WorldWideScience

Sample records for include archaeological studies

  1. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  2. Social Archaeological Approaches in Port and Harbour Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam

    2013-12-01

    This introductory article to the special issue of the Journal of Maritime Archaeology offers a comparative perspective on the theme of archaeological theory and social archaeological approaches to ports and harbours. As a specialist in Roman archaeology I was keen to explore the way in which specialists in other areas of archaeology approached the archaeology of ports and harbours and whether different approaches and perspectives may be able to add nuances to the way in which material is interpreted. The volume brings together a collection of exciting new studies which explore social themes in port and harbour studies with the intention to encourage debate and the use of new interpretative perspectives. This article examines a number of interpretative themes including those relating to architectural analyse, human behaviour, action and experience and artefact analysis. These themes help us to move towards a more theoretically informed ports and harbour archaeology which focuses on meaning as well as description. The emphasis on theory within archaeology allows us to be more ambitious in our interpretative frameworks including in Roman archaeology which has not tended to embrace the theoretical aspects of the archaeological discipline with as much enthusiasm as some other areas of archaeology.

  3. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian' (2013 league table for studying archaeology Ranked 2nd in 'The Times' (2013 ‘Good University Guide’ 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011 Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  4. Policy Archaeology: A New Policy Studies Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, James Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Discusses policy archaeology, a radically different approach to policy studies in education drawn from the poststructuralist work of Foucault. Policy archaeology examines the social construction of problems before they become visible, focusing on five social regularities (race, gender, class, governmentality, and professionalization) comprising…

  5. Maritime archaeological studies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    India with more than 7000 km long coastline and about 5000 years old maritime history is dotted with several ancient ports. Marine archaeological research during last two and half decades has revealed a number of sites along the Indian coast, which...

  6. Archaeometric studies on the Hatahara archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Kelly Placa

    2009-01-01

    The reconstruction of the past and the understanding of historical and cultural aspects of societies that developed at archaeological sites have been enabled by archaeometric studies undertaken on ceramics located at these areas. This study aims to be a contribution to the elucidation of these aspects with the application of three physical methods of analysis: neutron activation analysis (NAA), thermoluminescence dating (TL) an electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to ceramic fragments from the Hatahara archaeological site, located at central Amazon. The elemental concentrations obtained by NAA for 120 ceramic fragments were interpreted by means of cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results showed the existence of five distinct ceramic groups. This information, supported by archaeological interpretation, confirm the existence of four distinct occupation Phases at Hatahara site. In order to establish a chronology for the occupations, the ages of three ceramic fragments were determined by TL. The dating of two fragments did not confirm the archaeological interpretation about their occupation Phases. However, the dating of the third fragment allowed the confirmation that it belongs to the Manacapuru Phase. The determination of the burning temperatures of four ceramic fragments was performed by EPR. It was observed that although the analyzed ceramic samples belong to three distinct groups, there was no significant variation on their burning temperatures. (author)

  7. TOF neutron diffraction study of archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelmann, W.; Kirfel, A.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The time-of flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer ROTAX [1] at ISIS has been used for identification and quantitative phase analysis of archaeological pottery. Neutron diffraction yields mineral phase fractions which, in parallel with information obtained from other archaeometric examination techniques, can provide a fingerprint that can be used to identify provenance and reconstruct methods of manufacturing of an archaeological ceramic product. Phase fractions obtained from a 13th century Rhenish stoneware jar compare well with those obtained from a powder sample prepared from the same fragment. This indicates that reliable results can be obtained by illuminating a large piece or even an intact ceramic object making TOF neutron diffraction a truly non-destructive examination technique. In comparison to X-ray diffraction, information from the bulk sample rather than from surface regions is obtained. ROTAX allows for a simple experimental set-up, free of sample movements. Programmes of archaeological study on ROTAX involve Russian samples (Upper-Volga culture, 5000-2000 BC), Greek pottery, (Agora/Athens, 500-300 BC), and medieval German earthenware and stoneware ceramics (Siegburg waster heap, 13-15th century). (author)

  8. Radiology in archaeological studies of incas mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previgliano, Carlos H.; Ceruti, Constanza; Arias Araoz, Facundo; Gonzalez Diez, Josefina; Reinhard, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to determine the imaging findings in three 500-year-old Inca mummies and how modern radiology can be used in other sciences such as archaeology. Material and Method: Three naturally mummified children were studied using conventional radiography, dental radiography, CT and puncture biopsies. Working sessions were limited to 20 minutes to prevent thawing of the corpses and radiological techniques were adjusted to their particular anatomic position. Results: CT images showed shrinkaged internal organs due to dehydration. The fatty tissue of the bodies was visibly white because of the transformation of it into adipocere, favoring white matter/gray matter differentiation at the central nervous system. The lungs were expanded in the three corpses and right lung and maxillary sinus pathologies were determined in the older girl. Chronological ages of the three children at the time of their deaths were established. DNA studies determined no family links among them. The spleen was not seen in any case. Conclusions: Modern radiology is an excellent tool in archaeological research. Nutritional state, ages and pathologies of the three mummies were evaluated. (author) [es

  9. Archaeological analogous and industrials for deep storage: study of the archaeological metallic piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criado Portal, A. J.; Martinez Garcia, J. A.; Calabres Molina, R.; Garcia abajo, A.; Penco Valenzuela, F.; Lecanda Esteban, J. A.; Garcia Bartual, M.; Jimenez Gonzalez, J. M.; Bravo Munoz, E.; Rodriguez Lobo, L. M.; Fernandez Cascos, T.; Fernandes Cordero, O.; Montero Ruiz, I.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of present research is to obtain information about archaeological analogous of iron and steel, useful for the model of deep geological repository (AGP). The analogous examined have remained buried between 1400 and 2400 years, in very assorted geochemical environments. The extraction of the archaeological pieces has been accomplished according to normalised protocols, trying to carry to the laboratory so the piece as its burial environment, avoiding all possible pollution. Trying to the archaeological analogous could provide valuable information to the AGP model, the study has been directed to related the physical-chemical characteristics of the terrain respect to the deterioration of the archaeological metallic piece. The geology of the surrounding terrain to the archaeological deposit, the geomorphological study of the terrain and data from the analysis of ground: pH, wetness, porosity, organic matter contents, bacteria presence, sulphates, carbonates, chlorides, etc., have allowed to explain the physical-chemical phenomena suffered by the archaeological iron and steel pieces. Also, an exhaustive study of the archaeological piece has been accomplished, concerning the microstructure of the corrosion layer and of the not deteriorated metallic rest. Obtained information concerns different items, such as corrosion velocity and formations of oxide layers, diffusion of chemical elements from the corrosion layer to the metal and viceversa, and structural changes in oxide layers and in the metallic remains by structural ageing. Obtained data have allowed to develop a mathematical model for calculation of corrosion velocity in buried iron and steels, based on physical-chemical variables of grounds, chemical composition and thermomechanical treatment given to the metal during its manufacture. (Author)

  10. Studying at UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Frearson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ranked first in the UK for archaeology, for the fifth year in a row, in 'The Guardian' 'University Guide' League Tables, with a top score of 100/100. Ranked in the top five for student satisfaction in 'The Complete University Guide' 2016 League Table of UK archaeology departments (published in May 2015. Twitter: @UCLarchaeology Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/UCLArchaeology_

  11. Archaeological Sites Studies Based on Neural Computation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, M. C.; Martinez, P.; Perez, R. M.; Paniagua, J.; del Rio, L. M.; Cerrillo, E.; Valencia, D.; Paniagua, R.; Plaza, J.; Bejarano, A.

    2005-06-01

    Some previous archaeological studies developed by the investigation group are based in the application of Artificial Neural Networks to detect special items in aerial or remote sensing[1] scenes[2], [3]. As Artificial Neural Networks have been widely used to solve problems related with pattern recognition and classification, a good performance is expected in the detection of certain image zones susceptible to contain archaeological remains, such as buildings, ruins, roads or ways. In this paper we present the study carried in on the area of Cáparra archaeological site.

  12. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    tools available for major and small archaeological studies. Various suggessions are being given in this report in measuring distances underwater of artifact, measurement of depth and a method to get the azimuth of the baseline control network, so...

  13. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, Tom; Geuna, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce...... potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown...

  14. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France); Carloganu, C.; Niess, V. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC) - Université Blaise Pascal. Clermont - Ferrand (France); Gibert, D. [Géosciences Rennes - Université de Rennes 1. Rennes (France); Marteau, J. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL) - Université de Lyon (UCBL). Lyon (France)

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  15. Archaeological discoveries in Jordan: their impact on biblical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Olivier

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The major impact of archaeological exploration in Jordan on the history and development of Biblical studies is not always fully appreciated. It is shown here that several important innovations and developments in the field of Biblical studies are directly to be linked to such archaeological discoveries. Moreover, contrary to the more easily accessible and religiously more significant Cisjordan, certain regions in Transjordan have remained virtually untouched until a few years ago. Consequently, they can presently be explored by means of the most advanced survey and excavation techniques. The current interest in the social, cultural and economical aspects of society in Biblical times has been served significantly by modern socio-anthropolocical based archaeological research in the more isolated regions of Jordan.

  16. Archaeological Vector Graphics and SVG: A case study from Cricklade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wright

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are a variety of ways to make vector-based information available on the Web, but most are browser- and platform-dependent, proprietary, and unevenly supported (Laaker 2002, 13. Of the various solutions currently being explored by the greater Web community, one of the most promising is called Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG, which is part of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML. SVG was defined by a working group of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C and has subsequently become their official recommendation for representing vector graphics on the Web in XML (Eisenberg 2002, 6; Watt 2002, xviii. Because SVG is an XML application, it is freely available, not dependent on a particular browser or platform, and interoperable with other XML applications. While there is no guarantee that SVG will be widely adopted for rendering vector-based information on the Web, development and recommendation by the W3C generally carries a great deal of weight, especially as browser developers move towards less proprietary support of W3C standards. In addition, use of XML continues to grow, so XML-based solutions like SVG should be explored by those interested in presenting vector graphics on the Web (Harold and Means 2002, 3. This discussion explores SVG as a potential tool for archaeologists. It includes some of the ways vector graphics are used in archaeology, and outlines the development and features of SVG, which are then demonstrated in the form of a case study. Large-scale plan and section drawings originally created on Permatrace were digitised by Guy Hopkinson for use in the Internet Archaeology publication Excavations at Cricklade, Wiltshire, 1975, by Jeremy Haslam, designed as an exercise in 'retrospective publication', to illustrate how traditional forms of visual recording might be digitised for online publication. Hopkinson went on to publish his methodology jointly with Internet Archaeology editor, Judith Winters in Problems with

  17. Saving Population from Governmentality Studies: Translating Between Archaeology and Biopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the interest in governmentality studies has diverted attention form the biopolitical significance the term population holds in Foucault's thought, and further elaborates this perspective through an articulation between Foucault's earlier work on Archaeology and his later work on Biopolitics.

  18. Archaeological studies at IPNE cyclotron laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Radulescu, M.; Manucu-Adamesteanu, Gh.; Poll, I.

    1995-01-01

    An XRF-PIXE program for systematic investigation of Greek, Roman, and Byzantine cooper and lead coins found in Romania, has been started in cooperation with the Bucharest Museum of History and Archaeology, using a 30 mCi Am-241 source and 4.7 MeV (sub-harmonic accelerating regime) alpha particles from the Bucharest U-120 Cyclotron (in vacuum measurements). The aim of the program is to identify and classify the coins in relation to their origins (workshops) e.g. Constantinople, Thessaloniki as well as local workshops on the basis of their content in minor and trace elements (lead-arsenic, tin-silver). Different Byzantine ceramics and glass pieces (bracelets) have also been analysed. Results and performances (sensitivity, experimental errors) especially for Fe, Cu, Ni, As, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, and Pb for coins and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Rb, Ba, La, and Nd - for ceramics - are reported. Elemental analysis of Byzantine ceramics and glass samples using intense fast neutron beams (13 MeV D + Be thick target), especially for O, Mg, Al, and Si are also presented. (author)

  19. RPAS AND TLS TECNIQUES FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY: THE CASE STUDY OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF ERACLEA MINOA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lo Brutto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital documentation and 3D modelling of archaeological sites are important for understanding, definition and recognition of the values of the sites and of the archaeological finds. The most part of archaeological sites are outdoor location, but a cover to preserve the ruins protects often parts of the sites. The possibility to acquire data with different techniques and merge them by using a single reference system allows creating multi-parties models in which 3D representations of the individual objects can be inserted. The paper presents the results of a recent study carried out by Geomatics Laboratory of University of Palermo for the digital documentation and 3D modelling of Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. This site is located near Agrigento, in the south of Sicily (Italy and is one of the most famous ancient Greek colonies of Sicily. The paper presents the results of the integration of different data source to survey the Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. The application of two highly versatile recording systems, the TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning and the RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System, allowed the Eraclea Minoa site to be documented in high resolution and with high accuracy. The integration of the two techniques has demonstrated the possibility to obtain high quality and accurate 3D models in archaeological survey.

  20. Provenience archaeological studies of ceramic raw material and artifacts using instrumental neutron activation analysis: the cases of chaschuil and bolson de fiambala (Catamarca, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, Rita R.; Ratto, N.; Fuente, Guillermo de la

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the archaeological aspects of the work that has been done under the Contract ARG 9393, part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Program (1997-2000). The proposed working plan is included in a frame project of the Archaeological School of the University of Catamarca: Chaschuil Archaeological Project (PACh). This is an interdisciplinary project of regional archaeology, which carries out research in the Argentine southern Puna. Its goal is to explain land use, focusing on the study of both environmental and artifactual variability. In order to accomplish these goals, the project comprises a variety of techniques, including paleoenvironmental, ecological, geomorphologic, geo archaeological, taphonomical and resource provenance studies. Together with archaeological data, they provide the basis for models about mobility and exchange among past societies in the southern Puna (Ratto 1997, 1998)

  1. Study of the magnetism of archaeological structures. Fieldwork practical guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kostadinova-Avramova; Mary Kovacheva

    2015-01-01

    The application of archaeomagnetic method as a dating tool in archaeology has intensified considerably in the last few years. The successful use of archaeomagnetic methodology depends on different factors and many efforts have been made for their clarification. Sampling is the first stage of each archaeomagnetic study. The careful selection and accurate orientation of the collected materials in the field are crucial for the obtained archaeomagnetic results. That is why detailed description of...

  2. Archaeology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKendrick, Paul

    1979-01-01

    Describes several archaeological sites and Roman art works in which to study ancient Roman history, including Lavinium, Paestum, Cosa, Praeneste, the Augustine temples, Sperlonga, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and the cemetery under St. Peter's. (CK)

  3. RESULTS CONCERNING PEDOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE FROM SLAVA RUSĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Pirnau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the elements, chemical processes and soil morphology, related to archaeo-zoological analysis of fauna material taken from the archaeological site of Slava Rusă, provides important information for understanding the evolution of the settlement, taking into account the close relationship between natural deposits, which include soil, and cultural features of the site. Thus, the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil are important in this context, because environmental factors that led to the formation of distinct soil, leaving traces in the morphology, are the same factors that influenced the morphology and the evolution of inhabited areas. This approach is useful if the environmental conditions that have affected the settlement have not been changed significantly over time, and, at the Slava Rusă, data regarding soil conditions suggest bioclimatic stability for a very long time. The soils are poorly evolved, texture is not differentiated, and calcium carbonates are present in the soil to depths of 3-4 m. All these features confirm that the current climate of the region remained unchanged, from the Neolithic to the present, climate underwent only insignificant oscillations.

  4. Society of Archaeological Masters Students Annual Conference V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Barber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Society of Archaeological Masters Students Conference is an opportunity for UCL Institute of Archaeology masters students to present their research. This year’s conference included papers from MA Cultural Heritage Studies, MSc Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology, MSc Archaeological Science: Technology and Materials, and MSc Palaeoanthropology and Palaeolithic Archaeology students. The event sparked discussion between students from all areas of the department, and showcased the impressive range of research currently undertaken at the Institute of Archaeology.

  5. EDXRF study of Tupiguarani archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Aragao, P.H.A.; Santos, A.O. dos; Silva, L.M. da; Barbieri, P.F.; Espinoza Quinones, F.R.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do

    2000-01-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The pottery fragments were accidentally discovered in the Santa Dalmacia farm in 1990, sited near Cambe city at the north of Parana Brazilian State. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The measurements were carried out at CENA. The experimental set up consisted of 238 Pu, 55 Fe and 109 Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm 2 , with a Be window ) and a multichannel analyzer. For detection of the elements within the ceramic paste, the fragments were irradiated at the center of the lateral section. While several superficial areas with remaining plastic decoration were also chosen and irradiated at the convex and concave sides of each fragment. X-ray spectra were analyzed at UEL using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content, and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. Other qualitative and quantitative results were obtained for each kind of ceramic fragment groups. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal

  6. Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -1 Migration & Diffusion, Vol. 6, Issue Number 21, 2005 ANCIENT DWARKA: STUDY BASED ON RECENT UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS by A.S. Gaur, Sundaresh and Sila Tripati Summary Dwarka, one of the best-studied underwater sites in India, has...). Dwarka has been the attraction for historians since the beginning of the 20th century. The ancient town Dwarka has been described as 56 Migration & Diffusion, Vol 6, Issue Number 21, 2005 Fig.l: Dwarka is headquarter of the Okhamandal taluka in Jamnagar...

  7. Beyond the archaeological imagination. Observations about Kodjadermengumelnita - Karanovo vi architecture based on study of experiment archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazăr, Cătălin; Ignat, Theodor; Stan, Sebastian; Moldoveanu, Katia; Rădulescu, Florin

    The experimental archaeology project presented here aimed at the reconstruction of a dwelling, at the 1:1 scale, belonging to the Kodjadermen-Gumelnitsa-Karanovo VI culture (5th millennium BC), based on archaeological data accumulated from research carried out mainly at the site of Sultana-Malu Roşu (South-East Romania). This reconstruction was followed by the estimation of the volume of materials used for raising the construction in conjunction with the human factor and the time needed for building it. Further, a reconstruction and verification of different techniques for the construction of surface area houses was made. The sources for this project were based on archaeological remains discovered in the field, such as, fragments of walls with impressions of building materials, charred fragments of posts, the size and arrangement of the post holes, and on the indirect information provided by miniature house models of Kodjadermen-Gumelnitsa-Karanovo VI dwellings, which are mostly reflected by ethnographic data. These data were used to verify some of our hypotheses.

  8. Thin Section Microscopy Applied to the Study of Archaeological Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riederer, J.

    2004-01-01

    For the characterization of archaeological ceramics, the study of thin sections under the polarizing microscope is a very efficient analytical technique. There are two properties of ceramics which can be analysed by thin sections, namely the mineralogical composition and the fabric. Both features show a considerable variety which permits a very detailed description of ceramic wares. With respect to the mineralogical composition, there is a wide variety of rock forming minerals, of heavy and ore minerals, fragments of stone, fossils, organic inclusions like straw or pieces of charcoal as well as artificial inclusions like slag or crushed pottery, which define with the temper of the pottery in much detail. The fabric also shows considerable differences in grain size, in the amount of temper, in the orientation of grains and other features, which provide further quantitative data on the properties of archaeological ceramics. From this information, the material can be well characterised, and conclusions as to the region of origin and the potter's techniques can often be drawn.

  9. 78 FR 25469 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of South Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of the....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of South Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies... Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies has completed an inventory of human remains and associated...

  10. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  11. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhee, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  12. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  13. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The management of archaeological areas refers to the conservation of the ruins/buildings and the eventual prospection of new areas having an archaeological potential. In this framework, airborne remote sensing is a well-developed geophysical tool for supporting the archaeological surveys of wide areas. The spectral regions applied in archaeological remote sensing spans from the VNIR to the TIR. In particular, the archaeological thermal imaging considers that materials absorb, emit, transmit, and reflect the thermal infrared radiation at different rate according to their composition, density and moisture content. Despite its potential, thermal imaging in archaeological applications are scarce. Among them, noteworthy are the ones related to the use of Landsat and ASTER [1] and airborne remote sensing [2, 3, 4 and 5]. In view of these potential in Cultural Heritage applications, the present study aims at analysing the usefulness of the high spatial resolution thermal imaging on the Pompeii archaeological park. To this purpose TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (32 channels from 8 to 11.5 nm with a spectral resolution of 100nm and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel) was acquired on December the 7th, 2015. Airborne survey has been acquired to get useful information on the building materials (both ancient and of consolidation) characteristics and, whenever possible, to retrieve quick indicators on their conservation status. Thermal images will be, moreover, processed to have an insight of the critical environmental issues impacting the structures (e.g. moisture). The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the airborne deployments, the pre-processing of the multispectral thermal imagery and the retrieving of accurate land surface temperatures (LST). LST map will be analysed to describe the thermal pattern of the city of Pompeii and detect any thermal anomalies. As far as the ongoing TASI-600 sensors pre-processing, it will include: (a) radiometric

  14. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Frei, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water – surface ...

  15. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  16. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  17. Studies of Viking Age swords: metallography and archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Astrup, Eva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a comment on Alan Williams investigation ‘A Metallurgical Study of some Viking Swords’ published in Gladius XXIX. Williams’ paper comprise metallurgical investigations of 44 Viking Age Swords, all with ULFBERHT inscriptions. Such investigations, made by a well qualified metallurgist, are essential to archaeology. Unfortunately, this one has some serious limitations. In order to give a good description of the quality of a sword-blade, samples showing at least the section through both the edge and the central part of the blade are necessary. This is mostly not the case in Williams’ investigations, and he gives insufficient information about his samples. Other weak points are his group division and his interpretation of the production area for blades containing high-carbon steel.

    Este trabajo es un comentario sobre la investigación de Alan Williams ‘A Metallurgical Study of some Viking Swords` publicado en Gladius XXIX. El artículo de Williams incluye un estudio arqueometalúrgico de 44 espadas de época vikinga, todas ellas con la inscripción ULFBERHT. Estas investigaciones, realizadas por un arqueometalúrgico altamente cualificado, son esenciales en arqueología. Sin embargo, esta en concreto presenta algunas serias limitaciones. Para poder proporcionar una buena descripción de la calidad de la hoja de una espada, son necesarias muestras de al menos la sección desde el filo y hasta la parte central de la hoja. Este no es el caso de la mayoría de las muestras de Williams, quien proporciona insuficiente información sobre su toma de muestras. Otros puntos débiles son su clasificación en grupos y su interpretación del área de producción para las hojas que contienen un acero con elevado contenido de carbono.

  18. Study of archaeological objects by neutron imaging, xrd and xrf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.; Dinu, A. D.; Stanciulescu, M. G.; Mandescu, D.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological objects were borrowed from Arges County History Museum (ACHM) and investigated at the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). Metallic objects made in iron, copper alloys and silver discovered in southern part of Romania, mostly Dacian and Roman origin, were investigated. For imaging was used the neutron and gamma imaging facility from tangential channel of the TRIGA ACPR to put in evidence the internal structure of the objects. For elemental and chemical composition, concentration levels in objects were performed investigations by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These investigations offer valuable information in archaeological research about composition, structure of the bulk, presence of alteration, inclusions, typology of the location of material extraction, manufacturing techniques etc. This work is an example of application of neutron imaging and other radiation-based analytical methods for cultural heritage research that had the aim to involve some of the non-destructive investigation methods available at INR. (authors)

  19. Fusion of Geophysical Images in the Study of Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Petrou, M.; Tsokas, G. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents results from different fusion techniques between geophysical images from different modalities in order to combine them into one image with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant image will be useful for the detection and mapping of buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is situated in Kampana site (NE Greece) near the ancient theater of Maronia city. Archaeological excavations revealed an ancient theater, an aristocratic house and the temple of the ancient Greek God Dionysus. Numerous ceramic objects found in the broader area indicated the probability of the existence of buried urban structure. In order to accurately locate and map the latter, geophysical measurements performed with the use of the magnetic method (vertical gradient of the magnetic field) and of the electrical method (apparent resistivity). We performed a semi-stochastic pixel based registration method between the geophysical images in order to fine register them by correcting their local spatial offsets produced by the use of hand held devices. After this procedure we applied to the registered images three different fusion approaches. Image fusion is a relatively new technique that not only allows integration of different information sources, but also takes advantage of the spatial and spectral resolution as well as the orientation characteristics of each image. We have used three different fusion techniques, fusion with mean values, with wavelets by enhancing selected frequency bands and curvelets giving emphasis at specific bands and angles (according the expecting orientation of the relics). In all three cases the fused images gave significantly better results than each of the original geophysical images separately. The comparison of the results of the three different approaches showed that the fusion with the use of curvelets, giving emphasis at the features' orientation, seems to give the best fused image

  20. Archaeological analogous and industrials for deep storage: study of the archaeological metallic piece; Analogos arqueologicos e industriales para almacenamientos profundos: estudio de piezas arqueologicas metalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado Portal, A. J.; Martinez Garcia, J. A.; Calabres Molina, R.; Garcia abajo, A.; Penco Valenzuela, F.; Lecanda Esteban, J. A.; Garcia Bartual, M.; Jimenez Gonzalez, J. M.; Bravo Munoz, E.; Rodriguez Lobo, L. M.; Fernandez Cascos, T.; Fernandes Cordero, O.; Montero Ruiz, I.

    2000-07-01

    The aim of present research is to obtain information about archaeological analogous of iron and steel, useful for the model of deep geological repository (AGP). The analogous examined have remained buried between 1400 and 2400 years, in very assorted geochemical environments. The extraction of the archaeological pieces has been accomplished according to normalised protocols, trying to carry to the laboratory so the piece as its burial environment, avoiding all possible pollution. Trying to the archaeological analogous could provide valuable information to the AGP model, the study has been directed to related the physical-chemical characteristics of the terrain respect to the deterioration of the archaeological metallic piece. The geology of the surrounding terrain to the archaeological deposit, the geomorphological study of the terrain and data from the analysis of ground: pH, wetness, porosity, organic matter contents, bacteria presence, sulphates, carbonates, chlorides, etc., have allowed to explain the physical-chemical phenomena suffered by the archaeological iron and steel pieces. Also, an exhaustive study of the archaeological piece has been accomplished, concerning the microstructure of the corrosion layer and of the not deteriorated metallic rest. Obtained information concerns different items, such as corrosion velocity and formations of oxide layers, diffusion of chemical elements from the corrosion layer to the metal and viceversa, and structural changes in oxide layers and in the metallic remains by structural ageing. Obtained data have allowed to develop a mathematical model for calculation of corrosion velocity in buried iron and steels, based on physical-chemical variables of grounds, chemical composition and thermomechanical treatment given to the metal during its manufacture. (Author)

  1. Analyses of archaeological pottery samples using X-ray fluorescence technique for provenance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilarasu, S.; Swain, K.K.; Singhal, R.K; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Velraj, G.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological artifacts reveal information on past human activities, artifact preparation technology, art and possible trade. Ceramics are the most stable and abundant material in archaeological context. Pottery is the most abundant tracers in all archaeological excavations. Compared to major elements, elements present at trace concentrations levels are source specific and they maintain same concentration levels in source clay as well as finished products e.g., fired clay potteries. As it is difficult to find out exact source or origin, provenance study is carried out first to establish whether objects under study are from the same or different sources/origin. Various analytical techniques like instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been used for obtaining elemental concentrations in archaeological potteries. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry provides a non-destructive means for elemental characterization of a wide range of archaeological materials. Ten archaeological pottery samples were collected from Kottapuram, Kerala under the supervision of archaeological survey of India. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry using a handheld Olympus Innov-X Delta XRF device, ACD BARC, has been used for chemical characterization of the pottery samples. The instrument is equipped with the Delta Rhodium (Rh) anode X-Ray tube and uses a Silicon Drift Detector (resolution <200 eV at 5.95 keV Mn Kα X-ray). NIST 2781 SRM was analyzed for quality control purpose. Ten elements namely Fe, Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Zr, Mo and Se were chosen for cluster analysis and their concentration values were utilized for multivariate statistical analysis using WinSTAT 9.0

  2. Communicating Archaeological Risk with Web-Based Virtual Reality: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Landeschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade 3D technologies have become very effective and are widely used for managing and interpreting archaeological data. A better way to perceive, understand and communicate Cultural Heritage has been achieved through VR applications, which have enabled archaeologists to make both reconstructions of original landscapes and to put artefacts in their original context. Furthermore, the exponential growth of the Web has led to a massive availability of digital content, even in the field of Cultural Heritage, that can be accessed in an easier and more intuitive manner by a broader audience. The case study presented here is designed to demonstrate the potential importance of Web3D technologies for communicating specific research aspects, such as the ones connected to the GIS-based spatial analysis applied to the archaeological landscape. To this end, a research project was undertaken in order to get a final predictive model for detecting archaeological presence in an area of the Pisa coastal plain, implemented in a Web-orientated Virtual Reality system. The end-user is able to navigate the model in real-time and observe different thematic layers, such as the distribution of the archaeological sites, maps of lithology, land use and, finally, the assessment of the archaeological risk.

  3. Contributions of archaeology to the study of erosion along the rocky Maine coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, D.C. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Anthropology)

    1992-01-01

    The study of coastal erosion is a geological concern: however, erosion is a serious problem for the study of Maine's prehistory. Over 3,000 shell midden sites occur along maine's coast and virtually all of them are subject to coastal erosion despite the fact that the majority of the coast is steep and rocky. Geological literature on coastal erosion has focused on cliffed and unconsolidated coasts with little attention to convoluted rocky coasts. Archaeology has contributed to the study of coastal erosion in Maine in three important ways. The first is by calling attention to the problem. Prior to 1982 coastal erosion was seen as a geological hazard affecting only limited areas of the coast where thick glaciomarine sediments are subject to landslides. Archaeological research showed that significant erosion is common and wide spread. The second contribution is a focus on the much smaller scale of erosion affecting most areas. The scale of erosion affecting archaeological sites is the same as that which affects individual coastal property owners. The third contribution is in directly providing data on the rate of coastal erosion. The rate of erosion can be measured against historically documented dimensions of particular archaeological sites and by statistical studies of region site distributions. Interaction between archaeologists and geologists has brought different perspectives to the problem of coastal erosion resulting in valuable insights and understanding.

  4. An archaeological study of the Russian colony of the Guadalupe Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Thcrese Muranaka

    1995-01-01

    This fresh and unusual archeological study sets out to verify the accuracy with which ethnological date and facts regarding life-style may be determined by the examination of artifacts and "trash" found at the site, using the application of archaeological techniques in an area where the findings may still be corroborated or Guadalupe Valley of the State of Baja California, Mexico.

  5. Archaeology: Digging Deeper To Learn about the Past. A Middle School Unit of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Judith

    This middle school unit of study on archaeology is designed so that students become part of the process of historical discovery. The unit aims to bring history alive by revealing parallels between everyday life in ancient times and everyday life today. Students are asked to investigate and interpret artifacts from their own lives and homes.…

  6. Space Archaeology: Attribute, Object, Task and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Luo, Lei; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-04-01

    Archaeology takes the material remains of human activity as the research object, and uses those fragmentary remains to reconstruct the humanistic and natural environment in different historical periods. Space Archaeology is a new branch of the Archaeology. Its study object is the humanistic-natural complex including the remains of human activities and living environments on the earth surface. The research method, space information technologies applied to this complex, is an innovative process concerning archaeological information acquisition, interpretation and reconstruction, and to achieve the 3-D dynamic reconstruction of cultural heritages by constructing the digital cultural-heritage sphere. Space archaeology's attribute is highly interdisciplinary linking several areas of natural and social and humanities. Its task is to reveal the history, characteristics, and patterns of human activities in the past, as well as to understand the evolutionary processes guiding the relationship between human and their environment. This paper summarizes six important aspects of space archaeology and five crucial recommendations for the establishment and development of this new discipline. The six important aspects are: (1) technologies and methods for non-destructive detection of archaeological sites; (2) space technologies for the protection and monitoring of cultural heritages; (3) digital environmental reconstruction of archaeological sites; (4) spatial data storage and data mining of cultural heritages; (5) virtual archaeology, digital reproduction and public information and presentation system; and (6) the construction of scientific platform of digital cultural-heritage sphere. The five key recommendations for establishing the discipline of Space Archaeology are: (1) encouraging the full integration of the strengths of both archaeology and museology with space technology to promote the development of space technologies' application for cultural heritages; (2) a new

  7. Encyclopaedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan:conceptual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullin Khalim M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodological problems of creation the glossary for the preparation of encyclopedic dictionary, which is related to the Republic of Tatarstan archaeology are considered in this article. It is noticed that creation of such generalizing editions determines a new important stage of science and its theoretic and methodological basis development. Encyclopedias and dictionaries are the terminological thesaurus and functioning as a source of norms. They are forming the uniform, unifying and conventional approach to archaeological definitions and their content. They are also able to provide an insight into the basic archaeological concepts in the accessible form, to give the characteristic to archaeological monuments on Republic territory, to acquaint with archaeologists, who has ever worked on territory of Tatarstan, to present the last archaeological discoveries, and to popularize achievements of the Kazan Archaeology school. The complete information about archaeology in Republic is supposed to be included in the encyclopedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan (the special attention will be focused on the conceptual system of archaeology, monuments and antiquity subjects, about objects and monuments of historic and archaeological heritage, as well as biographic data of all archaeologists who has ever worked in Tatarstan and information about all organizations related to archaeology in region. There are all preconditions to claim that the considerable source study and theoretical base for creation of the encyclopedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan is created. It is gathered the significant experience on complex studying and generalization of considerable volume of a material which is referring to an ancient and medieval history of region and on research and ordering of archaeological monuments. It is suggested that at the first investigation phase will be created a glossary and after that the collective of authors can pass

  8. A critical review of hydrological data collection for assessing preservation risk for urban waterlogged archaeology: A case study from the City of York, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Joseph; Howard, Andy J; West, L Jared; Maxfield, Eleanor; Panter, Ian; Oxley, John

    2009-08-01

    Environmental change caused by urban development, possibly augmented by climate change, may result in accelerated decay of in situ archaeological resources. Damage may be related to changes in hydrological processes. Such archaeological resources have to be considered in environmental planning. In this paper we highlight the need for improved hydrological data from urban archaeological sites using the case study of the City of York, UK, arguably one of the most well studied and well preserved urban archaeological environments globally. We suggest that the quality of hydrological data collected during routine surveys and experimental work must be improved and standardised in order for us to produce reliable archaeological risk models for urban sites.

  9. Three archaeomagnetic applications of archaeological interest to the study of burnt anthropogenic cave sediments

    OpenAIRE

    VERGÈS BOSCH, JOSEP MARIA; Á. Carrancho; Á. Herrejón Lagunilla

    2016-01-01

    Recent archaeomagnetic studies carried out on Mid-to Late Holocene burnt anthropogenic cave sediments have shown that under certain conditions, these materials are suitable geomagnetic field recorders. Archaeomagnetic analyses carried out on these contexts constitute a rich source of information not only for geophysical purposes -in terms of reconstructing the variation of Earth's magnetic field in the past- but also from the archaeological point of view, for example by archaeomagnetic dating...

  10. Use of GPR Surveys in Historical Archaeology Studies at Gainesville, Mississippi (22HA600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Ben; Giardino, Marco; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used to study the underground remains of historic structures on the grounds of Stennis Space Center (SSC) in this viewgraph presentation. The main goal of the project described is to research, develop, and validate Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods for aiding cultural resource assessments within SSC. The project georeferences historic imagery and maps to assist archaeological RS, field surveys, and excavations.

  11. An archaeological study of the Russian colony of the Guadalupe Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thcrese Muranaka

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This fresh and unusual archeological study sets out to verify the accuracy with which ethnological date and facts regarding life-style may be determined by the examination of artifacts and "trash" found at the site, using the application of archaeological techniques in an area where the findings may still be corroborated or Guadalupe Valley of the State of Baja California, Mexico.

  12. UAV archaeological reconstruction: The study case of Chamartin Hillfort (Avila, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Nieto, A. L.; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, P.; Gonzales-Aguilera, D.; Fernandez-Hernandez, J.; Gomez-Lahoz, J.; Picon-Cabrera, I.; Herrero-Pascual, J. S.; Hernandez-Lopez, D.

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a common technique for 3D modelling in a low-cost way. This technique is becoming essential to analyse the cultural heritage, e.g. historical buildings, monuments and archaeological remains in order not only to preserve them, but for disseminate accurate graphic information. The study case of Chamartin hillfort (Ávila, Spain) provided us the opportunity to apply automation techniques to generate geomatic products with high metric ...

  13. Archaeological studies at Drill Hole U20az Pahute Mesa, Nye county, Nevada. [Contains bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, A.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Henton, G.H.; Lockett, C.L.; Nials, F.L.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.

    1991-07-01

    During the summer of 1987, the Quaternary Sciences Center (formerly Social Science Center) of the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada System, conducted data recovery investigations at five archaeological sites located near Drill Hole U20az on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. These sites were among 12 recorded earlier during an archaeological survey of the drill hole conducted as part of the environmental compliance activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). The five sites discussed in this report were considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and were in danger of being adversely impacted by construction activities or by effects of the proposed underground nuclear test. Avoidance of these sites was not a feasible alternative; thus DRI undertook a data recovery program to mitigate expected adverse impacts. DRI's research plan included controlled surface collections and excavation of the five sites in question, and had the concurrence of the Nevada Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology and the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation. Of the five sites investigated, the largest and most complex, 26Ny5207, consists of at least three discrete artifact concentrations. Sites 26Ny5211 and 26Ny5215, both yielded considerable assemblages. Site 26Ny5206 is very small and probably is linked to 26Ny5207. Site 26Ny5205 contained a limited artifact assemblage. All of the sites were open-air occurrences, and, with one exception contained no or limited subsurface cultural deposits. Only two radiocarbon dates were obtained, both from 26Ny5207 and both relatively recent. While the investigations reported in the volume mitigate most of the adverse impacts from DOE activities at Drill Hole U20az, significant archaeological sites may still exist in the general vicinity. Should the DOE conduct further activities in the region, additional cultural resource investigations may be required. 132 refs., 71 figs., 44 tabs.

  14. Non-destructive spectrometry methods to study the distribution of archaeological and geological chert samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Maitane; Tarriño, Andoni; Murelaga, Xabier; Baceta, Juan Ignacio; Castro, Kepa; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2009-08-01

    The study of lithic raw materials recovered from archaeological sites offers relevant data on source catchment areas. Additionally, it can provide first hand information on artefact displacement, interchange networks and it can reflect the way in which the artefacts were employed. In order to characterize geological and archaeological chert samples and with the aim of finding an analytical fingerprint infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used for molecular analysis and X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry for elemental analysis. In this work, different chert samples coming from several localities with geological and archaeological importance from the Basque Country have been collected and analysed. As a consequence, Raman spectroscopy allowed to distinguish between alpha-quartz and moganite in chert samples without organic matter and it is suggested that the ratio of those two components is related to the source of the chert. In addition, the impurities that appear in the samples (CaCO(3), iron oxides and organic matter) can open new features to distinguish the samples and in this way, it would be possible to discuss the use and transport of the lithic artifacts from the sources to the final settlements.

  15. Lawsuits by Victims of Terrorism Imperil Archaeological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In lawsuits pending in federal courts in Boston and Chicago, Americans harmed by terrorist attacks linked to the Islamic Republic of Iran are asserting claim to artifacts they believe belong to that nation, in their quest to win more than $4-billion in damages. The institutions that hold the artifacts, which include Harvard University and the…

  16. Diagnostic analysis of stone materials from underwater excavations: the case study of the Roman archaeological site of Baia (Naples, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloise, P.; Ricca, M.; La Russa, M.F.; Ruffolo, S.A.; Crisci, G.M. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Belfiore, C.M. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali - Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Catania (Italy); Padeletti, G. [CNR-ICMAT, Roma (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    This work belongs to the framework of the national research project ''COMAS'' (Planned COnservation, ''in situ'', of underwater archaeological artifacts), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), concerning the submarine archaeological area of Baia (Naples, Italy). The site includes remains of the ancient cities of Baiae and Portus Iulius, which, since the 4th century AD, started to be submerged because of the bradyseism phenomenon. The work aims to the characterization of four different types of stone materials collected from the site, specifically marbles, limestones, ignimbrites, and bricks, in order to investigate their state of conservation. In particular, specimens were sampled from some masonry structures and pavement slabs (opus sectile) in a specific area of the submerged site, called ''Villa a Protiro''. In order to characterize archaeological samples from a mineralogical-petrographic point of view, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, while to assess their conservation state, the surface colonization by biodeteriogen agents and their interaction with the substrate were studied through observations under a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Marble and limestone samples revealed an intense bioerosion phenomena, attributable to epilithic and endolithic forms, particularly boring sponges. On the contrary, ignimbrites suffer a lower degree of biological colonization related to the activity of other species, such as serpulids and bryozoans. In bricks, biocolonisation is correlated to the type of temper used in the artifact, the quartz pastes having a greater susceptibility to biological attack than the volcanic ones. (orig.)

  17. Studies in pitting corrosion on archaeological bronzes. Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresle, Aa.; Saers, J.; Arrhenius, B.

    1983-01-01

    Copper has been proposed as a canister material for use in the long-term storage of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors. The storage period has been set to at least 100 000 years, during which time the copper cylinders must remain intact so that the contained waste has no possibility of leaking out. In this work, the pitting factor in archaelogical copper objects have been determined. The absolute values of the pitting factor obtained are generally very low. In the case of the most thoroughly studied material the pitting factor is only slightly more than three units. Nor does the native copper, with a presumed burial period of about 8000 years, exhibit particularly high values. In summary, it can therefore be concluded that the present study does not provide support for the assumption of extremely high pitting factors in copper-base material that has been buried for periods of several millenia. (G.B.)

  18. An overview of maritime archaeological studies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    in sea level or seismic activity might have played a crucial role in its submergence. Exploration in and around the Porbandar region brought to light for the first time the remains of a late Harappan settlement dating back to the 16th-14th centuries BC... and countries never stopped completely; it grew steadily and if it was halted that was for a temporary period. The discovery of routes (inland and overseas) is the biggest contribution of humankind to the modern world. Studies related to this aspect trace...

