant Strange Situation classification of attachment disorganization. Bowlby’s reflections on the underlying psychological processes of such behaviors, however, began early in his career, including the term “disorganization.” Most of these remained unpublished but are available through the John Bowlby Archive. Bowlby saw affective experiences as the source of the attachment behavioral system’s organization and regulation, and he int...

  2. Secure attachment and eudaimonic well-being in late adulthood: The mediating role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J

    2018-03-01

    Attachment style refers to a systematic pattern of emotions, behaviors, and expectations that people have for how others will respond in relationships. Extensive evidence has documented the importance of attachment security in infants, children, adolescents, and adults, but the effects of attachment among exclusively older adult populations have received less attention. The present study explored the relationships between attachment style in late adulthood and eudaimonic well-being, which refers to a life replete with meaning, productive activity, and striving to reach one's potential. It also explored the mediating role of self-compassion, which can be described as a kind and forgiving attitude toward the self. A sample of 126 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 70.40 years) completed measures tapping adult attachment, self-compassion, and six theoretically derived markers of eudaimonic well-being. Attachment anxiety and avoidance were inversely related to self-acceptance, personal growth, interpersonal relationship quality, purpose in life, and environmental mastery. Mediation analyses showed that self-compassion mediated each of these relationships. Results support the importance of attachment orientation for psychological well-being in late life and indicate that secure attachment facilitates an attitude of kindness and acceptance toward the self.

  3. Attachment and Social Cognition in borderline personality disorder: specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Scott, Lori N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ellison, William D.; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, due, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and avoidant PD symptoms. The findings support theories that insecure attachment is associated with difficulties in social cognition and that a distinctive pattern of impairment characterizes BPD. PMID:25705979

  4. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  5. Sulfur isotope separation by dissociative electron attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A new method is proposed for isotope separation in polyatomic molecules. In this method a laser is tuned to selectively excite a vibration mode of the molecules which contain the isotope to be removed. Before deactivation can occur, an electron is attached, resulting in an excited negative ion. Under the proper conditions this ion may dissociate, producing fragments which can be removed chemically. This technique is particularly suited to isotope separation in SF 6 . Potential energy curves are developed for this molecule to aid in explaining the mechanism of dissociative electron attachment. These curves incorporate much of the information known about attachment of electrons to SF 6 and represent an improvement over previously published curves. A rough estimate of the effectiveness of this method is made, based upon the temperature-dependent branching ratio for SF 5 - and SF 6 - . The calculations indicate that the fractional 34 S content in a sample of processed SF 6 may increase 4760 times the content in a natural sample. A kinetics model is presented to describe the attachment of electrons to SF 6 . Numerical solutions of the appropriate rate equations indicate that application of the proposed technique to SF 6 will require a low pressure environment and a large number of zero energy electrons. A simple theory is developed to determine threshold intensities for laser-induced dissociation on the basis of experimentally measurable quantities, the total laser power and the reaction volume. Using the focused beam method, a series of experiments performed to separate isotopes in SF 6 establishes a value of 6.0 MW/cm 2 for the threshold intensity. This eliminates dissociative electron attachment as an explanation of isotope separation by the focused beam method, but does not exclude it as a viable technique for separating isotopes

  6. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  7. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  8. Subcutaneous anchor attachment increases retention of radio transmitters on Xantus' and marbled murrelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Whitworth, Darrell L.; Burkett, Esther E.

