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Sample records for include 2d fpa

  1. ICC Type II large-format FPA detector assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Thomas H.; Powers, Thomas P.

    1997-08-01

    ICC presents a new addition to their integrated detector assembly product line with the announcement of their type II large format staring class FPA units. A result of internally funded research and development, the ICC type II detector assembly can accommodate all existing large format staring class PtSi, InSb and MCT focal planes, up to 640 by 480. Proprietary methodologies completely eliminate all FPA stresses to allow for maximum FPA survivability. Standard optical and cryocooler interfaces allow for the use of BEI, AEG, TI SADA Hughes/Magnavox and Joule Thompson coolers. This unit has been qualified to the current SADA II thermal environmental specifications and was tailored around ICC's worldwide industry standard type IV product. Assembled in a real world flexible manufacturing environment, this unit features a wide degree of adaptability and can be easily modified to a user's specifications via standard options and add-ons that include optical interfaces, electrical interfaces and window/filter material selections.

  2. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  3. A miniature low-cost LWIR camera with a 160×120 microbolometer FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Kucukkomurler, Alper; Tankut, Firat; Eminoglu, Selim; Akin, Tayfun

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a miniature LWIR thermal camera, MSE070D, which targets value performance infrared imaging applications, where a 160x120 CMOS-based microbolometer FPA is utilized. MSE070D features a universal USB interface that can communicate with computers and some particular mobile devices in the market. In addition, it offers high flexibility and mobility with the help of its USB powered nature, eliminating the need for any external power source, thanks to its low-power requirement option. MSE070D provides thermal imaging with its 1.65 inch3 volume with the use of a vacuum packaged CMOS-based microbolometer type thermal sensor MS1670A-VP, achieving moderate performance with a very low production cost. MSE070D allows 30 fps thermal video imaging with the 160x120 FPA size while resulting in an NETD lower than 350 mK with f/1 optics. It is possible to obtain test electronics and software, miniature camera cores, complete Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and relevant documentation with MSE070D, as MikroSens want to help its customers to evaluate its products and to ensure quick time-to-market for systems manufacturers.

  4. A New Hybrid Model FPA-SVM Considering Cointegration for Particular Matter Concentration Forecasting: A Case Study of Kunming and Yuxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weide; Kong, Demeng; Wu, Jinran

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution in China is becoming more serious especially for the particular matter (PM) because of rapid economic growth and fast expansion of urbanization. To solve the growing environment problems, daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentration data form January 1, 2015, to August 23, 2016, in Kunming and Yuxi (two important cities in Yunnan Province, China) are used to present a new hybrid model CI-FPA-SVM to forecast air PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in this paper. The proposed model involves two parts. Firstly, due to its deficiency to assess the possible correlation between different variables, the cointegration theory is introduced to get the input-output relationship and then obtain the nonlinear dynamical system with support vector machine (SVM), in which the parameters c and g are optimized by flower pollination algorithm (FPA). Six benchmark models, including FPA-SVM, CI-SVM, CI-GA-SVM, CI-PSO-SVM, CI-FPA-NN, and multiple linear regression model, are considered to verify the superiority of the proposed hybrid model. The empirical study results demonstrate that the proposed model CI-FPA-SVM is remarkably superior to all considered benchmark models for its high prediction accuracy, and the application of the model for forecasting can give effective monitoring and management of further air quality.

  5. A New Hybrid Model FPA-SVM Considering Cointegration for Particular Matter Concentration Forecasting: A Case Study of Kunming and Yuxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weide Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in China is becoming more serious especially for the particular matter (PM because of rapid economic growth and fast expansion of urbanization. To solve the growing environment problems, daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentration data form January 1, 2015, to August 23, 2016, in Kunming and Yuxi (two important cities in Yunnan Province, China are used to present a new hybrid model CI-FPA-SVM to forecast air PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in this paper. The proposed model involves two parts. Firstly, due to its deficiency to assess the possible correlation between different variables, the cointegration theory is introduced to get the input-output relationship and then obtain the nonlinear dynamical system with support vector machine (SVM, in which the parameters c and g are optimized by flower pollination algorithm (FPA. Six benchmark models, including FPA-SVM, CI-SVM, CI-GA-SVM, CI-PSO-SVM, CI-FPA-NN, and multiple linear regression model, are considered to verify the superiority of the proposed hybrid model. The empirical study results demonstrate that the proposed model CI-FPA-SVM is remarkably superior to all considered benchmark models for its high prediction accuracy, and the application of the model for forecasting can give effective monitoring and management of further air quality.

  6. Family life clinics for Gulf state: Bahrain FPA helps bring a family planning breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Family life clinics which will provide family planning services alongside maternal and child health services and general counseling are opening in health centers throughout Bahrain and in the main hospital at Manama. Bahrain, a small island in the Arabian Gulf, formed its first Family Planning Association (FPA) just 4 years ago; and this new initiative is seen as a direct result of cooperation between FPA and the government. To spread family planning awareness and services particularly to the poorer section of the population, Bahrain's FPA developed in various stages. Stage 1, in 1975, was to attract and educate volunteers and channel their interest into special committees dealing with programs; public relations; child welfare; legal and medical affairs; research; and conferences and education. Stage 2 came with the need to coordinate the work and set up a 2-person staff and an office. Stage 3 developed with the first field campaign. Door-to-door visiting was tried but was not popular with volunteers or residents. Approaching the population through community clubs and institutions was tried with much success. The new family life clinics are the latest stage of a fruitful cooperation between FPA and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. In addition to the new family life clinics, an active effort to improve family planning awareness has continued using national seminars and mass media. Fund-raising is under way for a mobile,clinic which will provide health services and methods of contraception, to which there is still substantial resistance, to many on the island who have no exposure to the mass media. Wide acceptance of the need for family planning for the sake of mothers, the family, and the child is growing in Bahrain.

  7. Further applications for mosaic pixel FPA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2011-06-01

    In previous papers to this SPIE forum the development of novel technology for next generation PIR security sensors has been described. This technology combines the mosaic pixel FPA concept with low cost optics and purpose-designed readout electronics to provide a higher performance and affordable alternative to current PIR sensor technology, including an imaging capability. Progressive development has resulted in increased performance and transition from conventional microbolometer fabrication to manufacture on 8 or 12 inch CMOS/MEMS fabrication lines. A number of spin-off applications have been identified. In this paper two specific applications are highlighted: high performance imaging IRFPA design and forest fire detection. The former involves optional design for small pixel high performance imaging. The latter involves cheap expendable sensors which can detect approaching fire fronts and send alarms with positional data via mobile phone or satellite link. We also introduce to this SPIE forum the application of microbolometer IR sensor technology to IoT, the Internet of Things.