  19. Preliminary 1H NMR study on archaeological waterlogged wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccotta, Antonella; Fantazzini, Paola; Garavaglia, Carla; Donato, Ines D; Perzia, Patrizia; Brai, Maria; Morreale, Filippa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Relaxation (MRR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are powerful tools to obtain detailed information on the pore space structure that one is unlikely to obtain in other ways. These techniques are particularly suitable for Cultural Heritage materials, because they use water 1H nuclei as a probe. Interaction with water is one of the main causes of deterioration of materials. Porous structure in wood, for example, favours the penetration of water, which can carry polluting substances and promote mould growth. A particular case is waterlogged wood from underwater discoveries and moist sites; in fact, these finds are very fragile because of chemical, physical and biological decay from the long contact with the water. When wood artefacts are brought to the surface and directly dried in air, there is the collapse of the cellular structures, and wood loses its original form and dimensions and cannot be used for study and museum exhibits. In this work we have undertaken the study of some wood finds coming from Ercolano's harbour by MRR and MRI under different conditions, and we have obtained a characterization of pore space in wood and images of the spatial distribution of the confined water in the wood.

  20. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, C.R. E-mail: appoloni@uel.br; Espinoza Quinones, F.R.; Aragao, P.H.A.; Santos, A.O. dos; Silva, L.M. da; Barbieri, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Coimbra, M.M

    2001-06-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm{sup 2}, with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials.

  1. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Espinoza Quinones, F.R.; Aragao, P.H.A.; Santos, A.O. dos; Silva, L.M. da; Barbieri, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Coimbra, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm 2 , with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials

  2. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, C. R.; Espinoza Quiñones, F. R.; Aragão, P. H. A.; dos Santos, A. O.; da Silva, L. M.; Barbieri, P. F.; do Nascimento Filho, V. F.; Coimbra, M. M.

    2001-06-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm 2, with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials.

  3. EDXRF study of Tupi-guarani archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, Fernando R. Espinoza

    2000-01-01

    A set of indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by an archaeometric non-destructive technique. The pottery fragments were accidentally discovered in the Santa Dalmacia farm, sited near Cambe city at the north of Parana brazilian state. Each one of these fragments came from different ceramic recipients and their physical characteristics are very similar. The EDXRF measurements were performed employing both an X-ray tube and three radioisotope sources (Fe, Cd and Pu). The compositional data of the ceramics paste and pigments is investigated. For detection of the elements within the ceramic paste, the fragments were irradiated at the center of the lateral section. While several superficial areas with remaining plastic decoration were also chosen and irradiated at the convex and concave sides of each fragment. A paste-subtracted compositional data of the remaining pigments was statically extracted from the XRF analysis of each area. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. (author)

  4. EDXRF study of Tupi-guarani archaeological ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Fernando R. Espinoza [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Aragao, Pedro H.; Santos, Adenilson O. dos; Silva, Luzeli M.; Barbieri, Paulo F.; Coimbra, Melayne M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Fisica e Meteorologia]|[Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    A set of indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by an archaeometric non-destructive technique. The pottery fragments were accidentally discovered in the Santa Dalmacia farm, sited near Cambe city at the north of Parana brazilian state. Each one of these fragments came from different ceramic recipients and their physical characteristics are very similar. The EDXRF measurements were performed employing both an X-ray tube and three radioisotope sources (Fe, Cd and Pu). The compositional data of the ceramics paste and pigments is investigated. For detection of the elements within the ceramic paste, the fragments were irradiated at the center of the lateral section. While several superficial areas with remaining plastic decoration were also chosen and irradiated at the convex and concave sides of each fragment. A paste-subtracted compositional data of the remaining pigments was statically extracted from the XRF analysis of each area. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. (author)

  5. Earthquake Archaeology: a case study from Ancient Cnidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I. S.; Altunel, E.; Piccardi, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical practices and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. The ancient Greek/Roman city of Cnidus in southwestern Turkey records all three. A spectacular exposed fault plane cliff bordering the northern edge of the city appears to have been an important revered site, bearing votive niches carved into the near-vertical slip plane and associated with a Sanctuary of Demeter that implies a connection to the underworld. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquake faulting can be found in the form of a destruction horizon of contorted soil, relics and human remains exposed in the original excavations of the Sanctuary of Demeter by Sir Charles Newton (1857-58) and in a destruction horizon of burnt soil and bone uncovered by the ongoing excavation of a colonnaded street. Structural damage to constructions is widespread across the site, with warped and offset walls in the Sanctuary of Demeter, collapsed buildings in several places, and a parallel arrangement of fallen columns in the colonnaded street. The most remarkable structural evidence for fault activity, however, is the rupture of the ancient city's famous Round Temple of Aphrodite, whose podium reveals a history of damage and which is unambiguously displaced across a bedrock fault. While these phenomena are equivocal when viewed in isolation, collectively they imply at least two damaging earthquakes at the site, one (possibly both) of which ruptured along the fault on which the city is found. The Cnidus case study highlights how reliable identification of archaeoseismic damage relies on compiling an assemblage of indicators rather than the discovery of a diagnostic "smoking gun".

  6. Volcanology and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livadie, C.A.; Widemann, F.

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings study fossil volcanism and archaeology relationships in several countries ( North Yemen, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Martinique ). Age estimation of several eruptions is given and economic consequences of volcanic risk is evaluated

  7. The Times of Archaeology and Archaeologies of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gardner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of archaeology as a discipline is explicitly structured by time, and ‘timetravel’ is a common feature of popular discourses about the study of the past. Yet archaeology is also the discipline which, amongst its other theoretical shortcomings, has singularly failed to develop any theory 'of 'time. Chronology is ever-present as a measuring tool, but only in rare cases has there been any consideration of this as but one, culturally-specific kind of temporality among many others experienced by people in their daily lives. In this paper, I will discuss various perspectives on archaeological times, including more sophisticated approaches developed since the later 1980s, and argue for an abandoning of the dualism between ‘measured’ and ‘experienced’ times which has emerged in some of these more critical attempts to grapple with the issue. Time is fundamental to archaeology, but not just because we ‘use’ dates. Rather, archaeologists should be able to contribute to wider discussions of time from their understandings of the materialized temporalities of past human agents, and to develop perspectives on the importance of these to the very nature of human social agency as a form of engagement with the world.

  8. Early Medieval ceramics from the Viile Tecii archaeological site (Romania: an optical and XRD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Ionescu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical and petrographic studies of Early Medieval potshards exhumed in the Viile Tecii archaeological site (North Transylvania, Romania show a ceramic body composed of a microcrystalline to amorphous matrix, various clasts and voids. The microscopical features and XRD patterns indicate that illitic-kaolinitic clays were used as raw materials, together with quartzitic sands as tempering material. The ceramic vessels were obtained with the potter’s wheel, but the fabric is only slightly oriented, due either to the fast modeling or to the coarseness of the clayish paste. The thermal alteration of mineral phases points to relatively high firing-temperatures, between 800 and 900°C.

  9. Box-Cox transformation on dataset from compositional studies of archaeological potteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Santana Reis, Michael; Silva, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    In archaeometric data set it was verified by statistical tests that some variables almost never follow a multivariate normal distribution using logarithmic transformation or other. This work presents a multivariate Box-Cox transformation for Mardia's and Royton's tests for a data set of fifty ceramic fragments from archaeological site Justino, Xingo, Brazil, and one clay sample collected near of the site. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. The study was made using companion to applied regression package from R software and was tested by Hotelling's T 2 statistics. (author)

  10. Book review: Stella Souvatzi and Athena Hadji (eds. Space and Time in Mediterranean Prehistory (Routledge Studies in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Sraka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collection of papers Space and Time in Medi- terranean Prehistory is an outcome of the collabo- ration between Stella Souvatzi, who regularly writes on spatiality within social archaeological themes such as households, as in her recent book A Social Archaeology of Households in Neolithic Greece, and Athena Hadji, whose Berkeley PhD thesis was entitled on The Construction of Time in Aegean Archaeology. The editors invited researchers from a predominantly interpretative (post-processual ar- chaeological tradition who deal with Mediterranean prehistory and included a few selected revised contributions to the similarly named session at the 16th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists in the Hague. The collection of papers contains 15 chapters by archaeologists, anthropologists and an architect.

  11. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuif, J.-P. [UMR IDES 8148, Universite Paris XI-Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dambricourt Malasse, A. [Departement de Prehistoire, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 - CNRS, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Abel, R.L. [The Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by {sup 14}C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before {sup 14}C dating.

  12. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14 C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon–Hydrogen–Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14 C dating.

  13. The contemporary in post-medieval archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Penrose, Sefryn

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary archaeology is an emerging field of enquiry within the wider discipline associated with the questioning of temporal boundaries in what we study and why we engage with material remains of the recent past more generally. This article argues that contemporary archaeology should be broadly...... defined at this stage in its development and therefore can be located in Post-Medieval Archaeology through research that explicitly engages with what it is to conduct contemporary archaeology, but also through those implicitly considering how the past intrudes into the present. We believe that Post......-Medieval Archaeology will continue to highlight archaeological studies of the contemporary into the future....

  14. Farm Studies and Post-Medieval Rural Archaeology in Denmark: Comments on the Past, the Present and the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2012-01-01

    Farms and villages formed a powerful and important scene for the emergence and development of cultural studies as well as post-medieval archaeology in the first half of the 20th century in Denmark. However, the present research agenda in museums and universities, and in some respect the antiquarian...... legislation and administrative practice, has left the post-medieval cultural heritage in a rather peculiar and to some extent neglected position. This paper will address research on post-medieval rural buildings and farms in particular and discuss the current challenges within post-medieval rural archaeology...

  15. Treasures from the Past: Using Archaeology in Upper-Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Cynthia C.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fourth grade teacher's interdisciplinary efforts at imparting the joys of archaeology to her students. The students read fiction and non-fiction materials about the physical environments and participated in a series of hands-on learning activities. These involved simulated archaeological digs, personal artifacts, and realia. (MJP)

  16. Natural science methods in field archaeology, with the case study of Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekalova, T. N.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Garipov, A. S.; Pasumanskii, A. E.; Ketsko, R. S.; Chudin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The natural science methods applied in archaeological field survey are briefly reviewed. They are classified into several groups: remote sensing (analysis of space and airspace photographs, viewshed analysis, study of detailed topographic and special maps, and three-dimensional photogrammetry), geophysical survey, and analysis of cultural layer elements (by geochemical, paleosol, and other methods). The most important principle is the integration of complementary nondestructive and fast natural science methods in order to obtain the most complete and reliable results. Emphasis is placed on the consideration of geophysical methods of the study, primarily, magnetic exploration. A multidisciplinary study of the monuments of ancient Chersonesos and its "barbarian" environment is described as an example of successful application of a complex technique.

  17. UAV archaeological reconstruction: The study case of Chamartin Hillfort (Avila, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Nieto, A. L.; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, P.; Gonzales-Aguilera, D.; Fernandez-Hernandez, J.; Gomez-Lahoz, J.; Picon-Cabrera, I.; Herrero-Pascual, J. S.; Hernandez-Lopez, D.

    2014-05-01

    Photogrammetry from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a common technique for 3D modelling in a low-cost way. This technique is becoming essential to analyse the cultural heritage, e.g. historical buildings, monuments and archaeological remains in order not only to preserve them, but for disseminate accurate graphic information. The study case of Chamartin hillfort (Ávila, Spain) provided us the opportunity to apply automation techniques to generate geomatic products with high metric quality. A novel photogrammetric software tool was used with the aim to achieve high resolution orthophoto and 3D models of complex sites. This tool allows a flexible way for heritage documentation, since it incorporates robust algorithms to cope with a wide range of studies cases and shooting configurations.

  18. The Initial Period of Research in the Late Bronze and the Early Iron Age Archaeology in the Volga-Kama Area: Field Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhevsky Andrei A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of the study of the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age in the Volga-Kama region can be divided into four periods, characterized by research trends, specific methods, and forms. Their chronological framework is associated with milestone works of key importance by researchers who would discard the previous frame and give rise to new paradigms. The initial period of the studies of the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age in the Volga-Kama area (the late 18th century to the early 1920s is discussed in the article. It started with first site discoveries and accumulation of materials, and completed with archaeological cultures identified and prehistoric archeology periodization formed. It was a period of activity of the Imperial Archaeological Society, which included studies in the Volga region. The tradition of holding Archaeological Congresses in Kazan was established. In the late 19th – early 20th centuries, the ancientries of the Volga-Kama region attracted the attention of Finnish archaeologists. The results of the initial period were summarized in the monographs by A. M. Tallgren that also formulated new challenges to researchers.

  19. Chronological study archaeological sites from Caninde do Sao Francisco, Sergipe state, Brazil, by thermo thermoluminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose Osman dos; Munita, Casimiro S.; Valerio, Mario E. Giroldo; Vergne, Maria C. de Souza

    2005-01-01

    The ceramic vestiges rescued in the archaeological excavations have been considered important sources of chronological information because they constitute direct fossil of certain cultural periods. The Thermoluminescence Method for dating of inorganic materials has made the determination of ancient ceramics ages possible with adequate precision and accuracy. The intensity of the thermoluminescence emission is proportional to the energy deposited in the crystals, present in the pottery, by means of natural radioisotope material irradiation (U, Th, K and Rb) and cosmic rays. With the objective of determining the chronological profile of archaeological sites from 'Xingo', situated in the Caninde do Sao Francisco city, Sergipe State, Brazilian Northeast, the ages of 4 pottery samples from Justino, Sao Jose, Saco da Onca and Curituba sites were determined in this work. The ceramic collection has great expression because many ceramics are associated to mortuary rites. The acquisition of the site chronology studied in this work is a contribution to studies of ancient communities that lived in the region. The additive dose method was used to determine of the paleodose in the samples, and the TL response of 320 deg C peak as function of the added dose was linear. The annual dose rate was determined by means of the instrumental neutron activation analysis, using the U, Th, K and RB concentration from soil and own sample, which yielded an average annual dose rate of 2.89 ± 0.33 mGy.yr -1 . Using of the paleodose and annual dose rate, the ages were determined which remained between 457 - 3716 BP, value which matches with the results obtained by carbon - 14 method in the sample from burned charcoal in Justino site. (author)

  20. Archaeological Studies of the Ancient Turkestan Site: results of 2011-2012 excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smagulov Yerbulat A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the 2011-12 excavations on the Eski-Turkestan site conducted by the Turkestani archaeological expedition (Institute of archaeology named after A. Margulan are presented. The site contains the remains of the ancient town of Yasy (modern town of Turkestan, South Kazakhstan oblast. The aim of the excavations was to study the earliest layers of the settlement, the primary stages of the city formation, and to identify construction elements of the ancient citadel in particular. It has been established that the most ancient nucleus of the city was located under Kultobe hill on the eastern edge of the settlement. The oldest architectural object of the citadel is a cruciform construction with powerful rammed clay defensive walls having narrow loopholes, preserved to a height of over 3 m. The three rooms were connected by arched doorways. In the second construction horizon, a building with long narrow rooms around a small open courtyard had been added to this "castle". During this period, around the perimeter of the citadel powerful rammed clay and mud-brick defensive walls had been erected, with the space between them and the extended castle being just partially built up. These two periods can be dated to the 1st–3rd centuries AD. This stage comes to an end with defeat and a fire. In the fire layer, numerous ceramic vessels in disassembling have been found. Individual unique finds have been made, and alabaster idols are of special interest. The restoration of the fortification wall and a new stage of the citadel development refer to the 9th-11th centuries. At the base of the new wall, pots with sacrificial food have been discovered, one of them bearing a runic inscription.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Data Acquisition for Archaeological Site Identification and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, W.; Ayuningtyas, E. A.; Candra R, F. S.; Arif S, B.; Argadyanto, B.

    2017-12-01

    Archaeological sites as part of human history and located around community are important to be preserved for connecting historical information from generation to generation. Mapping of archaeological sites can be done as one of preservation efforts. Yogyakarta has several archaeological sites such as Pleret Palace, the former royal palace of Mataram Islam in the 16th Century. Data limitations and the difficulty of reconstructing the site sketches into a map become obstacles in archaeological sites mapping. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can be an alternative of high-resolution spatial data acquisition for detail mapping, including archaeological sites mapping. This study aims to see how far the UAV acquisition results can be used for Archaeological Site mapping in Pleret Palace. Data acquisition using UAV generated to mosaic orthophoto, Digital Surface Model (DSM), and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Archaeological sites identified using DTM and matched with site sketch made by Cultural Agency. From these data, it can be recognized some relics form, such as palace fortress, moats and canals, and also dikes of Segarayasa. This research is expected to be a reference in archaeological site mapping using detailed spatial data, especially UAV. Furthermore, it can be obtained archaeological site map close to real condition; as well as archaeological sites preservation in Indonesia.

  2. An Information Technology Framework for the Development of an Embedded Computer System for the Remote and Non-Destructive Study of Sensitive Archaeology Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Georgiev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an information technology framework for the development of an embedded remote system for non-destructive observation and study of sensitive archaeological sites. The overall concept and motivation are described. The general hardware layout and software configuration are presented. The paper concentrates on the implementation of the following informational technology components: (a a geographically unique identification scheme supporting a global key space for a key-value store; (b a common method for octree modeling for spatial geometrical models of the archaeological artifacts, and abstract object representation in the global key space; (c a broadcast of the archaeological information as an Extensible Markup Language (XML stream over the Web for worldwide availability; and (d a set of testing methods increasing the fault tolerance of the system. This framework can serve as a foundation for the development of a complete system for remote archaeological exploration of enclosed archaeological sites like buried churches, tombs, and caves. An archaeological site is opened once upon discovery, the embedded computer system is installed inside upon a robotic platform, equipped with sensors, cameras, and actuators, and the intact site is sealed again. Archaeological research is conducted on a multimedia data stream which is sent remotely from the system and conforms to necessary standards for digital archaeology.

  3. Study of the Variations of Archaeological Marks at Neolithic Site of Lucera, Italy Using High-Resolution Multispectral Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Agapiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images have been systematically explored by archaeologists to detect crop marks, which are considered as a proxy for the identification of buried archaeological remains. Even though several existing algorithms are frequently applied, such as histogram enhancements and vegetation indices, the detection of crop marks still remains a difficult task, while the final interpretation results can be very poor. This paper aims to present some of the current difficulties of “remote sensing archaeology” in terms of detection and interpretation of crop marks due to the crops’ phenological variations. At the same time, the presented work seeks to evaluate the recently proposed linear equations for the enhancement of crop marks, initially developed for the eastern Mediterranean region. These linear equations re-project the initial n-space spectral into a new 3D orthogonal space determined by three components: a crop mark component, a vegetation component, and a soil component. For the aims of this study, the Lucera archaeological site (southern Italy, where several Neolithic trenches have been identified, was selected. QuickBird and GeoEye high-resolution satellite images were analysed, indicating that vegetation indices may mismatch some crop marks depending on the phenological stage of the vegetation cultivated in the area of the archaeological site. On the contrary, ratios from linear equations were able to spot these crop marks even in shadow areas, indicating that improvements and developments of novel methodologies and equations based on remote sensing datasets can further assist archaeological research.

  4. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  5. The Diversity of Classical Archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is the first volume in the series Studies in Classical Archaeology, founded and edited by professors of classical archaeology, Achim Lichtenberger and Rubina Raja. This volume sets out the agenda for this series. It achieves this by familiarizing readers with a wide range of themes and ...

  6. Kuwaiti Youth Attitudes toward Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Almutairi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the level of knowledge, interest, and awareness of archaeology among Kuwaiti youth in keeping with the social learning theory (Bandura 1977, which emphasises the social context in which learning takes place. According to this approach, individuals acquire through observation and imitation of significant others key concepts and cultural symbols. This study also focuses on students' perceptions of how the Kuwaiti government implements the archaeology law. Data were collected from a survey conducted in 2015 on a random sample of 1193 students from 12 high schools located in the 6 governorates in Kuwait. Two high schools (representing males and females from each governorate were selected. Emphasis was on students in the senior level of high school (17-18 years old as the last stage in the public schooling system in Kuwait. The study analysed the impact of students' gender, socioeconomic background, and personal exposure to archaeology on their attitudes toward archaeology. Analyses using Chi-square tests along with descriptive statistics revealed that students with highly educated parents and those attending schools in well-to-do communities were more likely to be knowledgeable about, interested in, and aware of the importance of archaeology. Students with personal exposure to archaeology are more interested in and concerned with archaeology than those with no experience. In addition, gender was a significant factor as males showed more knowledge of, interest in, and awareness of archaeology than females.

  7. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  8. Acari in archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  9. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Karin M.; Frei, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. → Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. → Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. → Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 ± 0.0016; 2σ). This average value lies above the range of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signatures >∼0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use and application of commercial fertilizers. It is demonstrated that

  10. Neutron Activation Analysis and Moessbauer Correlations of Archaeological Pottery from Amazon Basin for Classification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, A. V. B.; Latini, R. M.; Nicoli, I.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Solorzano, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the correlation between data obtained by means of two analytical methods, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Moessbauer Spectroscopy of pottery samples combined with multivariate statistical analysis in order to optimize quantitative analysis in the classification studies. Ceramics recently discovered in archaeological earth circular structures sites in Acre state Brazil. 199 samples were analyzed by INAA, allowing simultaneous determination of twenty elements chemical concentrations, and 44 samples by using Moessbauer Spectroscopy, allowing the determination of fourteen hyperfine parameters. For the correlation study, data were treated by two multivariate statistical methods: cluster analysis for the classification and the principal component analysis for the data correlations. INAA data show that some of REE (rare earth elements) were the discriminating variables for this technique. Mossbauer parameters that exhibit the same behavior are being investigated, remarkable improve can be seem for the combined REE and the Mossbauer variables showing a good results considering the limited number of samples. This data matrix is being used for the understanding in the studies of classification and provenance of ceramics prehistory of the Amazonic basin.

  11. Study of Brazilian archaeological ceramics by non-destructive analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeoka, R.A.; Appoloni, C.R.; Parreira, P.S.; Lopes, F. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (DF/UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Bandeira, A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE/USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This work manages with archaeometric analysis of 68 ceramic fragments from an archaeological site in Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil by Portable System of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. Sambaqui do Bacanga archaeological site was occupied from 6600 BP until 900 BP. The Portable System (PXRF-LFNA-02) consists of an X-ray tube (Ag target and filter) to excite the samples, a Si-PIN detector (221 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV), a specially designed holder for the excitation-detection system and samples positioning, standard X-ray spectrometry electronics and a notebook for data acquisition. The aims of the work were: verify if there was some kind of treatment in the concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste of the fragments; use the grouping analysis to verify the chemical similarity among the fragments of different levels and perform the quantitative analysis of the chemical elements. The elements, Fe, Sr, Mn, Ti and Zn present, systematically, higher intensities on concave and convex sides, compared to ceramic paste in 43 of 68 analyzed fragments. It indicates an existence of a differentiable surface treatment related to the paste that results in an enrichment of those elements. five sample sets with different stratigraphies were used for grouping analysis, which were dated by Thermoluminescence. Depth and dates of the stratigraphic levels are: surface, 10 to 20 cm (1,080 BP), 113 cm (2,100 BP), 132 cm (3,500 BP) and 144 cm (5,800 BP). The two-dimensional graphs of the X-ray intensities of Ca versus Zn and Sr versus Zr were performed for fragments from the surface and 113 cm; 10 to 20 cm, 132 cm and 144 cm levels, respectively. It was possible to observe the formation of five distinct groups for the fragments from the five stratigraphic levels. The results of data grouping (bi-dimensional graphics) are in agreement with cluster analysis of the Ward Method. Two cluster analysis were performed with the ceramic fragments from surface and 113 cm; 10 to

  12. Study of ferrous corrosion products on iron archaeological objects by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, Ilanith; Conforto, Egle; Refait, Philippe; Remazeilles, Celine [FRE 3474 CNRS - Universite de La Rochelle, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Ingenieur pour l' Environnement, La Rochelle cedex 01 (France)

    2013-02-15

    The corrosion of iron-based archaeomaterials in anoxic environments leads mainly to Fe(II) compounds, like the hydroxychloride {beta}-Fe{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl, chukanovite Fe{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} or siderite FeCO{sub 3}. The understanding of the mechanisms then necessarily implies a thorough investigation of the chemical, mechanical and morphological characteristics of the Fe(II)-based layer that develops between the metal surface and the environment. In the peculiar case of Fe(II) compounds, generally very reactive towards O{sub 2}, the main concern is to prevent any transformation by air during the analysis. The EBSD technique is adapted on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) where the samples are analysed under vacuum and consequently sheltered from air. Different options offered by EBSD for phase characterisation and microstructural study were tested for the first time on the rust layers of two archaeological iron nails. Results were confronted to those obtained by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which was used as reference method. Magnetite, Fe(II) hydroxychloride {beta}-Fe{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl and siderite were analysed successfully but improvements have to be brought for the study of other compounds such as iron oxyhydroxides and chukanovite. The choice of experimental parameters in our approach as well as the potentialities and limits of the technique for this kind of application are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Combined non-destructive XRF and SR-XAS study of archaeological artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Fabrizio; Barone, Germana; Crupi, Vincenza; Longo, Francesca; Majolino, Domenico; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Venuti, Valentina

    2011-03-01

    We report on a non-destructive study of Sicilian ceramic fragments of cultural heritage interest, classified as "proto-majolica" pottery and dating back to the twelfth to thirteen centuries AD. The analytical approach used is based on the employment of two totally non-invasive spectroscopic techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), using a portable energy-dispersive XRF analyser, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, using synchrotron radiation as a probe (SR-XAS). XRF measurements allowed us to collect elemental and spatially resolved information on major and minor constituents of the decorated coating of archaeological pottery fragments, so providing preliminary results on the main components characterizing the surface. In particular, we assigned to Fe and Mn the role of key elements of the colouring agent. With the aim of obtaining more detailed information, we performed SR-XAS measurements at the Fe and Mn K-edges at the Italian BM08 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France). The experimental data were analysed by applying principal component analysis and least-squares fitting to the near-edge part of the spectra (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) to determine the samples' speciation. From the overall results, umber, a class of brownish pigments characterized by a mixture of hydrated iron and manganese oxides, has been ascribed as a pigmenting agent.

  14. Exploratory palynological studies at the Tell el-Daba'a-Avaris archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A palynological study of samples collected from the Tell el-Daba'a (Avaris) archaeological site, the capital of the Hyksos located in the Northeastern Nile Delta, Egypt, was conducted. A range of samples were analyzed for pollen content: mudbricks from tomb walls dating from the Middle (cal. 2124–1778 BC) and New Kingdom ages (cal. 1550–1750 BC), kitchen remains dating from the Middle Kingdom, kitchen middens from the 19th Dynasty (cal. 1750–1058 BC), and tomb offering jars from the Late Period (cal.1000-600 BC). Floristic composition of modern vegetation analysis at different habitats revealed four community types and nine associated types, providing an indicator of high soil salinity and moisture content. Cereal and Achillea-type pollen were common in the mudbrick samples, indicating the probable use of these plants as temper during mudbrick manufacturing in the Middle and New Kingdoms. The kitchen samples were dominated by cereals, broad bean, celery, and other weed pollen types, indicating the importance of cereals, legumes, and celery as strategic crops for food or medicines during the Middle Kingdom period. Weed pollen types were probably associated with crops, with “Cheno-am” pollen type recorded at highest abundance in the tomb filling jar, which may indicate the use of these aromatic herbs to repel insects and animals from tombs. PMID:29415021

  15. Feasibility study for a neutron investigation in archaeological research on Tifernum Mataurense (S. Angelo in Vado, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Rogante; Emanuela Stortoni

    2014-01-01

    External milli-beam particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE), Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Neutron Induced Prompt Gamma Spectrometry (NIPS) and high resolution Time-Of-Flight Neutron Diffraction (TOF-ND) have been considered as non-destructive techniques to plan the investigation of 6 metallic archaeological artefacts sporadically discovered over time at the Tifernum Mataurense area (S. Angelo in Vado, Marche Region, Italy). The primary goal of this feasibility study is to cre...

  16. Study of exchange networks between two Amazon archaeological sites by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises the utilization of instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of 24 chemical elements in pottery shards from two large archaeological sites in central Amazon, Lago Grande and Osvaldo. The multidimensional data set was analyzed by cluster and principal component analysis for defining chemical groups of pottery. The results were correlated to potential exchange networks driven by three mechanisms: trade, exogamic marriage and territorial integration in the region. All of them have important consequences for archaeological research regarding the Amazonian pre-colonial occupation. (author)

  17. A Toolbox for Archaeological Heritage Management. Maps, Methods and More for Effective and Efficient Selection of Valuable Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.G.M. Lauwerier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of providing knowledge for informed choices, a series of tools have been developed for archaeological heritage management in the Netherlands. They include maps, datasets, methods, guidelines, best practice and web-based applications to facilitate the effective and efficient selection of valuable archaeological remains. The products relate to archaeological predictive modelling, disturbances by agriculture and other activities, archaeological heritage maps, prospection methods, research questions and scientific syntheses to close the archaeological heritage management cycle.

  18. The role of avocational archaeology and history in managing underwater cultural resources: a Michigan case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail A. Vander Stoep

    2001-01-01

    Increasingly, diminished monetary resources to pay for full-time or project-based professional archaeologists limits the scope and speed with which professional archaeology occurs, particularly for underwater resources such as shipwrecks. However, such resources are being found with increasing regularity; human activity on wrecks combines with natural forces to degrade...

  19. Integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing for archaeological investigations: a case study of the Etruscan site of San Giovenale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasaponara, R; Masini, N; Holmgren, R; Backe Forsberg, Y

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to detect and extract traces of past human activities on the Etruscan site of San Giovenale (Blera) in Northern Lazio, Italy. Investigations have been conducted by integrating high-resolution satellite data with digital models derived from LiDAR survey and multisensory aerial prospection (traditional, thermal and near infrared pictures). The use of different sensor technologies is requested to cope with (i) different types of surface covers, i.e. vegetated and non-vegetated areas (trees, bushes, agricultural uses, etc), (ii) variety of archaeological marks (micro-relief, crop marks, etc) and (iii) different types of expected spatial/spectral feature patterns linked to past human activities (urban necropoleis, palaeorivers, etc). Field surveys enabled us to confirm remotely sensed features which were detected in both densely and sparsely vegetated areas, thus revealing a large variety of cultural transformations, ritual and infrastructural remains such as roads, tombs and water installations. Our findings clearly point out a connection between the Vignale plateau and the main acropolis (San Giovenale) as well as with the surrounding burial grounds. Our results suggest that the synergic use of multisensory/multisource data sets, including ancillary information, provides a comprehensive overview of new findings. This facilitates the interpretation of various results obtained from different sensors when studied in a larger prospective. (paper)

  20. Study of archaeological iron objects by PGAA, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de [Technische Universität München, Physik- Department E15 (Germany); Gebhard, R. [Archäologische Staatssammlung München (Germany); Häusler, W.; Wagner, U. [Technische Universität München, Physik- Department E15 (Germany); Albert, P.; Hess, H. [Archäologische Staatssammlung München (Germany); Révay, Z.; Kudejová, P.; Kleszcz, K. [Technische Universität München, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Archaeological iron objects often corrode rapidly after their excavation, even though they have survived long times of burial in the ground. Chlorine that accumulates during burial is thought to play a major role in this destructive post-excavation corrosion. It is therefore important for the conservation of such objects to determine the chlorine content in a non-destructive manner and, if necessary, to remove the chlorine from the artefacts by appropriate methods. Such methods are leaching in alkaline solutions or heating in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures up to 800 {sup ∘}C. We have studied the efficiency of the heating method using prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) for monitoring the Cl content and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K as well as X-ray diffraction to study the mineralogical transformations of the rust layers. The heat treatments were performed a N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} (90/10) mixture at temperatures up to 750 {sup ∘}C. As test specimens sections of iron rods from the Celtic oppidum of Manching (Bavaria) were used. The initial Cl contents of the pieces varied in the range of several hundred ppm, referring to the iron mass. Annealing for 24 h at 350, 550 and 750 {sup ∘}C was found to reduce the Cl contents of the specimens, to about 70, 30 and 15 % of the original values, respectively. The rust consists mainly of goethite with admixtures of magnetite, lepidocrocite and akaganeite, which is thought to be a major carrier of chlorine, probably together with iron chlorides. Much of the goethite is so fine-grained that it does not split magnetically at RT. Annealing converts the rust mainly to maghemite at 350 {sup ∘}C, to magnetite at 550 {sup ∘}C and to wüstite plus magnetite and metallic iron at 750 {sup ∘}C. Pure akaganeite behaves in nearly the same manner.

  1. Best practice approaches for applying satellite imagery for landscape archaeological applications: a case study from the world heritage site of Sanchi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A.; Shaw, J.; Stott, D.

    2007-10-01

    Satellite imagery is an increasingly important tool for cultural and natural heritage management. It has particular relevance in those areas of the world where the heritage resource is poorly understood. In these areas what is known may be significantly biased: i.e. heritage management strategies may have been skewed towards a specific type of remain (normally monumental architecture). This paper will present work undertaken in the landscape around the UNESCO World Heritage site of Sanchi, a major early-historic Buddhist site in Madhya Pradesh, India. Rather than discuss the merits of individual sensors this paper takes a more holistic approach and examines the 'life-cycle' of satellite imagery for an archaeological project. This means that satellite imagery is viewed not just as a source of archaeological information but also as a data source that can be used to contextualise and interpret the archaeological resource. Hence this paper provides a framework which should allow archaeological investigators to select, manipulate and integrate different satellite sensors to provide information which is fit for purpose. This paper discusses the implications of satellite sensors for different activities, including archaeological prospection, landuse mapping and terrain modeling and considers how the synergies of different satellite and archaeological data can be exploited.

  2. The Infertile Crescent Revisited: A Case (Study for the History of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bracewell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the history of archaeological research concerning the eastern coast of James Bay in northern Quebec. The construction of prehistory in northern Quebec began with the earliest contact of Europeans with Native Canadians and developed from religious explanations to Classical Evolutionary ones to Culture-Historical ones to Neoevolutionary scientific ones. Although the theoretical interpretations changed over time, the content remained surprisingly constant. The challenges of research in the area, and the resulting paucity of data, led to generalizations that telescoped thousands of years and eight million square miles into a single interpretation, based largely on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century assumptions about hunter-gatherer mobility, subsistence and social evolution. This paper traces how these assumptions have affected the archaeology of the twentieth century in James Bay and northern Quebec.

  3. Indigenous archaeology as complement to, not separate from, scientific archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Watkins

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Defining Indigenous Archaeology is as difficult as defining “Indigenous”. In some areas the term “Indigenous” is applied to people who existed in an area prior to colonization (“Geography”; in other areas it is applied to people who are to those people whose ancestors created the culture being (“Descendancy”; in others it is applied to the community of people who live in the area where the archaeology is being conducted (“Proximity”. This paper recognizes that Archaeology, however defined, has characteristics that add to the scientific study of the human past; that Indigenous Archaeology is not meant to supplant scientific archaeology but to add to archaeology’s powers. In this paper I will provide an overview of Indigenous Archaeology, examine some of the in trying to discuss its many facets as a single disciplinary approach to the of the past, and then close with an examination of the in the generalized approach to the study of the past by partnering with communities and organizations.

  4. The Archaeology of Egyptian Monasticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Louise

    The study of Egyptian monasticism has traditionally relied heavily on the rich corpus of textual sources, while the archaeological remains have been secondary to our understanding of monastic life. This imbalance has resulted in a situation where questions pertinent to the physical remains...... of monasteries ha ve largely remained unanswered. Based on first - hand archaeological material from the White Monastery federation and comparative material obtained through archaeological reports, the thesis addresses Egypt ian Monasticism in the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Islamic period......, by examining three main themes through seven chapters. These themes are: 1. the relationship between the archaeological and textual sources pertinent to the White Monastery; 2. the diachronic development of the White Monastery and the process es that caused its abandonment; 3. the economy of the White...

  5. Two different approaches for georadar data processing: A case study in archaeological prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Luciana; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2008-03-01

    This paper deals with the application of two different processing methods of the georadar data aimed at improving the results in the case of bad quality data. The georadar data are referred to two areas located in the Axum archaeological park (Ethiopia) and were acquired prior to the reinstallation of the returned Stele from Italy to the Ethiopian Government. In the area the schist formation is covered by an outcropping sandy silt formation about 6-8 m thick. The archaeological excavations, performed before the georadar data acquisition, revealed that tombs and catacombs were dug into the superficial layer. Because the complexity of the georadar data interpretation based on standard data processing, some of the collected measured data are also processed by an innovative microwave tomographic approach which permits to achieve clearer diagnostic results with respect to the classic radaristic techniques in 2D and 3D representation. We take into account the data acquired for the East stele 2 with 100 MHz antenna and in the parking area of the archaeological park with 200 MHz antenna. The data were acquired on profiles 1 m apart. Comparing the data processed with the two different approaches, we obtained an improvement of the vertical resolution and of the quality of image on time slices using the tomographic approach compared to the results obtained with the classic radar one.

  6. Study of archaeological analogs for the validation of nuclear glass long-term behavior models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verney-Carron, A.

    2008-10-01

    Fractured archaeological glass blocks collected from a shipwreck discovered in the Mediterranean Sea near Embiez Island (Var) were investigated because of their morphological analogy with vitrified nuclear waste and of a known and stable environment. These glasses are fractured due to a fast cooling after they were melted (like nuclear glass) and have been altered for 1800 years in seawater. This work results in the development and the validation of a geochemical model able to simulate the alteration of a fractured archaeological glass block over 1800 years. The kinetics associated with the different mechanisms (interdiffusion and dissolution) and the thermodynamic parameters of the model were determined by leaching experiments. The model implemented in HYTEC software was used to simulate crack alteration over 1800 years. The consistency between simulated alteration thicknesses and measured data on glass blocks validate the capacity of the model to predict long-term alteration. This model is able to account for the results from the characterization of crack network and its state of alteration. The cracks in the border zone are the most altered due to a fast renewal of the leaching solution, whereas internal cracks are thin because of complex interactions between glass alteration and transport of elements in solution (influence of initial crack aperture and of the crack sealing). The lowest alteration thicknesses, as well as their variability, can be explained. The analog behavior of archaeological and nuclear glasses from leaching experiments makes possible the transposition of the model to nuclear glass in geological repository. (author)

  7. Archaeology, landscape and aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Cooper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role, if any, of aesthetic reflections in the discipline of landscape archaeology. It begins by rejecting the charge that archaeologists should set aside their own aesthetic sensibility when studying landscapes. The bulk of the paper, however, is concerned with arguing that attention to the aesthetic sensibilities of the peoples who made the landscapes studied is essential to the kind of understanding and reconstruction of ways of life that landscape archaeology aims to provide. Two important themes that are developed during the course of this argument are: (1 a distinction (ignored by some archaeologists who are critical of appeals to aesthetic enjoyment between aesthetic appreciation and a dilettante “aestheticism” and (2 the aesthetic satisfactions that must be taken in work, such as farming, if this is to flourish.

  8. Contract archaeology and news archaeological contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Londoño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two topics related to the current situation of archaeology in Latin America and Colombia. The first section of the paper deals with the impact of contract archaeology in Colombia. The fact that programs of contract or preventive archaeology have rocketed in recent years is well known. Less known, however, are the broad tendencies and dimensions of this phenomenon. The second issue discussed here is the relationship between global tourism politics and processes of local recovery and enhancement of heritage assets, which will be explored through the analysis of two archaeological sites. The recovery and touristification of an archaeological site is used as starting point to reflect about the differences between a new tendency in archaeological contract opposed to the dominant tendency in the field.

  9. Migrating Home Computer Audio Waveforms to Digital Objects: A Case Study on Digital Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Guttenbrunner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rescuing data from inaccessible or damaged storage media for the purpose of preserving the digital data for the long term is one of the dimensions of digital archaeology. With the current pace of technological development, any system can become obsolete in a matter of years and hence the data stored in a specific storage media might not be accessible anymore due to the unavailability of the system to access the media. In order to preserve digital records residing in such storage media, it is necessary to extract the data stored in those media by some means.One early storage medium for home computers in the 1980s was audio tape. The first home computer systems allowed the use of standard cassette players to record and replay data. Audio cassettes are more durable than old home computers when properly stored. Devices playing this medium (i.e. tape recorders can be found in working condition or can be repaired, as they are usually made out of standard components. By re-engineering the format of the waveform and the file formats, the data on such media can then be extracted from a digitised audio stream and migrated to a non-obsolete format.In this paper we present a case study on extracting the data stored on an audio tape by an early home computer system, namely the Philips Videopac+ G7400. The original data formats were re-engineered and an application was written to support the migration of the data stored on tapes without using the original system. This eliminates the necessity of keeping an obsolete system alive for enabling access to the data on the storage media meant for this system. Two different methods to interpret the data and eliminate possible errors in the tape were implemented and evaluated on original tapes, which were recorded 20 years ago. Results show that with some error correction methods, parts of the tapes are still readable even without the original system. It also implies that it is easier to build solutions while original

  10. Comparison Study to the Use of Geophysical Methods at Archaeological Sites Observed by Various Remote Sensing Techniques in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Křivánek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of geophysical methods could be very a useful and a practical way of verifying the origin and precise localisation of archaeological situations identified by different remote sensing techniques. The results of different methods (and scales of monitoring these fully non-destructive methods provide distinct data and often complement each other. The presented examples of combinations of these methods/techniques in this study (aerial survey, LIDAR-ALS and surface magnetometer or resistivity survey could provide information on some specifics and may also be limitations in surveying different archaeological terrains, types of archaeological situations and activities. The archaeological site in this contribution is considered to be a material of this study. In case of Neolithic ditch enclosure near Kolín were compared aerial prospection data, magnetometer survey and aerial photo-documentation of excavated site. In the case of hillforts near Levousy we compared LIDAR data with aerial photography and large-scale magnetometer survey. In the case of the medieval castle Liběhrad we compared LIDAR data with geoelectric resistivity measurement. In case of a burial mound cemetery we combined LIDAR data with magnetometer survey. In the case of the production area near Rynartice we combined LIDAR data with magnetometer and resistivity measurements and result of archaeological excavation. Fortunately for successful combination of geophysical and remote sensing results, their conditions and factors for efficient use in archaeology are not the same. On the other hand, the quality and state of many prehistoric, early medieval, medieval and also modern archaeological sites is rapidly changing over time and both groups of techniques represent important support for their comprehensive and precise documentation and protection.