    1999-01-01

    We modified a subcutaneous anchor attachment and achieved transmitter reten- tion times that exceeded those reported previously for other attachments used on alcids. Traditional suture and epoxy attachment methods were used on Xantus' Murrelets in 1995 and 1996, while the modified attachment was used for Xantus' Murrelets in 1996 and 1997 and Marbled Murrelets in 1997. Modifications included use of an inhalant anesthetic, placing the anchor in a more cranial position on the back, application of marine epoxy, and place- ment of a single subcutaneous non-absorbable suture at the caudal end of the radio to hold the radio in place initially. We located 22 of 56 (39%) Xantus' Murrelets radio-marked using suture and epoxy during aerial surveys in 1995 and 1996. Of birds radio-marked using the subcutaneous anchor attachment, we located 92 of 113 (81%) Xantus' Murrelets marked in 1996 and 1997 and all 28 (100%) Marbled Murrelets marked in 1997 during aerial surveys. The maximum confirmed duration for the subcutaneous anchor transmitter attachment was 51 d for Xantus' Murrelets and 78 d for Marbled Murrelets versus 41 d for the suture and epoxy attachment used on Xantus' Murrelets. Recapture rates of radio-marked Xantus' Mur- relets were similar to recapture rates of unmarked Xantus' Murrelets. Our post-release ob- servations indicated negligible short-term physical effects from the attachment procedure, while telemetry data and examination of recaptured murrelets indicated no evidence of infection or other long-term physical effects. Breeding behavior of some murrelets was not disrupted; however, further evaluation of potential effects of this attachment technique on breeding and behavior is needed.

  9. Young adult's attachment style as a partial mediator between maternal functioning and young adult offsprings' functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2018-05-01

    The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating Emotional Attachment and Sustainability in Electronic Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lobos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current models for Information and Communication Technology (ICT products encourage frequent product replacement with newer versions that offer only minor incremental improvements. This pattern, named planned obsolescence, diminishes user experience and shortens product lifespan. This paper presents the conceptual basis for a two-part integrated approach to combating planned obsolescence in ICT devices. First, design for emotional attachment, which creates products that users enjoy, value, and use for longer. Second, technological adaptability, which anticipates product upgrades and repairs as new technologies emerge. A model interdisciplinary design course in industrial design and sustainability, also described herein, trains students to apply this approach to create innovative ICT products with smaller environmental footprints.

  11. Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates intrusive traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of the Group Play Therapy on the Insecure Attachment and Social Skills of Orphans in Ahvaz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Bahareh; Safarzadeh, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the group play therapy on the insecure attachment and social skills of orphans in Ahvaz city. Statistical population included all orphans in Ahvaz city, of whom 30 students were selected whose scores in insecure attachment and in social skills were one standard deviation higher and one standard…

  13. Attachment within life history theory: an evolutionary perspective on individual differences in attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepsenwol, Ohad; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2018-03-15

    In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individual differences in adult attachment mediate the adaptive calibration of reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation. We first present an integration of attachment theory and life history theory. Then, we discuss how early harsh and/or unpredictable environments may promote insecure attachment by hampering parents' ability to provide sensitive and reliable care to their children. Finally, we discuss how, in the context of harsh and/or unpredictable environments, different types of insecure attachment (i.e. anxiety and avoidance) may promote evolutionary adaptive reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insecure attachment behavior and partner violence: incorporating couple perceptions of insecure attachment and relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Megan; Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Intimate partner violence and insecure attachment are therapeutically relevant concepts when working with couples. The link between attachment and intimate partner violence has been examined in the literature, but an area of aggression that often goes unexamined is relational aggression, or using third parties as a means of being aggressive toward a partner. We asked how participants' attachment behaviors were related to their own and partners' relational and physical aggression. We used structural equation modeling to estimate actor-partner interdependence among these relationships in 644 heterosexual couples. Results indicated significant partner paths from attachment to relational aggression, as well as significant actor paths between relational aggression and physical aggression. Implications were discussed. Data for this study were collected from the RELATE assessment. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  15. Dissociative electron attachment to nitroaromatic compounds - resonances as fingerprints for isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzer, P [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Mauracher, A [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Denifl, S [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Zappa, F [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ptasinska, S [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rondino, F [Dip. di Studi di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Sostanze Biologicamente Attive, University ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Scheier, P [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Maerk, T D [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    We present detailed free electron attachment measurements on nitroaromatic compounds in the gas phase. It turns out that dissociative electron attachment can act as a selective and sensitive probe for the identification of isomeric forms of nitrotoluene and dinitrobenzene. Rich fragmentation patterns have been observed for both nitroaromates and all fragments above the detection limit of our instrument have been investigated with a high energy resolution electron monochromator in the energy range of about 0 to 15 eV. It is shown that relative attachment cross section curves can act as fingerprints for the particular molecule and its isomers. Additionally it has been observed that numerous fragments arise from surprisingly complex structural and electronic rearrangements.