  8. Prelaunch calibrations and on-orbit performance analysis of FY-2D SVISSR infrared channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Fuchun

    2014-10-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. FY-2 series satellites are one of the key components of Chinese meteorological observing system and application system. In this paper, the operational satellite- FY-2D's infrared channels were focused and analyzed. The instruments' background was introduced briefly. The main payload SVISSR specifications were compared with its ancestral VISSR. The optical structure of the SVISSR was also expressed. FY-2D prelaunch calibrations methodology was introduced and the accuracies of the absolute radiometric calibration were analyzed. Some key optics on-orbit performance of FY-2D SVISSR were analyzed include onboard blackbody, cold FPA and detector noise level. All of these works show that FY- 2D's main payload SVISSR was in a healthy status.

  9. FPA Tuned Fuzzy Logic Controlled Synchronous Buck Converter for a Wave/SC Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHIN, E.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flower pollination algorithm (FPA tuned fuzzy logic controlled (FLC synchronous buck converter (SBC for an integrated wave/ supercapacitor (SC hybrid energy system. In order to compensate the irregular wave effects on electrical side of the wave energy converter (WEC, a SC unit charged by solar panels is connected in parallel to the WEC system and a SBC is controlled to provide more reliable and stable voltage to the DC load. In order to test the performance of the designed FLC, a classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller is also employed. Both of the controllers are optimized by FPA which is a pretty new optimization algorithm and a well-known optimization algorithm of which particle swarm optimization (PSO to minimize the integral of time weighted absolute error (ITAE performance index. Also, the other error-based objective functions are considered. The entire energy system and controllers are developed in Matlab/Simulink and realized experimentally. Real time applications are done through DS1104 Controller Board. The simulation and experimental results show that FPA tuned fuzzy logic controller provides lower value performance indices than conventional PID controller by reducing output voltage sags and swells of the wave/SC energy system.

  10. High Quantum Efficiency 1024x1024 Longwave Infrared SLS FPA and Camera, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a high quantum efficiency (QE) 1024x1024 longwave infrared focal plane array (LWIR FPA) and CAMERA with ~ 12 micron cutoff wavelength made from...

  11. 3D-FPA Hybridization Improvements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  12. InGaAs detectors and FPA's for a large span of applications: design and material considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeiren, J. P.; Merken, P.

    2017-11-01

    Compared with the other Infrared detector materials, such as HgCdTe (or MCT) and lead salts (e.g.: PbS, PbSe, PbSnTe, …), the history of InGaAs FPA's is not that old. Some 25 years ago the first linear detectors were used for space missions [1,2]. During the last 15-20 years InGaAs, grown lattice matched on InP, has become the work horse for the telecommunication industry [3] and later on for passive and active imagery in the SWIR range. For longer wavelengths than 1.7 μm, III-V materials are in strong competition with SWIR MCT and till now the performance of MCT is better than high In-content InGaAs. During the last years some alternatives based on quaternary materials [4] and on Superlattice structures [5] are making gradual progress in such a way that they can yield performing Focal planes in the (near) future. As the SWIR wavelengths range covers a large variety of applications, also the FPA characteristics and mainly the ROIC properties need to be adjusted to fulfil the mission requirements with the requested performance. Additionally one has to bear in mind that the nature of SWIR radiation is completely different from what is usually encountered in IR imaging. Whereas the signal of thermal imagery in the Middle Wavelength (MWIR: [3 - 5 μm]) or Long Wavelength (LWIR: [8 - 10 μm] or [8 - 12 μm]) band is characterized by a large DC pedestal, caused by objects at ambient temperature, and a small AC signal, due to the small temperature or emissivity variations, SWIR range imagery is characterized by a large dynamic range and almost no DC signal. In this sense the SWIR imagery is resembling more the nature of Visible and NIR imaging than that of thermal imagery.

  13. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.

  14. Optimization of PV/Wind/Battery stand-alone system, using hybrid FPA/SA algorithm and CFD simulation, case study: Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahani, Mojtaba; Babayan, Narek; Pouyaei, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The utilization of an optimized Hybrid PV/Wind/Battery system has been studied. • The proposed system has been studied for a building in Tehran. • A novel hybrid optimization method, namely FPA/SA has been proposed. • The impact of inclined part of the roof on wind velocity is studied by CFD. • LPSP and Payback time were considered as objective functions in this study. - Abstract: Renewable energy hybrid systems are a promising technology toward sustainable and clean development. Due to stochastic behavior of renewable energy sources, optimization of their convertors has great importance for increasing system’s reliability and efficiency and also in order to decrease the costs. In this research study, it was aimed to study the utilization of an optimized hybrid PV/Wind/Battery system for a three story building, with an inclined surface on the edge of its roof, located in Tehran, capital of Iran. For this purpose, a new evolutionary based optimization technique, namely hybrid FPA/SA algorithm was developed, in order to maximize system’s reliability and minimize system’s costs. The new algorithm combines the approaches which are utilized in Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm. The developed algorithm was validated using popular benchmark functions. Moreover the influence of PV panels tilt angle (which is equal to the slope of inclined part of the roof) is studied on the wind speed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The outputs of CFD simulations are utilized as inputs for modeling wind turbine performance. The Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and Payback time are considered as objective functions, and PV panel tilt angle, number of PV panels and number of batteries are selected as decision variables. The results showed that if the tilt angle for PV panels is set equal to 30° and the number of PV panels is selected equal to 11 the fastest payback time which is 12 years and

  15. Innovative compact focal plane array for wide field vis and ir orbiting telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Gaeremynck, Yann; Jahn, Wilfried

    2017-11-01

    The future generation of high angular resolution space telescopes will require breakthrough technologies to combine large diameters and large focal plane arrays with compactness and lightweight mirrors and structures. Considering the allocated volume medium-size launchers, short focal lengths are mandatory, implying complex optical relays to obtain diffraction limited images on large focal planes. In this paper we present preliminary studies to obtain compact focal plane arrays (FPA) for earth observations on low earth orbits at high angular resolution. Based on the principle of image slicers, we present an optical concept to arrange a 1D FPA into a 2D FPA, allowing the use of 2D detector matrices. This solution is particularly attractive for IR imaging requiring a cryostat, which volume could be considerably reduced as well as the relay optics complexity. Enabling the use of 2D matrices for such an application offers new possibilities. Recent developments on curved FPA allows optimization without concerns on the field curvature. This innovative approach also reduces the complexity of the telescope optical combination, specifically for fast telescopes. This paper will describe the concept and optical design of an F/5 - 1.5m telescope equipped with such a FPA, the performances and the impact on the system with a comparison with an equivalent 1.5m wide field Korsch telescope.