  11. Plants as bioindicators for archaeological prospection: a case of study from Domitian's Stadium in the Palatine (Rome, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, S; Caneva, G

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between buried archaeological remains (masonries, pavements, and ancient ruins) and spontaneous vegetation growing above them. We carried out several vegetation surveys in the Domitian's Stadium at the archaeological site of the Palatine (Rome). Vegetation data were collected using the Braun-Blanquet approach and elaborated using statistical analyses (cluster analysis) to assess the similarity among surveys. Structural, chorological, and ecological features of the plant communities were analyzed. Results showed that the vegetation responds significantly to the presence of sub-emerging ancient remains. The plant bioindication of this phenomenon occurs through the following floristic-vegetation variations: phenological alterations in single individuals (reduction in height, displacement of flowering/fruiting period), increase of annual species and decrease of perennial ones, decrease of total plant coverage, reduction of maturity level of the vegetation which remains blocked at a pioneer evolutive stage. The presence of sub-surfacing ruins manifests itself through the dominant occurrence of xerophilous and not-nitrophilous species (e.g., Hypochaeris achyrophorus L., Aira elegantissima Schur, Trifolium scabrum L. ssp. scabrum, Trifolium stellatum L., Plantago lagopus L., Medicago minima (L.) L., and Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony ssp. rigidum) and in a rarefaction of more mesophilous and nitrophilous species (e.g., Plantago lanceolata L., Trifolium pratense L. ssp. pratense, Trifolium repens L. ssp. repens, and Poa trivialis L.). Therefore, the vegetation can be used as bioindicator for the detection of buried ruins, contributing in the archaeological prospection for a general, fast, and inexpensive interpretation of the underground.

  12. The Use of PDF/A in Digital Archives: A Case Study from Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. L. Evans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the Portable Document Format (PDF has become a ubiquitous format in the exchange of documents; in 2005 the PDF/A profile was defined in order to meet long term accessibility needs, and has accordingly come to be regarded as a long-term archiving strategy for PDF files. In the field of archaeology, a growing number of PDF files – containing the detailed results of fieldwork and research – are beginning to be deposited with digital archives such as the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. In the ADS’ experience, the use of PDF/A has had benefits as well as drawbacks: the majority of PDF reports are now in a standard format better suited to longer-term access, however migrating to PDF/A and managing and ensuring reuse of these files is intensive, and fraught with potential pitfalls. Of these, perhaps the most serious has been an unreliability in PDF/A conformance by the wide range of tools and software now available. There are also practical and more theoretical implications for reuse which, as our discipline of archaeology alongside so many others rapidly becomes digitized, presents us with a large corpus of ‘data’ that is human readable, but may not be amenable to machine-based technologies such as NLP. It may be argued that these factors effectively undermine some of the perceived cost benefit of moving from paper to digital, as well as the longer-term sustainability of PDF/A within digital archives.

  13. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Karin M., E-mail: kmfrei@hum.ku.dk [Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Textile Research, SAXO Institute, University of Copenhagen, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frei, Robert [Institute of Geography and Geology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE), University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. {yields} Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. {yields} Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. {yields} Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 {+-} 0.0016; 2{sigma}). This average value lies above the range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr signatures >{approx}0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use

  14. Historical Archaeology in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wienberg, Jes

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines the early origin and later transformations of Medieval Archaeology to Historical Archaeology, both as an antiquarian practice and as an academic subject, focusing on the development in Sweden since the 17th C.

  15. Nuclear analytical technique for the study of ancient pottery from a Ghanaian archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was utilized to determine the elemental concentrations of the archaeological pottery samples from Jenini slave camp in the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana, employing the 30kW tank-in-pool Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). Jenini was a slave camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. The samples were obtained during the excavations of the tombs of the slaves who died at the camp. The accuracy of the INAA method was evaluated using IAEA Soil-7 reference material. The precision was calculated as relative standard deviation and was found to be within ±10%. Thirty-two (32) ceramic fragment samples from the archaeological site were analyzed to determine the concentration of 20 elements: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm,Th, U, and V. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analyses, were performed on the data set in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. The results of the cluster and factor analyses indicate a considerable overlap in the chemistry of the pottery shards from the three sampling points (i.e. Trench 1, Trench 2 and Pit 1) indicating that the pot shards were made from a single type of clay or clays of similar geochemical signatures. (au)

  16. Archaeological and anthropological studies on the Harappan cemetery of Rakhigarhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant S Shinde

    Full Text Available An insufficient number of archaeological surveys has been carried out to date on Harappan Civilization cemeteries. One case in point is the necropolis at Rakhigarhi site (Haryana, India, one of the largest cities of the Harappan Civilization, where most burials within the cemetery remained uninvestigated. Over the course of the past three seasons (2013 to 2016, we therefore conducted excavations in an attempt to remedy this data shortfall. In brief, we found different kinds of graves co-existing within the Rakhigarhi cemetery in varying proportions. Primary interment was most common, followed by the use of secondary, symbolic, and unused (empty graves. Within the first category, the atypical burials appear to have been elaborately prepared. Prone-positioned internments also attracted our attention. Since those individuals are not likely to have been social deviants, it is necessary to reconsider our pre-conceptions about such prone-position burials in archaeology, at least in the context of the Harappan Civilization. The data presented in this report, albeit insufficient to provide a complete understanding of Harappan Civilization cemeteries, nevertheless does present new and significant information on the mortuary practices and anthropological features at that time. Indeed, the range of different kinds of burials at the Rakhigarhi cemetery do appear indicative of the differences in mortuary rituals seen within Harappan societies, therefore providing a vivid glimpse of how these people respected their dead.

  17. Micro-PIXE and micro-SR-XRF studies for Romanian archaeological gold identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, B.

    2009-04-01

    For gold, trace elements are more significant for provenancing archaeological artifacts than the main components: Platinum Group Elements (PGE), Sn, Te, Sb, Hg, Pb, but also high melting point elements, such as Ta and Nb. Several small fragments of native Carpathian gold were studied using micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator, Louvre Museum and at the Legnaro AN2000 microbeam facility, and using SR-XRF at BESSY synchrotron. The goal of the study was to identify the trace elements, especially Sn, Sb and Te. At BESSY, the SR-XRF measurements were performed in air by using a 34 keV beam to excite the characteristic X-lines in Sn-Sb-Te region. We found Sn to be present in placers from Valea Arieşului and Valea Pianului, Sb in primary gold from Zlatna, Ruda-Brad, Valea Morii, Runculeţ-Straja and Pb in primary gold from Brǎdişor-Brad, Zlatna, Runculeţ-Straja, Valea Morii, Muşariu-Brad. Ten native gold nuggets and several fragments of objects coming from Visigothic Pietroasa "The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens" hoard were analyzed using micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator, Louvre Museum, Paris and at the Legnaro AN2000 microbeam facility. We found Te in primary gold from Brǎdişor-Brad, Muşariu-Brad (different samples from BESSY analyzed ones), and Roşia Montanǎ, Sb in primary gold at Bucium-Izbiţa. For Pietroasa hoard, we found Sn in the Oenochoe cup and small fibula, indicating that alluvial gold - probably from Anatolia (Pactolus river) - was used. We also detected Ta inclusions in the large fibula, indicating that Ural Mountains (the only region where Ta and Au minerals are together) gold was (at least partially) used. A spectacular application to nine Dacian gold bracelets (belonging to National History Museum of Romania) authentication is presented. These bracelets look like spirals and are based on the same artistic idea, are centred around the same theme. The number of spiral varies from 6 to 8. When uncoiled, some bracelets

  18. Feasibility study for a neutron investigation in archaeological research on Tifernum Mataurense (S. Angelo in Vado, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rogante

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available External milli-beam particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Neutron Induced Prompt Gamma Spectrometry (NIPS and high resolution Time-Of-Flight Neutron Diffraction (TOF-ND have been considered as non-destructive techniques to plan the investigation of 6 metallic archaeological artefacts sporadically discovered over time at the Tifernum Mataurense area (S. Angelo in Vado, Marche Region, Italy. The primary goal of this feasibility study is to create indications to advance the correct technological and material description of the objects providing scientific data for further and more comprehensive comparative analyses also covering the find material from the close archaeological sites. PIXE would provide quantitative analyses of major and trace elements (e.g., Fe, Pb and As in order to recognize the constitutive alloys and to supply information on the near-surface elemental composition complementary to the data characteristic for the bulk. The neutron investigations would allow determining the bulk composition, also providing either a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the phase composition and the structural properties of the constituents, or radiographic images, finally to identify possible manufacturing techniques. The expected results would allow also achieving important information on the possible provenance, being useful also to set up a classification according to the chemical composition.

  19. Some observations on contemporary teaching of archaeology in universities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gojda, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2012), s. 9-16 ISSN 0081-3834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : archaeology * university studies * teaching strategy * interpretive openness * archaeological sources Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. Use of GPR Surveys in Historical Archaeology Studies at Gainesville Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Ben; Giardino, Marco; Spruce, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used in recent surveys to acquire subsurface geophysical data for historic sites at Gainesville, Mississippi, a town abandoned in 1962 with the building of the John C. Stennis Space Center. Prior to GPR data collection, a 20- by 20-meter grid was established using UTM map projection and GPS for locating cell corners. Lines of GPR data were then collected every 25 centimeters. The images were then processed, and coregistered to georeferenced aerial and satellite imagery. This procedure is enabling analysts to assess the GPR imagery more effectively in a geospatial context. Field validation of anomalies created by known subsurface features from both recent and historic sources is allowing soil attributes, such as variations in Relative Dielectric Permittivity, to be tested more accurately. Additional work is assessing how GPR data can be effectively combined with other forms of remote sensing to direct archaeological surveys and excavations.

  1. Archaeological Investigations at the Upper Chapel, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Baker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheffield, in the north of England, grew rapidly in the 19th century and gained an international reputation for its cutlery, tableware, and steel products. The material legacy of this age of industrialisation is extensive, and archaeological work in the modern city over the last 20 years has, for the most part, focused on the above and below ground industrial archaeology relating to metals trades' production sites spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. This article describes recent archaeological work around the Upper Chapel, a Unitarian Meeting House in the city centre where archaeological work recovered a possible buried medieval soil deposit, which contained an assemblage of medieval pottery dating from the 12th to 15th centuries. The presence of waster sherds and fragments of kiln furniture within this assemblage suggests that pottery production may have taken place on or near the site, making this the first putative evidence for pottery production in medieval Sheffield. The archaeological investigations also recovered four human burials from the 18th- to 19th-century burial ground associated with the Upper Chapel. The Upper Chapel burial ground differs from other recently excavated cemeteries in Sheffield as it potentially contained graves of high-status individuals, with at least a proportion of the skeletons and coffins well-preserved owing to waterlogged ground conditions. Detailed studies of the human remains, coffins, and incorporated material, including brass shroud pins are also discussed.

  2. Micro-SR-X RF Studies for Archaeological Gold Identification - the Case of Cepharanthin Gold and of Dician Bracelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Vasilescu, A.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the study is to verify if Transylvanian gold was used to manufacture Romanian archaeological objects using information related to trace elements: Sb, Te, Pb - recognized fingerprints for Carpathian Mountains mines and Sn characteristic for the panned river-bed (alluvional) gold. To solve these issues, samples (grains, nuggets,fine gold s and ) from various Transylvanian mines and rivers and some very small (few milligrams) fragments of archaeological objects are measured. During the experiment, point spectra for 22 natural gold samples from Tran sylvania and 18 m icronic s amples from archaeological objects were acquired at 34 keV excitation SR energy, using a spatially resolved SR-XRF set-up mounted for analyses at the hard X-ray beam line - BAMline at BESSY, Berlin. A summary for the characterization of Transylvanian native gold is the following: high (8 - 30%) Ag amounts and low (0.2 - 1%) Cu amounts; placer deposits (Valea Oltului, Stanija, Valea Pianului) contain as fingerprint Sn (150-300 ppm) - most probably from river bed cassiterite; primary deposits present as fingerprints Te (200-2000 ppm), Sb (150-300 ppm) - however, the samples are very inhomogeneous; primary deposit Sacaramb contains Te 0,25%, Sb (500 ppm), but also Sn ( 200 ppm); primary deposit Fizesti presents a big amount of Pb 1%, Sb (350 ppm), traces of Te and also Sn. As concerning the k oson d acian coins, the type w ith monogram i s made from refined (more than 97%) gold with no Sb, Te or Sn traces (remelted gold) and the type w ithout monogram i s clearly made from alluvial gold, partially combined with primary Transylvanian gold (Sn and Sb traces detected). A spectacular application of the micro-SR-XRF studies on native gold was the one of authentication of some recovered heritage artifacts: five Dacian gold bracelets exhibited at the National Museum of Romania's History, Bucharest. The Dacian multi-spiraled bracelets were made of gold; they belong to the classical period of the

  3. In Puruchuco is destroyed archaeological heritage of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Mendoza, Alberto; Echevarría López, Gori Tumi

    2015-01-01

    The archaeological site of Puruchuco occupies all areas of Cerro Mayorazgo whose studies by archaeologists indicate that such dierent occupations belong to dierent archaeological periods of ancient Peru. Archaeological evidence found at the view from the north ridge, the eastern ank of the hill, the truncated and in several areas of its western slope, whose lower parts are being discovered the next archaeological evidence to Site Museum and the Grand Palace summit Tawantinsuyu rescued and pu...

  4. Long term alteration of glass/iron systems in anoxic conditions: contribution of archaeological analogues to the study of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of glass alteration mechanisms arouses a great interest over the last decades, particularly in the nuclear field, since vitrification is used to stabilize high-level radioactive wastes in many countries. In the French concept, these nuclear glasses would be stored in geological repositories. This multi-barrier system (glass matrix, stainless steel container, low carbon steel over-container, geological barrier) must ensure the durable confinement of radionuclides. But laboratory experiments do not permit to predict directly the behaviour of these materials over typically a million-year timescale and the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data to long time periods remains problematic. Part of the validation of the predictive models relies on natural and archaeological analogues. Here, the analogues considered are vitreous slags produced as wastes by a blast furnace working during the 16. century in the iron making site of Glinet (Normandy, France). The choice of these specific artefacts is due to the presence of particular interface between corrosion products and glass matrix inside the blocks. Thus, they can help us to understand the influence of iron corrosion products from the steel containers on the glass alteration mechanisms and kinetics. A first part of this work concerns the characterization of the archaeological artefacts especially the interfacial area between glass and corrosion products inside cracks using micro and nano-beam techniques (μRaman spectroscopy, FEG-SEM, TEM, STXM...). This study has enabled to suggest an alteration process with different geochemical steps that leads to alteration profile observed. One of these steps is the precipitation of an iron silicate phase. In a second time, leaching experiments were set up on a synthetic glass of similar composition than the archaeological one to understand the first stages of alteration with and without iron. Two phenomena can be observed: silicon sorption and precipitation of iron

  5. A staged geogenetic approach to underwater archaeological prospection in the Port of Rotterdam (Yangtzehaven, Maasvlakte, TheNetherlands) : A geological and palaeoenvironmental case study for local mapping of Mesolithic lowland landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.C.; Bunnik, F.P.M.; Cohen, K.M.; Cremer, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the geogenetic approach to detect presently drowned archaeological sites in the transgressive palaeoenvironment of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. A staged and practical approach is advocated in which subsurface archaeological predictions are based on geological mapping and

  6. A staged geogenetic approach to underwater archaeological prospection in the Port of Rotterdam (Yangtzehaven, Maasvlakte, The Netherlands): A geological and palaeoenvironmental case study for local mapping of Mesolithic lowland landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.C.; Bunnik, F.P.M.; Cohen, K.M.; Cremer, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the geogenetic approach to detect presently drowned archaeological sites in the transgressive palaeoenvironment of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. A staged and practical approach is advocated in which subsurface archaeological predictions are based on geological mapping and

  7. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  8. Bacterial and abiotic decay in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst studied by confocal Raman imaging and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Gierlinger, Notburga; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogged archaeological Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] poles were studied by means of confocal Raman imaging (CRI) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis to determine lignin and polysaccharide composition and distribution in the cell...

  9. Study of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Semi-quantitative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Garcia-Heras, M. [Instituto de Historia-CSIC, C/Serrano, 13. E-28001, Madrid (Spain); CENIM-CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8. E-28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its potential application to the study of archaeological ceramics in the archaeometric field. Two direct solid non-chemical sample preparation procedures have been checked: solid sedimentation and solid chemical homogenization. For sedimentation procedure, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence allows the analysis of the elemental composition with respect to the size fraction but not the average evaluation of the composition. For solid chemical homogenization procedure, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence provides precise (from 0.8% to 27% of coefficient of variation) and accurate results (from 91% to 110% of recovery) for 15 elements (Cr, Hf, Ni, Rb, Al, Ba, Ca, K, Mn, Ti, V, Cu, Ga, Y and Fe) with an easy sample preparation process of the solid clay and without previous chemical treatment. The influence of the particle sizes has been checked by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence sample angle scans and anomalous behaviors have been found for three additional detected elements: As, Sr and Zn, which can be attributed to interference effects of the mineral grain sizes of their associated chemical phases in the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence interference region. The solid chemical homogenization procedure produces data useful for archaeological interpretation, which is briefly illustrated by a case-study. Finally, the decantation procedure data can be also useful for size chemical speciation and, consequently, for alternative environmental total-reflection X-ray fluorescence applications.

  10. Archaeology as a social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.

  11. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: dating and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. These sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre, in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: quartz and M-Kaolinite. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were 2600 and 2070 years respectively. The average age of of occupation was 400 years to Alto Alegre and 970 years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was 1880 years. (author)

  12. Remote Sensing and Geo-Archaeological Data: Inland Water Studies for the Conservation of Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Ferrara District, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Bucci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the southern area of the Ferrara District, Italy, remote sensing investigations associated with geo-archaeological drilling in underwater archaeological studies, have helped to broad our understanding of the historical evolution and cultural heritage of inland waterways. In working on prototype sites, we have taken a multidisciplinary approach of surveillance and preventive archaeology, and have collaborated with archaeologists, geologists, hydro-biologists, and engineers. In this area of research, often lakes, lagoons, and rivers are characterized by low visibility. Some Quaternary events have deeply modified Ferrara’s landscape. Analysis of preserved samples from micro-drillings, underwater direct and indirect surveys, and the cataloguing of historical artefacts, are giving to the researchers a remarkable ancient chronology line. Recent studies confirmed anthropization sequences from the 1st Century B.C. to the 6th Century A.D. Waterscape archaeology, a multidisciplinary science devoted to the study of the human use of wetlands and anthropological connection with the water environment, testifies the ways in which people, in the past, constructed and used the water environment. In this article, we describe underwater cultural heritage research using 3D side scan sonar surveys and artifacts analysis, comparing data from direct diving investigations and stratigraphic data from micro-geological drillings on sites of Lago Tramonto, Gambulaga, Portomaggiore (Ferrara.

  13. A Digital Public Archaeology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Richardson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital Public Archaeology is a very new label for a contemporary practice, and as such has been subject to a limited amount of theoretical scrutiny. The rapid pace of change within Internet technologies has significantly expanded potential for this ‘digital’ form of Public Archaeology practice. Internet technologies can be used to gather contributions of ‘crowd-sourced’ archaeological content; to share and discuss archaeological news and discoveries; foster online community identity, situated around the topic of archaeology and wider heritage issues, or to elicit financial support. Expectations of and opportunities for social, collaborative and individual participation and interaction with cultural heritage have grown accordingly. Professional archaeological organisations are increasingly encouraged, if not required, to disseminate their grey literature reports, publications, educational resources, data-sets, images and other archaeological informatics through digital means, frequently as mandatory outputs for impact assessment and public accountability. Real-time sharing, comment and feedback of archaeological information online and via mobile technologies stand in contrast to lengthy waits for publication and wider dissemination. This paper will explore the literature on the practice of Public Archaeology in the UK, and issues associated with the development of digital public engagement in the heritage sector.

  14. The Materials Science and its applications in the Archaeology specific case: Teopancazco, Teotihuacan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez L, V.; Martinez G, C.; Manzanilla N, L.

    2004-01-01

    The cultural enormity wealth culture that exists in Mexico generates the necessity to reach a bigger interaction from the archaeology and restoration areas to the modern material science, with the purpose to establish new methodologies that allow to restore, conserve and preserve the materials that ancient civilizations used to construct buildings and objects of common use. It is in this sense that has been proposed methodologies for the use of analytical techniques in the study of archaeological materials to understand their nature, microstructural characteristics, deterioration causes, environmental factor influence, etc. We presents as example, a study of several archaeological samples that include mural painting fragments, ceramic with stucco and some pigment belonging to Teopancazco archaeological place located in San Sebastian Xolalpan (Teotihuacan, Mexico State). This study was performed by means of analytical scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy. (Author) 31 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs

  15. GPR impedance inversion for imaging and characterization of buried archaeological remains: A case study at Mudu city cite in Suzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Shi, Zhanjie; Wang, Bangbing; Yu, Tianxiang

    2018-01-01

    As a method with high resolution, GPR has been extensively used in archaeological surveys. However, conventional GPR profile can only provide limited geometry information, such as the shape or location of the interface, but can't give the distribution of physical properties which could help identify the historical remains more directly. A common way for GPR to map parameter distribution is the common-midpoint velocity analysis, but it provides limited resolution. Another research hotspot, the full-waveform inversion, is unstable and relatively dependent on the initial model. Coring method could give direct information in drilling site, while the accurate result is only limited in several boreholes. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to enhance imaging and characterization of archaeological targets by fusion of GPR and coring data. The scheme mainly involves the impedance inversion of conventional common-offset GPR data, which uses well log to compensate GPR data and finally obtains a high-resolution estimation of permittivity. The core analysis result also contributes to interpretation of the inversion result. To test this method, we did a case study at Mudu city site in Suzhou, China. The results provide clear images of the ancient city's moat and wall subsurface and improve the characterization of archaeological targets. It is shown that this method is effective and feasible for archaeological exploration.

  16. Shoreline changes during the last 2000 years on the Saurashtra coast of India: Study based on archaeological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.; Sundaresh

    sequence commencing from protohistoric period (3800 yrs BP) to historical period (1600 yrs BP). Excavation was undertaken in six trenches up to the lowest level of archaeological findings. The results from these trenches suggest that the oldest habitation...

  17. An Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey of the Flood Control Study Area, Kahawainui Stream, Laie, Oahu, Hawaii,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-18

    Vegeta- tion includes cultivated taro ( Colocasia esculenta) and banana (Musa sp.), as well as Koa haole (Leucaena glauca), christmas berry (Shinus...The study area delineated in Figure 3 represents an area larger than that speci - fied in the scope of work. The latter area did not correspond to

  18. After Virtual Archaeology: Rethinking Archaeological Approaches to the Adoption of Digital Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Beale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s archaeologists embraced the rapidly expanding field of computer modelling and visualisation as a vehicle for data exploration. Against this backdrop 'virtual archaeology' was conceived. The term was originally intended to describe a multidimensional approach to the modelling of the (immaterial structures and processes of field archaeology. It described how technology could be harnessed in order to achieve new ways of documenting, interpreting and annotating primary archaeological discoveries and processes. Despite their initial promise, these digital technologies failed to have the impact upon archaeological fieldwork that might have been expected. Even with the prevalence of digital devices on all archaeological excavations, the documentation, interpretation and subsequent narration of archaeological processes have retained their analogue character. While the archaeological record is now primarily digital, its sections, plans, drawings and photographs are facsimiles of the analogue technologies that preceded them. This retention of analogue conventions is increasingly out of step with the general prevalence and diversity of digital technologies as mediators of professional and private life. It is also challenged by 21st-century advances towards technologies that allow for complex engagements with and representations of physical matter and facilitate the interplay between digital and material worlds. This article argues that emerging forms of archaeological practice including gaming, mixed reality, computational photography and additive manufacturing, reveal digital archaeology to be a creative process, blending computational thinking, technological opportunities and established disciplinary traditions. We go on to suggest that digital archaeology, conceived as a form of practice rather than as a toolset, represents a locus for theory generation and critical thinking. Failure to recognise the skills and ideas that have emerged in

  19. Archaeology and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Author states environmental archaeology involves reconstructing past environmental conditions from archaeological evidence, allowing development of earlier human societies to be understood in relation to factors such as their food supplies, state of health, etc. This article illustrates links between archeological and environmental evidence, and…

  20. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  1. The archaeology of artefacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neustupný, Evžen

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 169-174 ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Human World * (cultural) inheritance * degrees of complexity * archaeological institutes Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  3. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Robert J; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  4. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  5. Skulls from the Past: Archaeological Negotiations of Scientific Racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Siapkas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the permeation of scientific racism in classical archaeology during the 1920s and 1930s. In particular, it investigates the anthropological studies of graves from the Swedish excavations at Asine and the British excavations at Mycenae and the appropriation of these results in classical archaeology. Terms like archaeological culture, people, race, in general and in precise forms, were used metonymically to signify clear-cut bounded entities with diachronically immutable characteristic traits. I argue that there were epistemological similarities between scientific racism and culture-historical archaeology since both are founded on essentialism. This article has further epistemological implications since it illustrates that foundational analytical practices, like categorizations and constructions of archaeological cultures, have conceptual affinities with discourses that many of us today find troubling. This can serve to foster critical reflection and to illustrate that histories of archaeology can contribute to the advancement of the epistemology of archaeology.

  6. The case study of the Pátio dos Carrascos at the Convent of Christ. Archaeological record of the recovery project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carvalho Dias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2010 archaeological excavations were conducted as preliminary work aimed to the restoration project of the Pátio dos Carrascos. This area is located westbound of the monumental Convent of Christ in Tomar, a monument classified as World Heritage Site. Thus, after site preparation with base topographic stations, which served as a reference consisting in a virtual grid, operations began cleaning archaeological digs. Based on the same reference array, all stages of excavation were recorded in field (by means of plans, sections and elevations using different methodologies to register points: traditional drawings, rectified photography and point cloud extractions, which allowed post-production of documents including all phases of construction and reuse together with their applicability to various computer programs.

  7. From the archaeological record to archaeobim: the case study of the Etruscan temple of Uni in Marzabotto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Garagnani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The digital reconstruction of the recently discovered Tuscanic temple of Uni in Marzabotto gave the chance to test the application of the Building Information Modeling (BIM process to the combined fields of Archaeology and Engineering. In addition to the traditional historic and archaeological analysis, a new methodology in Experimental Archaeology is proposed; it proved to be original and innovative in the examination of the buried building, taking advantage of technologies focused on the architectural reliability validated by inferred digital models. The peculiar aspect of the research involves the elements at the beginning of the process, which consist of foundations or negative archaeological evidences only, supported by the clues and the rules that can be found in the historic and scientific literature. To better define this distinctive working process, the expression ArchaeoBIM was proposed, which highlights the common BIM matrix used for the data management through one or more analytical models, applied to the peculiar aspects of the Archaeological discipline.

  8. Thermoluminescence dating of Indian archaeological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhvi, A.K.; Sharma, Y.P.; Agrawal, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to provide a chronology for Indian archaeological sites, an extensive pottery dating programme was initiated during 1978-1979. So far we have provided a chronology for seven important Indian archaeological sites. The dated cultures include: 1) the Ochre Colour Ware culture, 2) the Pre-Harappan culture, 3) the megalithic culture and 4) the Painted Grey Ware culture. A complete survey of recently measured TL dates are presented in a model format similar to that used in Radiocarbon. (author)

  9. Biological and Archaeological Analysis of Deepwater Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico: Studying the Artificial Reef Effect of Six World War II Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, R. A.; Irion, J. B.; Schroeder, W. W.; Warren, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    In the summer of 2004 researchers from across the United States and Canada partnered together to investigate biological and archaeological questions relating to six World War II era shipwrecks discovered in the Gulf of Mexico. The science team included microbiologists, marine vertebrate and invertebrate zoologists, a molecular biologist, an oceanographer, marine archaeologists, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) technicians, and a professional marine survey crew. The United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration sponsored this multidisciplinary project under the auspices of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The organizational involvement included six universities, two non-profit organizations, three commercial companies, and three U. S. federal agencies. The depth of the shipwrecks ranged from 87 to 1,964 meters. All six shipwrecks were war casualties, found during the past two decades on oil and gas surveys. These wrecks serve as artificial reefs sunk on well- documented dates, thereby offering biologists a unique opportunity to study the "artificial reef effect" of man- made structures in deep water. Taken together, these sites are an underwater battlefield, and a vital historical resource documenting a little-studied area in a crucial period of world history. They preserve information vital to scholarly and popular understanding of the war's impact in the Gulf of Mexico, on the American home front, and the global conflict. This paper will discuss the field methodology and touch on many of the scientific and technical aspects, and findings of the project.

  10. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  11. Archaeometry: nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the archaeological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza L, R.; Cardenas G, E.

    2005-01-01

    The book that now is presented is formed by twelve articles that approach from different perspective topics as the archaeological prospecting, the analysis of the pre hispanic and colonial ceramic, the obsidian and the mural painting, besides dating and questions about the data ordaining. Following the chronological order in which the exploration techniques and laboratory studies are required, there are presented in the first place the texts about the systematic and detailed study of the archaeological sites, later we pass to relative topics to the application of diverse nuclear techniques as PIXE, RBS, XRD, NAA, SEM, Moessbauer spectroscopy and other conventional techniques. The multidisciplinary is an aspect that highlights in this work, that which owes to the great specialization of the work that is presented even in the archaeological studies including in the open ground of the topography, mapping, excavation and, of course, in the laboratory tests. Most of the articles are the result of several years of investigation and it has been consigned in the responsibility of each article. The texts here gathered emphasize the technical aspects of each investigation, the modern compute systems applied to the prospecting and the archaeological mapping, the chemical and physical analysis of organic materials, of metal artifacts, of diverse rocks used in the pre hispanic epoch, of mural and ceramic paintings, characteristics that justly underline the potential of the collective works. (Author)

  12. Methodological proposal for the volumetric study of archaeological ceramics through 3D edition free-software programs: the case of the celtiberians cemeteries of the meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Climent

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the free-software programs have been converted into the ideal tools for the archaeological researches, reaching the same level as other commercial programs. For that reason, the 3D modeling tool Blender has reached in the last years a great popularity offering similar characteristics like other commercial 3D editing programs such as 3D Studio Max or AutoCAD. Recently, it has been developed the necessary script for the volumetric calculations of three-dimnesional objects, offering great possibilities to calculate the volume of the archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present a methodological approach for the volumetric studies with Blender and a study case of funerary urns from several celtiberians cemeteries of the Spanish Meseta. The goal is to demonstrate the great possibilities that the 3D editing free-software tools have in the volumetric studies at the present time.

  13. Study of corrosion in archaeological gilded irons by Raman imaging and a coupled scanning electron microscope-Raman system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Costantini, Ilaria; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Garcia, Laura; García, Iñaki; Castro, Kepa; Azkarate, Agustín; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-01

    In this work, analytical and chemical imaging tools have been applied to the study of a gilded spur found in the medieval necropolis of Erenozar (Bizkaia, Spain). As a first step, a lot of portable equipment has been used to study the object in a non-invasive way. The hand-held energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment allowed us to characterize the artefact as a rare example of an iron matrix item decorated by means of a fire gilding technique. On the other hand, the use of a portable Raman system helped us to detect the main degradation compounds affecting the spur. Afterwards, further information was acquired in the laboratory by analysing detached fragments. The molecular images obtained using confocal Raman microscopy permitted us to characterize the stratigraphic succession of iron corrosions. Furthermore, the combined use of this technique with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was achieved owing to the use of a structural and chemical analyser interface. In this way, the molecular characterization, enhanced by the magnification feature of the SEM, allowed us to identify several micrometric degradation compounds. Finally, the effectiveness of one of the most used desalination baths (NaOH) was evaluated by comparing its effects with those provided by a reference bath (MilliQ). The comparison proved that basic treatment avoided any side effects on the spur decorated by fire gilding, compensating for the lack of bibliographic documentation in this field. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  14. Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is an exploration of meta-archaeology. We consider some of the premises, dispositions, infrastructures of archaeological practices, where the archaeological is no longer a substantive, but adjectival, an aspect of things and doings, where archaeology is part of the trans-disciplinary...

  15. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  16. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  17. Material Culture and Cultural Meanings: Current Studies of Archaeological Ceramics and in Ce­ramic Ethnoarchaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Kolb

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Pottery and People: A Dynamic Interaction. James M. Skibo and Gary M. Feinman (editors. Founda­tions of Archaeological Inquiry. Salt Lake City. University of Utah Press. 1999. 260 pp. 91 figures. 30 tables. ISBN 0-87480-576-7. $55.00 (cloth; 0-87489-577-5. $25.00 (paperback. Material Meanings: Critical Approaches to the Interpretation of Material Culture. Elizabeth S. Chilton (editor. Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. 1999.179pp. 35 figures. 11 tables. ISBN 0-87480-632-1. $55.00 (cloth; 087480-633-X. $35.00 (paperback. The description and interpretation of material culture may be regarded as the essence of archaeology, a discipline that seeks to recover, describe, document, and interpret past human culture. More recently, understanding that actions occur in a material world that is constituted symbolically, archaeological explanations are often framed in sociocultural meanings, the analysis of agencies, practices and behaviors. I shall subsequently return to this issue. Because of their longevity in the archaeological record, lithic and ceramic artifacts are crucial to the endeavor to interpret human culture. Objects fashioned from clay and subjected to intentional artificial sources of heat made their initial appearance in the archaeological record more than 26.000 years ago. Ceramic objects have been created in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and forms, varying from fertility figurines. to cooking and food storage vessels. lamps, smoking pipes, medicinal pastilles, tokens, beehives, and coffins to modern whitewares and pyroceramics.

  18. Radar remote sensing for archaeology in Hangu Frontier Pass in Xin’an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, A. H.; Chen, F. L.; Tang, P. P.; Liu, G. L.; Liu, W. K.; Wang, H. C.; Lu, X.; Zhao, X. L.

    2017-02-01

    As a non-invasive tool, remote sensing can be applied to archaeology taking the advantage of large scale covering, in-time acquisition, high spatial-temporal resolution and etc. In archaeological research, optical approaches have been widely used. However, the capability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for archaeological detection has not been fully exploded so far. In this study, we chose Hangu Frontier Pass of Han Dynasty located in Henan Province as the experimental site (included into the cluster of Silk Roads World Heritage sites). An exploratory study to detect the historical remains was conducted. Firstly, TanDEM-X SAR data were applied to generate high resolution DEM of Hangu Frontier Pass; and then the relationship between the pass and derived ridge lines was analyzed. Second, the temporal-averaged amplitude SAR images highlighted archaeological traces owing to the depressed speckle noise. For instance, the processing of 20-scene PALSAR data (spanning from 2007 to 2011) enabled us to detect unknown archaeological features. Finally, the heritage remains detected by SAR data were verified by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) prospecting, implying the potential of the space-to-ground radar remote sensing for archaeological applications.

  19. The Use of Small-Angle X-Ray Diffraction Studies for the Analysis of Structural Features in Archaeological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wess, T. J.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigirev, A.

    2001-01-01

    the potential of a laboratory source is also described. Specific examples of analysis using X-ray diffraction of historic parchment, archaeological bone, a Central Mexico style pictograph and microdiffraction of calcified tissues are used to show the scope and versatility of the technique. Diffraction data......X-ray diffraction or scattering analysis provides a powerful non-destructive technique capable of providing important information about the state of archaeological samples in the nanometer length scale. Small-angle diffraction facilities are usually found at synchrotron sources, although...

  20. Moessbauer and mineral magnetic studies on archaeological potteries from Adhichanallur, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalapathy, R.; Bakas, T.; Basavaiah, N.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Megalithic potteries collected from Adhichanallur, Tamilnadu, India (Lat. 8 o 44' N; Long. 77 o 42' E) have been subjected to various spectroscopic and rock magnetic studies. The type of clay, their origin, level of structural deformation due to firing, firing temperature and atmospheric condition followed during making the potteries are analyzed. The potteries were subjected to Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction studies to analyze the iron phases in them. It is found that the samples were made of local clay (red clay), fired above 600 o C under open atmospheric and/or reduced atmospheric conditions and air has been allowed during cooling. The Moessbauer spectra reveal the presence of Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ and iron oxides of hematite and magnetite. The firing temperature and firing conditions established from Moessbauer studies are similar to the observation made from FT-IR studies. The magnetic mineral types, the mass fractions and the domain states of the constituent magnetic grains were elucidated from a range of rock magnetic measurements including variation of susceptibility with low field, frequency and temperature, hysteresis parameters and isothermal remanence acquisition data. The magnetic mineralogy of most pottery samples was dominated by magnetite/(titano) magnetite, while magnetic grain size spectrum varies from very fine (super paramagnetic) to fine (stable single domain, pseudo single domain). The reversible thermo magnetic behavior reflects no mineralogical transformations during reheating and all the samples show same Curie temperature 580 o C due to magnetite. From the above information it is demonstrated that these samples are suitable for determining the reliable ancient geomagnetic field intensity values existed during that period.

  1. Magnetic studies of archaeological obsidian: Variability of eruptive conditions within obsidian flows is key to high-resolution artifact sourcing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Frahm, E.; Muth, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have endeavored to use petrophysical traits of obsidian, particularly its magnetic properties, as an alternative to conventional geochemical sourcing, one of the greatest successes in archaeological science. Magnetic approaches, however, have not seen widespread application due to their mixed success. In a time when geochemical analyses can be conducted non-destructively, in the field, and in a minute or two, magnetic measurements of obsidian must offer novel archaeological insights to be worthwhile, not merely act as a less successful version of geochemistry. To this end, we report the findings of a large-scale study of obsidian magnetism, which includes 912 geological obsidian specimens and 97 artifacts measured for six simple magnetic parameters. Based on these results, we propose, rather than using magnetic properties to source artifacts to a particular obsidian flow (inter-flow sourcing), these properties are best used to differentiate quarrying sites within an individual flow (intra-flow sourcing). The magnetic properties within an individual flow are highly variable, due to the fact that a single flow experiences a wide array of cooling rates, absolute temperatures, viscosities, deformation, and oxidation. These conditions affect the concentrations, compositions, size distributions, shapes, and spatial arrangements of magnetic grains within an obsidian specimen and, thus, its intrinsic magnetic properties. This variability decreases dramatically at spatial scales of individual outcrops, and decreases even further at scales of hand samples. Thus, magnetic data appear to shift the scale of obsidian sourcing from flows to quarries and, in turn, enable new insights into raw-material procurement strategies, group mobility, lithic technology, and the organization of space and production. From a geologic perspective, the magnetic variability of obsidian can be broadly interpreted within the context of the igneous processes that were active during

  2. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  3. An integrated approach to teaching Aegean archaeology and archaeological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcairn, Erica Glenn

    Outlined here is a course that would serve as an introduction to archaeological science, specifically within the context of Aegean Prehistory. The main objective of this course is to expose students early in their archaeological careers to a variety of methods and questions, and to depart from the culture-historical perspective that typifies introductory survey courses. The class structure is equal parts lecture and discussion, moving between learning how the methods work and evaluating case studies. All graded assignments build on one another, guiding the students through designing their own research project. The ultimate goals of the assignments are to build key writing and professional skills, develop a basic understanding of research design, and to instill confidence that the student can contribute to the production of knowledge, whatever field he or she decides to pursue.

  4. Boeotian landscapes. A GIS-based study for the reconstruction and interpretation of the archaeological datasets of ancient Boeotia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farinetti, Emeri

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the work is to illustrate a possible way of dealing with a regional landscape and its long-term settlement history based on the integration of archaeological data applying a GIS based approach to the social dimension of the landscape. The large province area (ca 2,500 sqkm) of Boeotia

  5. Palaeo-coastline of Saurashtra, Gujarat: A study based on archaeological proxies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    investigation on the coastal sites some habitation sites are in intertidal zone indicating the advancement of shoreline, examples include a few historical period sites in intertidal zone of Bet Dwarka island and a medieval period temple found in the sea...

  6. Study of corrosion in archaeological gilded irons by Raman imaging and a coupled scanning electron microscope-Raman system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Costantini, Ilaria; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Garcia, Laura; García, Iñaki; Castro, Kepa; Azkarate, Agustín; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-13

    In this work, analytical and chemical imaging tools have been applied to the study of a gilded spur found in the medieval necropolis of Erenozar (Bizkaia, Spain). As a first step, a lot of portable equipment has been used to study the object in a non-invasive way. The hand-held energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment allowed us to characterize the artefact as a rare example of an iron matrix item decorated by means of a fire gilding technique. On the other hand, the use of a portable Raman system helped us to detect the main degradation compounds affecting the spur. Afterwards, further information was acquired in the laboratory by analysing detached fragments. The molecular images obtained using confocal Raman microscopy permitted us to characterize the stratigraphic succession of iron corrosions. Furthermore, the combined use of this technique with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was achieved owing to the use of a structural and chemical analyser interface. In this way, the molecular characterization, enhanced by the magnification feature of the SEM, allowed us to identify several micrometric degradation compounds. Finally, the effectiveness of one of the most used desalination baths (NaOH) was evaluated by comparing its effects with those provided by a reference bath (MilliQ). The comparison proved that basic treatment avoided any side effects on the spur decorated by fire gilding, compensating for the lack of bibliographic documentation in this field.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Ion beam studies in the field of arts, archaeology and geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elekes, Z.; Uzonyi, I.; Rajta, I.; Kiss, A.Z.; Gratuze, B.; Bugoi, R.; Constantinescu, B.; Sasianu, A.; Torbagyi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Obsidian [1]. The natural volcanic glass material means a great interest both in archaeometry and in geology. It was important trade item for prehistoric people as a raw material of many kind of artefact. From the geological point of view different type of obsidian melts are sensitive geochemical indictors for Earth processes. The accurate determination of elemental constituents of obsidians in both research fields is important. Based on the light element concentration data measured by Proton Induced Gamma-Ray-Emission (PIGE) method a distinction among samples resulted via various magmatic processes with diverse provenances is achieved. This was made possible by exploiting the excellent characteristics of our Clover-Ge-BGO detector system [2]. Using this instrument the determination of the concentration of lithium, an important trace element, became available. A comparison with the analysis of heavier elements carried out by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) technique is done. Dyrrhachium Silver Coins [3]. Analytical characterization of ancient silver coins (drachmas) issued by the Greek city Dyrrhachium 68-43 years BC was carried out by micro-PIXE method. Out of a 153 pieces Dyrrhachium drachma collection of the Coin Cabinet of the Hungarian National Museum 27 ones were analysed including four ancient imitations. The aim of this investigation was to involve the Hungarian artefacts into a comprehensive and systematic study of the coin-hoards discovered in the neighbourhood of Hungary (e.g. in Romania) in the framework of an international collaboration (COST G1). For the Hungarian and Romanian coins the same extent of degradation of the fineness of silver was observed (Ag = 92%) comparing to the ones minted in the second century BC. Sn proved to be a characteristic element for imitations (Sn = 1%). Another new result is that iron x-ray peaks are localized into <20 μm regions, i.e. iron is

  8. Punk, DIY, and Anarchy in Archaeological Thought and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in archaeological thought and practice involve a seemingly disparate selection of ideas that can be collected and organized as contributing to an anti-authoritarian, “punk” archaeology. This includes the contemporary archaeology of punk rock, the DIY and punk ethos of archaeological labor practices and community involvement, and a growing interest in anarchist theory as a productive way to understand communities in the past. In this article, I provide a greater context to contemporary punk, DIY, and anarchist thought in academia, unpack these elements in regard to punk archaeology, and propose a practice of punk archaeology as a provocative and productive counter to fast capitalism and structural violence.