  16. Clinical evaluation of mandibular implant overdentures via Locator implant attachment and Locator bar attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yong-Ho; Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, So-Hyoun; Yun, Mi-Jung; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and patient satisfaction on implant overdenture designed with Locator implant attachment or Locator bar attachment in mandibular edentulous patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant survival rate, marginal bone loss, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, complications, and satisfaction were evaluated on sixteen patients who were treated with mandibular overdenture and have used it for at least 1 ...

  17. Localized outbreak of attached diatoms on the coral Montipora due to low-temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Hideyuki; Mikame, Yurika; Suzuki, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    A short-term, localized outbreak of diatoms attached to live corals was observed along the coast of Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan in February, 2011. Diatoms are recognized as brown patches in the initial stage, becoming fluffy encrustations and resulting in complete or partial coral death. Attached diatoms, including Licmophora, Climacosphenia, Ardissonea and others, attached and overgrew exclusively Montipora corals, which are dominant corals in some parts of Sesoko reef. Heavily-covered colonies or branches died. The rate of affected corals reached 80% in the worst-affected area. Microscopic observation showed that most diatoms settled directly with polysaccharide stalks or pads onto the partly-bared skeleton of coral branches, although some settled on coral soft tissues. Although no similar phenomenon was reported from other areas of Japan, cold-water events might have important roles in coral weakening, as a consequence, enabling diatom attachment on corals, thus leading to coral death in this area.

  18. Family or Caregiver Instability, Parental Attachment, and the Relationship to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizzi, Marc V

    2015-01-01

    A violent or unstable home life-characterized by caregivers physically or sexually abusing children, physical violence in the home, homelessness, and other factors-and disrupted parental attachment are examined in this secondary data analysis for their possible relationship to juvenile sex offending. Parent or caregiver instability is measured by a demographic questionnaire administered to participants. Parental attachment is measured by the Inventory of Peer and Personal Attachment. The population included 502 adjudicated juvenile male sexual and nonsexual offenders in a Midwest state who responded to questionnaires in order to examine juvenile offending antecedents. The highest correlated parent or caregiver instability variables to juvenile sex offending status were multiple relocations or homelessness, children placed out of the home, slapping or punching in the home, and sexual abuse victimization. The quality of parental attachment had little impact on the respondents' offense status.

  19. Localized outbreak of attached diatoms on the coral Montipora due to low-temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Hideyuki; Mikame, Yurika; Suzuki, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    A short-term, localized outbreak of diatoms attached to live corals was observed along the coast of Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan in February, 2011. Diatoms are recognized as brown patches in the initial stage, becoming fluffy encrustations and resulting in complete or partial coral death. Attached diatoms, including Licmophora, Climacosphenia, Ardissonea and others, attached and overgrew exclusively Montipora corals, which are dominant corals in some parts of Sesoko reef. Heavily-covered colonies or branches died. The rate of affected corals reached 80% in the worst-affected area. Microscopic observation showed that most diatoms settled directly with polysaccharide stalks or pads onto the partly-bared skeleton of coral branches, although some settled on coral soft tissues. Although no similar phenomenon was reported from other areas of Japan, cold-water events might have important roles in coral weakening, as a consequence, enabling diatom attachment on corals, thus leading to coral death in this area. PMID:22870381

  20. Romantic attachment, empathy, and the broader autism phenotype among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Dustin; Turner, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that mild autistic-like characteristics can be measured among relatives of individuals with autism and in the general population. These characteristics have been referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP), and include pragmatic language difficulties, aloofness, and rigidity. Evidence is growing to suggest that individuals with BAP encounter difficulties in their social interactions. Recent work demonstrates that college students scoring high on the BAP report more loneliness (Jobe & Williams White, 2007) and more interpersonal problems (Wainer, Ingersoll, & Hopwood, 2012). Because intimate relationships are important in development and are very salient in emerging adulthood, the authors examined the relation of the BAP to romantic attachment and empathy among young adults. Higher BAP scores were associated with lower empathy and higher attachment anxiety and avoidance. Specifically, pragmatic language difficulties were related to higher rates of avoidant attachment and this relationship was mediated by empathy. In contrast, pragmatic language deficits were directly related to anxious attachment.