  16. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  17. RELAP5-3D Code Includes ATHENA Features and Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemke, Richard A.; Davis, Cliff B.; Schultz, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, SF 6 , xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5-3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  18. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Landsat 9 OLI 2 focal plane subsystem: design, performance, and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kevin J.; Schrein, Ronald J.; Bradley, M. Scott; Irwin, Ronda; Berdanier, Barry; Donley, Eric

    2017-09-01

    The Landsat 9 mission will continue the legacy of Earth remote sensing that started in 1972. The Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI 2) is one of two instruments on the Landsat 9 satellite. The OLI 2 instrument is essentially a copy of the OLI instrument flying on Landsat 8. A key element of the OLI 2 instrument is the focal plane subsystem, or FPS, which consists of the focal plane array (FPA), the focal plane electronics (FPE) box, and low-thermal conductivity cables. This paper presents design details of the OLI 2 FPS. The FPA contains 14 critically-aligned focal plane modules (FPM). Each module contains 6 visible/near-IR (VNIR) detector arrays and three short-wave infrared (SWIR) arrays. A complex multi-spectral optical filter is contained in each module. Redundant pixels for each array provide exceptional operability. Spare detector modules from OLI were recharacterized after six years of storage. Radiometric test results are presented and compared with data recorded in 2010. Thermal, optical, mechanical and structural features of the FPA will be described. Special attention is paid to the thermal design of the FPA since thermal stability is crucial to ensuring low-noise and low-drift operation of the detectors which operate at -63°C. The OLI 2 FPE provides power, timing, and control to the focal plane modules. It also digitizes the video data and formats it for the solid-state recorder. Design improvements to the FPA-FPE cables will be discussed and characterization data will be presented. The paper will conclude with the status of the flight hardware assembly and testing.

  20. Dynamic 2D-barcodes for multi-device Web session migration including mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a novel Web architecture that supports session migration in multi-device Web applications, particularly the case when a user starts a Web session on a computer and wishes to continue on a mobile phone. The proposed solution for transferring the needed session identifiers...... across devices is to dynamically generate pictures of 2D-barcodes containing a Web address and a session ID in an encoded form. 2D-barcodes are a cheap, fast and robust approach to the problem. They are widely known and used in Japan, and are spreading in other countries. Variations on the topic...

  1. Design and performance of single photon APD focal plane arrays for 3-D LADAR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Senko, Tom; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    ×We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of focal plane arrays (FPAs) for use in 3-D LADAR imaging applications requiring single photon sensitivity. These 32 × 32 FPAs provide high-efficiency single photon sensitivity for three-dimensional LADAR imaging applications at 1064 nm. Our GmAPD arrays are designed using a planarpassivated avalanche photodiode device platform with buried p-n junctions that has demonstrated excellent performance uniformity, operational stability, and long-term reliability. The core of the FPA is a chip stack formed by hybridizing the GmAPD photodiode array to a custom CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) and attaching a precision-aligned GaP microlens array (MLA) to the back-illuminated detector array. Each ROIC pixel includes an active quenching circuit governing Geiger-mode operation of the corresponding avalanche photodiode pixel as well as a pseudo-random counter to capture per-pixel time-of-flight timestamps in each frame. The FPA has been designed to operate at frame rates as high as 186 kHz for 2 μs range gates. Effective single photon detection efficiencies as high as 40% (including all optical transmission and MLA losses) are achieved for dark count rates below 20 kHz. For these planar-geometry diffused-junction GmAPDs, isolation trenches are used to reduce crosstalk due to hot carrier luminescence effects during avalanche events, and we present details of the crosstalk performance for different operating conditions. Direct measurement of temporal probability distribution functions due to cumulative timing uncertainties of the GmAPDs and ROIC circuitry has demonstrated a FWHM timing jitter as low as 265 ps (standard deviation is ~100 ps).

  2. Estimation of πd-Interactions in Organic Conductors Including Magnetic Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takehiko; Katsuhara, Mao

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic interactions in organic conductors including magnetic anions, such as λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 and κ-(BETS)2FeX4 [X = Cl and Br], are estimated from intermolecular overlap integrals; the overlaps between anions afford Jdd, and those between anions and donors give Jπ d. From this, the most stable spin alignments are decided, and such quantities as the Néel and Weiss temperatures, as well as the magnitude of spin polarization on the π-molecules are evaluated on the basis of the mean-field theory of πd-systems. The calculation is extended to several other πd-conductors, which are classified depending on the relative magnitudes of the direct dd- and indirect πd-interactions.

  3. Quantitative method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals based on odor sensitivity distribution: illustrated using 2-MIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Cao, Nan; Yang, Min; Gu, Junong; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Ning

    2014-07-01

    Taste and odor (T/O) in drinking water often cause consumer complaints and are thus regulated in many countries. However, people in different regions may exhibit different sensitivities toward T/O. This study proposed a method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals (ORGs) based on the odor sensitivity distribution of the local population. The distribution of odor sensitivity to 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) by the local population in Beijing, China was revealed by using a normal distribution function/model to describe the odor complaint response to a 2-MIB episode in 2005, and a 2-MIB concentration of 12.9 ng/L and FPA (flavor profile analysis) intensity of 2.5 was found to be the critical point to cause odor complaints. Thus the Beijing ORG for 2-MIB was determined to be 12.9 ng/L. Based on the assumption that the local FPA panel can represent the local population in terms of sensitivity to odor, and that the critical FPA intensity causing odor complaints was 2.5, this study tried to determine the ORGs for seven other cities of China by performing FPA tests using an FPA panel from the corresponding city. ORG values between 12.9 and 31.6 ng/L were determined, showing that a unified ORG may not be suitable for drinking water odor regulations. This study presents a novel approach for setting drinking water odor regulations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. High-dynamic range compressive spectral imaging by grayscale coded aperture adaptive filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Eduardo Diaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging system (CASSI is an imaging architecture which senses the three dimensional informa-tion of a scene with two dimensional (2D focal plane array (FPA coded projection measurements. A reconstruction algorithm takes advantage of the compressive measurements sparsity to recover the underlying 3D data cube. Traditionally, CASSI uses block-un-block coded apertures (BCA to spatially modulate the light. In CASSI the quality of the reconstructed images depends on the design of these coded apertures and the FPA dynamic range. This work presents a new CASSI architecture based on grayscaled coded apertu-res (GCA which reduce the FPA saturation and increase the dynamic range of the reconstructed images. The set of GCA is calculated in a real-time adaptive manner exploiting the information from the FPA compressive measurements. Extensive simulations show the attained improvement in the quality of the reconstructed images when GCA are employed.  In addition, a comparison between traditional coded apertures and GCA is realized with respect to noise tolerance.