  9. Kazan archaeological school: research results and development prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic stages of Kazan archaeological school development are traced from its origin, which was connected to the Society of Archaeology, History and Ethnology with Kazan University (1878 – early 1930s. The establishment of Kazan Institute of Language, Literature and History in 1939 (from 1945 as part of Kazan Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences started the formation of Kazan archaeological school. At the beginning, its representatives worked in the sector of History, Institute of Language, Literature and History, Kazan branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (until 1962, and then joined the sector of Archaeology and Ethnography (1962–1986. Later on, the Department of Archaeology (1986–1995 was created, subsequently (in 1995 transformed into the National Center of Archaeological Research with the Institute of History named after Sh. Marjani of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. In July, 2013, the Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Khalikov of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences was established on the basis of the Center. The archaeology of Tatarstan was developing in the framework of three basic directions: 1 entire investigation prospecting of the region aimed at creating the most exhaustive list of archaeological monuments of the Middle Volga River region; 2 stationary investigations the prehistoric and medieval sites, first of all historically known Volga Bulgaria towns, rural settlements and necropolises; 3 studies in the sphere of ethnogenesis and ethnic history, interaction between the cultures of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of the region. For the next 5 years (2014–2018 the researchers of the Institute plan to develop the following trends: I. the medieval Turkic-Tatar civilization of Eurasia; II. prehistorical archaeology of the Volga-Kama region: genesis and interaction of cultures; III. GIS technologies in archaeology; IV. natural science research methods in archaeology; V. conservation and systematization of archaeological

  10. Comparison study to the use of geophysical methods at archaeological sites observed by various remote sensing techniques in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 81. ISSN 2076-3263 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) R300021421 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological prospection * remote sensing * non-destructive archaeology * geophysical survey Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3263/7/3/81/pdf

  11. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  12. Archaeological analogue studies for the prediction of long term corrosion on buried metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, D.; Lemaitre, C.; Crusset, D.

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of the behaviour of metallic materials exposed to soil corrosion depends on many parameters. Any consideration of the effect of time, over long periods, can result only from a comparison with real cases of corrosion. It is the material-soil association which is the determining factor. This paper reports studies performed using modern techniques of materials science. The studies concern not only the characterisation of solid phase components, but corrosion products too and consequently it was also necessary to conduct electrochemical evaluations of corroded layer properties. (authors)

  13. Archaeological Survey of Cooper Lake, Number 7. 1989. Cultural Resource Studies for Cooper Lake, Hopkins and Delta Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Tetromeryx shuleri), bison, camel , and possibly a large cat from Lake Tawakoni. Informant Jimmy Of all the avocational collectors interviewed, Ross has...Monthly Press, Austin. Stephenson, Robert L. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1950 Archaeological Survey of Texarkana 1975 Soil Taxonomy ...Philip Ceramic System in Southwestern Pottery 1958 Application of the Wheat-Gifford-Wasley Analysis. American Antiquity 12:226-237. Taxonomy to Eastern

  14. Study of the microstructural characteristics of archaeological pieces of pre hispanic green stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carapia M, L.

    2004-01-01

    The work consists of the following chapters; in the first one information about the meaning, uses and origin of the pre hispanic green stone in the old Mexico are presented, the mineral and chemical characteristics of the green stone and the origin of the pieces in study of the project collection Eduardo Pareyon. In the second chapter the experimental method for the characterization is described and each one of the analysis techniques used for the study of the objects of green stone are also enumerated, as well as the methods of preparation of the samples for the determination of hardness, Analytic Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Fluorescence and the X-ray Diffraction. In the third chapter it is presented and it discusses the information and obtained results of each one of the analysed samples. Finally in the fourth chapter the concreted conclusions are presented in the present work. (Author)

  15. Obsidian provenance studies in archaeology: A comparison between PIXE, ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Poupeau, Gerard; Salomon, Joseph; Calligaro, Thomas; Moignard, Brice; Dran, Jean-Claude; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Pichon, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Elemental composition fingerprinting by PIXE technique is very attractive for obsidian provenance studies as it may proceed in a non-destructive mode, even if a more complete elemental characterization can be obtained by ICP-MS and/or ICP-AES. Only few studies have compared results obtained by both methods for solid rock samples. In this work, elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS/-AES for international geochemical standards and by ICP-MS/-AES and PIXE for inter-laboratory reference obsidians. In addition 49 obsidian source samples and artefacts were analysed by both ICP-MS/-AES and PIXE. Instrumental work and measurement quality control performed for obsidian chemical characterization, underline that PIXE and ICP-MS/-AES provide reproducible, accurate and comparable measurements. In some volcanic districts the limited number of elements dosed by PIXE is sufficient for the discrimination of the potential raw sources of obsidians. Therefore, PIXE can be an advantageous substitute to ICP-MS/-AES techniques for provenance studies

  16. Climate Induced Vegetational Evolution: Palynological and Thecamoebian Study from Coastal Archaeological Sites, Saurashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farooqui, A.; Gaur, A.S.

    and then benzene using standard catalyst and procedures. The counting was carried out in a Liquid Scintillation Counter (Quantulus 1220). Of six bulk samples only four sediment samples (two from each section) rich in organic carbon, have been radiocarbon dated.... 2σ ranges of the calibrated (Cal) date to calendar year ages (AD and BC) using INTCAL 09.14c and CALIB 6.01 (Reimer et al., 2009; Stuiver et al., 1998) is given in Table 1 & 2. Palynological and phytolith study was carried out in order...

  17. The Parthenon, Pericles and King Solomon: A case study of Ottoman archaeological imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Fowden, Elizabeth Jane

    2018-01-01

    What makes Athens different from other multi-layered cities absorbed into the Ottoman Empire is the strength of its ancient reputation for learning that echoed across the Arabic and Ottoman worlds. But not only sages were remembered and Islamized in Athens, sometimes political figures were too. In the early eighteenth century a mufti of Athens, Maḥmut Efendi, wrote a rarely studied History of the City of Sages (Tarih-i Medinetü’l-Hukema) in which he transforms Pericles into a wise leader on a...

  18. Analytical study of ancient pottery from the archaeological site of Aiani, northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordanidis, A.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Karamitrou-Mentessidi, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a multi-analytical approach on the characterization of several potsherd samples, dated from prehistoric to hellenistic times, from Aiani, ancient Upper Macedonia, northern Greece. In particular, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray system (ESEM-EDX) were used for the determination of the morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the potsherds. The preliminary results indicated a rather local provenance of the analyzed ancient pottery samples and a finer texture and thus better ceramic manufacture as getting to hellenistic era. The use of a silicious or calcerous raw material is probably related to the specific utilization of each ceramic vessel in ancient times. The presence of gehlenite or pyroxene minerals in the ceramic matrix indicated higher firing temperatures, while lower temperatures were deduced when finding phylosilicate minerals. The preliminary results of this study do not necessarily imply that all the pottery of this area, belonging to the same chronological type, have similar physicochemical characteristics

  19. The use of lidar images in Costa Rica : case studies applied in geology, engineering, and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Paulo; Garro, Jose F.; Soto, Gerardo J.

    2014-01-01

    A historical review is made about evolution of technology Lidar (Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging). The improvements of this technology and additions from other technologies are annotated in the last 15 years. The information of the aerial and terrestrial lidar operation, technical parameters for data acquisition and resolutions are presented. The results from four studies are presented in Costa Rica: 1) The discovery of pre-Columbian trails in the area of Volcan Arenal, 2) A case of geological mapping and discovery of new volcanic structures in the North area of the Volcan Poas, 3) The characterization of a landslide near Palmares that represents a hazard for the road network, 4) A detail survey of a pre-Columbian sphere. The results from new Lidar will become more frequent in the following years because its cost will be more affordable. The transference of data between institutions will generate new applications in different fields. (author) [es

  20. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  1. GPR velocity and frequency analysis in industrial archaeology. Study of the EUETIB buildings (Barcelona, Sapin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gracia, V.; González Drigo, R.; Vendrell, D.

    2003-04-01

    The Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) analysis of some modernist buildings of the Technical Industrial School of Barcelona allow us to obtain valuable information of the underground constructions, corresponding to ancient structures of the preceding factory. The actual school is building on the modernist industrial complex. Many changes in the structure were carried out to adapt the structure to its actual use. The obtained GPR data was compared with the information, documents and photographies from the historical archives of the Diputación of Barcelona (Spain). To obtain accurate results and right interpretations, velocity analysis is performed in the different studied areas. The velocity values are used to convert accurately the two-way travel time into depth. The aim of those velocity estimations is obtain the minimum error in the final interpretations of the profiles. The velocity analysis is carried out using two different methods: calculating velocity using the reflection in anomalous bodies into the medium at a known depth, and calculating velocity from the hyperbolic events of the radargrams, caused by finite anomalies of the medium. The present tubes and conductions which are in use nowadays, have known depths. Then, velocity is obtained from the two-way travel time obtained for the reflected wave in that anomalous body. This method allow us to known velocities in areas where those elements are presented, which are mainly in the ground under the streets of the school. The reflection produced in unknown bodies which have finite dimensions, is obtained as an hyperbolic event. The averaged velocity of the medium over these bodies is calculated from the equation of the hyperbola. This method was used mainly where known elements were not presents in the ground. These areas are mainly the buildings of the school. Experimental velocities are understand as the averaged velocity of ray-path. The obtained values are applied to each area, to calculate depths of the

  2. ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE AND CITY: The Enhancement Project of the Archaeological Park of the Baths of Baiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Capozzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the theoretical and disciplinary framing of the elements that substantiate the relationship of archaeology with architecture and the city in light of the transformations of the modern city, the project aims at valorizing the archaeological asset, promoting a knowledge of the ruins from multiple theoretical perspectives. The enhancement project of the Archaeological Park of Baiae experiments with different modalities of knowing that include the knowledge of the relationship between the ruin and the landscape, the philological, typological-constructive knowledge, and the knowledge of the ruin’s own spatial elements. Bringing together the contributions of different disciplines and experts under the coordination of an architect, the theoretical core of the project promotes the enhancement of the Archaeological Park, envisioning it as a means of valorisation of a wider urban environment.

  3. Representing colour in archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Chiavoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available   The ability to document archaeological artefacts is a key factor in the comprehension and reasoned interpretation of ancient remains. It involves providing good graphic representation of their morphological, material and chromatic features. Drawing is a basic tool in any process focusing on the comprehension and analysis required to transpose material data. Since the supports and techniques used in representation have changed over the centuries, we do not need to go way back in time to understand when different supports and techniques began to be exploited. Representation precedes the classification of archaeological science and accompanies it as it evolved, modifying methods, subject-matter and ideas.

  4. History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after “Historicity”, Hjelm and Thompson argue that a ‘crisis’ broke in the 1970s, when several new studies of biblical history and archaeology were published, questioning the historical-critical method of biblical scholarship. The crisis formed...... articles from some of the field’s best scholars with comprehensive discussion of historical, archaeological, anthropological, cultural and literary approaches to the Hebrew Bible and Palestine’s history. The essays question: “How does biblical history relate to the archaeological history of Israel...

  5. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  6. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the “Villa con ingresso a protiro”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Michela, E-mail: michela.ricca@unical.it [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Belfiore, Cristina Maria [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, University of Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); De Buergo, Monica Alvarez [Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, planta 7, despacho 17.4c/José Antonio Nováis 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Archaeometric investigations of ancient marbles from underwater environment. • Distinguish the different variety of marbles by using minero-petrographic and geochemical-isotopic investigations. • Compare the results with literature data allowing to broaden the existing database. - Abstract: This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  7. Archaeological analogs and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  8. Archaeological predictive model set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is the documentation for Task 7 of the Statewide Archaeological Predictive Model Set. The goal of this project is to : develop a set of statewide predictive models to assist the planning of transportation projects. PennDOT is developing t...

  9. Archaeology: Walney. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael

    This unit, consisting of 12 multi-activity lessons, was designed to accompany a field trip to Walney, a park site near Centreville, Virginia, but may be adapted for independent use. The unit focuses on the task of an archaeologist. Archaeological sites, artifacts, and historical records are examined by students in order to develop an understanding…

  10. Review of Archaeological Methods [Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological Methods has been designed, developed and authored by a team from the Archaeology Division of the School of Forensic and Investigative Sciences at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN in Preston, UK. The resource hosted on the Universities' web site whilst accessible to anyone appears to be designed to primarily support undergraduate students from UCLAN's Archaeology Division. The programme provides a guide to the Archaeological methods commonly applied to the gathering and recording of archaeological data in the field; from site definition through to the recording of finds and features in excavation and associated survey techniques.

  11. The sixth Nordic conference on the application of scientific methods in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Sixth Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods in Archaeology with 73 participants was convened in Esbjerg (Denmark), 19-23 September 1993. Isotope dating of archaeological, paleoecological and geochronological objects, neutron activation and XRF analytical methods, magnetometry, thermoluminescence etc. have been discussed. The program included excursions to archaeological sites and a poster session with 12 posters. (EG)

  12. Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tudhope

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting

  13. Provenance Studies on Metal Artefacts of the Early Danish Bronze Age: Comparing lead isotope data with the archaeological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Heide Wrobel; Vandkilde, Helle; Pernicka, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    As early as 2100 BCE, societies in the hotspot zone of Denmark and Scania began to use metal. However, this region has not exploited metal ores of their own; therefore the origin of the metal used is of key significance to understanding and modelling the cross-European interconnectivities that were...... civilisations with Atlantic communities in Northwest Europe. In regard to the late Neolithic, only the archaeological evidence was used to identify contact networks pointing towards northwest and southeast Europe. However, the data available to define the bigger picture of this cross-European networks...

  14. Roman Military Medicine and Croatian Archaeological Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarik, Marijan; Cesarik, Nikola; Duplančić, Darko; Štrmelj, David

    2016-09-01

    This article offers a general examination of the sources responsible for understanding Roman military medicine, starting with literal and epigraphical sources all the way to archaeological remains consisting of hospitals, the infrastructure of military garrisons and small medical tools. Given that not one of the literary sources does not directly mention the medical personnel within the various military units, epigraphical discoveries widely represent the main source of our knowledge on the subject. On the other hand, the archaeological exploration of military garrisons offers proof of the medical care of Roman soldiers. If at first it appears that Roman military medicine is perfectly obvious and clear, actually this is not the case as many questions remain to be answered and debated. In all this, Croatia has its own archaeological perspective, where notably, one site stands out, which could hold a key role according to the layout of buildings within the garrison including its hospital.

  15. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  16. John Howard Marsden (1803–1891 First Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge 1851–1865

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leach

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there were ten chairs of archaeology at universities in Germany, and one in France, by the mid-nineteenth century, in Great Britain it was the amateur societies and museums (the British Museum in particular that encouraged the study of this subject. In 1851 John Disney established the first university chair in Great Britain at Cambridge University. His proposal was initially received with considerable caution by the governing body of the university, and was only accepted by the narrowest margin of eight votes to seven. His agreement with the University of Cambridge stipulated that six lectures a year should be given on the subject of ‘Classical, Medieval, and other Antiquities, the Fine Arts and all matters and things connected therewith’ (Clark 1904, 222–225. However university archaeology was slow to establish its academic credibility nationally, and it was more than thirty years before Oxford University established its chair of classical archaeology. The Cambridge Board of Anthropological Studies, which included instruction in prehistoric archaeology, was not created until 1915, and as late as 1945 there were still only a few university lecturers in archaeology in Great Britain. It was not until 1946 that Oxford University appointed a Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology (Wilson 2002, 153; Daniel 1976, 6–12; Smith 2004, 4–5, 53–54.

  17. Experimental Study of Removing Surface Corrosion Products from Archaeological Iron Objects and Alternating Iron Corrosion Products by Nd:YAG Laser Cleaning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Youn; Cho, Nam Chul [Kongju National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Myoung [IMT co. Ltd, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Eun [National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The corrosion product of archaeological iron objects is supposed to be removed because it causes re-corrosion. So far it is removed by scapel and sand blaster but they depend on the skill and experience of a conservator and the glass-dust of the sand blaster is harmful to humans. Therefore this study applies a laser cleaning system which is used in various industrial cleaning processes, to remove corrosion product from archaeological iron objects. In addition, this work studies the alternation of corrosion product after laser irradiation, which evaluates the reliability of the laser cleaning system. Optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, XRD, Raman have been used to observe and analyse the surface of the objects. The results show the capacity of laser cleaning some corrosion product, but blackening appears with increasing pulses and laser energy, and some corrosion products, goethite and hematite, are partially altered to magnetite. These problems, blackening and alternation of corrosion product, should be solved by further studies which find the optimal laser irradiation condition and use a wetting agent.

  18. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.

  19. Study and conservation of wood objects saturated of water originating of a pre-Columbian archaeological site: The Gran Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso O, A.; Tzompantzi R, T.; Mendoza A, D.; Morgos, A.; Imazu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have been practiced on deterioration processes suffered by objects made of ancient tropical and coniferous woods. The reason is related to the fact that very few objects made of wood are usually found in archaeological excavations in our country. For this reason, applied studies of archaeological woods are, to us, fundamental to understand the preservation processes which have allowed very few pre-Columbian objects to survive the extreme conditions or submerged in streams and oceans. Some preliminary results were obtained in the studies practiced on the Mexican wooden miniature from the Offering number 102 of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Light and electron microscopy as well as physical tests have proven to be suitable examination techniques to obtain information about the preservation level of wooden structures. The results obtained were important to understand the influence of the context in the preservation of the buried materials, furthermore they have allowed us to evaluate and ascertain new conservation procedures. (Author) 24 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  20. Automatic archaeological feature extraction from satellite VHR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Archaeological applications need a methodological approach on a variable scale able to satisfy the intra-site (excavation) and the inter-site (survey, environmental research). The increased availability of high resolution and micro-scale data has substantially favoured archaeological applications and the consequent use of GIS platforms for reconstruction of archaeological landscapes based on remotely sensed data. Feature extraction of multispectral remotely sensing image is an important task before any further processing. High resolution remote sensing data, especially panchromatic, is an important input for the analysis of various types of image characteristics; it plays an important role in the visual systems for recognition and interpretation of given data. The methods proposed rely on an object-oriented approach based on a theory for the analysis of spatial structures called mathematical morphology. The term "morphology" stems from the fact that it aims at analysing object shapes and forms. It is mathematical in the sense that the analysis is based on the set theory, integral geometry, and lattice algebra. Mathematical morphology has proven to be a powerful image analysis technique; two-dimensional grey tone images are seen as three-dimensional sets by associating each image pixel with an elevation proportional to its intensity level. An object of known shape and size, called the structuring element, is then used to investigate the morphology of the input set. This is achieved by positioning the origin of the structuring element to every possible position of the space and testing, for each position, whether the structuring element either is included or has a nonempty intersection with the studied set. The shape and size of the structuring element must be selected according to the morphology of the searched image structures. Other two feature extraction techniques were used, eCognition and ENVI module SW, in order to compare the results. These techniques were

  1. Publishing Landscape Archaeology in the Digital World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howry Jeffrey C.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of presenting micro- and macro-scale scale data in landscape archaeology studies is facilitated by a diversity of GIS technologies. Specific to scholarly research is the need to selectively share certain types of data with collaborators and academic researchers while also publishing general information in the public domain. This article presents a general model for scholarly online collaboration and teaching while providing examples of the kinds of landscape archaeology that can be published online. Specifically illustrated is WorldMap, an interactive mapping platform based upon open-source software which uses browsers built to open source standards. The various features of this platform allow tight user viewing control, views with URL referencing, commenting and certification of layers, as well as user annotation. Illustration of WorldMap features and its value for scholarly research and teaching is provided in the context of landscape archaeology studies.

  2. Toward a Historical Archaeology of West African Borderlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, this paper seeks to open up a new dialogue on the importance of borderlands studies in historical archaeology and vice versa. It concludes that the historical archaeology of West African borderlands promises to yield new insights into the dynamics of the region's modern history. Keywords: African History; Borderlands ...

  3. Archaeology: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This archaeology resource packet provides information on frequently asked questions of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), including the topics of: (1) career information; (2) excavation; (3) fieldwork opportunities; (4) artifact identification; and (5) preservation. The packet is divided into six sections. Section 1…

  4. Mythology, Archaeology, Architecture. Learning Works Enrichment Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Diane; Wiemann, Mary

    The activities in this book have been selected especially for gifted students in grades 4 through 8. They are designed to challenge and help students develop and apply higher-level thinking skills. The activities have been grouped by subject matter into mythology, archaeology, and architecture. The mythology section includes Chinese, Eskimo,…

  5. Genetics and southern African prehistory: an archaeological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Southern African populations speaking languages that are often - but inaccurately - grouped together under the label 'Khoisan' are an important focus of molecular genetic research, not least in tracking the early stages of human genetic diversification. This paper reviews these studies from an archaeological standpoint, concentrating on modern human origins, the introduction of pastoralism to southern Africa and admixture between the region's indigenous foragers and incoming Bantu-speaking farmers. To minimise confusion and facilitate correlation with anthropological, linguistic and archaeological data it emphasises the need to use ethnolinguistic labels accurately and with due regard for the particular histories of individual groups. It also stresses the geographically and culturally biased nature of the genetic studies undertaken to date, which employ data from only a few 'Khoisan' groups. Specific topics for which the combined deployment of genetic and archaeological methods would be particularly useful include the early history of Ju-Hoan- and Tuu-speaking hunter-gatherers, the expansion of Khoe-speaking populations, the chronology of genetic exchange between hunter-gatherers and farmers, and the origins of the Sotho/Tswana- and Nguni-speaking populations that dominate much of southern Africa today.

  6. Diagnosis of abnormal patterns in multivariate microclimate monitoring: a case study of an open-air archaeological site in Pompeii (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merello, Paloma; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Zarzo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Chemometrics has been applied successfully since the 1990s for the multivariate statistical control of industrial processes. A new area of interest for these tools is the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage. Sensors record climatic parameters over time and statistical data analysis is performed to obtain valuable information for preventive conservation. A case study of an open-air archaeological site is presented here. A set of 26 temperature and relative humidity data-loggers was installed in four rooms of Ariadne's house (Pompeii). If climatic values are recorded versus time at different positions, the resulting data structure is equivalent to records of physical parameters registered at several points of a continuous chemical process. However, there is an important difference in this case: continuous processes are controlled to reach a steady state, whilst open-air sites undergo tremendous fluctuations. Although data from continuous processes are usually column-centred prior to applying principal components analysis, it turned out that another pre-treatment (row-centred data) was more convenient for the interpretation of components and to identify abnormal patterns. The detection of typical trajectories was more straightforward by dividing the whole monitored period into several sub-periods, because the marked climatic fluctuations throughout the year affect the correlation structures. The proposed statistical methodology is of interest for the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage, particularly in the case of open-air or semi-confined archaeological sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. When maize is not the first choice: advances in paleodietary studies in the Archaeological Site Río Doncellas (Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván Violeta A. Killian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present new values of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13Cco and δ13Cap and nitrogen (δ15N measured in a sample of 13 human individuals found in the Río Doncellas Archaeological Site (Late Period or Regional Developments, ca. 1000 AD-1450 AD located in the Puna of Jujuy, Northwest of Argentina. The skeletal series belong to the collection of Museo E. Casanova, FFyL - UBA and the Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, being the result of investigations carried out during the decades of 1940 and 1970, respectively. In addition, in this work we present isotopic compositions of food resources (vegetal and fauna found in the archaeological record as well as gathered in modern farms located in the study area (Abra Pampa, Cochinoca, Jujuy. This information was used for paleodietary inference, allowing us to establish a hierarchy of the resources that were consumed. The results indicate that maize (Zea mays is less important than other vegetal resources in the diet, which contradicts the expectations generated from the macrobotanical evidence of the site and the cultivated terraces that surround it. On the other hand, camelids seemed to be widely exploited, which is coherent with the current importance of meat production within the region. These results allow us to assert that the growth of cereals did not have a progressive relevance over other resources.

  8. Geophysics: creativity and the archaeological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ferraby

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper article explores archaeology as a creative practice by engaging specifically with the processes and visuals of geophysics. An area of archaeology considered highly scientific, a different way of looking reveals geophysics to be a poetic form of landscape study. The processes used to collect, alter, interpret and visualize visualise the data are creative acts that have parallels with more easily recognizable recognisable arts practices such as painting, drawing or photography. The paper article explores the ideas behind ways of seeing, the archaeological imagination, technologies and process. The section that follows explores the different elements of work and the ways of seeing and thinking they inspire. The paper article ends by showcasing how other arts practices can give alternative perspectives on geophysics and how these can in turn influence fine art.

  9. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  10. Drones in Archaeology

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil

    2014-09-01

    In late 2013, a joint archaeological and computer vision project was initiated to digitally capture the archaeological remains in the al-Ula valley, Saudi Arabia. The goal of our team of archeologists and computer scientists is to integrate 3D scanning technologies to produce 3D reconstructions of archaeological sites. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) serve as the vehicle which makes this scanning possible. UAVs allow the acquisition of 3D data as easily from the air as from the ground. This project focuses on the recent excavations carried out in ancient Dedan by King Saud University and the country\\'s conservation of the Lihyanite "lion tombs" carved into the ancient city\\'s cliff faces. Over the next several years this site will be used as a test bed to validate the potential of this emerging technology for rapid cultural heritage documentation. We additionally scanned several areas in Mada\\'in Saleh, an ancient Nabatean city filled with monumental carved sandstone tomb facades, rivaled only by the capital of the Nabatean empire: Petra.

  11. Geoarchaeology: interdisciplinary explanations for the archaeological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Geoarchaeological research carried out in Costa Rica and some Central American countries are described. The link between geology and archaeology is described as an interdisciplinary field of research within the earth sciences, with the purpose of to solve problems referring to the life of the pre-Columbian societies of Central American regions and until of postconquest period. The topics developed in the geoarchaeological works have been on geophysical prospecting in archaeological sites, provenance analysis and characterization of raw materials, analysis of processes and technologies of production, detailed reading of materials under study, among others [es

  12. XRF elemental analysis of Romanian archaeological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therese, L.; Guillot, Ph.; Muja, C.; Zirra, V.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now widely used for the characterization and the provenance analysis of archaeological materials (A. M. Pollard et al., Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology, United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge, 2006). The main properties are: sample preparation, destructive technique or not, time consumption, precision, detection limits and cost. The combination of archaeological and analytical information could provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange for ancient potteries and ceramics, and possible information on the relationship between elemental content and past diet from archaeological bones, for example. In this preliminary work, XGT-1000WR instrument manufactured by Jobin-Yvon Horiba has been used for XRF sample elemental analysis to estimate the potential interest of this instrument in archaeological studies. The analysis technique will be described, advantages and limitations presented. Analysis time influence, repeatability, reproducibility and elemental composition will be presented for bone samples (unburned, burned, powdered burned bones). XRF results have been completed by ICP and SEM measurements. The excavated bones come from a Gentians necropolis, IV th -III rd century BC, situated in Stelnica 'Gradistea Mare', Ialomita County, Romania. The aim is to get paleodiet information and information regarding the (geographical) origin of human population (F. Donald Pate, J. Archaeological Method and Theory, 1 (1994) 161-209). A similar study will be presented for two ancient pottery sherds (IV th -III rd century BC) excavated in 'La Cetate' fortified settlement, Bazdana-Calopar, Dolj County, Romania. Usually the ceramics are made from local clay (standard production, fake copy) and still remains the possibility for the presence of non-local ceramics within the site, with implications

  13. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  14. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    criticism. Generating unique variance in irony detection, ironic praise can be postulated as worthwhile to include in future studies—especially when studying the role of mental ability, personality, and humor in irony detection.

  15. Archaeologies of Hair: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Ashby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This collection of short articles represents an original attempt to bring together scholarship that is usually divided along lines of specialism in time, place, method, or discipline. The shared focus of its contributions is on hair: more than an infrequently preserved element of human remains, but a widespread (and arguably cross-cultural symbol of power, of fertility, of identity and the self. Moreover, its care and treatment using various forms of material culture, and its artistic representation in diverse media, offer a unique opportunity to examine the interface between the body and material culture. Where exceptional taphonomic conditions facilitate the preservation of hair and associated organic material, the result is some of the richest assemblages of human remains and associated material culture in the archaeological record (e.g. Wilson et al. 2007; Fletcher 1998. In contrast, 'everyday' objects associated with haircare are among the most taphonomically robust, frequently encountered and recognisable personal items known to archaeologists (e.g. Stephens 2008; Ashby 2011, and provide us with insight into the making of personal and bodily identities, even in the absence of human remains themselves. When studied in an interdisciplinary framework, the interpretative potential of this material is clear, but such work has been rare. This collection aims to set a new agenda for cross-disciplinary research focused on the nexus of human and artefactual remains, by highlighting the rich and diverse potential of this material when studied through archaeological, biochemical, artistic, historical, sociological and anthropological lenses.

  16. Chemical characterization of archaeological ceramics by neutron activation analysis: A study in the production and distribution of middle horizon pottery from Cuzco, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Eduardo; Mendoza, Pablo; Zapata, Julinho

    2009-01-01

    The k 0 based instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used, as a quantitative characterization tool, to establish the provenience of the Wari pottery found in Middle Horizon archaeological sites at Cuzco, Peru. The results indicate a bidirectional exchange of pottery between Ayacucho and Cuzco along the Middle Horizon Period. Other archaeological inferences from the results of the chemical analysis are discussed. (author).

  17. The potential and limitations of geophysical measurements on archaeological sites partly investigated in the past: case studies from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2015 (2015), s. 212-217 ISSN 0066-5924. [International Conference on Archaeological Prospection /11./. Warszawa , 15.09.2015-19.09.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : geophysical survey * rondel * hillfort * extinct monastery * archaeological prospection Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.G.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Drollinger, H.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously recorded rock ring, 26NY1371, that could not be relocated during subsequent investigations. Surface artifacts were collected from all but two of the sites, 26NY1370 and 26NY1372. The data retrieved from these investigations include over one thousand artifacts, such as projectile points, bifaces, debitage, groundstone, and pottery. The temporally diagnostic materials indicate periodic use of Sample Unit U19arP4 from the Middle Archaic to the Shoshonean period

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Data on the Use of the Internet for Archaeological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available These survey results are from an online survey of 577 UK-based archaeological volunteers, professional archaeologists and archaeological organisations. These data cover a variety of topics related to how and why people access the Internet for information about archaeology, including demographic information, activity relating to accessing information on archaeological topics, archaeological sharing and networking and the use of mobile phone apps and QR codes for public engagement. There is wide scope for further qualitative and quantitative analysis of these data.

  20. The Materials Science and its applications in the Archaeology specific case: Teopancazco, Teotihuacan; La Ciencia de Materiales y su impacto en la Arqueologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez L, V. [Centro Universitario de Vinculacion, BUAP, 29 Oriente 601-1, Col. Ladrillera de Benitez, 72540 Puebla (Mexico); Martinez G, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, BUAP, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Manzanilla N, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The cultural enormity wealth culture that exists in Mexico generates the necessity to reach a bigger interaction from the archaeology and restoration areas to the modern material science, with the purpose to establish new methodologies that allow to restore, conserve and preserve the materials that ancient civilizations used to construct buildings and objects of common use. It is in this sense that has been proposed methodologies for the use of analytical techniques in the study of archaeological materials to understand their nature, microstructural characteristics, deterioration causes, environmental factor influence, etc. We presents as example, a study of several archaeological samples that include mural painting fragments, ceramic with stucco and some pigment belonging to Teopancazco archaeological place located in San Sebastian Xolalpan (Teotihuacan, Mexico State). This study was performed by means of analytical scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy. (Author) 31 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Technical Appendix I: historical, archaeological, and cultural studies. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollom, M. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    As Maine and New Hampshire were settled relatively early in United States history, both greater Portland and the settled interior regions are rich in historic resources. Many archaeologic sites are thought to exist in the fuel wood harvest region, particularly along the inland waterways and ocean shoreline, but only a small percentage have actually been discovered. Development in greater Portland has largely destroyed this region's archaeological potential. Cultural resources are also found in the populated areas. Construction and operation of the proposed wood-fired facility will not have any impact on historic, archaeologic, or cultural resources of the fuelwood harvest region; however, harvesting activities have the potential to destroy archaeologic resources, particularly where truck roads and skidding networks coincide with archaeologic sites.

  2. Micro-SR-XRF and micro-PIXE studies for archaeological gold identification - The case of Carpathian (Transylvanian) gold and of Dacian bracelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Cojocaru, V.; Radtke, M.; Calligaro, T.; Salomon, J.; Pichon, L.; Roehrs, S.; Ceccato, D.; Oberlaender-Tarnoveanu, E.

    2008-01-01

    Trace-elements are more significant for provenancing archaeological metallic artifacts than the main components. For gold, the most promising elements are platinum group elements (PGE), Sn, Te, Sb, Hg and Pb. Several small fragments of natural Transylvanian gold - placer and primary - were studied by using micro-PIXE technique at the Legnaro National Laboratory AN2000 microbeam facility, Italy and at the AGLAE accelerator, C2RMF, Paris, France and by using micro synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (micro-SR-XRF) at BESSY synchrotron, Berlin, Germany. The goal of the study was to identify the trace-elements, especially Sn, Sb and Te. A spectacular application to five Dacian gold bracelets authentication is presented (Sn and Sb traces)

  3. Long term corrosion of iron and non alloy or low alloy steels in clay soils. Physico-chemical characterisation and electrochemical study of archaeological analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Emmanuelle

    2002-01-01

    Archaeological objects of Gallo-Roman and Merovingian time, and from a battlefield of World War 1, were studied to better understand long term corrosion phenomena of iron in clay soils. This study is part of the French national program about nuclear waste deep repository, conducted by the ANDRA (French national Agency for Radioactive Waste Management). Iron archaeological analogues make a valuable contribution to the specifying of containers for long lived and high level wastes (HLWs), because they provide access to the considered time scale. The experimental issue is divided into two major parts: - a physico-chemical characterisation of corrosion products, by Raman spectroscopy; - an electrochemical study of the behaviour of the different corrosion layers. Although the metallic material is different between ancient artefacts (ferrite) and 1914-1918 remains (hypo-eutectoid steels), the same stable phases are identified in their corrosion products: mainly iron oxides and oxi-hydroxides. From a macroscopic point of view, these products are staggered into two layers: an internal one, and an external one, which contains soil markers. Under the microscope, a complex composite structure appears. Goethite a-FeOOH, which was identified on each object, is frequently in contact with the metal core. The average corrosion rate in the burial environment, deduced from the layers thickness, highlights a significant slowdown of corrosion after the first burial time, about one century. The electrochemical study showed the predominant role of transport phenomena in the pores of corrosion layers. The behaviour of the metal - internal layer system is well explained by a model of porous electrode (De Levie theory). Despite its porosity, the internal layer is protective, as it leads to a significant decrease of the corrosion rate (about ten time). (author) [fr

  4. Particle accelerators unravel Art and Archaeology issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Many analytical techniques are applied to get a better insight on art works and archaeological artefacts and to contribute to their conservation and restoration. Because of the precious and sometimes unique character of these items, non-destructive and non-sampling techniques are preferred. From this standpoint, the analysis with ion beams produced by accelerators (IBA), featuring good analytical performance and non-destructiveness, constitutes one of the best choices. Ion beams analysis techniques (IBA) introduced in 1957 have been constantly adapted to address art and archaeology questions; today the performances obtained directly on the object placed in the atmosphere rival with those achieved in vacuum. Since 20 years, AGLAE, the IBA facility of the Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France located in the Louvre museum has contributed to this progress. The cornerstone of this development is a versatile external nuclear microprobe implementing PIXE, PIGE, RBS, NRA and ERDA methods for rapid expertises of art works and more extensive research works in art history, archaeology and conservation science. After an introduction of the physical principles of IBA, a virtual tour of this unique facility will be provided. The benefit of its use will be illustrated through two case studies, the first one dealing with the determination by PIXE of the provenance of painted works of the Spanish master Murillo and the second one with the authentication study using NRA of a mysterious archaeological rock crystal skull.

  5. Brexit, Archaeology and Heritage: Reflections and Agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gardner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This brief reflection considers some of the inter-relationships of, and implications for, archaeology and heritage in the narrow majority ‘Leave’ vote in the 2016 referendum on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, and the subsequent invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty of the European Union by Theresa May’s administration in March 2017. We argue that heritage and archaeology were intimately implicated in the referendum result, and have and continue to play an important role in the rise of what have been termed ‘new nationalisms’ in Europe. We aim here to consider some of the ways in which this might be said to be the case, and to begin to explore what an emerging Brexit, archaeology and heritage research agenda might look like. In doing so, we aim to engage with a broader popular critique against ‘expertise’ and to forge a new role for research in archaeology and heritage studies which embeds itself within the very political context it seeks to study.

  6. The Garbage Project Revisited: From a 20th Century Archaeology of Food Waste to a Contemporary Study of Food Packaging Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Vergne Lehmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1973, Dr. Bill Rathje and his students at the University of Arizona began what was to become a two decade long investigation into American consumer waste habits. An archaeologist by profession, Rathje decided to adapt traditional archaeological methods and apply them to contemporary archaeological situations. This provided a platform for improving the understanding of what was really happening with, amongst other forms of waste, food at the consumer household level. The Garbage Project was able to study consumer behaviours directly from the material realities they left behind rather than from self-conscious self-reports of surveys and interviews. Using the same rationale, this study developed a profile of the packaged and processed food consumption in three regional Victorian municipalities. The main findings identified that consumers were limited to the food retail opportunities closest to their home and that they took greater care to wash out recyclables if they were placed in the recycling bin compared to the same item placed in a kerbside landfill bin. There was also an apparent lack of understanding about appropriate food storage and buying for purpose, especially with regard to the volume of the item they purchased, which appears to result in partially used recyclable containers being put in the kerbside landfill bin. By understanding the nature of the packaging and food that has been thrown away, it is possible to develop a narrative around what people understand about food purchasing practices, longevity, storage and how they use it at home. This in turn can assist community engagement and education around nutrition, meal planning and purchasing as well as community waste education.

  7. Digital Archaeological Heritage: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith May

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 17th EAC Symposium (Europae Archaeologiae Consilium in Brighton was convened under a concept note that recognised that 'Digital technologies are developing at an unprecedented speed. As they do, they are opening up many new possibilities for the conduct and presentation of archaeological research and investigation. The digital realm is one which knows few borders and so the sharing of understanding about these new methods, techniques and possibilities across Europe is extremely valuable'. The Brighton Symposium was held over one-and-a-half days (17-18 March 2016 and consisted of three presentation sessions, followed by discussions that included questions and comments from the floor. The presentations were aimed at one of the three broad themes of the symposium although, in actuality, a number of the presenters raised topics that spanned more than one theme.

  8. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  9. Excimer laser irradiation at 248 nm of wooden archaeological objects and polymeric consolidants used in conservation: a study of cone formation and optimum cleaning parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, R.; Toniutti, L.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.; Avi, D.

    2008-07-01

    Samples of a prehistoric consolidated vegetable basketry, coming from an important pile building in the North-East of Italy (Fiavé Carrera, Trento), had been irradiated with excimer laser pulses to remove the consolidant layer and restore the artifact. Some problems, related to the nature of the consolidant resin, were found in the preliminary laser cleaning process. The two main obstacles were related to the unknown composition of the polymeric resin and to the irregular surface morphology of the archaeological find. We observed that large numbers of laser pulses, for selected laser parameters, strongly modify the resin surface morphology with formation of a large number of cones. After cone formation, the surface was so irregular that it was almost impossible to complete the laser cleaning procedure. To find a solution to the problem, we here try to understand the mechanisms of cone formation in the present polymeric material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to study surface morphology and chemical modification after selected irradiation processes. To understand the influence of laser irradiation on surface modifications and to establish a cleaning procedure for this specific application, investigations have been carried out separately on models of resin consolidants and wood (both dried and buried wood sample). The consolidants were commercial resins, typically used in archaeological conservation (Plexisol and Paraloid), deposited on a silicon substrate. Silicon was used because it is an appropriate substrate in FT-IR analysis. Finally, we chose wood because of its wide use in prehistoric artefact (Viburnum lantana).

  10. Study on 'Tannix' an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ''Tannix'' was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ''Tannix'' was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  11. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  12. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    The development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, favored the application of this technology also in archaeology [1]. Different approaches based on both single and multitemporal data analysis, exploiting the backscattering and the penetration of radar data, have been used for a number of archaeological sites and landscapes [2-5]. Nevertheless, the capability of this technology in archaeological applications has so far not been fully assessed. It lacks a contribution aimed at evaluating the potential of SAR technology for the same study area by using different bands, spatial resolutions and data processing solutions. In the framework of the Chinese-Italian bilateral project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", we addressed some pioneering investigations to assess multi-mode (multi-band, temporal, resolution) satellite SAR data (including X-band TerraSAR, C-band Envisat and L-band ALOS PALSAR) in archaeological prospection of the Silk road [6]. The Silk Road, a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting China to Europe, is the witness of civilization and friendship between the East and West dated back to 2000 years ago, that left us various relics (e.g. lost cities) to be uncovered and investigated.. In particular, the assessment has been performed in the Xinjiang and Gansu section pf the Silk Road focusing on : i) the subsurface penetration capability of SAR data in the arid and semi-arid region ii) and sensitivity of SAR imaging geometry for the detection of relics As regards the point i) , apart from the soil moisture, the penetration is seriously restricted by the soil porosity. For instance, negligible penetration signs were detected in Yumen Frontier Pass either using X- or L-band SAR data due to the occurrence of Yardang landscape. As regards the point ii), the flight path of SAR images in parallel with the

  13. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. An Exercise in Theoretical Archaeology: Do Archaeological Cultures Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Porčić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological culture still persists as a basic analytical and interpretative concept in Serbian archaeology despite criticism. This paper presents a formal view of archaeological cultures and explores the epistemological implications of this formalization. Formal analysis of archaeological culture is achieved through logical and quantitative explication of the traditional definition of archaeological cultures. The main result of the formal analysis is that there are real patterns of formal variability of material culture that may or may not correspond to traditional archaeological cultures. These patterns are real only in the analytical sense – they are real for given input data and scale of analysis. Unlike the traditional approach where this patterns are equated with archaeological cultures which are furthered interpreted in essentialist terms or as quasi- organic entities such as ethnic groups, it is claimed here that discovered patterns are only the starting point – the empirical situation that needs to be accounted for in anthropological an historical terms. This paper shows how patterns that are traditionally identified as archaeological cultures can arise as a consequence of an entire range of processes – different social and historical realities. The main conclusion is that the traditional concept of archaeological culture is not useful neither as analytical or interpretative tools for two reasons: 1 traditional cultures are subjectively defined entities with no theoretical justification for the criteria used in their definition and 2 the empirical pattern cannot be an explanation in itself because it is the thing that needs to be explained. Cultural evolutionary (transmission theory is proposed as a general framework for defining and interpreting patterns of formal variability of material culture in time and space.

  15. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  16. The Effects of Food Processing on the Archaeological Visibility of Maize: An Experimental Study of Carbonization of Lime-treated Maize Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dezendorf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of maize processing on the carbonization and preservation of maize kernels in the archaeological record. The shift to processing maize with lime (known as hominy production in the Eastern Woodlands and nixtamalization in Mesoamerica in ancient times had the effect of making maize more nutritious through increasing the availability of calcium, niacin, dietary fiber, and essential amino acids.  Less understood is how this process of cooking maize in a lime solution affects the archaeological preservation of maize; if there is a clear difference in the archaeological signature of maize remains that are and are not processed this way, then this process may be identifiable in the archaeological record. To this end, an experiment was constructed analyzing the variation in size between dried and alkali processed maize kernels before and after carbonization. Results indicate that alkali processed maize kernels are less likely to fragment during carbonization.

  17. Weapons in the 10–11th century Carpathian Basin. Studies in weapon technology and methodology – rigid bow applications and southern import swords in the archaeological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Bíró

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract of PhD thesis submitted in 2014 to the Archaeology Doctoral Programme, DoctoralSchool of History, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest under the supervision of Tivadar Vida.

  18. Some new thoughts on the discovery of ancient Dwarka: A study based on recent marine archaeological exploration off Dwarka, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Archaeological explorations in and around Dwarka have been carried out since 1963. The underwater exploration in Dwarka waters commenced in 1983 to locate submerged habitation, if any. Offshore explorations during last one and a half decade have...

  19. Watching video games. Playing with Archaeology and Prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García Raso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Video games have become a mass culture phenomenon typical of the West Post-Industrial Society as well as an avant-garde narrative medium. The main focus of this paper is to explore and analyze the public image of Archaeology and Prehistory spread by video games and how we can achieve a virtual faithful image of both. Likewise, we are going to proceed to construct an archaeological outline of video games, understanding them as an element of the Contemporary Material Culture and, therefore, subject to being studied by Archaeology.

  20. V.F. Gening and Russian archaeological sites in the Vyatka river region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarov Leonid D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to V. F. Gening’s contribution to the study of Russian archaeological sites of the Vyatka region. In 1949, he examined the Iskor fortified settlement site – one of the first ancient Russian settlements of the region. Starting 1954, V. F. Gening headed the Udmurt Archaeological Expedition and the Udmurt Detachment of the Lower Kama Expedition, which discovered quite a number of new archaeological sites, including Russian ones. He conducted excavations on the Gon’ba burial ground site in the lower reaches of the Vyatka (1955, where 16-18th-century burials were uncovered, and later (1970-1972 on the Zuyevo-Klyuchevskaya I settlement site with 14-15th-century Russian antiquities. He analyzed ancient Russian materials from surveys on a number of settlement sites in the Middle Vyatka River region and provided a detailed description and typology of ceramics. The researcher attributed the start of the Russian colonization of the Middle Vyatka River region to the late 14th century. In his book on "Archaeological monuments of Udmurtia" (1958, V.F. Gening characterized the monuments uncovered and discoveries made, including those referring to the 15th – 18th centuries.

  1. V. F. Gening and Russian archaeological sites in the Vyatka river region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarov Leonid D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to V. F. Gening’s contribution to the study of Russian archaeological sites of the Vyatka region. In 1949, he examined the Iskor fortified settlement site – one of the first ancient Russian settlements of the region. Starting 1954, V. F. Gening headed the Udmurt Archaeological Expedition and the Udmurt Detachment of the Lower Kama Expedition, which discovered quite a number of new archaeological sites, including Russian ones. He conducted excavations on the Gon’ba burial ground site in the lower reaches of the Vyatka (1955, where 16-18th-century burials were uncovered, and later (1970-1972 on the Zuyevo-Klyuchevskaya I settlement site with 14-15th-century Russian antiquities. He analyzed ancient Russian materials from surveys on a number of settlement sites in the Middle Vyatka River region and provided a detailed description and typology of ceramics. The researcher attributed the start of the Russian colonization of the Middle Vyatka River region to the late 14th century. In his book on "Archaeological monuments of Udmurtia" (1958, V.F. Gening characterized the monuments uncovered and discoveries made, including those referring to the 15th – 18th centuries.

  2. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  3. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon; Neutrons, radiacao e arqueologia: estudo de caso multianalitico de ceramicas da tradicao borda incisa na Amazonia Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  4. Indian Archaeology and Postmodernism: Fashion or Necessity?

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Pratap

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins by considering the origins and trajectory of growth of Indian Archaeology, from an Antiquarian stage, through to its present state, which may best be described, positioned between cultural historical, Positivist and Post-positivist approaches. The school of archaeological thought informed by Positivist Philosophy has been called variously as the New Archaeology, Hypothetico-Deductive Archaeology, and ...

  5. Application of acoustic, magnetic and electromagnetic systems in marine archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.

    The importance of integrated geoscientific studies is reiterated for underwater archaeological exploration. Geophysical systems applied for the detection of artefacts, ancient places and underwater sites/objects are explained and detailed...

  6. 10 years of the Archaeology Museum of Tatarstan Republic of Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Khalikov of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullin Khalim M.,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the 10th anniversary of the Archaeology Museum of Tatarstan Republic of the Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Khalikov, AN RT. The issues of formation archaeological structures in the region, creation of archaeological collections, formation and development of the Museum are considered. The activities of Archaeology Museum are characterized, including the “acquisition, classification and inventory verification of archaeological collections”, “acquisition, cataloging and ordering of Science Fund’s materials”, “office processing of the archaeological field data”, “inclusion of collections of the Institute of Archaeology AN RT in the Museum Fund of the Russian Federation”. The main archaeological collections and research funds are taken into consideration, as well as the main results of the research unit, including the participation in exhibitions of such museums as the Museum of Islamic Culture, the Museum of History of the State, Museum- Reserve “Kazan Kremlin”, National Cultural Center “Kazan”, Bulgarian State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve, the State Historical and Architectural Museum “The Island of Sviyazhsk”, “Laishevo Land Museum”.

  7. EDITORIAL: Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, N.; Soldovieri, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two decades, the use of non-invasive methods for the study and conservation of cultural heritage, from artefacts and historical sites to recent architectural structures, has gained increasing interest. This is due to several reasons: (i) the improvement of performance and information resolution of sensors and devices; (ii) the increasing availability of user-friendly data/image analysis, and processing software and routines; (iii) the ever greater awareness of archaeologists and conservators of the benefits of these technologies, in terms of reduction of costs, time and the risk associated with direct and destructive investigations of archaeological sites (excavation) and monuments (i.e. masonry coring). The choice of diagnostic strategy depends on the spatial and physical characteristics of the cultural objects or sites, the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment, etc). This makes the set up and validation of ad hoc procedures based on data processing and post-processing methods necessary, generally developed to address issues in other fields of application. This methodological perspective based on an integrated and multi-scale approach characterizes the papers of this special issue, which is focused on integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage. In particular, attention is given to the advanced application of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the satellite-based platform for deformation monitoring thanks to the innovative differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique; Zeni et al show the significant possibilities of the proposed methodology in achieving a global vision not only of cultural heritage but also of the embedding territory. This collection also deals with the application of non-invasive diagnostics to archaeological prospecting, and

  8. Biological/paleoecological analysis for modern archaeological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of biological/geological methods besides geophysical/chemical ones for a multidisciplinary archaeological research is underlined. This is a necessity for a deeper knowledge of prehistoric society, settlement environment and the human landscape development. Dating methods are discussed and archaeological/paleoecological settlement studies are illustrated by a generalized case study. A proposed organization in Sweden of the research cooperation between archaeologists and natural science specialists is also discussed. (author)

  9. Auditory Ossicles in Archaeological Skeletal Material from Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, M; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    Auditory ossicles were collected from two skeletal materials from early medieval Denmark. A total of 147 and 1,162 ossicles were obtained from the 2 materials, constituting 23% and 55% of the possible in vivo ossicles. The numbers and percentages found are among the highest reported from studies ...... of archaeological skeletal material. Archaeological ossicles may be used in palaeopathological evaluation of chronic otitis media and otosclerosis, and morphometric studies of the ossicles might be valuable in analysis of population genetics and taxonomy....

  10. Architecture and Landscape. Approaches from archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Blanco-Rotea

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a theoretical and conceptual basis for the study of the fortified landscapes of the Galician- Portuguese border in the Modern Age. From this theoretical framework there was designed a research program that studies these landscapes. It proposes an approach to the study of this type of archaeological record from the Landscape Archeology and the Archeology of Architecture, introducing the concepts of built space and Archeology of Built Space.

  11. ROV advanced magnetic survey for revealing archaeological targets and estimating medium magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic survey is one of most applied geophysical method for searching and localization of any objects with contrast magnetic properties (for instance, in Israel detailed magneric survey has been succesfully applied at more than 60 archaeological sites (Eppelbaum, 2010, 2011; Eppelbaum et al., 2011, 2010)). However, land magnetic survey at comparatively large archaeological sites (with observation grids 0.5 x 0.5 or 1 x 1 m) may occupy 5-10 days. At the same time the new Remote Operation Vehicle (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles - can fly at levels of few (and even one) meters over the earth's surface (flowing the relief forms or straight). Such ROV with precise magnetic field measurements (with a frequency of 20-25 observations per second) may be performed during 10-30 minutes, moreover at different levels over the earth's surface. Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost. Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide new unique geophysical-archaeological information (Eppelbaum, 2005; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). The developed interpretation methodology for magnetic anomalies advanced analysis (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum et al., 2001; Eppelbaum et al., 2011) may be successfully applied for ROV magnetic survey for delineation of archaeological objects and estimation averaged magnetization of geological medium. This methodology includes: (1) non-conventional procedure for elimination of secondary effect of magnetic temporary variations, (2) calculation of rugged relief influence by the use of a correlation method, (3) estimation of medium magnetization, (4) application of various informational and wavelet algorithms for revealing low anomalous effects against the strong noise background, (5) advanced procedures for magnetic anomalies quantitative analysis (they are applicable in conditions of rugged relief, inclined magnetization, and an unknown level of the total

  12. Diversity of management strategies in Mesoamerican turkeys: archaeological, isotopic and genetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, Aurelie; Corona-M, Eduardo; Alexander, Michelle; Craig, Abigail; Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Yang, Dongya Y; Richards, Michael; Speller, Camilla F

    2018-01-01

    The turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo ) represents one of the few domestic animals of the New World. While current research points to distinct domestication centres in the Southwest USA and Mesoamerica, several questions regarding the number of progenitor populations, and the timing and intensity of turkey husbandry remain unanswered. This study applied ancient mitochondrial DNA and stable isotope ( δ 13 C, δ 15 N) analysis to 55 archaeological turkey remains from Mexico to investigate pre-contact turkey exploitation in Mesoamerica. Three different (sub)species of turkeys were identified in the archaeological record ( M. g. mexicana , M. g. gallopavo and M. ocellata ), indicating the exploitation of diverse local populations, as well as the trade of captively reared birds into the Maya area. No evidence of shared maternal haplotypes was observed between Mesoamerica and the Southwest USA, in contrast with archaeological evidence for trade of other domestic products. Isotopic analysis indicates a range of feeding behaviours in ancient Mesoamerican turkeys, including wild foraging, human provisioning and mixed feeding ecologies. This variability in turkey diet decreases through time, with archaeological, genetic and isotopic evidence all pointing to the intensification of domestic turkey management and husbandry, culminating in the Postclassic period.

  13. Diversity of management strategies in Mesoamerican turkeys: archaeological, isotopic and genetic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, Aurelie; Corona-M, Eduardo; Craig, Abigail; Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Yang, Dongya Y.; Richards, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) represents one of the few domestic animals of the New World. While current research points to distinct domestication centres in the Southwest USA and Mesoamerica, several questions regarding the number of progenitor populations, and the timing and intensity of turkey husbandry remain unanswered. This study applied ancient mitochondrial DNA and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analysis to 55 archaeological turkey remains from Mexico to investigate pre-contact turkey exploitation in Mesoamerica. Three different (sub)species of turkeys were identified in the archaeological record (M. g. mexicana, M. g. gallopavo and M. ocellata), indicating the exploitation of diverse local populations, as well as the trade of captively reared birds into the Maya area. No evidence of shared maternal haplotypes was observed between Mesoamerica and the Southwest USA, in contrast with archaeological evidence for trade of other domestic products. Isotopic analysis indicates a range of feeding behaviours in ancient Mesoamerican turkeys, including wild foraging, human provisioning and mixed feeding ecologies. This variability in turkey diet decreases through time, with archaeological, genetic and isotopic evidence all pointing to the intensification of domestic turkey management and husbandry, culminating in the Postclassic period. PMID:29410864

  14. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    has undertaken the exploration and excavation of submerged ports and shipwrecks in Indian waters. The paper highlight the objectives, methodology, tools, findings and the progress made in India in the field of marine archaeology during the 50 years...

  15. Archaeology: formulation of a Roman cosmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evershed, R P; Berstan, R; Grew, F; Copley, M S; Charmant, A J H; Barham, E; Mottram, H R; Brown, G

    2004-11-04

    The discovery of a small tin canister in London during archaeological excavations of a Roman temple precinct, dated to the middle of the second century AD, is a landmark in the study of this class of artefact. Such discoveries from the Roman world are rare and this is the only one to be found so far with its lid and contents--a whitish medicinal or cosmetic cream--providing a unique opportunity for us to study the ancient formulation.

  16. Comino : historical and archaeological observations

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Archaeological finds from Comino may not be as numerous and extensive as other discoveries made in other parts of the Maltese islands, but are still of valid importance in the reconstruction of past land use and settlement patterns. The aim of this paper is to furnish the reader with a comprehensive account of documented archaeological findings. It also attempts to investigate the land use and hydrological potential of the island in the medieval and early modern pe...

  17. "If We Just Knew Who Should Do It", or the Social Organization of the Archiving of Archaeology in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvila, Isto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper analyses the work practices and perspectives of professionals working with archaeological archives and the social organization of archaeological archiving and information management in Sweden. Method: The paper is based on an interview study of Swedish actors in the field of archaeological archiving (N = 16). Analysis: The…

  18. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  19. An application of luminiscence dating to building archaeology: The study of ceramic building materials in early medieval churches in north-western France and south-eastern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blain, Sophie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this thesis concerns the re-evaluation of an archaeological assumption surrounding the origin of Ceramic Building Materials (CBM used from the 9th to the 11th century in religious buildings of north-western France and south-eastern England. Are the bricks used in the masonry structures Roman spolia or a novo productions? Amongst the dating methods that can contribute to building archaeology, it is the technique of stimulated luminescence applied to CBM that is the focus of this study. Results from thermoluminescence (TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating performed on 52 CBM samples from 11 churches showed that the practice of reusing Roman brick was commonplace in small parish churches, but also that brick-making was not a totally unknown skill of the early medieval craftsmen as it has long been supposed. Most importantly, by identifying that the building material is contemporary to the church, a defined chronology emerges resulting in a new and extremely useful reference point in the history of early medieval architecture.La investigación presentada en esta tesis se ocupa de la reevaluación de un supuesto arqueológico entorno al origen del material cerámico constructivo (CBM empleado entre los siglos IX y XI en los edificios religiosos del Noroeste de Francia y el Sudeste de Inglaterra. ¿Son los ladrillos empleados en las estructuras de fábrica spolia romana o producciones a novo? Entre los métodos de datación que pueden contribuir a la arqueología del edificio, la técnica de luminiscencia estimulada aplicada al CBM es el centro de este estudio. Los resultados de la termoluminiscencia (TL y de la luminiscencia estimulada ópticamente (OSL, aplicadas en 52 muestras de CBM tomadas en 11 iglesias, evidencian que la práctica de reutilizar ladrillos romanos era común en pequeñas iglesias parroquiales, pero que también la técnica de elaboración de ladrillos no era totalmente desconocida para los

  20. Application of optical techniques in documentation and identification of archaeological rests: the case study of the Roman bronze rest found in Lucentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, L.; Diaz, F.; Dominguez, R.; Hervás, J.; Simón, S.; Pérez, E.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper it will be presented a case study of the optical technologies applicated to archaeology. This case study is centered in the main actions executed on an extraordinary rest appeared in the excavations of the Roman forum of Lucentum (Alicante, Spain) in 2005. This rest is a fragment of a bronze sculpture, and is catalogued as a Unicum (that is, a sample that presents some singular elements with no comparison with other samples, in this case of the Roman Art). That sample represents the only part that is conserved so far of that statue. This paper will explain briefly the main 3D digitizing systems and, after that, will focus in the process of identification and documentation of the rest. In particular, it will be widely described the 3D digitizing process of the rest and the post-processing of the information obtained on it, showing the main steps of the work and the results obtained, used subsequently in other processes.

  1. Archaeological data reveal slow rates of evolution during plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Michael D; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2011-01-01

    Domestication is an evolutionary process of species divergence in which morphological and physiological changes result from the cultivation/tending of plant or animal species by a mutualistic partner, most prominently humans. Darwin used domestication as an analogy to evolution by natural selection although there is strong debate on whether this process of species evolution by human association is an appropriate model for evolutionary study. There is a presumption that selection under domestication is strong and most models assume rapid evolution of cultivated species. Using archaeological data for 11 species from 60 archaeological sites, we measure rates of evolution in two plant domestication traits--nonshattering and grain/seed size increase. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find the rates of phenotypic evolution during domestication are slow, and significantly lower or comparable to those observed among wild species subjected to natural selection. Our study indicates that the magnitudes of the rates of evolution during the domestication process, including the strength of selection, may be similar to those measured for wild species. This suggests that domestication may be driven by unconscious selection pressures similar to that observed for natural selection, and the study of the domestication process may indeed prove to be a valid model for the study of evolutionary change. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. GPR Diagnostics of columns in archaeological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola; Persico, Raffaele; Catapano, Ilaria

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade the use of Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) applied to cultural heritage has been strongly increasing thanks to both technological development of sensors and softwares for data processing and cultural reasons such as the increasing awareness of conservators and archaeologist of the benefits of this method in terms of reduction of costs and time and risk associated with restoration works. This made GPR a mature technique for investigating different types of works of art and building elements of historical interest, including masonry structures, frescoes, mosaics [1-3], in the context of scientific projects, decision support activities aimed at the diagnosis of decay pathologies, and educational activities. One of the most complex building elements to be investigated by GPR are the columns both for the geometry of the object and for the several expected features to be detected including fractures, dishomogeneities and metallic connection elements. The work deals with the Ground Penetrating Radar diagnostic surveys at the prestigious archaeological site of Pompei. In particular, GPR surveys were carried out in two different areas, Palestra Grande and Tempio di Giove. The first campaign was carried out also as educational activity of the "International School "GEOPHYSICS AND REMOTE SENSING FOR ARCHAEOLOGY". The School aimed at giving the opportunity to scholars, PhD students, researchers and specialists in Geophysics, Remote Sensing and Archaeology to deepen their knowledge and expertise with geophysical and remote sensing techniques for archaeology and cultural heritage documentation and management. This survey was carried on two kinds of columns, with circular and rectangular section in order to detect possible hidden defects affecting their integrity. The second survey was carried out at Tempio di Giove, on request of the Soprintendenza Pompei, in order to gain information about the presence of reinforcement structures, which may be put inside the

  3. An Archaeology of the Troubles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    Long Kesh / Maze prison was infamous as the major holding centre for paramilitary prisoners during the course of the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Some of the major events of the recent conflict centred on, emanated from, and were transformed by it, including the burning of the internment camp in...... society. Using a multitude of sources, McAtackney creatively provides a unique interpretation of the Northern Irish Troubles and the continuing destabilizing role of material remnants of the conflict in the peace process.......Long Kesh / Maze prison was infamous as the major holding centre for paramilitary prisoners during the course of the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Some of the major events of the recent conflict centred on, emanated from, and were transformed by it, including the burning of the internment camp...... contentious remnants of the conflict and has become central to debates about what we do with such sites, what they mean, and how they relate to contemporary rememberings of the difficult recent past. The only independent archaeological investigation of Long Kesh / Maze prior to its partial demolition...

  4. The displacement of archaeological structures in Spain. Relocate to preserve, preserve to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel López-Menchero Bendicho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearly it is not always feasible to conserve and exhibit the archaeological remains in situ, either for lack of funds in some cases, or for manifest incompatibility with the new land uses in others. This second case mix, ie the need to "free" land for new uses, sentences, in most cases, the archaeological remains to suffer a partial destruction since only movable materials are extracted, preserved and in some cases presented to the public, while the unmovable archaeological heritage, ie fixed archaeological structures, is destroyed, once it has been "properly" documented. However, in this field there is a kind of third way in which archaeological remains, including structures, are preserved and on display, while clearing the ground originally occupied. It is the displacement of archaeological structures. This article discusses the long history of such interventions in the Spanish case, making a typological classification proposal and finally a critical appraisal.

  5. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  6. Archaeology, Politics, Entertainment and Dialogue: Polish (Digital Public Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Piślewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article addresses notions of communication of archaeology and communication between archaeology and society in Poland—past and present. The examination of these two issues begins with a presentation of their historical background, rooted in a political, economic and sociological context. Through reaching back to the past of the Polish state some trends in presenting archaeology to the public can be easily traced. Particular ways of communicating archaeology to the general public are deeply connected with tradition and the wider social and political context, all of which have an undoubtful impact on the reception and perception of archaeology—as a science and as a profession. New technologies, through which communication between archaeologists and society takes place, are definitely used in Poland nowadays, however, the ways in which information is constructed should refer to the existing experience. What should be found is some common ground on which new technologies and traditional ideas of presentation of archaeology could work together and create the most efficient presentation.

  7. ArchaeoGRID, the Archaeology on the e-Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelfer, G.; Cechini, R.; Pelfer, P. G.; Politi, A.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that in archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualization. The approach of modern archaeology to the study of the evolution of ancient human societies is based on the acquisition and analysis of many types of data. The amount of information coming from the archaeology and the other connected sciences and human ties that need to be stored and made available for analysis are increasing at a very large extent. Such data must, however, be analyzed if they are to become valuable information and knowledge. The data analysis use advanced methods developed in mathematics, informatics, physics, geology, biology, ecology, anthropology and in other natural and human sciences. The inevitable result of this is an exponential increase of the amount and complexity of information that must be acquired, transferred, stored, processed and analyzed. From another, side natural disasters, wars and terrorism created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively all information about ancient civilizations. It is urgent a long term project for acquiring, storing and preserving at least the archaeological information. The paper presents the EGEE- II ArchaeoGRID project that, using GRID technologies developed at CERN and in other laboratories, is developing a grid able to fit the very challenging requests of contemporary archaeology. (Author)

  8. ArchaeoGRID, the Archaeology on the e-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelfer, G.; Cechini, R.; Pelfer, P. G.; Politi, A.

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that in archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualization. The approach of modern archaeology to the study of the evolution of ancient human societies is based on the acquisition and analysis of many types of data. The amount of information coming from the archaeology and the other connected sciences and human ties that need to be stored and made available for analysis are increasing at a very large extent. Such data must, however, be analyzed if they are to become valuable information and knowledge. The data analysis use advanced methods developed in mathematics, informatics, physics, geology, biology, ecology, anthropology and in other natural and human sciences. The inevitable result of this is an exponential increase of the amount and complexity of information that must be acquired, transferred, stored, processed and analyzed. From another, side natural disasters, wars and terrorism created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively all information about ancient civilizations. It is urgent a long term project for acquiring, storing and preserving at least the archaeological information. The paper presents the EGEE- II ArchaeoGRID project that, using GRID technologies developed at CERN and in other laboratories, is developing a grid able to fit the very challenging requests of contemporary archaeology. (Author)

  9. “Ritual” and “Structured” discard in archaeological interpretations: Case study of water supply system at the site “Kale” in Krševica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vranić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues of cult, ritual, religion, and magic are important though to a large extent neglected and theoretically insufficiently developed subjects in the current archaeological literature. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate, on particular examples of potentially ritual activities associated to the erection and subsequent “ritual killing” of the water supply system at the site “Kale” in the village Krševica, that this neglect is not merely the consequence of trends in choices of research topics, but that it further points to certain disadvantages of current approaches based upon the archaeology of identity and the concepts of structured or symbolic deposition.

  10. Archaeological Monuments of the Siberian Khanates: Search of the Markers of the Statehood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Tataurov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives: To identify several sets of archaeological materials, which allow to unite all the Turkic-Tatar population of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia not only on the basis of socio-economic relations, but also on the principles of the existence of state entities. Research materials: Archaeological material (ceramics, weapons and funeral rite of warriors, ring-seals and attributes of supreme authority – helmets and tamgas. Results and novelty of the research: At present, the Turkic-Tatar state formations remain one of the most poorly studied issues in the medieval history of Western Siberia. An unformed base of archaeological sources could be added to a small amount of written documents. As a result, academic community is not able to make a full description of specific khanates – of their boundaries, administrative division and management, the level of development of state institutions, etc. Moreover, we do not have a chronological scale of cultural layers of any archaeological complex of this time including the capitals of khanates – Chimgi-Tura and Isker. Ordinary settlements and cemeteries remain with indefinite characteristics (cultural phenomena, which could allow to combine all these complexes into one whole, to become markers of the Siberian statehood. The author proposes to identify several sets of archaeological materials, which allow to unite all the Turkic-Tatar population of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia not only on the basis of socio-economic relations, but also on the principles of the existence of state entities. The author presents as these features ceramics, weapons and funeral rite of warriors, ring-seals and attributes of supreme authority – helmets and tamgas. It is possible that in the course of research this range of sources can be increased. Therefore, this work serves as an impulse for the development of scientific research in this direction.

  11. Archaeological applications of naturally occurring nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, Neil [English Heritage, Fort Cumberland, Fort Cumberland Road, Eastney, Portsmouth PO4 9LD (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within the soils and sediments forming archaeological sites can often provide a valuable record of past human activity. These records are formed through the alteration of weakly magnetic minerals to fine grained iron oxides, such as magnetite or maghaemite, that leave an almost indelible magnetic 'finger print' on the landscape. Archaeologists have exploited these magnetic records at a variety of levels from geophysical survey to reveal the location of a site, to determining how old a particular excavated feature may be through archaeomagnetic dating. More recent studies have investigated the process of magnetic enhancement through the often complex interaction of pedogenic, microbial and anthropogenic mechanisms and pathways. This research has revealed many unique magnetic signatures within archaeological sediments that may help to identify a range of significant environmental conditions, such as the effects of climate change or the deliberate use of fire. This paper aims to provide an overview of how the techniques of environmental magnetism may be applied to the analysis of archaeological remains. Both field based geophysical prospecting and the measurement of magnetic properties from samples recovered during excavation will be considered. The interpretation of the resulting magnetic measurements will also be addressed through the use of an unmixing algorithm applied to hysteresis data.

  12. Archaeological Excavations on the BTC Pipeline, Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Michael Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology and history of the Republic of Azerbaijan is not widely known in comparison with that of its neighbours. A recent summary of work in the Caucasus (Smith and Rubinson 2003 contained no specific references to results from Azerbaijan, although the studies were directly comparable and overlapped in period and geography. The reasons for this are many, perhaps the most influential is the presentation of material from Azerbaijan being confused with southern Azerbaijan in Iran in the wider academic audience and the use of the Cyrillic alphabet for reports written in the Azeri language over the past century. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC and South Caucasus Pipelines (SCP were constructed through Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey during the period 2003-5. BTC was built first from the Caspian Coast to the Georgian border during 2003 and 2004, while the SCP pipeline was built from the Georgian border towards the Caspian and parallel to the BTC in 2005. To investigate and mitigate the effects of this construction, a four year archaeological fieldwork programme (2001-2005 was carried out, followed by a further six-year post-excavation programme that ended in early 2011. This article draws on this extensive archaeological project that combines both the broad corpus of material known in Azerbaijan and new techniques introduced in the Republic for the first time and used on a range of sites that are of both national and international significance.

  13. Introduction: Critical Blogging in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Morgan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Internet Archaeology collects the leading voices of blogging in archaeology to provide a critical examination of informal, online self-publication. This collection of articles is one result of over a decade of digital communication; the confluence of a conversation that grew from a few lonely voices to a tumultuous cacophony. Even so, blogging has had very little scrutiny in wider archaeological publication (but see Caraher 2008; Kansa and Deblauwe 2011. The first movement toward this volume was the Blogging Archaeology session at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology meetings, accompanied by a "Blog Carnival," a groundbreaking effort to foment reflexive discussion prior to the conference. Several participants of this original session and blog carnival have contributed to this volume; these articles are intermingled with perspectives from contributors who have started blogging in the intervening time, and with peer review comments from archaeologists who have blogged for a long time, and from those who do not blog at all.

  14. Archaeology, museums and virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Pujol

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the idea that the virtual archaeological reconstructions seen in museums cannot be considered Virtual Reality (VR as they are based on an artistic conception of the discipline. The cause is to be found in the origins of Archaeology, which began in the 18th century and was closely linked to the History of Art. In the era of New Technologies, this concept has become both the cause and the consequence: determining the characteristics of VR from within the discipline, whilst simultaneously reinforcing the virtual reconstructions.To assess the relationship between VR and Archaeology, we must first establish a definition of Virtual Reality. Subsequently, we can take a brief look at the history so as to be able to understand the evolution of Archaeology and museums. This leads us to the analysis of some examples of VR in museums, from which we can gain conclusions on the current use of VR. Finally, we look at the possibilities for VR in terms of publicising Archaeology.

  15. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  16. Combining different Technologies in a Funerary Archaeology content and language integrated Learning (CLIL) Course

    OpenAIRE

    Cignoni, Laura; Fornaciari, Gino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a project in which Italian undergraduate students at the Palaeopathology Division of Pisa University will attend a two-year Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) course combining the study of funerary archaeology with English as vehicular language. At the presence of a subject and language teacher working together, the trainees will use different types of technology including devices such as electronic blackboards and Word applications with user-...

  17. Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation Grant Titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Nancy Brossard

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to…

  18. Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Nancy Brossard

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to understandings of learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems, by drawing upon experiences derived from three disparate contexts: 1) The Navajo Nation Museum in Window Rock, Arizona; 2) The A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center on the Zuni Reservation in Zuni, New Mexico; and 3) Science learning camps at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center for Native youth of southern New England. While informal science education is increasingly moving toward decolonizing and cross-cutting institutional boundaries of learning through critical thinking and real-world applications, the construction of "science" (even within diverse contexts) continues to be framed within a homogenous, predominantly Euro-American perspective. This study analyzes the language of Western science employed in these partnerships, with particular attention to the use of Western/Native binaries that shape perceptions of Native peoples and communities, real or imagined. Connections are drawn to broader nation-state interests in education, science, and the global economy. The role of educational evaluation in these case studies is also critically analyzed, by questioning the ways in which it is constructed, conducted, and evaluated for the purposes of informing future projects and subsequent funding. This study unpacks problems of the dominant language of "expert" knowledge embedded in Western science discourse, and highlights the possibilities of indigenous knowledge systems that can inform Western science frameworks of education and evaluation. Ultimately, this study suggests that research

  19. Computer vision and machine learning for archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Boon, P.; Lange, G.; Paijmans, J.J.; Postma, E.

    2006-01-01

    Until now, computer vision and machine learning techniques barely contributed to the archaeological domain. The use of these techniques can support archaeologists in their assessment and classification of archaeological finds. The paper illustrates the use of computer vision techniques for

  20. Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority......Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority...

  1. Historical Archaeology--Introducing a New Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The potential value of historical archaeology for reconstructing the social history of the United States is outlined and the usefulness and practicality of archaeology as a teaching method is stressed. (JB)

  2. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  3. Maritime archaeology of Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

    route from Europe to Asia before the opening of the Suez Canal In order to delineate the earliest human habitation and maritime contacts of Lakshadweep Islands, archaeological explorations was carried on by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI...

  4. Current and potential roles of archaeology in the development of cultural evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Raven

    2018-04-05

    Archaeology has much to contribute to the study of cultural evolution. Empirical data at archaeological timescales are uniquely well suited to tracking rates of cultural change, detecting phylogenetic signals among groups of artefacts, and recognizing long-run effects of distinct cultural transmission mechanisms. Nonetheless, these are still relatively infrequent subjects of archaeological analysis and archaeology's potential to help advance our understanding of cultural evolution has thus far been largely unrealized. Cultural evolutionary models developed in other fields have been used to interpret patterns identified in archaeological records, which in turn provides independent tests of these models' predictions, as demonstrated here through a study of late Prehistoric stone projectile points from the US Southwest. These tests may not be straightforward, though, because archaeological data are complex, often representing events aggregated over many years (or centuries or millennia), while processes thought to drive cultural evolution (e.g. biased learning) operate on much shorter timescales. To fulfil archaeology's potential, we should continue to develop models specifically tailored to archaeological circumstances, and explore ways to incorporate the rich contextual data produced by archaeological research.This article is part of the theme issue 'Bridging cultural gaps: interdisciplinary studies in human cultural evolution'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Use of Bacteria To Stabilize Archaeological Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comensoli, Lucrezia; Maillard, Julien; Albini, Monica; Sandoz, Frederic; Junier, Pilar; Joseph, Edith

    2017-05-01

    Iron artifacts are common among the findings of archaeological excavations. The corrosion layer formed on these objects requires stabilization after their recovery, without which the destruction of the item due to physicochemical damage is likely. Current technologies for stabilizing the corrosion layer are lengthy and generate hazardous waste products. Therefore, there is a pressing need for an alternative method for stabilizing the corrosion layer on iron objects. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative conservation-restoration method using bacteria. For this, anaerobic iron reduction leading to the formation of stable iron minerals in the presence of chlorine was investigated for two strains of Desulfitobacterium hafniense (strains TCE1 and LBE). Iron reduction was observed for soluble Fe(III) phases as well as for akaganeite, the most troublesome iron compound in the corrosion layer of archaeological iron objects. In terms of biogenic mineral production, differential efficiencies were observed in assays performed on corroded iron coupons. Strain TCE1 produced a homogeneous layer of vivianite covering 80% of the corroded surface, while on the coupons treated with strain LBE, only 10% of the surface was covered by the same mineral. Finally, an attempt to reduce iron on archaeological objects was performed with strain TCE1, which led to the formation of both biogenic vivianite and magnetite on the surface of the artifacts. These results demonstrate the potential of this biological treatment for stabilizing archaeological iron as a promising alternative to traditional conservation-restoration methods. IMPORTANCE Since the Iron Age, iron has been a fundamental material for the building of objects used in everyday life. However, due to its reactivity, iron can be easily corroded, and the physical stability of the object built is at risk. This is particularly true for archaeological objects on which a potentially unstable corrosion layer is formed during

  6. Introducing the Centre for Applied Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Perring, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    The Centre for Applied Archaeology (CAA) is a new research centre within the Institute of Archaeology, established in 2006 to develop the work of the Institute’s Field Archaeology Unit, Archaeology South-East (ASE), through the creation of a productive research environment and the building of links with academic staff members of the Institute. In this article the Director of CAA defines “applied archaeology” and describes the aims and work of the Centre.

  7. A hierarchy of photogrammetric records for archaeology and architectural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. A. R.; Robson, S.

    Traditionally, photogrammetry for archaeology has produced 2D elevations and plans. Whilst these constitute a useful record they have limited application and cannot be interrogated further if the information desired is not directly represented. These limitations mean that the information is related to matters of present importance but is inadequate for answering questions which may be raised later and by other researchers. However, the increasing power and diminishing cost of computer-graphics workstations mean that archaeological groups are becoming more able to afford systems capable of full 3D visualisation and manipulation. This paper derives from an archaeological survey of the Tomb of Christ in Jerusalem which was carried out between 1989 and 1993. The survey was instigated with the aim of achieving several archaeological requirements including an accurate stone-by-stone record before reconstruction or restoration and a data structure which would allow the combination adn linking of a variety of data types including archaeological field notes, photogrammetric data and historical maps, plans and drawings. This paper discusses the content of such records and classifies them according to a hierarchy related to levels of objectivity.

  8. Preliminary Results of the Archaeological Reconnaissance carried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archaeological reconnaissance sponsored by the Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) was conducted under the direction of the ... The objective of the archaeological ground reconnaissance was to assess the archaeological and tourism potential of the same place and to prepare the ...

  9. Prehistoric archaeology in Central Europe: beyond diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosna, D.; Kolář, Jan; Květina, Petr; Trampota, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 123-130 ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : archaeological theory * artefact * communication * environment * history of archaeology * reflexivity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  11. Sifting through the Sands of Time: A Simulated Archaeological Special Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightshoe, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simulated archaeological dig designed for Iowa elementary and middle school students that provided students with experiential learning focusing on the basic tenets of archaeology. Includes instructions on preparing for the dig, organizing materials, excavating the simulated site, analyzing artifacts, and engendering community support.…

  12. Archaeological material for the study of crop evolution Material arqueológico para o estudo de evolução de plantas cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Oliveira Freitas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies archaeological samples of maize (Zea mays mays and cassava (Manihot esculenta, from Januaria, MG, Brazil, for samples between 1010 (for the oldest sample and 570 years (for the most recent as estimated through radiocarbon dating. Maize cobs were morphologically analysed by using length, basal and apical diameters, largest diameter, number of rows, number of grains per row, and number of grains per row per length parameters. The maize cob length presented increases through time, allowing an increase on the number of seed per cob, but the size of seeds did not vary significantly. Starch present in the reserve organs of the maize and cassava were analysed morphologically through Scanning Electron Microscopy, and compared to indigenous and modern samples, aiming to estimate the diversity of the material and, for the cassava, to assure that samples were truely Manihot sp. The starch of the maize and cassava reserve organs was in excellent state of conservation and the morphology of the starch grains allowed the separation of maize varieties. More than one variety of maize was found on a same period of time, suggesting that the old indigenous people of the area planted different varieties of maize simultaneously and these varieties changed through the studied period of time. Finally archaeological starch grains of maize presented more diverse standards than modern grains.Amostras arqueológicas de milho (Zea mays mays e mandioca (Manihot esculenta, oriundas da região de Januária, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com idades estimadas entre 1010 anos para a amostra mais antiga, até 570 anos para as mais novas, foram estudadas morfologicamente. No caso do milho, tomaram-se medidas de comprimento da espiga, diâmetro basal, diâmetro apical, diâmetro maior, número de fileiras, número de grãos por fileiras e número de grãos por fileiras por comprimento. O tamanho da espiga aumentou com o tempo, permitindo aumento da quantidade de

  13. Validation of the Earthquake Archaeological Effects methodology by studying the San Clemente cemetery damages generated during the Lorca earthquake of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Fidel; Martín-Velazquez, Silvia; Rodrigez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Pérez-López, Raul; Silva, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The intensity scales determined the damage caused by an earthquake. However, a new methodology takes into account not only the damage but the type of damage "Earthquake Archaeological Effects", EAE's, and its orientation (e.g. displaced masonry blocks, conjugated fractures, fallen and oriented columns, impact marks, dipping broken corners, etc.) (Rodriguez-Pascua et al., 2011; Giner-Robles et al., 2012). Its main contribution is that it focuses not only on the amount of damage but also in its orientation, giving information about the ground motion during the earthquake. Therefore, this orientations and instrumental data can be correlated with historical earthquakes. In 2011 an earthquake of magnitude Mw 5.2 took place in Lorca (SE Spain) (9 casualties and 460 million Euros in reparations). The study of the EAE's was carried out through the whole city (Giner-Robles et al., 2012). The present study aimed to a.- validate the EAE's methodology using it only in a small place, specifically the cemetery of San Clemente in Lorca, and b.- constraining the range of orientation for each EAE's. This cemetery has been selected because these damage orientation data can be correlated with instrumental information available, and also because this place has: a.- wide variety of architectural styles (neogothic, neobaroque, neoarabian), b.- its Cultural Interest (BIC), and c.- different building materials (brick, limestone, marble). The procedure involved two main phases: a.- inventory and identification of damage (EAE's) by pictures, and b.- analysis of the damage orientations. The orientation was calculated for each EAE's and plotted in maps. Results are NW-SE damage orientation. This orientation is consistent with that recorded in the accelerometer of Lorca (N160°E) and with that obtained from the analysis of EAE's for the whole town of Lorca (N130°E) (Giner-Robles et al., 2012). Due to the existence of an accelerometer, we know the orientation of the peak ground acceleration

  14. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  15. Muslim Archaeology: Scope and Content of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitdikov Airat G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors address the concept of ‘Muslim Archaeology’, which is treated as a scientifi c discipline and a special direction in antiquity studies, against a broad background of similar disciplines, such as Biblical Archaeology and Church Archaeology. The goal of the ‘Muslim Archaeology’, in the authors’ opinion, is to accumulate sources and ensure their analytical processing, interpret material objects and sites, and reconcile these data with the narrative sources in order to ensure a comprehensive reconstruction of the history of Muslim civilization and religious life of the Muslim societies. The study of Muslim antiquities requires a multidisciplinary approach to generalize research in the fi eld of archaeology, history of religion and church, history of art and architecture. Methods of this discipline must be applied to study material and spiritual aspects of religious life in the broadest historical and cultural context, using all available archaeological sources from respective periods. To emphasize, Muslim Archaeology as a scientifi c discipline, which is free of its own confessional interests, is able to open new possibilities for a study of culture, economy, everyday life as well as to offer independent sources and new data on history and civilization of Muslim countries for scientifi c discussion.

  16. Crumbling UNESCO and aggregating archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carman, J.; Turek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2017), s. 387-391 ISSN 1555-8622 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : indigenous people of Amazonia * Canaanite site in Gaza * UNESCO * world archaeology * European Association of Archaeologists Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  18. The Archaeology of Old Nuulliit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mikkel

    ¬aeo-Eskimo culture groups in Alaska. Knuth never published his findings in detail, which be¬came a mystery in Arctic archaeology circles. New investigations by the author of the material shows that the site was settled repeatedly by the first immigrants between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and in addition that a total...