  5. Reaction of plasmic degradation products of fibrinogen in the radioimmunoassay of human fibrinopeptide A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzynski, A.Z.; Marder, V.J.; Sherry, S.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique has been devised for the measurement of human fibrinopeptide A (FPA). The system utilizes rabbit antiserum to native human FPA and a synthetic fibrinopeptide, with tyrosine substituted for phenylanine in amino acid position 8. The test detects native human FPA at a concentration of 0.1 ng/ml, but does not cross react with human fibrinopeptide B or with fibrinopeptides A from canine, porcine, or bovine fibrinogen. Fibrinogen and chemical or plasmic degradation products with 2 moles of FPA per mole react fully in this test system. This includes the large-molecular-weight intermediate fragments X and Y and the NH 2 -terminal disulfide knot, and indicates that this antibody recognizes and reacts with FPA in the presence of the contiguous peptide structures presents in fibrinogen. Fragment E, which is derived from the NH 2 -terminal portion of fibrinogen, loses most of its FPA content after its liberation from its precursor derivative and reacts to a lesser extent in the RIA than do fragments X and Y. This correlates with the recovery of FPA-positive material from ultrafiltrates of extensive but not partial plasmic digests of fibrinogen. Although FPA immunoreactivity liberated from fibrinogen does not necessarily reflect thrombin activity and/or fibrin formation, only extensive plasmic degradation yields peptide material which reacts in this RIA system. This should not be a serious limitation to the application of the RIA in the detection of venous thrombosis. (U.S.)

  6. Population database on: D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D10S1248, D22S1045, D12S391, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, FGA, TH01, vWA loci included in NGM system based on one thousand unrelated individuals from Lodz region of Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jacewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A population data obtained on the basis of sample of 1000 unrelated individuals of Polish ancestry living in Lodz region of Central Poland with use of fluorescent multiplex-PCR and capillary electrophoresis were presented. Evaluation included 15 polymorphic loci DNA – STR from NGM multiplex-PCR set, ie. D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D10S1248, D12S391, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, D22S1045, FGA, TH01, vWA. The allele frequency distribution and crucial statistical parameters for the investigated markers and the whole set were calculated. The compliance of the studied population with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, independence of inheritance and high parameters of the usefulness in forensic genetics have been demonstrated. The interpopulation comparison performed by the „neighbor-joining” method as well as multidimensional scaling depicted the genetic distances dividing the examined Polish population from other populations of Poland, Europe and the world.

  7. Uncooled Terahertz real-time imaging 2D arrays developed at LETI: present status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme; Dussopt, Laurent; Nicolas, Jean-Alain; Monnier, Nicolas; Sicard, Gilles; Siligaris, Alexandre; Hiberty, Bruno

    2017-05-01

    As for other imaging sensor markets, whatever is the technology, the commercial spread of terahertz (THz) cameras has to fulfil simultaneously the criteria of high sensitivity and low cost and SWAP (size, weight and power). Monolithic silicon-based 2D sensors integrated in uncooled THz real-time cameras are good candidates to meet these requirements. Over the past decade, LETI has been studying and developing such arrays with two complimentary technological approaches, i.e. antenna-coupled silicon bolometers and CMOS Field Effect Transistors (FET), both being compatible to standard silicon microelectronics processes. LETI has leveraged its know-how in thermal infrared bolometer sensors in developing a proprietary architecture for THz sensing. High technological maturity has been achieved as illustrated by the demonstration of fast scanning of large field of view and the recent birth of a commercial camera. In the FET-based THz field, recent works have been focused on innovative CMOS read-out-integrated circuit designs. The studied architectures take advantage of the large pixel pitch to enhance the flexibility and the sensitivity: an embedded in-pixel configurable signal processing chain dramatically reduces the noise. Video sequences at 100 frames per second using our 31x31 pixels 2D Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) have been achieved. The authors describe the present status of these developments and perspectives of performance evolutions are discussed. Several experimental imaging tests are also presented in order to illustrate the capabilities of these arrays to address industrial applications such as non-destructive testing (NDT), security or quality control of food.

  8. Supersymmetric D2 anti-D2 Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Dongsu; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    We consider the flat supersymmetric D2 and anti-D2 system, which follows from ordinary noncommutative D2 anti-D2 branes by turning on an appropriate worldvolume electric field describing dissolved fundamental strings. We study the strings stretched between D2 and anti-D2 branes and show explicitly that the would-be tachyonic states become massless. We compute the string spectrum and clarify the induced noncommutativity on the worldvolume. The results are compared with the matrix theory descri...

  9. Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion only explain 25% of variance in regression analysis of foot progression angle in children with diplegic cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between torsional bony deformities and rotational gait parameters has not been sufficiently investigated. This study was to investigate the degree of contribution of torsional bony deformities to rotational gait parameters in patients with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Thirty three legs from 33 consecutive ambulatory patients (average age 9.5 years, SD 6.9 years; 20 males and 13 females) with diplegic CP who underwent preoperative three dimensional gait analysis, foot radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) were included. Adjusted foot progression angle (FPA) was retrieved from gait analysis by correcting pelvic rotation from conventional FPA, which represented the rotational gait deviation of the lower extremity from the tip of the femoral head to the foot. Correlations between rotational gait parameters (FPA, adjusted FPA, average pelvic rotation, average hip rotation, and average knee rotation) and radiologic measurements (acetabular version, femoral anteversion, knee torsion, tibial torsion, and anteroposteriortalo-first metatarsal angle) were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify significant contributing radiographic measurements to adjusted FPA. Results Adjusted FPA was significantly correlated with FPA (r=0.837, pregression analysis, femoral anteversion (p=0.026) and tibial torsion (p=0.034) were found to be the significant contributing structural deformities to the adjusted FPA (R2=0.247). Conclusions Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion were found to be the significant structural deformities that could affect adjusted FPA in patients with diplegic CP. Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion could explain only 24.7% of adjusted FPA. PMID:23767833