  19. A manufactured past: virtual reality in archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Goodrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and visualisation technologies developed over the past thirty years have been readily accessible to the archaeological community since the mid 1990s. Despite the high profile of virtual archaeology (Reilly 1991 both within the media and professional archaeology it has not been taken on board as a generally useful and standard technique by archaeologists. In this article we wish to discuss the technical and other issues which have resulted in a reluctance to adopt virtual archaeology and, more importantly, discuss ways forward that can enable us routinely to benefit from this technology in the diversity of archaeological practice.

  20. Marx, Production, Society and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lull, Vicente

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Social life is produced. Social life takes place before the fact of thinking about it. Drawing upon elements coming from utopian Socialism. British economy and, especially, Hegel’s philosophy, Marx proposed a set of dialectic categories addressed to thinking and to explaining how social life is produced, including in these dynamics the production of ourselves. In this paper, the guidelines of Marx’ thoughts are shown starting from the reading and analysis of his own texts. Also, the pertinence of the relationship between Marx and the research of society is argued through the material objects which make any society real: the archaeological research.

    La vida social se produce. La vida social es anterior al hecho de pensarla. Basándose en elementos procedentes del socialismo utópico, la economía británica y, sobre todo, la filosofía de Hegel, Marx propuso categorías dialécticas para pensar y explicar cómo se produce la vida social, y nosotros en ella. En este artículo se exponen las líneas básicas del pensamiento de Marx a partir de una lectura y análisis de sus propios textos, y se argumenta la pertinencia de la relación entre dicho pensamiento y la investigación de la sociedad a partir de los objetos materiales que la hicieron posible: la investigación arqueológica.

  1. Provenance studies of archaeological ceramics from Mar-Takla (Ain-Minin, Syria) using radioisotope x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Karajou, J.; Othman, I.

    2002-01-01

    The radioisotope x-ray fluorescence method was applied to provenance studies of ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. 35 samples were analyzed, where each sample was irradiated 1000 s by sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd radioisotope source and the elements (As, Ca, fe, Ga, Nb, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, Y, Zn, and Zr) were determined. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal component analysis (PCA). The study show that 94% of the samples can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials. (Authors)

  2. Fort Scott Lake Cultural Resource Study. Part 1. Archaeological and Geomorphological Inventory and Evaluation at the Proposed Fort Scott Lake Project, Southeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    the presence of an argillic horizon. Diagnostic artifacts from archaeological sites were used to estimate the ages of the alluvial deposits in the...in southeastern Kansas. The T-1 soils have thick, strongly developed argillic horizons, or B horizons, characterized by the accumulation of alluvial...The presence of a thick, strongly developed argillic horizon in the T-1 soils indicates that the land surface has been relatively stable, allowing a

  3. Provenance studies of archaeological ceramics from Mar-Takla (Ain-Minin, Syria) using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.; Othman, I.; Karajou, J.

    2001-01-01

    The radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method was applied to studies of the provenance of the ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. The samples were irradiated 1000s by a 109 Cd radioisotope source and 13 elements (Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb) were determined in 35 samples. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal components analysis (PCA). It was shown from the combination of the statistical techniques and the determination of elemental composition of the samples that 94% of the ceramic samples analyzed can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials

  4. Ancient shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    to be the ancient ports or centres busy in exploiting the marine resources and clearly suggest migration of shoreline. Several studies have reported changes in sea-levels and shoreline migration with special reference to the Gujarat and Maharashtra coasts 9... at Dholavira. There are evidences of navigation in the Rann of Kachchh during the historical period. The author of Periplus of Erythraean Sea writes ‘Beyond the river Sinthus there is another gulf, not navigable, running in towards the north; it is called...

  5. Morphology of the cementite in archaeological steels that have suffered fire; Morfologia de la cementita en aceros arqueologicos que han sufrido incendio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Martin, A. J.; Garcia, L.; Carton, M.; Criado-Portal, A. J.; Dietz, C.; Martinez, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    We present a metallographic study of archaeological artefacts of steel, had been found in different archaeological sites, which characteristic microstructures reveal that have been affected by levels of fire. Study was performed using FEG (Field Emission Gun). In the laboratory, they are reproduced structures of steels archaeological. (Author)

  6. Virtual Archaeodrome for the Archaeological Site from Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angheluţǎ, L. M.; Rǎdvan, R.; Chelmuş, A. I.; Ratoiu, L.; Cortea, I. M.; Ghervase, L.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work within a national project regarding the scientific investigation of one of the most important archaeological sites in Romania: Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa. Although the project has many objectives, in this paper we will focus on the development work of a virtual archaeodrome for the archaeological park. In this regard several field campaigns were organized using the ART4ART mobile laboratory for in-situ non-invasive scientific data acquisition and an online instrument for data reporting and visualizing is currently under development. This work represents a case study of several archaeological assets comprising chronologically layered historical studies, high resolution 3D digital models, ground penetrating radar survey and airborne imaging: LIDAR, multispectral and aerial photogrammetry.

  7. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  8. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  9. Greek perceptions of frontier in Magna Graecia: literature and archaeology in dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton POLLINI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Greek perceptions of frontier in Magna Graecia, from a historical archaeological, contextual standpoint. Considering the complex relationship between literary and archaeological evidence, the paper uses as a case study the frontier in Southern Italy, discussing the subjective frontier perceptions by Greeks and Natives in interaction.

  10. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, Vicky; Jordan, Peter; Zvelebil, Marek

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, the study of hunting and gathering societies has been central to the development of both archaeology and anthropology as academic disciplines, and has also generated widespread public interest and debate. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of

  11. Visual Archaeology: Cultural Change Reflected by the Covers of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Samuel B.; Fee, Tara R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the merits of "visual archaeology," or understanding the past through the analysis of images, as a method for teaching historical context. We begin by articulating the typical archaeological process for studying and analyzing material artifacts, and then describe the possibilities this process offers for…

  12. David Hurst Thomas and the Historical Archaeology of the Spanish Borderlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses David Hurst Thomas' archaeological work on the Spanish borderlands, which integrates field archaeology and documentary history. Focuses on locating and studying the Santa Catalina de Guale. Addresses his project on the Pueblo San Marcos that will further test his ideas about the Spanish mission period. (CMK)

  13. Computerized Archaeology – 3D Tools for Investigating Archaeological Artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosmann, L.

    2015-01-01

    The computerized revolution poses challenges and creates new opportunities in archaeological research. The Computerized Archaeology Laboratory at the Hebrew University integrates techniques and ideas from computer science (e.g., computer graphics, machine learning) in the archaeological research methodologies. We operate optical scanners which provide the three dimensional (3D) digital models that are then analyzed with the computer programs developed in our laboratory. These programs address research issues and needs which could not be addressed without the availability of digital 3D models. Beyond ‘capturing’ and visualizing data, I will focus on the process of analysis and provide novel ways of interpretation. For example, recently we developed new ways for determining the degree of similarity between flakes from various Middle Paleolithic lithic assemblages in the Southern Levant. Preliminary results are promising since the methodology applied distinguished between assemblages not using the traditional techno-typological criteria. This may provide a novel method for clustering and separation of prehistoric assemblages, new means to check the validity of the traditional classification. (author)

  14. Chirping for Large-Scale Maritime Archaeological Survey: A Strategy Developed from a Practical Experience-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grøn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological wrecks exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multibeam techniques, whereas the detection of submerged archaeological sites, such as Stone Age settlements, and wrecks, partially or wholly embedded in sea-floor sediments, requires the application of high-resolution subbottom profilers. This paper presents a strategy for cost-effective, large-scale mapping of previously undetected sediment-embedded sites and wrecks based on subbottom profiling with chirp systems. The mapping strategy described includes (a definition of line spacing depending on the target; (b interactive surveying, for example, immediate detailed investigation of potential archaeological anomalies on detection with a denser pattern of subbottom survey lines; (c onboard interpretation during data acquisition; (d recognition of nongeological anomalies. Consequently, this strategy differs from those employed in several detailed studies of known wreck sites and from the way in which geologists map the sea floor and the geological column beneath it. The strategy has been developed on the basis of extensive practical experience gained during the use of an off-the-shelf 2D chirp system and, given the present state of this technology, it appears well suited to large-scale maritime archaeological mapping.

  15. Mapping archaeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from Potaissa to Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN FODOREAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping archeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from potaissa to Napoca. We aim to analyze and correct several archaeological and historical data regarding some settlements included in an official document, issued by the Ministry of Culture from Romania, entitled the List of Historical Monuments (Lista Monumentelor Istorice / LMI. We focused our attention on the Roman road from Potaissa to Napoca, the main imperial road of Dacia. We described the route of the Roman road and corrected the old information in the list of historical monuments regarding the discoveries within the territory of the village of Aiton. Methodologically, we used data from the old literature, the modern Austro-Hungarian maps from the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries, information from regional gazetteers and different journals. We aimed to offer new insights regarding the accurate location of these settlements and to debate upon the spatial relations of these settlements and their position within the landscape of Dacia. At the beginning of the study, we presented the present situation concerning the databases in Romania covering archaeological sites. The second part of our study discusses how the archaeological sites are recorded in the list of historical monuments. Then we offered several case studies This type of methodological approach will be applied in the future for other areas, in order to reconstruct the former landscape of the province of Dacia, as accurately as possible, using digital tools and modern maps. Our contribution also improved the quality of the data sets used for the topographical descriptions of archaeological sites in Romania.

  16. Megaliths, myths and men an introduction to astro-archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter Lancaster

    2000-01-01

    As commonly used, the term ""megaliths"" refers to huge, free-standing, neolithic stones whose origin and meaning have long been debated by archaeologists and students of prehistory. Perhaps the most famous neolithic site is Stonehenge, the great circle of giant stones on Salisbury Plain in England. Twentieth-century studies of Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments have given rise to the science of astra-archaeology, i.e, the study of early astronomical knowledge through the interpretation of ancient monuments and other archaeological data.The present volume, by a noted British astronomer

  17. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  18. The Roman and Islamic spice trade: New archaeological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veen, Marijke; Morales, Jacob

    2015-06-05

    Tropical spices have long been utilized in traditional medicine and cuisine. New archaeological evidence highlights temporal changes in the nature and scale of the ancient spice trade and in the ancient usage of these plants. Furthermore, a study of their 'materiality' highlights that the impact of spices extends beyond their material properties. Here the botanical remains of spices recovered from archaeological excavations at a port active in the Roman and medieval Islamic spice trade are evaluated. Recent excavations at Quseir al-Qadim, an ancient port located on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, have provided new evidence for the spice trade. Due to the arid conditions ancient botanical remains were preserved in abundance and these included spices, as well as a wide range of other food plants. Quseir al-Qadim was active as a transport hub during both the Roman and Islamic periods (ca. AD 1-250, known as Myos Hormos, and again during ca. AD 1050-1500, known as Kusayr), and the remains thus facilitate a study of temporal change in the trade and usage of these spices. Standard archaeobotanical methods were used to recover, identify and analyze these remains. At least seven tropical spices were recovered from the excavations, as well as several other tropical imports, including black pepper (Piper nigrum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), turmeric (Curcuma sp.), fagara (cf. Tetradium ruticarpum), myrobalan (Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula) and betelnut (Areca catechu). A marked contrast between the two chronological periods in the range of spices recovered points to changes in the nature and scale of the trade between the Roman and medieval Islamic periods, while differences in the contexts from which they were recovered help to identify temporal changes in the way in which the spices were utilized during those periods. Archaeological and textual evidence suggest that in antiquity spices were used in ritual (funeral rites

  19. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  20. Archaeological Finds from Isale, an Abandoned Settlement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the archaeological finds collected from Isale an abandoned site in southeast Abeokuta, Nigeria. From the reconnaissance carried out, a number of artifacts were recovered. These include cowrie shells, metal objects, animal remains, and smoking pipes among others. These artifacts helped us in ...

  1. Nitrogen Isotope Analyses in Mollusk Shell: Applications to Environmental Sciences and Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, C. F. T.; Bassett, C.; Black, H. D.; Payne, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Several recent studies demonstrate that nitrogen isotope analysis of the organic fraction of mollusk shells can serve as a proxy for anthropogenic environmental impacts, including sewage input into estuaries. Analysis of δ15N in shells from archaeological sites permits construction of time-series proxy data from the present day to pre-industrial times, yielding insight into the history of some human environmental influences such as waste input and land use changes. Most such studies utilize a single bulk analysis per valve, combining shell material grown over time periods of one or more years. However, large, fast-growing species (e.g. some scallops and abalone) may permit sub-annual sampling, potentially yielding insight into seasonal processes. Such sclerochronological sampling of archaeological shells may enable researchers to detect variation at a finer temporal scale than has been attempted to date, which in turn may facilitate analysis of seasonal resource procurement strategies and related actions. This presentation will incorporate new and published data from the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America to assess how sclerochronological δ15N data can be useful to better understand pre-industrial human-environmental interaction and change, and also address diagenesis and other preservational concerns commonly found in archaeological samples.

  2. Archaeological data recovery at drill pad U19au, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Construction activities accompanying underground nuclear tests result in the disturbance of the surface terrain at the Nevada Test Site. In compliance with Federal legislation (National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (PL 89-665) and National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (PL 91-190)), the US Department of Energy (DOE), Field Office, Nevada, has long required that cultural resources studies must precede all land-disturbing activities on the Nevada Test Site. In accordance with 36 CFR Part 800, these studies consist of archaeological surveys conducted prior to the land-disturbing activities. The intent of these surveys is to identify and evaluate all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the proposed construction activity. This report presents the final analysis of the data recovered from archaeological investigations conducted at the U19au drill site and access road. This report includes descriptions of the archaeological sites as recorded during the original survey, the research design used to guide the investigations, the method and techniques used to collect and analyze the data, and the results and interpretations of the analysis. 200 refs., 112 figs., 53 tabs.

  3. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  4. Archaeological data recovery at drill pad U19au, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Construction activities accompanying underground nuclear tests result in the disturbance of the surface terrain at the Nevada Test Site. In compliance with Federal legislation (National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 [PL 89-665] and National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [PL 91-190]), the US Department of Energy (DOE), Field Office, Nevada, has long required that cultural resources studies must precede all land-disturbing activities on the Nevada Test Site. In accordance with 36 CFR Part 800, these studies consist of archaeological surveys conducted prior to the land-disturbing activities. The intent of these surveys is to identify and evaluate all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the proposed construction activity. This report presents the final analysis of the data recovered from archaeological investigations conducted at the U19au drill site and access road. This report includes descriptions of the archaeological sites as recorded during the original survey, the research design used to guide the investigations, the method and techniques used to collect and analyze the data, and the results and interpretations of the analysis. 200 refs., 112 figs., 53 tabs

  5. Coulometry for the detection of water content in archaeological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Crupi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we performed coulometric measurements to detect the water content in archaeological pottery in order to get information on the manufacture technique. The samples under study were the so-called "Ionian Cups" coming from various archaeological sites in eastern Sicily (South-Italy. In particular, we tentatively achieved the estimation of firing temperatures of the archaeological samples by comparing the coulometric results with those obtained in the case of raw materials fired under controlled conditions. The results were in good agreement with those previously obtained on the same samples by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS. It is worth underlying that for the first time, the detection of water content as revealed by this analytical technique was related to archaeometric issues.

  6. Teaching the Impact of Globalization through Historical Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marilyn C.

    Historical archaeology has evolved from an early preoccupation with famous houses and forts to a study of capitalism around the world. Archaeologists study the cultures and interrelationships of the colonizers and the colonized as they negotiated their places in an ever-expanding world system. Recent studies in South Africa, Latin America, and the…

  7. “Bolshie Klyuchishi” (Ulyanovsk Oblast as a New Archaeological Complex: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobeva Elena E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce for discussion materials of archaeological studies conducted by the team of the Volga Archaeological Expedition of the Mari State University in Ulyanovsk Oblast of the Russian Federation in 2010. Two of the studied archaeological sites seem to be most interesting: they are situated near Bolshie Klyuchishi village (Ulyanovsk District, Ulyanovsk Oblast. Archaeological materials collected during the excavations of these settlements have a very broad time span, which allows suggesting that Bolshie Klyuchishi is a multilayered archaeological complex. Both settlements yielded the Srubnaya culture handmade ceramics of 16th – 13th centuries BC. Moreover, Bolshie Klyuchishi-7 contained items of iron and slag, and Bolshie Klyuchishi-8 yielded sherds of 13th – 14th centuries wheel- made Bulgarian ceramics.

  8. Acanthocefalan eggs in animal coprolites from archaeological sites from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L F; Araújo, A; Confalonieri, U; Chame, M

    1989-01-01

    An important point in paleoparasitology is the correct diagnosis of the origin of coprolites found in archaeological sites. The identification of human and animal coprolites, through the study of the shape, size, characteristics after rehydration, alimentary contents, and the presence of parasites, has proved to be accurate for human coprolites. For non-human ones we compared coprolites with recent faeces of animals collected near the archaeological sites, following the methodology above mentioned. In this paper anteaters coprolites (Tamandua tetradactyla; Myrmecophaga tridactyla) with eggs of Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus (Archiancanthocephala; Gigantorynchidae) were identified.

  9. MUSEUMS: A STRATEGY TO PRESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN CAMPECHE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ordaz Tamayo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mexico’s long history and rich cultural diversity translates into an equally rich offer of national patrimony. That offer, both national and international in scope, adopts diverse formats, such as and/ or archaeological parks. Several Maya archaeological sites in the state of have been exposed without previous planning for their conservation, management, and further research. This leads to and, consequently, their devaluation as a priceless patrimonial heritage. This study explores the prospect and of a community and museum-based strategy as a key to integrate the value of said sites as educational, cultural, economic, and tourist assets and contributing factors to the region’s sustainable

  10. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  11. Materials issues in art and archaeology. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandiver, P.B.; Druzik, J.; Wheeler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    the purpose of this meeting is to present new and current research which: shares an empirical methodology of observation and measurement; concerns interdisciplinary studies of art, archaeology, architecture, ancient technology, and conservation; and uses the knowledge, methods and tools of materials science and engineering. Druzik introduced the symposium as follows: It is not inaccurate to say that Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II is a continuing experiment. It is an experiment in the sense that conservation scientists, materials scientists who usually deal with the properties and processing of modern technology, and those who study the materials and processing of ancient cultures seldom have an opportunity to experience each other's unique problems. While the conservation of artistic and cultural properties often involves the very same objects as those studied by students of ancient technology these two specialized species seldom, if ever, attend the same meetings, publish in the same journals, or can even name a paltry subset of the other discipline's more famous characters and controversies. And, what do the Real Material Scientists think of these two odd birds. Well, that's what we really want to find out. Because it's certainly clear to myself and my co-organizers that the MRS has undreamed of potential and wealth to help solve many of the questions we pose about past cultures, their tools, their aesthetic sensibilities and their preservation for future generations were we only imaginative enough to exploit it

  12. Social and Political Factors in Post-Colonial Indian Archaeology: The Case of Sanghol, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present the case of Sanghol, Punjab, in Indian archaeology to highlight the influence of social and political factors on the interpretation of archaeological data and the preservation of cultural heritage. Using a geographic approach, I show how geopolitical tensions and the desire for internal political stability influenced archaeological practices in post-colonial India. In the aftermath of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s assassination in 1984, local archaeological investigations in Sanghol, located 200 kilometres from the sensitive Pakistan-India frontline, piqued the interest of the Archaeological Survey of India, the national department for archaeology and heritage management. The Survey subsequently carried out collaborative field studies in Sanghol between 1986 and 1990, reflecting the changing relationship between the local community and the national government at a time of intense political uncertainty. I argue that there is greater competition and collaboration between knowledge producers in Indian archaeology than has been accepted. This, in turn, impacts our understanding of the practice of national archaeology.

  13. 50th Anniversary of Bilyar Archaeological Expedition: results and issues of Great Town investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main results of the investigation of Bilyar fortified settlement – a unique monument of medieval East-European archaeology located in Alexeyevsky District of the Tatarstan Republic. A small amount of information on Bilyar has remained in Ancient Russian chronicles (in which it is referred to as Great Town and the works by 10th – 14th century Arabic and Persian authors. The monument has been known to historians since 18th century, but its archaeological excavations only started in 1967. For 20 years researchers studied its fortifications, five urban burial grounds (including a necropolis of nobility in the centre of the town, discovered the ruined remains of three brick buildings and a white-stone Cathedral Mosque with a free-standing minaret, craft workshops (pottery, glass-making, blacksmithing and metallurgical, as well as tens and hundreds of common dwellings, utility structures and wells. The discoveries made by Bilyar expedition received a positive reaction from the archaeological community of the country. Since late 1980s the activity of the expedition gradually decreased due to the absence of adequate financing. Minor protective excavations were generally performed in the neighbouring villages. Investigation of the settlement it self continued in 2015. The necessity of continuing systematic excavations in Bilyar and the surrounding monuments is evident from both the scientific and practical viewpoints – application of investigation results for the purposes of tourism.

  14. Multisource data fusion for documenting archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, Vladimir; Chibunichev, Alexander; Zhuravlev, Denis

    2017-10-01

    The quality of archaeological sites documenting is of great importance for cultural heritage preserving and investigating. The progress in developing new techniques and systems for data acquisition and processing creates an excellent basis for achieving a new quality of archaeological sites documenting and visualization. archaeological data has some specific features which have to be taken into account when acquiring, processing and managing. First of all, it is a needed to gather as full as possible information about findings providing no loss of information and no damage to artifacts. Remote sensing technologies are the most adequate and powerful means which satisfy this requirement. An approach to archaeological data acquiring and fusion based on remote sensing is proposed. It combines a set of photogrammetric techniques for obtaining geometrical and visual information at different scales and detailing and a pipeline for archaeological data documenting, structuring, fusion, and analysis. The proposed approach is applied for documenting of Bosporus archaeological expedition of Russian State Historical Museum.

  15. GPR and Magnetic Modeling on an Archaeological Site in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, R. E.; Argote, D. L.; Camara, M. E.; Cifuentes, G.; Lopez, P.

    2007-05-01

    A geophysical study was carried out in an archaeological site called Los Teteles de Ocotitla, which means `bunch of rocks'. The area is located within the central portion of the Sierra de Ocotitla, towards the northeast of La Malinche volcano, in the municipality of Altzayanca, State of Tlaxcala. This site is conformed of several artificial terraces with evidence of human occupation, probably from the Teotihuacan or Tenanyecac phase. At first the presence of several hills, which are the remains of small pyramids can be seen. Also, some exposed walls and floors can be appreciated. The geophysical work included magnetic (vertical field) and GPR observations in five terraces. The magnetic data depicted a series of dipolar anomalies probably related to walls, and stairways. A report from a previous archaeological excavation carried out almost 30 years ago on an upper terrace, mentioned the discovery of an ancient burial. The tomb was a room (3x2x2 m3) to a depth of 1 m, where corpse remains were found, along other archaeological artifacts. Magnetic and GPR profiles were observed in this area to define geophysical signatures of the mentioned ancient structure, to later compare with anomalies obtained in other terraces. Two interesting anomalies were observed in two lower terraces that compared well with the signatures obtained. The magnetic anomalies were modeled employing a 3D inverse approach, assuming that the Earth is conformed of a series of magnetic dipoles. The final result produced a magnetic block of 5x3x3 m3 to a depth of 1.5 m, approximately. The GPR anomalies helped to constrain the initial geometry of the archaeological structure.

  16. "Worlds otherwise": Archaeology, anthropology, and ontological difference

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti, Ben; Fowles, Severin; Holbraad, Martin; Marshall, Yvonne; Whitmore, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The debate concerning ontology is heating up in the social sciences. How is this impacting anthropology and archaeology? What contributions can these disciplines make? Following a session at the 2010 Theoretical Archaeology Group conference at Brown University (“‘Worlds Otherwise’: Archaeology, Theory, and Ontological Difference,” convened by Ben Alberti and Yvonne Marshall), a group of archaeologists and anthropologists have continued to discuss the merits, possibilities, and problems of an ...

  17. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  18. Understanding Archaeological Authority in a Digital Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "…with the increasing spread of social media and mobile communication, the social networks of knowledge construction are becoming not only vastly bigger and quicker and less limited by space and time constraints than they have been before, but also more of a threat to established authorities." (Hofheinz 2011, 1426 This article considers the issues of archaeological authority, expertise and organisational reputation in the UK from an online perspective, and questions whether the participatory promise of social media technologies can, and should, challenge archaeological authority. It explores how these issues are approached and mediated online, the issues of digital literacy for audience reception, and the approaches used by archaeological organisations to address the challenges of undertaking digital public archaeology projects whilst maintaining archaeological rigour and the visible performance of expertise. It discusses how the concepts of archaeological authority and expertise are demonstrated and practised online, using data from my doctoral research, undertaken from 2011 to 2013. This article questions if the presence of websites dedicated to the promulgation of alternative archaeologies on the Internet can present challenges for the performance of archaeological expertise online, and how organisations monitor and respond to alternative archaeological interpretations and news stories.

  19. The Archaeology of Childhood: Revisiting Mohenjodaro Terracotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Pratap

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For long archaeologists have been perplexed that the excavated data are usually interpreted from an adult male perspective. The literature locating this and the concomitant rise of gendered archaeology thrives (Conkey and Spector 1984, Conkey and Gero 1999, Conkey 2005. However, in addition to andocentric biases in archaeology, there is also a tendency to overlook the evidence related with children that who are omnipresent, in all cultures. As this is true in the Indian context also, in this paper we shall suggest that terracotta objects provide an invaluable category of archaeological material for considering the archaeology of childhood.

  20. Classification of archaeologically stratified pumice by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the research program 'Synchronization of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C.' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km 3 ) was produced by the 'Minoan eruption' of Thera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of 'Minoan' tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. (author)

  1. Archaeological and taxonomic significance of ancient wood samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ancient wood samples from an archaeological excavation, Test Pit II, in Ahanve, near Badagry were analysed to ascertain their identity. Anatomical study of the wood samples revealed oval-circular xylem pores, diffuse apotracheal axial parenchyma, procumbent and homogeneous ray and non-septate fibres, all consistent ...

  2. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  3. The potential fossils and archaeological materials available among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreseeable challenges or needs or potentials involved in anthropological studies especially archaeology stand to help us in planning and effecting better development in the different areas of our environment. The problems of such environmental issue as desertification and the effect especially on humans in the areas of ...

  4. Pathway to the Past: Archaeology Education in Precollegiate Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, KC

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the evolution of archaeology as a discipline, citing its special strengths and the approaches used to study past cultures. Gives special attention to the problems of preservation and to understanding the value of the physical remains of the past. (MJP)

  5. Tephra, tephrochronology and archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Thastrup, Mads

    2013-01-01

    and causes of both environmental and cultural change. Recent years have seen considerable advances in tephrochronology studies, especially regarding the detection of macroscopically invisible micro- or cryptotephras. In parallel with the possibility of detecting hitherto invisible tephras over vastly...... increased areas, the overall potential of tephrochronology as a major dating tool for both palaeoenvironmental scientists and archaeologists is greatly expanded. The aim of this paper is not to be comprehensive, but to provide a brief and timely general review of tephra studies and their methodologies...

  6. Archaeological investigations on the Buckboard Mesa Road Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amick, D.S.; Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-10-01

    In 1986, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted an archaeological reconnaissance of a new alignment for the Buckboard Mesa Road on the Nevada Test Site for the Department of Energy (DOE). During this reconnaissance, several archaeological sites of National Register quality were discovered and recorded including a large quarry, site 26Ny4892, and a smaller lithic scatter, site 26Ny4894. Analysis of the debitage at 26Ny4892 indicates that this area was used primarily as a quarry for relatively small cobbles of obsidian found in the alluvium. Lithic reduction techniques used here are designed for efficiently reducing small pieces of toolstone and are oriented towards producing flake blanks from small cores and bifacially reducing exhausted cores. Projectile point cross references indicate that the area has seen at least casual use for about 10,000 years and more sustained use for the last 3,000 years. Initial obsidian hydration measurements indicate sustained use of the quarry for about the last 3,000 years although the loci of activities appear to change over time. Based on this study, the DRI recommends that quarrying activities in the area of 26Ny4892 are sufficiently sampled and that additional investigations into that aspect of prehistoric activity in the area are not necessary. This does not apply to other aspects of prehistoric use. DRI recommends that preconstruction surveys continue to identify nonquarrying, prehistoric utilization of the area. With the increased traffic on the Buckboard Mesa Road, there is a greater potential for vandalism to sites of National Register-quality located near the road. The DRI recommends that during the orientation briefing the workers at the Test Site be educated about the importance of cultural resources and the need for their protection. 202 refs., 41 figs., 52 tabs.

  7. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval'chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  8. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  9. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  10. From Excavations to Web: a GIS for Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, M. G.; Corsi, E.; Nemeti, S.; Germani, M.

    2017-05-01

    The study and the protection of Cultural Heritage in recent years have undergone a revolution about the search tools and the reference disciplines. The technological approach to the problem of the collection, organization and publication of archaeological data using GIS software has completely changed the essence of the traditional methods of investigation, paving the way to the development of several application areas, up to the Cultural Resource Management. A relatively recent specific sector of development for archaeological GIS development sector is dedicated to the intra - site analyses aimed to recording, processing and display information obtained during the excavations. The case - study of the archaeological site located in the south - east of San Pietro Vetere plateau in Aquino, in the Southern Lazio, is concerned with the illustration of a procedure describing the complete digital workflow relative to an intra-site analysis of an archaeological dig. The GIS project implementation and its publication on the web, thanks to several softwares, particularly the FOSS (Free Open Source Software) Quantum - GIS, are an opportunity to reflect on the strengths and the critical nature of this particular application of the GIS technology. For future developments in research it is of fundamental importance the identification of a digital protocol for processing of excavations (from the acquisition, cataloguing, up data insertion), also on account of a possible future Open Project on medieval Aquino.

  11. FROM EXCAVATIONS TO WEB: A GIS FOR ARCHAEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. D'Urso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study and the protection of Cultural Heritage in recent years have undergone a revolution about the search tools and the reference disciplines. The technological approach to the problem of the collection, organization and publication of archaeological data using GIS software has completely changed the essence of the traditional methods of investigation, paving the way to the development of several application areas, up to the Cultural Resource Management. A relatively recent specific sector of development for archaeological GIS development sector is dedicated to the intra - site analyses aimed to recording, processing and display information obtained during the excavations. The case - study of the archaeological site located in the south - east of San Pietro Vetere plateau in Aquino, in the Southern Lazio, is concerned with the illustration of a procedure describing the complete digital workflow relative to an intra-site analysis of an archaeological dig. The GIS project implementation and its publication on the web, thanks to several softwares, particularly the FOSS (Free Open Source Software Quantum - GIS, are an opportunity to reflect on the strengths and the critical nature of this particular application of the GIS technology. For future developments in research it is of fundamental importance the identification of a digital protocol for processing of excavations (from the acquisition, cataloguing, up data insertion, also on account of a possible future Open Project on medieval Aquino.

  12. Out of the archaeologist's desk drawer: communicating archaeological data online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; David, M.

    2015-08-01

    During archaeological field work a huge amount of data is collected, processed and elaborated for further studies and scientific publications. However, access and communication of linked data; associated tools for interrogation, analysis and sharing are often limited at the first stage of the archaeological research, mainly due to issues related to IPR. Information is often released months if not years after the fieldwork. Nowadays great deal of archaeological data is `born digital' in the field or lab. This means databases, pictures and 3D models of finds and excavation contexts could be available for public communication and sharing. Researchers usually restrict access to their data to a small group of people. It follows that data sharing is not so widespread among archaeologists, and dissemination of research is still mostly based on traditional pre-digital means like scientific papers, journal articles and books. This project has implemented a web approach for sharing and communication purposes, exploiting mainly open source technologies which allow a high level of interactivity. The case study presented is the newly Mithraeum excavated in Ostia Antica archaeological site in the framework of the Ostia Marina Project.

  13. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  14. 'Gratefully dedicated to the subscribers': The archaeological publishing projects and achievements of Charles Roach Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Scott

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Charles Roach Smith (1806-1890 was at the forefront of archaeological scholarship from the 1840s onwards; he played a pivotal role in recording and establishing the importance of British antiquities and archaeology, but is rarely mentioned in general histories of archaeology. This paper provides an overview of his major achievements in archaeological publishing and, through an analysis of more than 2,000 subscriptions to 11 of his volumes on British archaeology, explains how and why he published prolifically in the absence of institutional support, and often in the face of prejudice against his background in 'trade'. It argues that his rigorous and evangelising approach to archaeological publication, and the pivotal role that he played within national and international philanthropic social and intellectual networks, was instrumental in the transformation of the discipline in the second half of the nineteenth century, and underpinned the development of a national collection of British antiquities in the British Museum. His efforts also contributed to wider social and educational transformation during this period, which included greater recognition for women. Through a more inclusive and prosopographical approach it provides unique insights into the enterprising strategies and impressive achievements of those whose contributions to archaeology are insufficiently acknowledged today.

  15. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Stein, M., 2003. Archaeology, History, and geology of the A.D. 749 earthquake, Dead Sea transform. Geology, 31 (8), 665-668. Nahas, C., Bauman, P., Jol, H., Reeder, P., and Freund, R., 2006. Geophysical investigations at coastal archaeological sites in Israel. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Seattle, Washington, 1397-1406. Neishtadt, N.M., Eppelbaum, L.V., and Levitski, A.G., 2006. Application of seismo-electric phenomena in exploration geophysics: Review of Russian and Israeli experience. Geophysics, 71 (2), B41-B53. Nur, A. and Ron, H., 1997. Armageddon's earthquake. International Geology Review, 39, No. 6, 532-541. Paparo, H., 1991. Temperature study of the archaeological site Crusades Fortress Um Haled (Netanya). Trans. of the Conf. of Israel Geol. Soc., Annual Meeting, Akko, Israel, p. 77. Pelfer, P.G., Barcelo, J.A., McDonaill, C., and Pelfer, G., 2004. ArchaeoGRID, a GRID for archaeology. Proceed. of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symp. Conf., 4, 2095-2099. Porat, N., Zhou, L.P., Chazan, M., Noy, T., and Horwitz, L.K., 1999. Dating the lower Paleolithic open-air site of Holon, Israel, by luminescence and ESR techniques. Quaternary Research, 51, 328-341. Reeder, P., Jol, H., Bauman, P., and Freund, R., 2004. Multidisciplinary research at the Cave of Letters, Israel: a melding of physical and social sciences. Proceed. of Trans-Karst Intern. Transdisciplinary Conf. on Development and Conservation of Karst Regions, Ha Noi, Vietnam, 181-184. Reich, S., Leitus, G., and Shalev, S., 2003. Measurement of corrosion content of archaeological lead artifacts by their Meissner response in the superconducting state; a new dating method. New Journal of Physics, 5, 991-999, 2003. Reinhardt, E.G., Goodman, B.N., Boyce, J.I., Lopez, G., van Hengstum, P., Rink, W.J., Mart, Y., and Raban, A., 2006. The tsunami of 13 December A.D. 115 and the destruction of Herod the Great's harbor at Caesarea Maritima, Israel. Geology, 34

  16. 3D Virtual Dig: a 3D Application for Teaching Fieldwork in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Giuseppantonio Di Franco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology is a material, embodied discipline; communicating this experience is critical to student success. In the context of lower-division archaeology courses, the present study examines the efficacy of 3D virtual and 2D archaeological representations of digs. This presentation aims to show a 3D application created to teach the archaeological excavation process to freshmen students. An archaeological environment was virtually re-created in 3D, and inserted in a virtual reality software application that allows users to work with the reconstructed excavation area. The software was tested in class for teaching the basics of archaeological fieldwork. The application interface is user-friendly and especially easy for 21st century students. The study employed a pre-survey, post-test, and post-survey design, used to understand the students' previous familiarity with archaeology, and test their awareness after the use of the application. Their level of knowledge was then compared with that of those students who had accessed written material only. This case-study demonstrates how a digital approach to laboratory work can positively affect student learning. Increased abilities to complete ill-defined problems (characteristic of the high-order thinking in the field, can, in fact, be demonstrated. 3D Virtual reconstruction serves, then, as an important bridge from traditional coursework to fieldwork.

  17. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-12-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  18. Reanalyzing Environmental Lidar Data for Archaeology: Mesoamerican Applications and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Charles; Murtha, Timothy; Cook, Bruce; Shaffer, Derek S.; Schroder, Whittaker; Hermitt, Elijah J.; Firpi, Omar Alcover; Scherer, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary archaeological assessment of extensive transects of lidar recently collected by environmental scientists over southern Mexico using the G-LiHT system of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. In particular, this article offers the results of a first phase of research, consisting of: 1) characterization and classification of the cultural and ecological context of the samples, and 2) bare earth processing and visual inspection of a sample of the flight paths for identification of probable anthropogenic Precolumbian features. These initial results demonstrate that significant contributions to understanding variations in Precolumbian land-use and settlement patterns and change is possible with truly multi-regional lidar surveys not originally captured for archaeological prospection. We point to future directions for the development of archaeological applications of this robust data set. Finally, we offer the potential for enriching archaeological research through tightly coupled collaborations with environmental science and monitoring. Archaeologists in the neotropics can acquire more data, better realize the full potential of lidar surveys, and better contribute to interdisciplinary studies of human-environmental dynamic systems through regionally focused and collaborative scientific research.

  19. Soil Scientific Research Methods Used in Archaeology – Promising Soil Biochemistry: a Mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Vranová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to review soil scientific methods that have been used and are still being used in archaeology. This review paper aims at emphasising the importance of soil science practice to archaeology thus adding a scientific analytical nature to the cultural nature of archaeology. Common methods (physical, chemical and biochemical used to analyse archaeological soils and artefacts is touched on and their strengths and shortcomings duly noted to become the base for future research. Furthermore, the authors made emphasis on distinctive excavating/sampling methods, biochemical analyses focused on distinctive features of plough-land and soil organic matter mineralization, Counter Immunoelectrophoresis (CEIP method by the presence of proteins testing, carbon analyses such as carbon-14 dating techniques, soil phosphorus studies and geochemical analyses of hematite Fe2O3 and cinnabaryte HgS contents. It is obvious that, the future of archaeology is in the soil because the soil harbours information of the past hence the synergy between soil and archaeological research has to be strengthened and archaeology made a prime agenda by soil scientists by expanding the analyses scope of total phosphorus extraction and giving attention to soil magnetism.

  20. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Norton, Andrew L; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z; Martins, João R; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  1. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  2. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  3. The Archaeology of Late Antique Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dann, Rachael Jane

    and patterns (the ‘aesthetic’ basis of identity). This study explores the relationships between humans, animals, and artefacts. It demonstrates how a less stable society, which based control on aggressive public displays, became a more stable state, as power was mediated by magico-ritual performances, festal...... occasions, and the rise of certain individuals. The interpretations put forward here are based on a systematic quantitative analysis of the archaeological material from the sites. These analyses draw on complex typologies differentiating objects according to use, ware, colour, decoration method, designs......, surface finish, contents, grafitto, location in a tomb, location near a body, etc. Such a quantification and synthesis of tens of thousands of individual pieces of data enabled the identification of key trends in the dataset––the empirical basis for the modelling of socio-political change undertaken here...

  4. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13 Section 7.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources...

  5. Distant Neighbours: Different Visions about Mexican Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez Gastélum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Mexican archaeology experienced a major transformation due to the enactment of a Federal Law about archaeological, artistic, and historical monuments and zones, which changed the Mexican Government’s administration of Mexican archaeological heritage. In 1972, in West Mexico, an active group of archaeologists from the U.S.A. was working. They came from several universities and were also members of an academic association, the West Mexican Society for Advanced Study, that was based in Ajijic, Mexico, and comprised both U.S. and Mexican archaeologists. This group wrote to the government about their views of the new laws, and the government department concerned with their implementation, the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH – Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, then responded with the Mexican Government’s official standpoint. In this paper, we analyze the positions of the West Mexican Society for Advanced Study, and INAH. We observe the sociopolitical and academic contexts from both U.S. and Mexican perspectives, and we offer explanations about their opposing views. We consider this episode to be a manifestation of the ideas circulating between U.S. and Mexican archaeologies.En 1972 la arqueología mexicana tuvo un cambio radical. En ese año fue promulgada la Ley Federal de Monumentos y Zonas Arqueológicos, Artísticos e Históricos. Esta ley cambió la manera en que el gobierno mexicano administraba el patrimonio arqueológico nacional. En dicho año, en el occidente de México, estuvo trabajando un grupo muy activo de arqueólogos estadounidenses, que si bien procedían de diversas universidades, también fueron miembros de una institución académica. La Sociedad de Estudios Avanzados del Occidente de México, con sede en Ajijic, México, reunió tanto a arquéologos estadounidenses como mexicanos. Los primeros escribieron un documento que contenía sus opiniones sobre la nueva ley y lo

  6. Marine archaeological explorations of Tranquebar-Poompuhar region on Tamil Nadu coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.R.

    The main objective of the Marine Archaeological Expedition was to locate the shipwreck suspected to be a hindrance to fishing. Secondly a bathymetry study was conducted to understand geological features and locate submerged structures if any. Side...

  7. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  8. Peopling the Tibetan plateau: insights from archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenderfer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the genome of modern Tibetans have revealed the existence of genes thought to provide an adaptive advantage for life at high elevation. Extrapolating from this discovery, some researchers now argue that a Tibetan-Han split occurred no more than 2750 yr ago. This date is implausible, and in this paper I review the archaeological data from the Tibetan plateau as one means by which to examine the veracity of this assertion. Following a review of the general state of knowledge of Tibetan prehistory, which is unfortunately only at its beginnings, I first examine the data that speak to the initial peopling of the plateau and assess the evidence that traces of their presence can be seen in modern Tibetans today. Although the data are sparse, both archaeology and genetics suggest that the plateau was occupied in the Late Pleistocene, perhaps as early as 30,000 yr ago, and that these early peoples have left a genetic signature in modern Tibetans. I then turn to the evidence for later migrations and focus on the question of the timing of the establishment of permanent settled villages on the plateau. Three areas of the plateau-northeastern Qinghai, extreme eastern Tibet, and the Yarlung Tsangpo valley-have evidence of permanent settlements dating from ca. 6500, 5900, and 3750 yr ago, respectively. These data are not consonant with the 2750 yr ago date for the split and suggest at a minimum that the plateau has been occupied substantially longer and, further, that multiple migrations at different times and from different places have created a complex mosaic of population history. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  9. Petro-mineralogy and geochemistry as tools of provenance analysis on archaeological pottery: Study of Inka Period ceramics from Paria, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, V.; Gyarmati, J.; Tóth, M.; Taubald, H.; Balla, M.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Szakmány, Gy.