  10. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  11. 3D motion graphics for 2D artists conquering the 3rd dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Add 3D to your mograph skillset! For the experienced 2D artist, this lavishly illustrated, 4 color book presents the essentials to building and compositing 3D elements into your 2D world of film and broadcast. Concepts and techniques are presented in concise, step-by-step tutorials, hundreds of which are featured throughout. Featured applications include Photoshop, Illustrator, After Effects, and Cinema 4D. Lessons include exploring the expanded 3D functionality of the Adobe Creative Suite applications (After Effects, Photoshop, and Illustrator) through a series of practical tutorials. More

  12. Measurement of the hyperfine structure of the 4d2D3/2,5/2 levels and isotope shifts of the 4p2P3/2->4d2D3/2 and 4p2P3/2->4d2D5/2 transitions in gallium 69 and 71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehse, Steven J.; Fairbank, William M.; Lee, Siu Au

    2001-01-01

    The hyperfine structure of the 4d 2 D 3/2,5/2 levels of 69,71 Ga is determined. The 4p 2 P 3/2 ->4d 2 D 3/2 (294.50-nm) and 4p 2 P 3/2 ->4d 2 D 5/2 (294.45-nm) transitions are studied by laser-induced fluorescence in an atomic Ga beam. The hyperfine A constant measured for the 4d 2 D 5/2 level is 77.3±0.9 MHz for 69 Ga and 97.9± 0.7 MHz for 71 Ga (3σ errors). The A constant measured for the 4d 2 D 3/2 level is -36.3±2.2 MHz for 69 Ga and -46.2±3.8 MHz for 71 Ga. These measurements correct sign errors in the previous determination of these constants. For 69 Ga the hyperfine B constants measured for the 4d 2 D 5/2 and the 4d 2 D 3/2 levels are 5.3±4.1 MHz and 4.6±4.2 MHz, respectively. The isotope shift is determined to be 114±8 MHz for the 4p 2 P 3/2 ->4d 2 D 3/2 transition and 115±7 MHz for the 4p 2 P 3/2 ->4d 2 D 5/2 transition. The lines of 71 Ga are shifted to the blue. This is in agreement with previous measurement. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  13. Tamoxifen and CYP2D6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Damkier, Per

    2018-01-01

    Tamoxifen reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by about one-half. It is converted to more active metabolites by enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and transported by ATP-binding cassette transporters. Genetic polymorphisms that confer reduced CYP2...

  14. How Mucosal Epithelia Deal with Stress: Role of NKG2D/NKG2D Ligands during Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Antonangeli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal epithelia encounter both physicochemical and biological stress during their life and have evolved several mechanisms to deal with them, including regulation of immune cell functions. Stressed and damaged cells need to be cleared to control local inflammation and trigger tissue healing. Engagement of the activating NKG2D receptor is one of the most direct mechanisms involved in the recognition of stressed cells by the immune system. Indeed, injured cells promptly express NKG2D ligands that in turn mediate the activation of lymphocytes of both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This review focuses on different conditions that are able to modulate NKG2D ligand expression on the epithelia. Special attention is given to the mechanisms of immunosurveillance mediated by natural killer cells, which are finely tuned by NKG2D. Different types of stress, including viral and bacterial infections, chronic inflammation, and cigarette smoke exposure, are discussed as paradigmatic conditions for NKG2D ligand modulation, and the implications for tissue homeostasis are discussed.

  15. Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of

  16. Model-based meta-analysis for comparing Vitamin D2 and D3 parent-metabolite pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Pelland, Alanna S; Gastonguay, Marc R; Riggs, Matthew M

    2017-08-01

    Association of Vitamin D (D3 & D2) and its 25OHD metabolite (25OHD3 & 25OHD2) exposures with various diseases is an active research area. D3 and D2 dose-equivalency and each form's ability to raise 25OHD concentrations are not well-defined. The current work describes a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for D2 and 25OHD2 and the use of a previously developed D3-25OHD3 PK model [1] for comparing D3 and D2-related exposures. Public-source D2 and 25OHD2 PK data in healthy or osteoporotic populations, including 17 studies representing 278 individuals (15 individual-level and 18 arm-level units), were selected using search criteria in PUBMED. Data included oral, single and multiple D2 doses (400-100,000 IU/d). Nonlinear mixed effects models were developed simultaneously for D2 and 25OHD2 PK (NONMEM v7.2) by considering 1- and 2-compartment models with linear or nonlinear clearance. Unit-level random effects and residual errors were weighted by arm sample size. Model simulations compared 25OHD exposures, following repeated D2 and D3 oral administration across typical dosing and baseline ranges. D2 parent and metabolite were each described by 2-compartment models with numerous parameter estimates shared with the D3-25OHD3 model [1]. Notably, parent D2 was eliminated (converted to 25OHD) through a first-order clearance whereas the previously published D3 model [1] included a saturable non-linear clearance. Similar to 25OHD3 PK model results [1], 25OHD2 was eliminated by a first-order clearance, which was almost twice as fast as the former. Simulations at lower baselines, following lower equivalent doses, indicated that D3 was more effective than D2 at raising 25OHD concentrations. Due to saturation of D3 clearance, however, at higher doses or baselines, the probability of D2 surpassing D3's ability to raise 25OHD concentrations increased substantially. Since 25OHD concentrations generally surpassed 75 nmol/L at these higher baselines by 3 months, there would be no

  17. Low bioaccessibility of vitamin D2 from yeast-fortified bread compared to crystalline D2 bread and D3 from fluid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-11-09

    The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 . Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D 2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D 3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread. Fortified foods were subjected to a three-stage static in vitro digestion model, and vitamin D was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Vitamin D bioaccessibility was significantly greater from bovine milks and infant formula (71-85%) than from yeast-fortified sandwich breads (6-7%). Bioaccessibility was not different between whole wheat and white wheat bread (p > 0.05), but was ∼4× lower from yeast-fortified bread than from crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread (p yeast cells were observed in the digesta of yeast fortified bread. These results indicate that the low bioavailability of yeast D 2 in comparison to other vitamin D 2 sources is likely due to entrapment within a less digestible yeast matrix and not only to metabolic differences between vitamins D 2 and D 3 .

  18. 24,25,28-Trihydroxyvitamin D2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D2: Novel metabolites of vitamin D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.S.; Tserng, K.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding of the inactivation pathways of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , the two physiologically significant monohydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D 2 , is of importance, especially during hypervitaminosis D 2 . At present, little information is available regarding the inactivation pathway of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 except its further metabolism into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 . In our present study, the authors investigated the metabolic fate of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the isolated perfused rat kidney and demonstrated its conversion not only into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 but also into two other new metabolites, namely, 24,25,28-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 . The structure identification of the new metabolites was established by the techniques of ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry and by the characteristic nature of each new metabolite's susceptibility to sodium metaperiodate oxidation. In order to demonstrate the physiological significance of the two new trihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D 2 , induced hypervitaminosis D 2 in a rat using [3α- 3 H]vitamin D 2 and analyzed its plasma for the various [3α- 3 H]vitamin D 2 metabolites on two different high-pressure liquid chromatography systems. The results indicate that both 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 circulate in the vitamin D 2 intoxicated rat in significant amounts along with other previously identified monohydroxy and dihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D 2 , namely, 24-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2

  19. Introduction to AutoCAD 2013 2D and 3D design

    CERN Document Server

    Yarwood, Alf

    2013-01-01

    Master the complexities of the world's bestselling 2D and 3D software with Alf Yarwood's Introduction to AutoCAD 2013. Ideally suited to new users of AutoCAD, this book will be a useful resource for drawing modules in both vocational and introductory undergraduate courses in engineering and construction.Alf Yarwood has once again produced a comprehensive, step-by-step introduction to the latest release of AutoCAD. Covering all the basic principles and acting as an introduction to 2D drawing, it also contains extensive coverage of all 3D topics, including 3D solid modelling a

  20. ON SOFT D2-ALGEBRA AND SOFT D2-IDEALS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Subramanian; S. Seethalaksmi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied some characterization of soft D2-algebra, kernel, intersection, image, quotient D2-algebra’s and relations ship between D2-algebra and D2-ideals with suitable examples.

  1. On the relation between 2D:4D and sex-dimorphic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Ellis, Connie L; Tenk, Christine M

    2008-02-01

    Several personality traits, including aggressiveness and sensation seeking, have been hypothesized to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure, though evidence for this proposition is limited. We investigated whether individual differences in aggressiveness, sensation seeking, and several prosocial personality traits can be predicted from differences in the 2D:4D digit ratio, a putative marker of prenatal androgen activity. A total of 164 undergraduates (87 men, 77 women) completed self-report measures of physical and verbal aggression, as well as a standardized measure of sensation seeking, and five scales to assess empathy, nurturance, expressivity/femininity, instrumentality/masculinity, and assertiveness. Two sex-dimorphic tests of spatial ability also were included. Men had a lower 2D:4D ratio than women, confirming the typical sex difference in digit proportions. Significant sex differences were observed on 10 of the 11 personality scales purported to show sex differences and on both tests of spatial ability. The 2D:4D ratio was a significant predictor of scores on three of the four aggression subscales, total aggression, thrill and adventure seeking, and total sensation-seeking, in the sample as a whole and in women. In men, correlations with 2D:4D were significant only for total sensation-seeking and verbal aggression. In both sexes, lower 2D:4D ratios were associated with increased aggressiveness and sensation seeking. For the spatial tests, there was no evidence of any association with 2D:4D in either men or women. The 2D:4D digit ratio may be a valid, though weak, predictor of selective sex-dependent traits that are sensitive to testosterone.

  2. Serum 25(OH)D and incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Skaaby, T; Thuesen, B H

    2012-01-01

    Mild to moderate vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for several common chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident diabetes.......Mild to moderate vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for several common chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident diabetes....

  3. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of the furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid, an inhibitor of plasma protein binding in uraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, M G; Gilchrist, T L; Lindup, W E

    1996-06-01

    The furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (5-propyl FPA) accumulates in the plasma of patients with chronic renal failure and is a major contributor to the drug binding defect of uraemic plasma. This acid has also been implicated in several other aspects of the uraemic syndrome: anaemia, irregularities of thyroid function, neurological symptoms and inhibition of active tubular secretion. The acid is not commercially available and its synthesis, starting with Meldrum's acid and methyl succinyl chloride, is described. The pKa values were measured by titration and values of 3.2 and 3.6 respectively were assigned to the carboxylic acid groups attached directly to the ring at position 3 and at position 2 (on the side-chain). The partition coefficient (log P) between hydrochloric acid and octanol was 1.2 and the distribution coefficient (log D; octanol-phosphate buffer pH 7.4) was -0.59. The pKa values and the degree of hydrophobic character of 5-propyl FPA are consistent with those of other protein-bound acids which undergo active tubular secretion by the kidney and this substance may serve as an endogenous marker for the effects of drugs and disease on this process.

  4. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  5. NASA-VOF2D, 2-D Transient Free Surface Incompressible Fluid Dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrey, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NASA-VOF2D is a two- dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles. 2 - Method of solution: NASA-VOF2D simulates incompressible flows with free surfaces using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) algorithm. This technique is based on the use of donor-acceptor differencing to track the free surface across an Eulerian grid. The complete Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables for an incompressible fluid are solved by finite differences with surface tension and wall adhesion included. Optionally the pressure equation can be solved by a conjugate residual method rather than the successive over-relaxation (SOR) method

  6. 77 FR 63307 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 2 Take notice that the Commission received the following electric corporate filings: Docket Numbers: EC13-7-000. Applicants: Bangor Hydro Electric Company. Description: Application Under FPA Section 203 of Bangor Hydro...