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarized the results of comprehensive petro-mineralogical and geochemical (archeometrical) investigation of Inka Period ceramics excavated from Inka (A.D. 1438-1535) and Late Intermediate Period (A.D. 1000/1200-1438) sites of the Paria Basin (Dept. Oruro, Bolivia). Applying geological analytical techniques we observed a complex and important archaeological subject of the region and the era, the cultural-economic influence of the conquering Inkas in the provincial region of Paria appearing in the ceramic material. According to our results, continuity and changes of raw material utilization and pottery manufacturing techniques from the Late Intermediate to the Inka Period are characterized by analytical methods. The geological field survey provided efficient basis for the identification of utilized raw material sources. On the one hand, ceramic supply of both eras proved to be based almost entirely on local and near raw material sources. So, imperial handicraft applied local materials but with sophisticated imperial techniques in Paria. On the other hand, Inka Imperial and local-style vessels also show clear differences in their material which suggests that sources and techniques functioned already in the Late Intermediate Period subsisted even after the Inka conquest of the Paria Basin. Based on our geological investigations, pottery supply system of the Paria region proved to be rather complex during the Inka Period.

  10. Archaeological Handbook for Establishing Offshore Wind Farms in Sweden. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, Boel (Bohuslaens Museum, Uddevalla (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide a structured guide for contractors interested in establishing offshore wind farms within Swedish territorial waters and its extended economical zone, in relation to Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH). It is also applicable to UCH in inland waters. Therefore, this handbook seeks to provide information on; - The management structure of underwater/maritime cultural heritage in Sweden, including institutions and units with maritime antiquarian expertise, - The different types of archaeological remains that can be found around the Swedish coast - in offshore, coastal areas and on the foreshore - which can potentially be affected by offshore wind farm projects, - The laws that underwater archaeological remains are subject to - within the National Maritime Boundary as well as within the contiguous and exclusive economical zones - and the necessary archaeological investigations that need to be considered in order to avoid and/or protect the cultural heritage provided by those remains, - Archaeological standards and methods for assessing and evaluating the potential for finding archaeological remains under water, - The steps that need to be to considered during the planning process of establishing offshore wind farms, and how the contractor and archaeologist can work together in order to make the process more cost effective, and - Considerations for the future. Furthermore, this handbook includes a presentation of archaeological finds made during archaeological surveys in connection with the Lillgrund project. The handbook does not make references to any investigations that may be required in relation to land based archaeological sites other than those which are undertaken close to the shoreline (situated on the foreshore), nor does it consider the visual impact sea-based wind farms might have on cultural heritage

  11. Archaeological Investigations Along Owl Creek: Results of the 1992 Summer Archaeological Field School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, David

    1997-01-01

    .... The purpose of the field school was to train undergraduate and graduate students in archaeological field techniques while providing the army with information regarding significance of its cultural...

  12. [Characteristics and cardiovascular events in a general population included in the RICARTO (RIesgo CARdiovascular TOledo) study: Data from the first 1,500 individuals included in the study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J

    2017-08-28

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  14. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  15. Maritime archaeology and shipwrecks off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    . It is hoped that this book will be an invaluable guide for students; teachers and scholars of Archaeology, History and allied disciplines besides general public. The book is well illustrated and comprehensively presented to be of use to everybody interested...

  16. History of marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    , boats and other crafts. Marine archaeology is primarily concerned with exploration, investigation, documentation and recovery of the material remains and physical traces of human activities found on the foreshore and intertidal zones and on the seabed...

  17. TOWARDS THE ENHANCEMENT OF "MINOR" ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research,...

  18. An archaeology of Adam Smith's epistemic context

    OpenAIRE

    Vigo de Lima, I.; Guizzo, D.

    2015-01-01

    Adam Smith played a key role in Foucault's archaeology of political economy. This archaeology, which Foucault accomplished in The Order of Things, is the focus of this article. Foucault may have disagreed with the writings of the classical political economists but he widens our perspective through new possibilities of understanding. It is very illuminating to understand Smith's thinking as following a discursive practice that economic thought shared with the knowledge of living beings (natura...

  19. Recent archaeological discoveries in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chazine, Jean-Michel; Ferrie, Jean-Georges

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Since 1992, thanks to the exceptional interest generated by caving teams crossing Kalimantan from west to east in 1988, a large quantity of archaeological discoveries has been revealed. A Franco-Indonesian team has surveyed caves and rockshelters in East Kalimantan to shed some light on an archaeologically unknown territory. Altogether, more than 100 caves have been visited and checked, of which over 30 contain undoubtable rock paintings. These sites are located in two...

  20. Microbiology Meets Archaeology: Soil Microbial Communities Reveal Different Human Activities at Archaic Monte Iato (Sixth Century BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, Rosa; Siles, José A; Cajthaml, Tomas; Öhlinger, Birgit; Kistler, Erich

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology has been recognized as useful in archaeological studies. At Archaic Monte Iato in Western Sicily, a native (indigenous) building was discovered. The objective of this study was the first examination of soil microbial communities related to this building. Soil samples were collected from archaeological layers at a ritual deposit (food waste disposal) in the main room and above the fireplace in the annex. Microbial soil characterization included abundance (cellular phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), viable bacterial counts), activity (physiological profiles, enzyme activities of viable bacteria), diversity, and community structure (bacterial and fungal Illumina amplicon sequencing, identification of viable bacteria). PLFA-derived microbial abundance was lower in soils from the fireplace than in soils from the deposit; the opposite was observed with culturable bacteria. Microbial communities in soils from the fireplace had a higher ability to metabolize carboxylic and acetic acids, while those in soils from the deposit metabolized preferentially carbohydrates. The lower deposit layer was characterized by higher total microbial and bacterial abundance and bacterial richness and by a different carbohydrate metabolization profile compared to the upper deposit layer. Microbial community structures in the fireplace were similar and could be distinguished from those in the two deposit layers, which had different microbial communities. Our data confirmed our hypothesis that human consumption habits left traces on microbiota in the archaeological evidence; therefore, microbiological residues as part of the so-called ecofacts are, like artifacts, key indicators of consumer behavior in the past.

  1. The value of pseudo 3D techniques for the interpretation of analogue archaeological research

    OpenAIRE

    Overmars, G.; Panhuysen, R.; Börner, W.; Uhlirz, S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtual 3D techniques as a research tool in the interpretation of analogue archaeological data has gained little attention. The current paper will explore whether the use of 3D techniques can help to understand data from old archaeological excavations. A method is presented which facilitates the translation of analogue data into a pseudo 3D environment. One trench from the famous excavations of the early medieval trading town of Dorestad serves as a case study. This trench was exca...

  2. Understanding fossil phytolith preservation: the role of partial dissolution in paleoecology and archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, Dan; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions.

  3. Steps Towards Operationalising an Evolutionary Archaeological Definition of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2011-01-01

    within this approach. It has already been argued that in order to study material culture evolution in a manner similar to how palaeontologists study biological change over time, we need explicitly constructed archaeological taxonomic units . In palaeontology, the definition of such taxonomic units ? most......This paper examines the definition of archaeological cultures/techno-complexes from an evolutionary perspective, in which culture is defined as a system of social information transmission. A formal methodology is presented through which the concept of a culture can be operationalised, at least......, the so-called phylogenetic methods can be used to track material culture change over time. Phylogenetic methods produce nested hierarchies of increasingly exclusive groupings, reflecting descent with modification within lineages of social information transmission. Once such nested hierarchies...

  4. Frozen: The Potential and Pitfalls of Ground-Penetrating Radar for Archaeology in the Alaskan Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Urban

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground-penetrating radar (GPR offers many advantages for assessing archaeological potential in frozen and partially frozen contexts in high latitude and alpine regions. These settings pose several challenges for GPR, including extreme velocity changes at the interface of frozen and active layers, cryogenic patterns resulting in anomalies that can easily be mistaken for cultural features, and the difficulty in accessing sites and deploying equipment in remote settings. In this study we discuss some of these challenges while highlighting the potential for this method by describing recent successful investigations with GPR in the region. We draw on cases from Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Kobuk Valley National Park, and Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. The sites required small aircraft accessibility with light equipment loads and minimal personnel. The substrates we investigate include coastal saturated active layer over permafrost, interior well-drained active layer over permafrost, a frozen thermo-karst lake, and an alpine ice patch. These examples demonstrate that GPR is effective at mapping semi-subterranean house remains in several contexts, including houses with no surface manifestation. GPR is also shown to be effective at mapping anomalies from the skeletal remains of a late Pleistocene mammoth frozen in ice. The potential for using GPR in ice and snow patch archaeology, an area of increasing interest with global environmental change exposing new material each year, is also demonstrated.

  5. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-destructive analysis of archaeological bronzes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respaldiza, M.A.; Gomez-Tubio, B.M.; Sanchez del Junco, A.; Barranco, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies a method for overcoming the difficulty of corroded surfaces by means of nondestructive nuclear methods in the determination of the composition of archaeological bronzes. It consists of the combination of PIXE or XRF information with Gamma Ray Transmission (GRT) data. A wide range applicability of this combined method is established by comparison with profiles of concentrations along the bronzes' patina obtained by SEM-EDAX. (orig.)

  7. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige.

  8. In situ measurements of oxygen dynamics in unsaturated archaeological deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hollesen, Jørgen; Dunlop, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is a key parameter in the degradation of archaeological material, but little is known of its dynamics in situ. In this study, 10 optical oxygen sensors placed in a 2 m deep test pit in the cultural deposits at Bryggen in Bergen have monitored oxygen concentrations every half hour for more ...... of the soil exceeds 10–15% vol, while oxygen dissolved in infiltrating rainwater is of less importance for the supply of oxygen in the unsaturated zone....

  9. International Conference on Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeological Research and World Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Monitoring the Ancient Countryside: Remote Sensing and GIS at the Chora of Chersonesos (Crimea, Ukraine). Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS for Management Decision Support in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Republic of Benin). Monitoring of deforestation invasion in natural reserves of northern Madagascar based on space imagery. Cartography of Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Cartography and Land Use Change of World Heritage Areas and the Benefits of Remote Sensing and GIS for Conservation. Assessing and Monitoring Vegetation in Nabq Protected Area, South Sinai, Egypt, using combine approach of Satellite Imagery and Land Surveys. Evaluation of forage resources in semi-arid savannah environments with satellite imagery: contribution to the management of a protected area (Nakuru National Park) in Kenya. SOGHA, the Surveillance of Gorilla Habitat in World Heritage sites using Space Technologies. Application of Remote Sensing to monitor the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (France). Application of Remote Sensing & GIS for the Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Social and Environmental monitoring of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: Case Study over the Vosges du Nord and Pfalzerwald Parks using Corona and Spot Imagery. Satellite Remote Sensing as tool to Monitor Indian Reservation in the Brazilian Amazonia. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Monitoring UNESCO World Heritage Sites - A Pilot Project. Urban Green Spaces: Modern Heritage. Monitoring of the technical condition of the St. Sophia Cathedral and related monastic buildings in Kiev with Space Applications, geo-positioning systems and GIS tools. The Murghab delta palaeochannel Reconstruction on the Basis of Remote Sensing from Space. Acquisition, Registration and Application of IKONOS Space Imagery for the cultural World Heritage site at Mew, Turkmenistan. Remote Sensing and VR applications for the reconstruction of archaeological landscapes

  10. Archaeology Hijacked: Addressing the Historical Misappropriations of Maritime and Underwater Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gately, Iain; Benjamin, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    As a discipline that has grown up in the eyes of the camera, maritime and underwater archaeology has struggled historically to distinguish itself from early misrepresentations of it as adventure-seeking, treasure hunting and underwater salvage as popularized in the 1950s and 1960s. Though many professional archaeologists have successfully moved forward from this history through broader theoretical engagement and the development of the discipline within anthropology, public perception of archaeology under water has not advanced in stride. Central to this issue is the portrayal of underwater archaeology within popular culture and the representational structures from the 1950s and 1960s persistently used to introduce the profession to the public, through the consumption of popular books and especially television. This article explores representations of maritime and underwater archaeology to examine how the discipline has been consumed by the public, both methodologically and theoretically, through media. In order to interrogate this, we first examine maritime and underwater archaeology as a combined sub-discipline of archaeology and consider how it has been defined historically and in contemporary professional practice. Finally, we consider how practitioners can take a proactive approach to portray their work and convey archaeological media to the public. In this respect, we aim to advance the theoretical discussion in a way so as to reduce further cases whereby archaeology is accidentally misappropriated or deliberately hijacked.

  11. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  12. Biometric identification of capillariid eggs from archaeological sites in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglioretti, V; Fugassa, M H; Beltrame, M O; Sardella, N H

    2014-06-01

    Numerous eggs of capillariid nematodes have been found in coprolites from a wide range of hosts and in raptor pellets in archaeological samples from Patagonia. The structure and sculpture of the eggshell of these nematodes and their biometry are commonly used for identification. The aim of this study was to determine whether eggs of the genus Calodium with similar morphology, found in different archaeological samples from Patagonia, belong to the same species. For this purpose, capillariid eggs (N= 843) with thick walls and radial striations were studied by permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA). Eggs exhibiting similar shape and structure also showed similar biometry, regardless of the zoological origin of coprolites (P= 0.84), host diet (P= 0.19), character of the archaeological sites (P= 0.67) and chronology (P= 0.66). Thus, they were attributed to the same species. We suggest that an unidentified zoonotic species of the genus Calodium occurred in the digestive tract of a wide range of hosts in Patagonia during the Holocene and that both human and animal populations were exposed to this parasite during the Holocene in the study area.

  13. Raman spectroscopy characterization of colored pigments in archaeological materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    Archaeological artifacts and artworks with colors are being increasingly analyzed in these years. The pigment materials used for their creation are much studied after the development of modern non-destructive micro sampling analytical techniques. Art historians, museum conservators, and archaeolo......Archaeological artifacts and artworks with colors are being increasingly analyzed in these years. The pigment materials used for their creation are much studied after the development of modern non-destructive micro sampling analytical techniques. Art historians, museum conservators...... to the artifacts or artworks. In this connection the Raman spectroscopy technique must be considered a most elegant method for pigment and materials analysis of relevant museum and archaeological materials. This is done by correlating some bands in the studied pigments with those of well characterized references....... The number of research papers on the subject of Raman spectroscopy applied to pigments and art has been growing very fast during the last years. To get a comprehensive overview we refer to three recent theme numbers of Journal of Raman Spectroscopy1, 2, 3 and other dedicated texts such as e.g. Edwards et al...

  14. The need for the solid modelling of structure in the archaeology of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniels

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional modelling is an attempt to represent the world in three dimensions, simplifying through deliberate assumptions. In archaeology, this has developed as an extension of the traditional use of three-dimensional drawings to help present and record data. The debate in the archaeological literature over whether surface or solid modellers should be used is one based on the premise that the purpose of three-dimensional modelling is data visualisation. This concentration on perception modelling has been at the expense of research on the modelling of structure. Surface and Solid Modellers are introduced and defined. I argue that developments in modelling software mean that there is no longer a clear distinction between the two types of software along application lines. We should think of models in terms of their applications rather than the software which generates them. Although data visualisation (including virtual reality is an important part of three-dimensional modelling, I argue that it should be explicitly divorced from the related field of photo-realism at a research level. Perception modelling can be performed by surface or solid modellers. Modelling structure is better performed with a solid modeller, if we wish to be as explicit as possible in our modelling. A structural model can be used as a spatial database. If we wish to ask questions about the physical properties of a structure, then we must use solid modellers. In addition to the engineering properties of structures, solid modellers can also be used to answer questions about the economics of construction. For historical reasons, the construction industry has preferred to use surface modellers, but I argue for the advantages of solid modelling in the archaeological study of construction.

  15. UAV photogrammetry for archaeological site survey. 3D models at the Hierapolis in Phrygia (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Chiabrando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry has shown a very rapid development in many fields, especially in archaeological excavation areas and architectural complexes, where it offers a detailed generation of three-dimensional (3D data including the possibility of updating over time. It also proves to be a very flexible tool applicable to many types of complex areas with a variety of different features. The use of aerial acquisition provides highly effective results, adding to both rapid capture and lower costs. In fact, today in the field of archaeological research, great efforts are invested in the generation of very large-scale models and orthophotos, and the technology seems to promise further future developments, not only from the terrestrial (orthogonal point of view, but also from the nadiral direction from a low altitude, as a preferential and often optimal point of view. Here an effective workflow for photogrammetric product generation is presented for selected case studies in some monumental areas of ancient Hierapolis in Phrygia (Turkey, in which the Italian Archaeological Mission of Hierapolis (MAIER has been working since the 1960s. The recent experiences achieved by UAV photogrammetry are quite innovative. The variety and complexity of the buildings, as well as the height of their ruins, offer numerous challenges, which are interesting to deal with. The 3D aerial survey was performed for multiple purposes with the eBee system by Sensefly. Specific attention was paid to the digital surface model (DSM and aerial orthoimages of three test areas: the Plutonium area; the Thermal Bath-Church; and the Necropolis. Starting from the same technical approach, a comparative assesment among the three sites was carried out, taking into account the specific goals, the type of the structure and the terrain conformation.

  16. Regional Maritime Contexts and the Maritorium: A Latin American Perspective on Archaeological Land and Sea Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jorge M.; Chapanoff, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    In the field of maritime archaeology, the use of maritime, coastal, riverine, and lacustrine spaces by past societies has been perceived in different and changing viewpoints. These perspectives have flourished in dynamic and varying ways in many countries, and under different theoretical constructs. If in the 1970s the subject was perhaps not recognized as a central research subject by much of our community, it is now not only accepted but it has become a robust area of interest in maritime research. Two concepts in Latin America have been accepted that have had widespread application and influence, namely the regional maritime context and the maritorio. The points of contact between both are so intense that it is possible to speak about a single alternative with two possible names. In this article, their origins, applications, and theoretical influences are presented in a way that unifies these two concepts into a single approach (the maritorium), and examines how these ideas have been applied to research carried out in Mexico, Chile, and Uruguay. These applications are wide ranging, as they include the interconnected complexity between land and sea as used and inhabited by past societies. They have been applied in the study of ship traps, whole fleets, sites of maritime conflict and warfare, exploration activities, and ethnographic research. These will also be presented in light of other concepts of similar interest in the international sphere, such as the widespread concept of the Maritime Cultural Landscape, and also in view of other theoretical frameworks coming from the wider sphere of the profession, such as Landscape Archaeology and Phenomenological Archaeology.

  17. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Bone Detritus of Pleistocene Mammals, Including the Earliest in Northern Eurasia Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Silaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the preliminary results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of the primary and epigenetic properties of the bio-mineral and protein components in the fossil bone detritus as an example of first step of continued interdisciplinary research program. During the further implementation of this program, it is expected not only to solve a set of interrelated mineralogical, paleontological, paleoecological, paleoclimatic, and archaeological problems, but also to obtain new knowledge about the coevolution of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic substances in the geological history. The main objects of study are the fossil remains of the large Pleistocene mammals (mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, deer, elk, horses, bison, cave and brown bear found on the territory of the Pechora Urals (62-67 ° N , South Pri-Irtyshie in Western Siberia (57-58 ° N, and Northern Taymyr (75-77 ° N. The oldest bone of Homo sapiens (Ust-Ishim human found in Northern Eurasia and remains of medieval Tobol and Irtysh Turk will be investigated as well. The results of previous studies of skin and hair of biological material from today's wild fisheries (analogues Pleistocene mammals, wild and domestic animals are considered as the reliable prerequisites for planned isotopic and geochemical studies. Use of cutting-edge research techniques will allow determining the chemical composition of bones; the elemental composition of bone collagen and bone proteins; the degree of crystallinity of bone bioapatite, and phase composition of xenomineral impurities; the isotopic composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in bioapatite and collagen; the actual molecular and crystal structure of the protein biomineral, and bone substance; the concentration of trace elements; the conditions and duration of burial and reburial of bone detritus; bone collagen bacterial degradation at an early stage of fossilization. It is expected that the implementation of the proposed project

  18. Alteration of 15N /14N and 13C /12C ratios of plant matter during the initial stages of diagenesis: Studies utilizing archaeological specimens from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNiro, Michael J.; Hastorf, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of plants extracted from Peruvian archaeological sites, ranging in age from 400 to 4000 years B.P., have been measured. The δ13C and δ15N values of prehistoric plants that were carbonized prior to deposition are similar to those of modern plants which have the same carbon dioxide fixation or nitrogen assimilation mechanisms. In contrast, the δ15N values of prehistoric plants that were not carbonized are generally 10-20%. and as much as 35%. more positive than those of their modern counterparts. The δ13C and δ15N values of different parts of prehistoric uncarbonized plants differ by as much as 8%. and 21%. respectively, whereas the same parts of modern plants have δ13C or δ15N values that lie within 2%. of one another. SEM analysis etiminated the possibility that diagenetic alteration of the isotope ratios of the prehistoric uncarbonized plants was caused by the adsorption of particulate soil matter. Isotopic analysis of the organic residues that remained after the prehistoric uncarbonized plants were treated to remove fractions that might have been added in the depositional environment indicated that the alteration of the δ13C values resulted from the adsorption of humic and fulvic acids, whereas the diagenetic shifts of the nitrogen isotope ratios were not caused by adsorption of δ15N-enriched organic or inorganic forms of nitrogen from the soil. Our observations do not permit us to speculate on a mechanism that accounts for the δ13N-enrichment of the prehistoric uncarbonized plant remains, although the excellent state of preservation of these samples suggests that isotopic fractionation during microbial decomposition was not the cause. The observation that the isotope ratios of the prehistoric carbonized plants are similar to those of their modern counterparts indicates that it will be possible to separate carbonized plants residues into three groups—legumes, non-leguminous C 3 plants or C 4 and CAM

  19. Environmental Microbial Forensics and Archaeology of Past Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The development of paleomicrobiology with new molecular techniques such as metagenomics is revolutionizing our knowledge of microbial evolution in human history. The study of microbial agents that are concomitantly active in the same biological environment makes it possible to obtain a picture of the complex interrelations among the different pathogens and gives us the perspective to understand the microecosystem of ancient times. This research acts as a bridge between disciplines such as archaeology, biology, and medicine, and the development of paleomicrobiology forces archaeology to broaden and update its methods. This chapter addresses the archaeological issues related to the identification of cemeteries from epidemic catastrophes (typology of burials, stratigraphy, topography, paleodemography) and the issues related to the sampling of human remains for biomolecular analysis. Developments in the field of paleomicrobiology are described with the example of the plague. Because of its powerful interdisciplinary features, the paleomicrobiological study of Yersinia pestis is an extremely interesting field, in which paleomicrobiology, historical research, and archeology are closely related, and it has important implications for the current dynamics of epidemiology.

  20. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  1. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Publishing and Pushing: Mixing Models for Communicating Research Data in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Kansa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of data integration and reuse involving 12 researchers who published datasets in Open Context, an online data publishing platform, as part of collaborative archaeological research on early domesticated animals in Anatolia. Our discussion reports on how different editorial and collaborative review processes improved data documentation and quality, and created ontology annotations needed for comparative analyses by domain specialists. To prepare data for shared analysis, this project adapted editor-supervised review and revision processes familiar to conventional publishing, as well as more novel models of revision adapted from open source software development of public version control. Preparing the datasets for publication and analysis required significant investment of effort and expertise, including archaeological domain knowledge and familiarity with key ontologies. To organize this work effectively, we emphasized these different models of collaboration at various stages of this data publication and analysis project. Collaboration first centered on data editors working with data contributors, then widened to include other researchers who provided additional peer-review feedback, and finally the widest research community, whose collaboration is facilitated by GitHub’s version control system. We demonstrate that the “publish” and “push” models of data dissemination need not be mutually exclusive; on the contrary, they can play complementary roles in sharing high quality data in support of research. This work highlights the value of combining multiple models in different stages of data dissemination.

  3. Urban archaeology: new perspectives and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Persico, Raffaele

    2017-04-01

    The study of ancient remains is more difficult in urban environments than in an archaeological site, because the ancient town and the modern one superpose to each other and precious testimonies are present just under the current irremovable roads and the buildings. However, modern techniques allows to investigate the past under the present, and allows to retrieve information and possibly create a fruition of the ancient site. IBAM-CNR has been engaged for years in this kind of problems, making use of GPR, ERT and other geophysical techniques [1-3], virtual reality [4] and minimally invasive diagnostics [5] in several towns, in particular in southern Italy and Sicily. The valorization of sites in urban areas require precise projects, founding and clear ideas and agreements about the management of the cultural heritage, because only in this case the work performed will be really exploited and enjoyed by specialists and common people. At the conference, some examples will be shown regarding monuments in the town of Lecce, Italy. References [1] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C. Atzeni, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, Advanced Processing Techniques for Step-frequency Continuous-Wave Penetrating Radar: the Case Study of "Palazzo Vecchio" Walls (Firenze, Italy), Research on Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 17, pp. 71-83, 2006. [2] Masini N, Persico R., Rizzo E, Calia A, Giannotta M. T., Quarta G., Pagliuca A., "Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy)." Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 8, n. 5, pp. 423-432, 2010. [3] G. Leucci, N. Masini, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri." GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration : the case of the Cathedral of Tricarico", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, vol. 8, pp. S76-S92, Aug. 2011. [4] F. Gabellone, G. Leucci, N. Masini, R. Persico, G. Quarta, F. Grasso, "Nondestructive Prospecting and virtual reconstruction of the chapel of the

  4. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  5. Isker – Kuchum fortifi ed settelment (archaeological research of 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova Bronislava B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of the Ural Archaeological Expedition (UAE investigations of the Isker settlement site headed by V.A. Gening in 1961–1969. The expedition was aimed at survey investigations on the Iron Age sites located in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Irtysh area and at determining their periodization. In particular, a number of sites referring to the Siberian Khanate period were excavated by the UAE, including a Kuchum fortified settlement named Isker (excavations were headed by the author. The site is located on the right bank of the Irtysh River near present-day Tobolsk city. The 1968 studies confirmed the apprehension expressed by scholars as N. Spathari, P.A Slovtsov, G.F Miller, M.S Znamensky, V.N. Pignatti and others, who had visited the site in the 17th through to early 20th cc., concerning an inevitable collapse of the hill fort site in the near future. The complex stratigraphy of the site was noted; an assemblage supposedly connected with the metallurgical process (the fact confirmed by written sources was discovered.

  6. Beyond the Argo-polis: a social archaeology of the Argolid in the 6th and early 5th centuries BCE

    OpenAIRE

    Beaufils, K.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of the present study is on the archaeological record of archaic (700-480 BCE) contexts found on mainland Greece in the region known as the Argolid. Its main concern is with interpreting the archaeological evidence in terms of human activities to arrive at a better understanding of the cultural and social developments of the archaic Argolid. From an archaeological perspective we can only speak of activities that leave some trace in the material record; here I examine w...

  7. The prehistoric mines of Gavà: an example of a comprehensive approach to the study and public presentation of an archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco, Mònica

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prehistoric Mines of Gavà used to provide variscite about 6000 years ago. This mineral was used for decorative purposes! For the last ten years, the Gavà Museum has been implementing a comprehensive intervention (research, conservation and information dissemination campaign for the mines. This programme is financed by many different institutions, such as the city hall, the Generalitat de Cataluña (the Catalan Government, the Diputación de Barcelona (the city council and lNEM (employment office. The museum leads and coordinates an interdisciplinary team and has established cooperation agreements with some universities. The Prehistoric Mines can be visited since 1993, and meet the visitors´ safety, mobility and understanding requirements, without affecting their conservation and scientific rigor Visits are guided and their goal is to make people experience emotions. Although they have got a varied target group, they are especially aimed at students. Thus, there is a number of activities planned only for them. The visits to the Prehistoric Mines have been considered an accepted educational resource in Barcelona and its metropolitan area. The main future project of the museum is the Archaeological Park of the Prehistoric Mines. It will be a centre aimed at interpreting the Neolithic period and the origin of the mining industry. Its objectives are to maintain intervention and to attract the cultural tourism in Barcelona.

    Las Minas Prehistóricas de Gavá proporcionaron variscita, un material ornamental, hace 6000 años. Desde hace diez años el Museo de Gavá impulsa una intervención integral (investigación, conservación y difusión, financiada por diversas instituciones (Ayuntamiento, Generalitat de Cataluña, Diputación de Barcelona e INEM, lidera y coordina un equipo interdisciplinar y mantiene convenios de colaboración con diferentes universidades. Las minas están abiertas al público desde 1993 y

  8. A field guide to geophysics in archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Oswin, John

    2009-01-01

    Geophysics operations in archaeology have become well known through exposure on television. However, the technique is presented as the action of specialists and something of a mystery, where people walk about with strange contraptions, and results appear from a computer. This is not the case, however. Some scientific knowledge is needed in order to understand how the machines work and what they detect but otherwise it is only necessary to know how to handle the instruments, how to survey a field and how to interpret the computer results. This book provides all the relevant information. It explains geophysics operations in archaeology, describes the science that gives the soil properties to measure and the means by which the instruments make their measurements. Dr John Oswin is in charge of the geophysics operation of the Bath and Camerton Archaeological Society and his work has recently been the subject of a television programme. He has taught many students how to use geophysical equipment.

  9. A pre-feasibility case study on integrated resource planning including renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Hakan Hocaoglu, M.; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, economical and environmental constraints force governments and energy policy decision-makers to change the prominent characteristics of the electricity markets. Accordingly, depending on local conditions on the demand side, usage of integrated resource planning approaches in conjunction with renewable technologies has gained more importance. In this respect, an integrated resource planning option, which includes the design and optimization of grid-connected renewable energy plants, should be evaluated to facilitate a cost-effective and green solution to a sustainable future. In this paper, an integrated resource planning case is studied for an educational campus, located in Gebze, Turkey. It is found that for the considered campus, the integrated resource planning scenario that includes renewables as a supply-side option with existing time-of-use tariff may provide a cost-effective energy production, particularly for the high penetration level of the renewables. (author)

  10. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Archaeology of Human Sciences in Postcolonial Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1985 Gayatri Spivak, criticizing western academic communities, proposed this question that “Can the subaltern speak? “ The answer to this question necessitates the consideration of humanities and any kinds of discourse which bring about subalterns. Postcolonial discourse as a critical, liberal, and anticolonial criticizes this discourse. Postcolonial thinker seeks a period during which an eastern person was defined against a western person. Identification modern subject is the topic that the postcolonial thinker like Michael Foucault questions about while dealing with archaeology. The appearance of a person as an eastern dates back to the time when the existence of the outside world resulted from the subject. An eastern can speak when s/he criticizes the subject based on which the humanities are constructed. Obtaining a definition of human being and the way s/she faces the world in order to understand it, is the primary step of introducing an alternative for authoritative humanities. Postcolonial thinker‘s method in understanding other and the outside world based on intersubjectivity. By establishing human studies instead of western humanities and local humanities and by critical view on spivak’s intellectual paradigm, this method of understanding provides spivak’s question with a positive answer contrary to his own negative answer.

  12. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  13. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  14. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kharakwal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of brass and zinc in India.

  15. VIRTUAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS GENERATED IN AVAYALIVE ENGAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTHONY Rigby

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Realistically rendered and textured virtual spaces can be created in the AVAYALIVE ENGAGE platform by importing high polygon models and scaled accurately reproduced textures. In addition MellaniuM has successfully developed an application for utilizing all the archaeological virtual assets developed in 3D Studio Max or generated over the past several years using photogrammetry and laser scanning. It is possible therefore to create interactive environments of archaeological significance that can be accessed through the Internet and available to up to 40 participants. 

  16. A Robust Framework for Microbial Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Herbig, Alexander; Mann, Allison; Fellows Yates, James A; Weiß, Clemens L; Burbano, Hernán A; Orlando, Ludovic; Krause, Johannes

    2017-08-31

    Microbial archaeology is flourishing in the era of high-throughput sequencing, revealing the agents behind devastating historical plagues, identifying the cryptic movements of pathogens in prehistory, and reconstructing the ancestral microbiota of humans. Here, we introduce the fundamental concepts and theoretical framework of the discipline, then discuss applied methodologies for pathogen identification and microbiome characterization from archaeological samples. We give special attention to the process of identifying, validating, and authenticating ancient microbes using high-throughput DNA sequencing data. Finally, we outline standards and precautions to guide future research in the field.

  17. Large-scale, high-definition Ground Penetrating Radar prospection in archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, I.; Kucera, M.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Nau, E.; Neubauer, W.; Zitz, T.

    2012-04-01

    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (LBI ArchPro) in collaboration with its eight European partner organisations is the advancement of state-of-the-art archaeological sciences. The application and specific further development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications, as well as of novel integrated interpretation approaches dedicated to non-invasive spatial archaeology combining near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science is crucial for modern archaeology. Within the institute's research programme different areas for distinct case studies in Austria, Germany, Norway, Sweden and the UK have been selected as basis for the development and testing of new concepts for efficient and universally applicable tools for spatial, non-invasive archaeology. In terms of geophysical prospection the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes for the exploration and protection of Europe's buried cultural heritage requires new measurement devices, which are fast, accurate and precise. Therefore the further development of motorized, multichannel survey systems and advanced navigation solutions is required. The use of motorized measurement devices for archaeological prospection implicates several technological and methodological challenges. Latest multichannel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) arrays mounted in front off, or towed behind motorized survey vehicles permit large-scale GPR prospection surveys with unprecedented spatial resolution. In particular the motorized 16 channel 400 MHz MALÅ Imaging Radar Array (MIRA) used by the LBI ArchPro in combination with latest automatic data positioning and navigation solutions permits the reliable high

  18. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  19. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  20. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  1. Archaeological mounds as analogs of engineered covers for waste disposal sites: Literature review and progress report. [Appendix contains bibliography and data on archaeological mounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J C; Gard, H A

    1991-09-01

    Closure caps for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are typically designed as layered earthen structures, the composition of which is intended to prevent the infiltration of water and the intrusion of the public into waste forms. Federal regulations require that closure caps perform these functions well enough that minimum exposure guidelines will be met for at least 500 years. Short-term experimentation cannot mimic the conditions that will affect closure caps on the scale of centuries, and therefore cannot provide data on the performance of cap designs over long periods of time. Archaeological mounds hundreds to thousands of years old which are closely analogous to closure caps in form, construction details, and intent can be studied to obtain the necessary understanding of design performance. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a review and analysis of archaeological literature on ancient human-made mounds to determine the quality and potential applicability of this information base to assessments of waste facility design performance. A bibliography of over 200 English-language references was assembled on mound structures from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A sample of these texts was read for data on variables including environmental and geographic setting, condition, design features, construction. Detailed information was obtained on all variables except those relating to physical and hydrological characteristics of the mound matrix, which few texts presented. It is concluded that an extensive amount of literature and data are available on structures closely analogous to closure caps and that this information is a valuable source of data on the long-term performance of mounded structures. Additional study is recommended, including an expanded analysis of design features reported in the literature and field studies of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of different mound designs. 23 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. V.F. Gening and issues on the archaeology of Volga Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko Konstantin A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available V.F. Gening’s contribution to the study of the Volga Bulgaria and his views concerning the history and archaeology of this state formation are considered in the article. His sphere of interest first of all included the links between the Volga Bulgaria population and the tribes belonging to preceding cultures, such as Pyanoborye and Imenkovo ones. V.F. Gening investigated the Bolshie Tarkhany, Turaevo and Rozdestveno burial grounds dated by the 8-9th, 5th and 6-7th centuries A.D., and the materials collected modified the notion of the time and character of the Bulgars arrival in the Volga area. He reconsidered the chronology and interpretation of the archaeological monuments, which referred to the epoch preceding the Bulgars appearance on the Volga, and proposed a hypothesis of the Volga Bulgars as a Turkic-Ugrian ethnos. V.F. Gening created a periodization of the Bolgars history in Eastern Europe within the time span between 1st-3rd centuries AD and the early 13th century AD

  3. Diagnostic guide enabling distinction between taphonomic stains and enamel hypomineralisation in an archaeological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garot, Elsa; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Manton, David; Rodriguez, Vincent; Lefrais, Yannick; Rouas, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a structural anomaly that affects the quality of tooth enamel and has important consequences for oral health. The developmentally hypomineralised enamel has normal thickness and can range in colour from white to yellow or brown with or without surface breakdown. The possibility of finding MIH in 'ancient populations' could downplay several current aetiological hypotheses (e.g., dioxin derivatives, bisphenols, antibiotics) without excluding the possible multifactorial aspect of the anomaly. In an archaeological context, chemical elements contained in the burial ground can stain teeth yellow or brown and therefore might create a taphonomic bias. The purpose of the present study is to test a proposed diagnostic guide enabling determination of the pathological or taphonomic cause of enamel discolouration and defects that resemble MIH present on 'ancient teeth'. Two sample groups including MIH discoloration (n=12 teeth) from living patients, taphonomic discoloration (n=9 teeth) and unknown discoloration (n=2 teeth) from medieval specimens were tested. Three non-destructive methods-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray micro-computed tomography and X-ray fluorescence were utilised. Hypomineralised enamel has decreased mineral density (pstaining in archaeological teeth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine geophysical methods for archaeological investigation of volcanic and bradyseismic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giordano

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test several geophysical methods for the identification and study of submerged prehistorical coastlines and archaeological sites. This research program was carried out in collaboration with the <> in the Gulf of Pozzuoli and dealt in particular with the bathymetric strips extending from - 5 m to - 50 m Within these strips we identified the coastline dating from the Rornan period. former beach boundaries associated with the vertical movements of the earth's surface caused by seismic-volcanic activity, and the variations in sea level following the climactic changes throughout the last 15000 years. The UNIBOOM system was used for this part of the programme, perinittiilg the identification of several coastlines and submerged beaches lying at different levels. The use of a modern Side Scan Sonar - for the morphological invesdgation of the sea bed - in a zone which had been the object of numerous archaeological surveys in the past, permitted previously unknown structures near the Lacuus Baianus to be identified. Other features worth pointing out include the operating speed of the system (15000 m'lfirst minute approx and its observation capacity in cloudy waters compared to visible radiation, as well as its ability to penetrate thin layers of mud which generally impede direct underwater observation.

  5. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological...

  6. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources...

  7. Esperienze di archeologia pubblica nella Sicilia sud-orientale. Il progetto Lungo le tracce di Paolo Orsi per lo studio e la valorizzazione dei castelli medievali dell'altopiano ibleo (SR / Public archaeology experiences in south-eastern Sicily. The project “Lungo le tracce di Paolo Orsi” (On Paolo Orsi’s trail, for the study and enhancement of medieval castles in the hyblean area (SR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santino Alessandro Cugno

    2015-06-01

    The project Lungo le tracce di Paolo Orsi was launched in 2011 on the initiative of the cultural association Centro Studio Ibleo of Ferla (Siracusa with the aim of developing new strategies for the conservation, management and enhancement of the considerable archaeological heritage, located in the hyblean area and threatened by high seismic risk. The three archaeological and topographical campaigns (2011-2013 focused on the preliminary study and the detecting of a part of the archaeological remains, belonging to the medieval castles of Ferla, Buscemi and Cassaro and had the scientific collaboration of the Accademia di Belle Arti “Rosario Gagliardi” of Siracusa (2011 and the Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore” - Corso di Laurea in Archeologia del Mediterraneo (2013. Thanks to field surveys we collected new data about the phenomenon of the medieval encastellation in south-eastern Sicily and the degradation’s conditions of these castles.

  8. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  9. [Histopathological characteristics of genital and breast cancer included in epidemiologic study cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Mioara; Azoicăi, Doina

    2009-01-01

    The correct management of genitals and breast cancers and the improving of the preventional and therapeutical successes ratio involve the knowledge of the histopathological features of these nosological entities which have different origins, different risk factors, different simptomatology and also different prognosis. The descriptive evaluation of the histopathological features of the genitals and breast cancers to women from North-Eastern region of Romania. We have been included in the study 96 women (age range 23-77 years, mean 54,49) diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer at the hospital admission, residency in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics within 23 months. The following main parameters were assessed: histological types, stage at diagnosis, Pap test. After data collection, these have been codified and included in a MS Excel Database, in order to be processed with SPSS 16 and EpiInfo 3.5.1. (2008) Softwares. The following cases' repartition on diagnostic types was observed: breast cancer (44 cases), cervical cancer (24 cases), endometrial cancer (16 cases) and ovarian cancer (12 cases). In our study, the most affected range of age was 40-69 years for breast cancer, 30-59 years for cervical cancer, over 6 years for endometrial cancer and 50-59 years for ovarian cancer. For the cervical neoplasia, 40% of analyzed cases were in incipient stages (in situ to IB stage lessions). More than 50% of breast cancer cases have been diagnosed in advances stages (IIB to IIIC stages). For the endometrium carcinoma, 45% of cases have been identified in incipient stages (in situ to IC). The ovarian neoplasia cases have been detected, most frequently, in advanced stages (III and IV). 25% of women which participated in our study had showed cervical changes. From a histopathological point of view, for cervical neoplasia, squamous carcinoma was the most frequent type (87%), for breast neoplasia--invasive ductal carcinoma (80

  10. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  11. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  12. Digitising the Archaeological Process at the Swedish National Heritage Board: producing, managing and sharing archaeological information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa M. Larsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available he Digital Archaeological Process (DAP programme was initiated by the Swedish National Heritage Board in order to create a more seamless process for storing and sharing digital information generated through archaeological surveys and excavations. The programme aims to increase the availability of digital data as well as the quality and usefulness of the information. The Cultural Environment Register is being developed, which will contain and/or link to information about where fieldwork has been done and what was found: archaeological sites, field documentation, finds, as well as the reports and publications. In addition to creating a new system for storing this information, a large amount of old digital projects previously kept by museums and archaeological contractors is being collected to be made publicly available. Our goal is to make heritage management more efficient, and in the process the information will also become more useful to researchers, museums and the general public.

  13. Crowd-sourcing archaeological research: HeritageTogether digital public archaeology in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologists are increasingly working with crowd-sourced digital data. Using evidence from other disciplines about the nature of crowd-sourcing in academic research, we suggest that archaeological projects using donated data can usefully be differentiated between generative projects (which rely on data collected by citizen scientists, and analytical projects (which make use of volunteers to classify, or otherwise analyse data that are provided by the project. We conclude that projects which privilege hyper-local research (such as surveying specific sites might experience tension if the audience they are appealing to are 'cyber local'. In turn, for more 'traditional' archaeological audiences (when the primary motivating interests may be the tangible, physical nature of portable material culture or the archaeological site itself, then intangible, digital simulacra may not provide an effective medium through which to undertake digital public archaeology.