  7. Dopamine D2L receptor-interacting proteins regulate dopaminergic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Shioda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor family proteins include seven transmembrane and trimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Among them, the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R is most extensively studied. All clinically used antipsychotic drugs serve as D2R antagonists in the mesolimbic dopamine system, and their ability to block D2R signaling is positively correlated with antipsychotic efficiency. Human genetic studies also show a significant association of DRD2 polymorphisms with disorders including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. D2R exists as two alternatively spliced isoforms, the long isoform (D2LR and the short isoform (D2SR, which differ in a 29-amino acid (AA insert in the third cytoplasmic loop. Importantly, previous reports demonstrate functional diversity between the two isoforms in humans. In this review, we focus on binding proteins that specifically interact with the D2LR 29AA insert. We discuss how D2R activities are mediated not only by heterotrimeric G proteins but by D2LR-interacting proteins, which in part regulate diverse D2R activities. Keywords: Dopamine D2L receptor, Antipsychotic drugs, DRD2 polymorphisms, Alternatively spliced isoforms, D2LR-interacting proteins

  8. From 2D to 3D turbulence through 2D3C configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Linkmann, Moritz

    2017-11-01

    We study analytically and numerically the geometry of the nonlinear interactions and the resulting energy transfer directions of 2D3C flows. Through a set of suitably designed Direct Numerical Simulations we also study the coupling between several 2D3C flows, where we explore the transition between 2D and fully 3D turbulence. In particular, we find that the coupling of three 2D3C flows on mutually orthogonal planes subject to small-scale forcing leads to a stationary 3D out-of-equilibrium dynamics at the energy containing scales where the inverse cascade is directly balanced by a forward cascade carried by a different subsets of interactions. ERC AdG Grant No 339032 NewTURB.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 13.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.2, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. Sensitive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed cervid herd with use of an MPB70 protein fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surujballi, Om; Lutze-Wallace, Cyril; Turcotte, Claude; Savic, Mirjana; Stevenson, Dan; Romanowska, Anna; Monagle, Wendy; Berlie-Surujballi, Gloria; Tangorra, Erin

    2009-07-01

    After histopathological examination of a lesion found in a herd member returned a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis, a farmed herd (n = 47) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (C. elaphus elaphus) was investigated for bovine tuberculosis with a battery of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic tests. Every animal was tested with the mid-cervical tuberculin skin test; all 47 had negative results. All of the 16 adult animals and 15 of the 31 calves (approximately 2-years-old) were blood-tested with a lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA), which detects antibody to the MPB70 protein antigen. At necropsy of the 31 blood-tested animals, tissues were harvested for histopathological examination and culture of mycobacteria. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 16 of the 31 animals, and a scotochromogen was also isolated from 1 of the 16 whose tissues yielded M. bovis. Each of these 16 animals, 15 of which were calves, also received a histopathological diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. Other species of mycobacteria, including those belonging to the M. avium and M. terrae complexes, were isolated from an additional 7 animals. The FPA was scored "positive" or "suspect" for 16 animals, 13 (81%) of which were culture-positive for M. bovis. The other 3 animals that were culture-positive for M. bovis had negative FPA results. Of the 3 FPA-positive or FPA-suspect animals that were culture-negative, 2 were suspected to have mycobacteriosis on the basis of the histopathological examination. The 7 animals from which Mycobacterium species other than M. bovis were cultured were all FPA-negative. The only animal with positive LST results was also FPA-positive and culture-positive for M. bovis. The M. bovis isolates had an identical spoligotype pattern, with an octal code of 664073777777600. This is the first report of the isolation and identification of this strain type in Canada.

  11. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slapa Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer. Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer. Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. Conclusions Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.

  12. On QCD Q2-evolution of deuteron structure function F2D(xD, Q2) for xD>1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.V.; Tokarev, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    The deep-inelastic deuteron structure function (SF) F 2 D (x D ,Q 2 ) in the covariant approach in light-cone variables is considered. The x D and Q 2 -dependences of SF are calculated. The QCD analysis of generated data both for non-cumulative x D D >1 ranges was performed. It was shown that Q 2 -evolution of SF is valid for ranges 0.275 D D D -dependence of SF for the ranges is essentially different. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Using 2D: 4D digit ratios to determine motor skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, H-L; Li, Y-H; Zhu, F-L; Li, S-J; Ni, H

    2016-03-01

    In past few decades, there has an outburst of research surrounding second to fourth finger digit ratio (2D:4D) and its relation to prenatal sex steroids including both testosterone and estrogen. In utero, testosterone and estrogen are responsible for the differences in digit ratio between the genders. Recent research has tried to extend past the influence of steroids and look at the potential effect of digit ratios on fine and gross motor skills in children. We compiled the current understanding of the connection between sex hormones and the development of the 2D:4D ratio as well as the effect the ratio has on motor skills. There seems to be a significant positive correlation between 2D:4D digit ratio and precision of fine motor skill. In addition, there is a negative correlation between 2D:4D ratio and speed of fine motor activity. In this review, we will outline the use of 2D:4D ratio as a biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and through that, a proxy marker for fine and gross motor skills.

  14. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  15. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed. (topical review)

  16. Markers aiding the diagnosis of chondroid tumors: an immunohistochemical study including osteonectin, bcl-2, cox-2, actin, calponin, D2-40 (podoplanin), mdm-2, CD117 (c-kit), and YKL-40

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAUGAARD, SØREN; CHRISTENSEN, LISE H; HØGDALL, ESTRID

    2009-01-01

    Chondroid tumors comprise a heterogenous group of benign to overt malignant neoplasms, which may be difficult to differentiate from one another by histological examination. A group of 43 such tumors was stained with nine relevant antibodies in an attempt to find consistent marker profile(s) for the different subgroups. Archival material from three extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, five chordomas, five chondromyxoid fibromas, five chondroblastomas and 25 chondrosarcomas was stained with antibodies against osteonectin, bcl-2, cox-2, actin, calponin, D2-40 (podoplanin), mdm-2, CD117 (c-kit) and YKL-40. All 25 chondrosarcomas showed a positive staining reaction for D2-40, none for actin and CD117, and a partial reactivity for bcl-2 (36%). Chondroblastomas (5/5) and chondromyxoid fibromas (2/5) were the only tumors with a positive reaction for actin, and all chondroblastomas (n=5) and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (n=3) were positive for bcl-2. In contrast to all other tumors, two of three extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas were also positive for CD17 and negative for osteonectin, cox-2, mdm-2 and actin. All five chordomas were negative for D2-40 and positive for mdm-2 and YKL-40. The diagnosis of chondrosarcoma may be aided by its positivity for D2-40 and YKL-40 and its lack of reactivity for actin and CD117. This should be seen in the light of no reaction for D2-40 in chordomas and a corresponding lack of reaction for osteonectin, cox-2, mdm-2 and actin in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas. A convincing immunoreactivity for calponin and/or actin in chondromyxoid fibromas and chondroblastomas may also be helpful in differentiating these tumors from chondrosarcomas. PMID:19594492