  14. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1988-10-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1987 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 74 samples were dated. The results were corrected for short-term fading of feldspars as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks or at 100 deg. C for two weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar, and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included, assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author) 20 tabs., 29 refs

  15. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1986-11-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short- term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quarts and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author)

  16. Neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas: a clinicopathological study of nine cases including six insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Arfa, N; Ben Hassen, E; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNET) are relatively uncommon, accounting for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. They are characterised by varying clinical presentation, tumour biology and prognosis. To provide an updated overview on clinicopathological features, treatment and outcome of pNET. In our retrospective study, we reviewed 9 cases of pNET that were diagnosed at the Pathology Department of Mongi Slim Hospital over an 11-year period (2003- 2013). Relevant clinical information and microscopic slides were available in all cases and were retrospectively reviewed. The latest WHO classification (2010) was adopted. Our study group included 3 men and 6 women (M/F ratio 0.5) with an age between 20 and 75 years (mean = 52 years). Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours ranged in size from 0.5 to 10 cm (mean 4 cm). The sites of pNET were the head of the pancreas (n = 4), the body of the pancreas (n = 3) and the tail of the pancreas (n = 2). Enucleation of the tumour was performed in five cases, Three patients underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, whereas only one patient had central pancreatectomy. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen coupled with immunohistochemical study established a diagnosis of pNET grade 1 (G1) in seven cases and grade 2 (G2) in two cases. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct tumour genetics, biology and clinicopathological features. Accurate clinical and pathologic diagnosis is an important first step in developing an appropriate management plan.

  17. Towards a Social History of Archaeology: The Case of the Excavators of Early Iron Age Burial Mounds in Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Müller-Scheessel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available While the general history of archaeology has received a growing interest lately1, these efforts still lack a common research-guiding agenda. Furthermore, most of the studies still concentrate on biographies and event history. The embedding of archaeology in the structures and conditions of its time is still a kind of terra incognita. The few well known publications (e. g. Hudson 1981; Kristiansen 1981; Patterson 1986; 1995 emphasize the gap only more. The lack of a significant amount of literature especially on the social history of archaeology is all the more surprising as the early interest in archaeology shows a clear social bias: archaeology was (and still is? a recreational activity for the educated and the well-off. While Hudson’s book in particular is very readable, it is clearly meant to provide only a very broad picture. Along with the other publications mentioned above it is now somewhat dated; the lack of recent works on this topic thus highlight the lack of interest in the social history of archaeology even more.2 However, this essay does not deal with this deplorable fact, but seeks to present some ‘hard’ data on only one, albeit important activity of early archaeological excavations, particularly those of burial mounds. Its focus is on Southern Germany and on graves from the early Iron Age.3

  18. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  19. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  20. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  1. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  2. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela; Granata, Claudio; Matranga, Domenica; Salerno, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest–abdomen–pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen–pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen–pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). • Radiation dose associated with multidetector CT (MDCT) is an important health issue. • This national survey assessed dose exposures of 5,668 patients undergoing MDCT. • Dose indices correlate with BMI, voltage, rotation time, pitch and tube current. • These results may contribute to an update of national diagnostic reference levels.

  3. Objects or Narratives. Archaeological Exhibitions in Serbia: Foundations of Museum Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Cvjetićanin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although every local museum or parts of national museums keep archaeological finds, museums in general play a very limited role on the archaeological scene, often being passive and marginalized. Well-grounded investigation into the archaeological objects kept in museum collections and, above all, the public domain of museums, the nature of collections and exhibitions, both permanent and occasional, have not been adequately recognized, discussed or considered. In spite of the fact that museum exhibitions legitimize the dominant social and political norms of the present, museums remain marginalized, separated from the currents of various pertinent disciplines, and not prepared for the necessary changes. Archaeological theory, shaping the archaeological practice of museums as well, is not understood as its constituent part, and the interpretive context in which exhibitions are created, contents and nature of interpretation are not considered. The analysis of the exhibitions of the National Museum in Belgrade, being the paradigm of museum archaeology in Serbia up to the middle of the 20th century, has shown that the culture-historical approach, the idea of continuity and dynamic artistic presentations of alienated past have marked this public presence of museums. The Museum has developed from the storage space and knowledge presentation, over exhibition space to an ideal museum, dominated by estheticized expositions, establishing various official representations of the past. The changes in the theory of museology, somewhat coinciding with the changes in archaeological theory, have posed a new challenge to museum archaeology, that may be defined in short as the need for the new interpretation of the past.

  4. The Archaeology of Late Antique Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dann, Rachael Jane

    found there. In doing so, it sheds new light on a culture which, although less well known than the Meroitic Empire that preceded it and the subsequent development of the Christian Kingdoms of the Sudan, is nevertheless of considerable archaeological and historical significance. The sites present...

  5. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  6. Corrosion inhibitor testing in archaeological conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Faltermeier

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal objects from archaeological contexts often suffer serious damage by corrosion. Various methods for inhibiting corrosion have been developed, but their effects need to be evaluated. Here new research is described on how treatments to inhibit the corrosion of copper and copper-alloy artefacts may be tested.

  7. Archaeological Rescue Excavations at the Dejazmach Gebreslassie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archaeological rescue test excavations that were carried out by the Ethiopian Cultural Heritage Project Site Planning and Conservation sub-component at the Gebreslassie Bariya Gabir palace enclosure at the back of The Main Stelae Field in Aksum from the 5th of June to the 15th of July 2005 yielded at least four ...

  8. ARIADNE: A Research Infrastructure for Archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, H.S.; Meghini, Carlo; Scopigno, Roberto; Richards, Julian; Wright, Holly; Geser, Guntram; Cuy, Sebastian; Fihn, Johan; Fanini, Bruno; Niccolucci, Franco; Felicetti, Achille; Ronzino, Paola; Nurra, Federico; Papatheodorou, Christos; Gavrilis, Dimitris; Theodoridou, Maria; Doerr, Martin; Tudhope, Douglas; Binding, Ceri; Vlachidis, Andreas

    Research e-infrastructures, digital archives and data services have become important pillars of scientific enterprise that in recent decades has become ever more collaborative, distributed and data-intensive. The archaeological research community has been an early adopter of digital tools for data

  9. What Kind of Archaeology do We Need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staša Babić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available From the time of the constitution of archaeology as an academic discipline to the present, two radical changes have taken place of theoretical postulates, aims, methods, relationships with other disciplines. However, potentially farreaching consequences of these fundamental changes have not had the same impact in all the academic communities. The critical assessment of the epistemological foundations of archaeology in Serbia indicates that our professional community has remained resistant to the large extent to the paradigm changes in the wider disciplinary surrounding, so the culture-historical approach still prevails, even though it was severely criticized as early as by the middle of the 20th century. Facing this significant delay raises many important questions, starting by the issue of selection among various, sometimes mutually conflicting theoretical approaches, being a part of archaeological research for several decades and implying certain consequences in terms of methodological aspects of the discipline. Partial, non-critical and insufficiently theoretically informed borrowing of individual elements of research may lead to equally bad results as the total rejection of influences from other archaeological environments. It is therefore necessary to bring into the discipline the comprehension of the social responsibility of archaeologists, the importance of the academic narratives we produce and the ways of their creation.

  10. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347 ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. The Exodus and the spade: The impact of archaeology on the interpretation of the book of Exodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Bosman

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the book of Exodus is used as an  example of the different ways in which archaeological discoveries influenced the course of biblical exegesis.   Special emphasis will be placed on matters such as the Amarna letters and the Habiru, Merneptah Stele and the  date of the Exodus and the Egyptian background of the Exodus. In conclusion it will be argued that critical dialogue and mutual respect must exist between archaeology and biblical studies. The theological interpretation of biblical texts is inevitably an interdisciplinary endeavor and archaeology is an academic discipline that must be part of the critical dialogue with biblical exegesis.

  12. Including the online feedback site, Patient Opinion, in the nursing curriculum: Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray; Young, Kim; Munro, James; Miller, Heather; Brelsford, Stephanie; Aronsson, Jennie; Goodman, Benny; Peters, Jane

    2017-10-01

    Globally, universities aim to involve people who use health services to enrich the nursing curriculum for students, but there can be barriers to this involvement. Many also want students to contribute to local communities. Online communication can help connect students to service users to achieve these aims. The online British patient feedback site, Patient Opinion, gathers comments from service users about services and encourages service responses to the comments. To explore the feasibility and acceptability of five ways of including Patient Opinion in the undergraduate nursing curriculum. Five case studies using mixed data collection methods. British University with nursing students across two campuses, accustomed to using webinars, video presentations and social media. Students from different years participated in the five approaches of making use of Patient Opinion in the curriculum; 18 students took part in an online forum to discuss Patient Opinion in the curriculum. We trialled timetabled webinars, video-linked lectures, optional enhanced access for self-study, optional audit of service user comments for two local hospitals, and optional Twitter and Tweetchat. Students discussed the aims and approaches in an online forum. Of the five approaches trialled, webinars seemed effective in ensuring that all nursing students engaged with the topic. Video-linked lectures provided an alternative when timetabling did not allow webinars, but were less interactive. The three optional approaches (Tweetchats, audit exercise, self-directed study) provided opportunities for some students to enhance their learning but students needed guidance. Sending a summary of student reviews of patients' feedback to local hospitals illustrated how students might be agents of change in local health services. Experience from these case studies suggests that webinars followed by use of Patient Opinion preparing for placements may be a sustainable way of embedding feedback sites in the

  13. Forensic and archaeological applications of neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear detection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.

    1977-11-01

    The work carried out can be categorized as follows: setting up and standardization of the instrumental multielement analysis facility, for which a system manual is attached; forensic applications which have included the examination of firearm discharge residues around holes suspected to have been caused by the passage of a bullet, and the trace element characterization of biological (hair) and non-biological (transmission wires) materials; archaeological applications involving the study of potsherds from sites along the Stulej river in India; analysis of IAEA intercomparison samples, for which the results are tabulated; and methods for data evaluation

  14. [Baseline clinical characteristics and management of patients included in IBERICAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Llisterri, J L; Rodríguez Roca, G; Badimón, J J; Vergara, J; Prieto, M Á; Serrano, A; Cinza, S; Murillo, C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in Spain, as well as the quality of the follow-up in clinical practice. In this study the baseline data of the first interim analysis of IBERICAN are shown (n=830). IBERICAN is a multicenter, longitudinal and observational population-based study of patients daily attended in primary care setting according to clinical practice in Spain. Subjects between 18 and 85 years daily attended in primary care setting are being included consecutively. Treatment of patients will be performed according only to clinical criteria of investigators. Blood pressure control was defined according to 2013 European guidelines of hypertension; LDL-cholesterol control was defined according to 2012 European guidelines of cardiovascular prevention; diabetes control was defined as HbA1ccardiovascular risk factors with a poor control. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (pheadache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (pheadaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Archaeological research in the Eurasian steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzinger, Hermann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the activities of the 'Eurasien-Abteilung' of the German Archaeological Institute in different countries of former USSR. Many of these projects have just begun; consequently the paper does not discuss the results of these investigations, but details their scientific purposes. The investigations cover an area which extends from the Black Sea to northeastern China. The principal objects of these investigations include: the transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Pontic area north of the Black Sea and the Greek colonization of that area; the activities of the Scythians and the Sassanians in Transcaucasia, urbanism and metallurgy in the Bronze Age of Central Asia; and, finally, cultural developments from the Early Bronze Age to the periods of the Scythians and the Huns period in southern Siberia.

    Este artículo presenta las actividades de la 'Eurasien-Abteilung', del Instituto Arqueológico Alemán, en los distintos países de la ex-URSS. Como muchos de estos proyectos han empezado hace poco tiempo, no pretendemos adelantar resultados, sino planteamientos científicos. El área que abarcan se extiende desde el Mar Negro hasta el Noreste de China. Sus principales temas de investigación son: el cambio del Bronce Final a la primera Edad del Hierro en el norte del Mar Negro, la colonización griega en esta zona, las actividades de los Escitas y de los Sasánidas en Transcaucasia, el urbanismo y la metalurgia de la Edad del Bronce en Asia Central y, finalmente, el desarrollo cultural desde el Bronce Antiguo hasta la época de los Escitas y Hunos en el sur de Siberia.

  17. Should abdominal sequences be included in prostate cancer MR staging studies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, S.H., E-mail: sineadhmcevoy@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Lavelle, L.P.; Purcell, Y.M. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Quinlan, D.M. [Department of Urology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Skehan, S.J.; Collins, C.D.; McMahon, C.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • ESUR guideline that abdominal MR sequences are reserved for high-risk prostate cancer is tested. • Routine abdominal sequences are of low yield in prostate cancer MR staging. • Routine abdominal staging sequences frequently result in incidental findings. • Abdominal staging sequences should be reserved for high-risk prostate cancer cases. - Abstract: Objectives: Prostate cancer staging MR examinations commonly include abdominal sequences to assess for non-regional (common iliac or para-aortic) nodal metastasis. In our experience the diagnostic yield of this is limited, but incidental findings are frequent, often necessitating further investigations. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of abdominal sequences in routine prostate cancer MR staging studies. Methods: Findings on abdominal sequences of consecutive MRI prostate studies performed for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer between September 2011 and September 2013 were reviewed with respect to adenopathy and additional incidental findings. Results were correlated with Gleason grade and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in each case. Results: 355 MRI prostate examinations were reviewed. 4 (1.1%) showed enlarged non-regional lymph nodes. Incidental findings were found in 82(23.1%) cases, neccessitating further investigation in 45 (12.7%) cases. Enlarged non-regional nodes were associated with higher PSA level and Gleason grade (p = 0.007, p = 0.005 respectively). With a combined threshold of PSA > 20 ng/mL and/or Gleason grade ≥8 the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100, 60, 3 and 100% respectively for predicting the presence of non-regional adenopathy. Conclusions: Routine abdominal sequences are of very low yield in routine prostate cancer MR staging, frequently resulting in incidental findings requiring further work-up and should be reserved for high-risk cases. Our experience supports the use of an abdominal staging sequence in high

  18. Using the Saliency-Based Model to Design a Digital Archaeological Game to Motivate Players' Intention to Visit the Digital Archives of Taiwan's Natural Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Chen, Yu-Ju; Lin, Pei-Hsin; Huang, Yao-Tien; Cheng, Hao-Yueh; Lee, Chih-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Museums in Taiwan have developed various digital archives, but few people have visited these digital archives. Therefore, this study designed a digital archaeology game for high school students to play. Based on the concept of "learning for playing" (i.e., players who want to win will study more), the digital archaeology game contest…

  19. Droping the Trowel: Three Discourses and One Creative Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mármol Martínez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology offers insight into the values of the contemporary world. From three separate discourses, which address different temporalities and sites, an overarching archaeological narrative has been established, which reflects the role of art and heritage in artistic destruction; education and archaeology as an educational and social tool; and materiality (in the present case, the Chinese pottery sherds in Al-Andalus in the interpretations and acts of archaeologists. The visual values of archaeology and the role of the archaeological imagination to unify disparate archaeological practices will be explored here. The permeability of the spheres of archaeology and art allow us to explore both archaeological and artistic practices, as well as reflect on universal convictions and on the potentiality of archaeological practice to intervene in social contexts. With all this, archaeology acquires relevance insofar as it is a practice that is able to address the problems of the present day. In line with the so-called ‘creative archaeologies’, with their experimentation and creation of artistic works (in this case photographic, this paper aims to reflect on new ways to ‘see’ archaeology, which has never been more necessary.

  20. Preliminary characterization of ceramics from the Lago Grande archaeological site in the central Amazon by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic characteristics of archaeological ceramics, such as the surface decoration and shape, are used as cultural and chronological indicators of ancient people. The combination of stylistic-typological studies with archaeometric analysis, as provenance studies, has been considered of great importance in Archaeology. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the pre-colonial Amazonian occupations. Inside this context, fifty ceramic fragments from the Lago Grande archaeological site were analyzed by INAA in order to characterize its elemental composition. The results were treated with multivariate statistics: Cluster, Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis. The results obtained by these three methods were compared in an effort to achieve some correlation with the archaeological context. It was stated the existence of two different groups of artifacts. They probably regard to the main ceramic phases found in the site excavation: Paredao and Manacapuru. Once confirmed by other archaeological analyses, these results could corroborate an exchange net among the former inhabitants of Lago Grande and other sites in the neighborhood. (author)

  1. Oceanographic evidences of the great floods in 2,000 and 1,500 BC documented in archaeological records

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.

    Based on the artifacts, a number of climatic changes in the past are documented in archaeological investigations which are reported to have been the causes for the rise and fall of human civilizations. The credibility of such studies increases...

  2. The potential of statistical shape modelling for geometric morphometric analysis of human teeth in archaeological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Christopher; Fernee, Christianne; Browne, Martin; Zakrzewski, Sonia; Dickinson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces statistical shape modelling (SSM) for use in osteoarchaeology research. SSM is a full field, multi-material analytical technique, and is presented as a supplementary geometric morphometric (GM) tool. Lower mandibular canines from two archaeological populations and one modern population were sampled, digitised using micro-CT, aligned, registered to a baseline and statistically modelled using principal component analysis (PCA). Sample material properties were incorporated as a binary enamel/dentin parameter. Results were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using anatomical landmarks. Finally, the technique's application was demonstrated for inter-sample comparison through analysis of the principal component (PC) weights. It was found that SSM could provide high detail qualitative and quantitative insight with respect to archaeological inter- and intra-sample variability. This technique has value for archaeological, biomechanical and forensic applications including identification, finite element analysis (FEA) and reconstruction from partial datasets.

  3. The potential of statistical shape modelling for geometric morphometric analysis of human teeth in archaeological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Woods

    Full Text Available This paper introduces statistical shape modelling (SSM for use in osteoarchaeology research. SSM is a full field, multi-material analytical technique, and is presented as a supplementary geometric morphometric (GM tool. Lower mandibular canines from two archaeological populations and one modern population were sampled, digitised using micro-CT, aligned, registered to a baseline and statistically modelled using principal component analysis (PCA. Sample material properties were incorporated as a binary enamel/dentin parameter. Results were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using anatomical landmarks. Finally, the technique's application was demonstrated for inter-sample comparison through analysis of the principal component (PC weights. It was found that SSM could provide high detail qualitative and quantitative insight with respect to archaeological inter- and intra-sample variability. This technique has value for archaeological, biomechanical and forensic applications including identification, finite element analysis (FEA and reconstruction from partial datasets.

  4. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  5. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Archaeology, by Stephen Williams. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Trigger

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years Stephen Williams has taught a course at Harvard University dealing with those aspects of Americanist archaeology that the finds to be based on fantasy rather than on carefully recovered archaeological evidence. He has now published a book based on this course, which provides a history of this archaeology. Much of the strength of this book is derived from Williams' recognition that fantastic archaeology has been an integral part of American archaeology from its earliest days, that the border between the fantastic and the scientific is problematical, and that weird ideas often fill real social needs.

  7. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose.

  8. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose

  9. An Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology, edited by Nancy Thomson de Grummond, Green­wood Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Thomson de Grummond has done a tremendous service for those scholars interested in the history of Classical Archaeology. In the 1330 pages that are the two handsome volumes that makeup the set, Thomson de Grummond provides a series of biographical sketches a many classical archaeologists and discussions of archaeological site locations which provide an excellent and concise look at the conduct of classical archae­ology through time. The biographical sketches contained in the volumes represent both the lay and profes­sional classical archaeologist. Represented in the volumes are archaeologists from established religious orders in the classical world as well as those who derived their interest in classical archaeology from the burgeoning interest in the development of the European scientific community. In addition, discussion of selected artifact discoveries are included in both volumes to round out the interest that anyone might have in the origins and development of classical archaeology.

  10. The XRF mapping of archaeological artefacts as the key to understanding of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, L; Niedzielski, P; Jakubowski, K; Michałowski, A; Krzyżanowska, M; Teska, M; Wawrzyniak, M; Kot, K; Piotrowska, M

    2016-04-07

    The article describes the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) studies on the chemical composition of archaeological artefacts. The mapping of the concentration of selected elements has been used to recognise the way of object production and the use. The obtained data allowed to obtain the new information, which is impossible to gain by use of different methods. 'The data obtained from the chemical composition of the particular parts of the objects may be used for the interpretation of the manufacturing technology or the primal form of the objects. Additionally, the knowledge obtained from the chemical composition of the different parts of the artefacts may be essential for the selection of the protection and conservation methods. The present studies can be useful to improve knowledge about the level of former craftsmanship. These knowledge allow us to exam archaeological artefacts in a new light, and these findings can also broaden the archaeological knowledge horizons and provide good bases for further detailed studies.

  11. Classification of the archaeological ceramics utilising the stray neutrons from a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-01-01

    A batch of finely ground ceramic samples prepared from archaeological shreds including the standard (Ohio Red Clay) were irradiated with thermal neutrons from the irradiation facility developed at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron. The gamma spectra of the samples were assayed with a High Purity Germanium Detector and the concentrations of 10 important trace elements were quantitatively evaluated. This paper highlights the application of the stray neutrons produced during the routine isotope production operation at the cyclotron in the activation analysis of trace elements in archaeological ceramics

  12. Response to ‘The National Planning Policy Framework and Archaeology: A Discussion’

    OpenAIRE

    Rosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The CPRE believes good land-use planning is the unsung hero of environmental protection and, as defined by the National Policy Planning Framework (NPPF), the environment includes the natural, built and historic environment, of which archaeology is a part. The historic environment cons of the NPPF have been set out in the article and, in terms of archaeology in particular, the move away from public and research benefits is a step back. But there are also positives that can be taken from the ch...

  13. Some notes on the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Tantirimale Archaeological Site, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.C. Asela

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.

  14. Swords, Settlement and Sacred Places: The Archaeology of Brisley Farm, Ashford, Kent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Stevenson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology South-East (UCL has recently completed the post-excavation analysis of the results of the long-term Brisley Farm project, a series of large-scale archaeological investigations carried out in Kent since 1998. This research has revealed significant insights into the development of an ancient landscape located to the south of Ashford, spanning some three millennia.  Amongst the most revealing discoveries, which included two ‘warrior burials’, is evidence of how funerary and sacred concerns played a pivotal part in the Late Iron Age and Roman everyday life of the area.

  15. Survey of the Pompeii (IT) archaeological Regions with the multispectral thermal airborne TASI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Santini, Federico; Laneve, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Thermal remote sensing, as a tool for analyzing environmental variables with regards to archaeological prospecting, has been growing ever mainly because airborne surveys allow to provide to archaeologists images at meter scale. The importance of this study lies in the evaluation of TIR imagery in view of the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) imagery, for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, that should provide at low cost very high spatial resolution thermal imaging. The research aims at analyzing the potential of the thermal imaging [1] on some selected areas of the Pompeii archaeological park. To this purpose, on December the 7th, 2015, a TASI-600, an [2] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (32 channels from 8 to 11.5 nm with a spectral resolution of 100nm and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel) has surveyed the archaeological Pompeii Regions. Thermal images have been corrected, calibrated in order to obtain land surface temperatures (LST) and emissivity data set to be applied for the further analysis. The thermal data pre-processing has included: ii) radiometric calibration of the raw data and the correction of the blinking pixel; ii) atmospheric correction performed by using MODTRAN; iii) Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) to obtain emissivity and LST maps [3]. Our objective is to shows the major results of the IR survey, the pre-processing of the multispectral thermal imagery. LST and emissivity maps have been analysed to describe the thermal/emissivity pattern of the different Regions as function of the presence, in first subsurface, of archaeological features. The obtained preliminary results are encouraging, even though, the vegetation cover, covering the different Pompeii Regions, is one of the major issues affecting the usefulness of the TIR sensing. Of course, LST anomalies and emissivity maps need to be further integrated with the classical geophysical investigation techniques to have a complete validation and to better evaluate the

  16. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics from Osvaldo and Lago Grande sites in central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating are two important techniques for dating archaeological and geological material, especially suitable for archaeological ceramics, where samples for 14 C dating are not available. In this work, five pottery shards from Osvaldo and Lago Grande archaeological sites were dated by OSL. For measurements, it was used the SAR protocol. The annual dose rates were estimated by the contents of U, Th and K, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the pottery shards and clay samples near both sites. Lago Grande and Osvaldo represent a microcosm of the region, and their proximity and high density of archaeological record turn them interesting to study possible relations of cultural and/or commercial exchange. Calculations showed that the water content is an important variable that cannot be neglected in OSL dating of pottery shards from central Amazon, due to the high humidity in regional soils. The results between 867 ± 101 and 1154 ± 62 years AD agreed with the average time span for the archaeological sites occupation found in the literature. (author)

  17. Dilemma posed by uranium-series dates on archaeologically significant bones from Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, B. J.; Malde, H.E.; Irwin-Williams, C.

    1969-01-01

    In an attempt to date stone artifacts of Early Man excavated from several sites at the Valsequillo Reservoir, a few kilometers south of Puebla, Mexico, Szabo applied the uranium-series method on bone samples known to be either from the same geologic formation as the sites or in direct association with the artifacts. The geologic context of the bones was studied by Malde, and the archaeological sites were excavated by Irwin-Williams. A date determined for bone associated with an artifact (Caulapan sample M-B-6, see below) agrees with a radiocarbon date for fossil mollusks in the same bed and indicates man's presence more than 20 000 years ago. However, some of these bone dates exceed 200 000 years. Because such dates for man in North America conflict with all prior archaeological evidence here and abroad, we are confronted by a dilemna - either to defend the dates against an onslaught of archaeological thought, or to abandon the uranium method in this application as being so much wasted effort. Faced with these equally undesirable alternatives, and unable to decide where the onus fairly lies (if a choice must be made), we give the uranium-series dates as a possible stimulus for further mutual work in isotopic dating of archaeological material. A sample from the Lindenmeier archaeological site north of Fort Collins and another from a Pleistocene terrace along the Arkansas River, both in Colorado, were also dated. ?? 1969.

  18. [Links between life events, traumatism and dementia; an open study including 565 patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E; Bouby-Serieys, V; Thomas, P; Clément, J-P

    2006-10-01

    Ageing is due to a progressive loss of the person's adaptation capability, whereas during this period environmental aggression increases. In the elderly, life events re-present a psychological traumatism that overwhelms the old person and related family, disrupting and fragilising homeostatic balance. A number of authors have suggested a possible link between life traumatisms and the dementia processes. The aim of this study is to reveal the presence of life traumatisms preceding the apparition of the dementia syndrome. This is a retrospective and comparative work based on the PIXEL study on complaints and demands from the principle informal caregivers of Alzheimer patients. It includes 565 patients presenting the criterion of dementia as defined by the DSM IV, and questionnaires filled out by the principle caregivers. One item of the questionnaire referred to life events which could have played a part in the development of the disorder. In a second stage, the reported events were classified into 4 distinct categories: loss, repeated or prolonged stress, psychotraumatism and depression-inducing events. The statistics were produced using SAS and Stat 10 software. Student's test, ANOVA and chi2-test were used. 372 caregivers answered the first item (65%); 76 of them believed there was no event while 296 related the disorder to one or several life events (79% of responders, 52% of the sample). These results confirm Persson and Clement's study which evidenced a higher frequency of stressing life events for subjects afflicted with dementia as compared with older people without any psychic disorder. Reported events and their respective frequency: spouse death (15.39%), parents' death (15%), familial difficulty (10.08%), anaesthesia (8.49%), child's death (4.42%), somatic disturbance (4%), depression (3.89%), retirement (3.89%), financial problems (2.65%), loneliness (2.65%), removal (1.76%), fall (1%), alcohol (0.8%), traumatism (0.53%), spouse care (0.35%), leaving for

  19. Fieldwork Methodology in South American Maritime Archaeology: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, Amaru; Ciarlo, Nicolás C.

    2017-12-01

    In archaeology, data obtained from the analysis of material evidence (i.e., the archaeological record) from extensive excavations have been a significant means for the ultimate development of interpretations about human life in the past. Therefore, the methodological procedures and tools employed during fieldwork are of crucial importance due to their effect on the information likely to be recovered. In the case of maritime archaeology, the development of rigorous methods and techniques allowed for reaching outcomes as solid as those from the work performed on land. These improvements constituted one of the principal supports—if not, the most important pillar—for its acceptance as a scientific field of study. Over time, the growing diversity of sites under study (e.g., shipwrecks, ports, dockyards, and prehistoric settlements) and the underwater environments encountered made it clear that there was a need for the application of specific methodological criteria, in accordance with the particularities of the sites and of each study (e.g., the research aims and the available resources). This article presents some ideas concerning the methodologies used in South American investigations that have exhibited a strong emphasis on the analysis of historical shipwrecks (the sixteenth to twentieth centuries). Based on a state-of-the-knowledge review of these research projects, in particular where excavations were conducted, the article focuses on the details of the main strategies adopted and results achieved. The ideas proposed in this article can be useful as a starting point for future activities of surveying, recording, and excavating shipwrecks.

  20. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin-orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm-1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ-, and their spin-orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  1. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  2. 3D model tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the model are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for 3D modeling. The authors take into account the accuracy of the 3D models obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the 3D model of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.

  3. The Materials Science and its impact in the Archaeology. Volume 3; La Ciencia de Materiales y su impacto en la Arqueologia. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Arenas A, J.A.; Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V. [CUV, BUAP, Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    From the half-filled nineties the 'Archaeological and Art issues in Materials Science' symposium has come carrying out inside the International Congress of Materials Science that annually organizes the Mexican Academy of Materials Science. In this symposium, investigators of different nationalities, including Mexico, they have participated exposing their results in the study, consolidation and conservation of materials of archaeological origin and of works of art. By this way, the symposium has been promoted the exchange of experiences among the scientists, fomenting the collaboration among these. Due to the quality of the presented works and as an effort of the participants of disclosing their studies, the symposium organizing committee decided to capture in this third book series, the works presented in 2005, in such a way that its can be consulted by colleagues, students and public in general and know the investigations that are carried out in the field of the materials science applied to the study of archaeological samples and of works of art. (Author)

  4. Vernon Lee in the Vatican: the uneasy alliance of aestheticism and archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    From the 1800s onward, aesthetic critics attempted to free the study of ancient Greek art from the frameworks of institutional education and professionalized criticism. In this process, aestheticism entered an uneasy alliance with archaeology, a discipline that was likewise challenging traditional modes of classical learning practiced in public schools and the old universities. In "The Child in the Vatican" (1881), Vernon Lee -- writing under the influence of Pater and from a position of cosmopolitan female amateurism -- examines the uses of archaeological science in the study of classical art. Her analysis of the sculptures of the Niobe Group at once relies on the archaeological method and asks readers to doubt scientific approaches to art that dim the sublime power of the art object.

  5. A non-destructive spectroscopic study of the decoration of archaeological pottery: from matt-painted bichrome ceramic sherds (southern Italy, VIII-VII B.C.) to an intact Etruscan cinerary urn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Silvia; Guglielmi, Vittoria; Della Foglia, Elena; Castoldi, Marina; Bagnasco Gianni, Giovanna

    2018-02-01

    A study is presented based on the use of entirely non-destructive spectroscopic techniques to analyze the chemical composition of the painted surface layer of archaeological pottery. This study aims to define both the raw materials and the working technology of ancient potters. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, visible and near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflection spectroscopy and external reflection Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were applied to matt-painted bichrome pottery sherds (VIII-VII century B.C.) from the site of Incoronata near Metaponto in southern Italy. Two different raw materials, ochre and iron-rich clay, were recognized for the red decoration, while the dark areas resulted to have been obtained by the so-called manganese black technique. In any case, it was demonstrated that the decoration was applied before firing, in spite of its sometimes grainy aspect that could suggest a post-firing application. For the samples with a more sophisticated decorative pattern a red/black/white polychromy was recognized, as the lighter areas correspond to an ;intentional white; obtained by the firing of a calcium-rich clay. Reflection spectroscopy in the visible-NIR and mid-IR as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy were then employed to characterize the decoration of an intact ceramic urn from the Etruscan town of Chiusi, evidencing a post-firing painting based on the use of red ochre, carbon black and lime, possibly imitating the ;fresco; technique used in wall paintings.

  6. Crowd-sourced Archaeological Research: The MicroPasts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bonacchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief introduction to MicroPasts, a web-enabled crowd-sourcing and crowd-funding project whose overall goal is to promote the collection and use of high quality research data via institutional and community collaborations, both on- and off-line. In addition to introducing this initiative, the discussion below is a reflection of its lead author’s core contribution to the project and will dwell in more detail on one particular aspect of MicroPasts: its relevance to research and practice in public archaeology, cultural policy and heritage studies.

  7. k0-INAA of Archaeological and Industrial Venezuelan Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, F.; Pino, F.; Sneyers, L.; Vermaecker, P.; Barros, H.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Mackowiak de Antczak, Ma. M.; Antczak, A.; Greaves, E.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-01

    Archaeological and industrial Venezuelan samples were analyzed by k0-INAA to provide new data on the provenance study of the figurines found in Los Roques Archipelago and on recycling of industrial by-products. Los Roques and Valencia Lake Basin figurines are similar. Bottom Oil Ashes have 10 times the concentration of V, Mg, Ni, Fe, Na compared to ICP-AES and TXRF results. Red Mud samples have Thnat and Unat from four to ten times higher concentrations than those recommended for building materials.

  8. Plant remains of archaeological site Casa Vieja, Callango (Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleoethnobotanical study was carried out at the Middle Horizon archaeological site of Casa Vieja, located in Callango within the Lower Ica Valley. A total of 23 species were identified, all determined to be of the Magnoliopyta Division, 78 % (or 18 species were Magnoliopsid and 22% (or 15 species Liliopsid. The Fabaceae are the best represented family with 6 species. Most of the analyzed samples correspond to seeds of Gossypium barbadense “cotton”. Seventy percent of the species were probably used as food; 48% for artifact-making and construction and 52% for medicinal and curative purposes.

  9. The suitability of EDXRF for compositional classification of archaeological pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla Alvarez, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Many investigations have been carried out trying to enlarge the information that can be gathered through the chemical analysis of archaeological findings. Chemical composition data sets, properly interpreted with multivariate analysis techniques, have been used extensively to supplement investigations involving provenance studies or more complex socio-economic aspects of the past communities. Correct inferences from the gathered compositional data are only possible if well documented background information about the studied samples is available, such as a correct interpretation of the archaeological contexts, knowledge about the nature of the used raw materials or procurement sources (geology of the territories), among others. The combined use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) has been widely applied to the classification of archaeological pottery. However the need to remove at least a minimal part (invasion) of the sample and the time delay required for radioisotope decay and the high costs involved in INAA often restrict its use. Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) is advantageous to perform a completely non-destructive analysis in a relatively fast way, but several problems have restricted its wider use in the past. The highly matrix-dependent attenuation of x-rays in the analysed sample hampers the use of the standard-less quantification procedures as an alternative when suitable certified reference materials are not at hand, and the relatively limited instrumental sensitivity of the conventional spectrometers has not allowed the determination of some trace elements that are relevant for compositional differentiation and provided a comparatively higher uncertainties. This contribution presents the results of several investigations aimed to achieving classification of archaeological pottery using reliable quantitative EDXRF procedures. The main factors affecting the

  10. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Excava(ction in Vignale. Archaeology on stage, archaeology on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an orchestra or a rock star, archaeologists have their audience too. This paper wants to highlight an integrated approach between fieldwork, its account and its dissemination to the public in different ways, including social media. This potential integration has come to life in the 2011 excavation of the Roman mansio of Vignale (Italy and it has been named “Excava(ction”. It doesn’t mean a new way of digging but another way of approaching the excavation, an approach integrated toward and with the public, both on site and on the social Web. “Excava(ction” conceives the site as a stage and digging as a performance, through a continuous dialogue between archaeologists and the public. Archaeologists share their work in the form of guided tours (live, theatrical-like performances, communicative diaries and videos (edited, motion-picture performances and on a blog (www.uominiecoseavignale.it. They receive back comments and oral accounts from the local community about the main themes of common interest. “Excava(ction” means engagement both of archaeologists and the public in the pursuit of a global multivocality during archaeological excavation.

  12. Trapped in Our Own Discursive Formations: Toward an Archaeology of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Gary P.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces Michel Foucault's "Archaeology of Knowledge" as a way of addressing Wayne Wiegand's charges of problems in the discipline of library and information science. Highlights include a discussion of discursive formations, or the ways in which a collection of texts are organized with respect to each other; and history as a discursive…

  13. Archaeology in the Classroom: A Resource Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Wendy, Ed.; Cullen, Tracey, Ed.

    This resource guide contains information about a wide range of archaeology related education materials available in North America. Resources listed include books, magazines, curriculum guides, resource packets, films, videos, kits of simulated artifacts, computer programs, games, museums, site specific resources, historical societies and…

  14. Preparation of archaeological samples for its dating by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia F, D.

    2000-01-01

    The present work shows the results of the preparation of archaeological samples for their dating by thermoluminescence (Tl) using the Fine grain technique established by Zimmerman but with the varying of such preparation was realized in normal daylight conditions, only the taking of the Tl readings were realized in dark room and red light. In the chapter 1 basic concepts are described about: matter constitution, radioactivity, units and radiation magnitudes, and thermoluminescence. In the chapter 2 some theoretical aspects on dating are showed. It is described how realizing the samples collection, the fine grain method, the determination of the accumulated dose through the years or paleodoses (P=Q+I) by mean of the increasing to obtain the dose equivalent dose (Q) and the signal regeneration method to obtain the correction factor by supra linearity (1), the determination of the annual dose rate to apply the age equation and the evaluation of the age uncertainty with the error limits. The development of experimental part with samples from the archaeological site named Edzna in Campeche, Mexico is described in the chapter 3. The results are presented in the chapter 4. It was obtained an age for the sample named CH7 it was obtained an age of 389 ± years. In conclusion the preparation of the archaeological samples for their dating by Tl in the conditions before mentioned is reliable, but they must be realized more studies with samples of well known age, preparing them in normal daylight conditions and simultaneously in dark room with red light. In order to observe how respond the minerals present in the sample at different dose rapidity, the same samples must be radiated with radiation sources with different dose rate. (Author)

  15. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  16. Introduction. Shrines, substances and medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: archaeological, anthropological, and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Whereas shrines in Africa, and to a lesser extent their links with medicine and healing, have been extensively studied by historians and anthropologists, they have been largely neglected by archaeologists. Focus has been placed upon palaeopathology when medicine is considered in archaeological contexts. Difficulties certainly exist in defining medicine shrines, substances and practices archaeologically, yet research can take various forms - scapegoats and figural representations of disease; divination and diagnosis; trade and spread of medicinal substances, shrines, and amulets; syncretism of different traditions and materiality; the material culture associated with healing and medicinal substance; depictions in rock art; genetic research. A move beyond palaeopathology is required to begin to understand the archaeology of medicine shrines, substances, practices and healing in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Corrosion of archaeological iron artefacts compared to modern iron at the waterlogged site Nydam, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Gregory, David; Soerensen, Birgit [Department of Conservation, National Museum of Denmark, IC Modewegsvej, Brede, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hilbert, Rischel Lisbeth [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Building 204, DTU, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    Since 1859 several archaeological excavations have been carried out in Nydam, Denmark revealing a wealth of military equipment sacrificed in the period 200 - 500 AD. During the 1990's more than 16000 artefacts of mainly wood and iron were excavated within an area of only 600 m{sup 2}. Due to the volume of finds it was decided in 1997 to stop further excavations. At the same time a study program was initiated at the National Museum to evaluate the feasibility of preserving the remaining artefacts in situ for a prolonged period. The study comprises all materials present in Nydam, but this presentation focuses solely on the iron objects. A three-pronged approach has been used in the studies in Nydam: 1) Studies of the excavated artefacts, including the composition of corrosion products and a mapping of their exact state of preservation. 2) Use of modern iron samples placed in the soil for studies of weight loss, corrosion potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrical resistivity. 3) Measurements of environmental parameters such as water level, redox potential, oxygen concentration, soil pH, and the concentration of a range of dissolved species in the pore water. This presentation shows some of the results obtained during the seven years of studies at the site. It is demonstrated how the three pronged approach is useful in understanding not only the current corrosion rate and threats against the artefacts but also the corrosion history, i.e. when were the deterioration patterns and corrosion products observed today actually formed. The corrosion rates for archaeological artefacts and modern analogues are compared and briefly discussed. (authors)

  18. Corrosion of archaeological iron artefacts compared to modern iron at the waterlogged site Nydam, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Gregory, David; Soerensen, Birgit; Hilbert, Rischel Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Since 1859 several archaeological excavations have been carried out in Nydam, Denmark revealing a wealth of military equipment sacrificed in the period 200 - 500 AD. During the 1990's more than 16000 artefacts of mainly wood and iron were excavated within an area of only 600 m 2 . Due to the volume of finds it was decided in 1997 to stop further excavations. At the same time a study program was initiated at the National Museum to evaluate the feasibility of preserving the remaining artefacts in situ for a prolonged period. The study comprises all materials present in Nydam, but this presentation focuses solely on the iron objects. A three-pronged approach has been used in the studies in Nydam: 1) Studies of the excavated artefacts, including the composition of corrosion products and a mapping of their exact state of preservation. 2) Use of modern iron samples placed in the soil for studies of weight loss, corrosion potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrical resistivity. 3) Measurements of environmental parameters such as water level, redox potential, oxygen concentration, soil pH, and the concentration of a range of dissolved species in the pore water. This presentation shows some of the results obtained during the seven years of studies at the site. It is demonstrated how the three pronged approach is useful in understanding not only the current corrosion rate and threats against the artefacts but also the corrosion history, i.e. when were the deterioration patterns and corrosion products observed today actually formed. The corrosion rates for archaeological artefacts and modern analogues are compared and briefly discussed. (authors)

  19. Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys at the archaeological site of Priolo (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, G.; Malfitana, D.; Cacciaguerra, G.; Lanteri, R.; Fragalà, G.

    2012-04-01

    Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Three contexts are under exploration: Aguglia d'Agosta, an early roman funerary monument; Ponte Diddino, a middle-late roman villa; Tavoliere-Maccaudo, a roman and byzantine settlement. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman-byzantine landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. This researches conducted to solve specific archaeological problems which are part of a wider debate regarding the phenomena connected to the role of settlements, use of lands, etc. to establish new parameters for the development of ancient sicilian landscapes.

  20. Unintended Collaborations: interpreting archaeology on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zuanni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the online reactions to a 'viral' video of an Egyptian artefact displayed in the Manchester Museum. It discusses the circulation of the video and the interpretations of this episode emerging from casual online conversations. Behind professionally led initiatives, audiences are contributing in a variety of ways on social media to disseminate and interpret archaeological news. This article discusses how user-generated data could support research on the public understanding of archaeology and it argues for more research on these casual and unintended collaborations on social media. However, while emphasising the potential for research of these data, the article also considers the impact of these unintended contributions on heritage professionals and the difficulties in negotiating competing and dissenting narratives on social media.