  17. WE-AB-BRA-07: Quantitative Evaluation of 2D-2D and 2D-3D Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Clinical Trial Credentialing, NRG Oncology/RTOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jacobs, P [MIM Software, Inc, Cleavland, Ohio (United States); Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N [IROC Philadelphia, RTQA Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance

  18. WE-AB-BRA-07: Quantitative Evaluation of 2D-2D and 2D-3D Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Clinical Trial Credentialing, NRG Oncology/RTOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y; Jacobs, P; Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance

  19. Acute D2/D3 dopaminergic agonism but chronic D2/D3 antagonism prevents NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Nuri B; Nemmers, Brian; Noguchi, Kevin K

    2006-09-15

    Antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, most likely by producing disinhibtion in complex circuits, acutely produce psychosis and cognitive disturbances in humans, and neurotoxicity in rodents. Studies examining NMDA Receptor Hypofunction (NRHypo) neurotoxicity in animals, therefore, may provide insights into the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. Dopaminergic D2 and/or D3 agents can modify psychosis over days to weeks, suggesting involvement of these transmitter system(s). We studied the ability of D2/D3 agonists and antagonists to modify NRHypo neurotoxicity both after a one-time acute exposure and after chronic daily exposure. Here we report that D2/D3 dopamine agonists, probably via D3 receptors, prevent NRHypo neurotoxicity when given acutely. The protective effect with D2/D3 agonists is not seen after chronic daily dosing. In contrast, the antipsychotic haloperidol does not affect NRHypo neurotoxicity when given acutely at D2/D3 doses. However, after chronic daily dosing of 1, 3, or 5 weeks, haloperidol does prevent NRHypo neurotoxicity with longer durations producing greater protection. Understanding the changes that occur in the NRHypo circuit after chronic exposure to dopaminergic agents could provide important clues into the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.

  20. Comparison of three 18F-labeled carboxylic acids with 18F-FDG of the differentiation tumor from inflammation in model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongliang; Tang, Ganghua; Hu, Kongzhen; Huang, Tingting; Liang, Xiang; Wu, Zhifang; Li, Sijin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the properties and feasibility of the glucose analog, 2- 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG), three short 18 F-labeled carboxylic acids, 18 F-fluoroacetate ( 18 F-FAC), 2- 18 F-fluoropropionic acid ( 18 F-FPA) and 4-( 18 F)fluorobenzoic acid ( 18 F-FBA), for differentiating tumors from inflammation. Biodistributions of 18 F-FAC, 18 F-FPA and 18 F-FBA were determined on normal Kunming mice, and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with these tracers were performed on the separate tumor-bearing mice model and inflammation mice model in comparison with 18 F-FDG. Biodistribution results showed that 18 F-FAC and 18 F-FPA had similar biodistribution profiles and the slow radioactivity clearance from most tissues excluding the in vivo defluorination of 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-FBA demonstrated a lower uptake and fast clearance in most tissues. PET imaging with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC and 18 F-FPA revealed the high uptake in both tumor and inflammatory lesions. The ratios of tumor-to-inflammation were 1.63 ± 0.28 for 18 F-FDG, 1.20 ± 0.38 for 18 F-FAC, and 1.41 ± 0.33 for 18 F-FPA at 60 min postinjection, respectively. While clear tumor images with high contrast between tumor and inflammation lesion were observed in 18 F-FBA/PET with the highest ratio of tumor-to-inflammation (1.98 ± 0.15). Our data demonstrated 18 F-FBA is a promising PET probe to distinguish tumor from inflammation. But the further modification of 18 F-FBA structure is required to improve its pharmacokinetics

  1. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T; Gupta, Sandesh K; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks.

  2. Development and Production of Array Barrier Detectors at SCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Benny, Y.; Berkowicz, E.; Cohen, Y.; Dobromislin, R.; Fraenkel, R.; Gershon, G.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Ilan, E.; Karni, Y.; Klin, O.; Kodriano, Y.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nevo, I.; Nitzani, M.; Pivnik, I.; Rappaport, N.; Rosenberg, O.; Shtrichman, I.; Shkedy, L.; Snapi, N.; Talmor, R.; Tessler, R.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2017-09-01

    XB n or XB p barrier detectors exhibit diffusion-limited dark currents comparable with mercury cadmium telluride Rule-07 and high quantum efficiencies. In 2011, SemiConductor Devices (SCD) introduced "HOT Pelican D", a 640 × 512/15- μm pitch InAsSb/AlSbAs XB n mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detector with a 4.2- μm cut-off and an operating temperature of ˜150 K. Its low power (˜3 W), high pixel operability (>99.5%) and long mean time to failure make HOT Pelican D a highly reliable integrated detector-cooler product with a low size, weight and power. More recently, "HOT Hercules" was launched with a 1280 × 1024/15- μm format and similar advantages. A 3-megapixel, 10- μm pitch version ("HOT Blackbird") is currently completing development. For long-wave infrared applications, SCD's 640 × 512/15- μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" XB p type II superlattice (T2SL) detector has a ˜9.3- μm cut-off wavelength. The detector contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, and is fabricated into focal plane array (FPA) detectors using standard production processes including hybridization to a digital silicon read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), glue underfill and substrate thinning. The ROIC has been designed so that the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector family. The Pelican-D LW FPA has a quantum efficiency of ˜50%, and operates at 77 K with a pixel operability of >99% and noise equivalent temperature difference of 13 mK at 30 Hz and F/2.7.

  3. CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Riffel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe

  4. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-01-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H 2 PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H 2 O)] n (1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)] n (2), and [Cu 2 (PHDA) 2 (BPP)] n (3) (H 2 PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D→2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4 8 6 6 8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: → Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H 2 PHDA and BPP. → The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. → Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  5. Electric field effect in multilayer Cr2Ge2Te6: a ferromagnetic 2D material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Odenthal, Patrick M.; Zhang, Xiao; Yuan, Wei; Su, Tang; Song, Qi; Wang, Tianyu; Zhong, Jiangnan; Jia, Shuang; Xie, X. C.; Li, Yan; Han, Wei

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials has attracted a great deal of attention due to their fascinating physical properties and potential applications for future nano-electronic devices. Since the first isolation of graphene, a Dirac material, a large family of new functional 2D materials have been discovered and characterized, including insulating 2D boron nitride, semiconducting 2D transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, and superconducting 2D bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, molybdenum disulphide and niobium selenide, etc. Here, we report the identification of ferromagnetic thin flakes of Cr2Ge2Te6 (CGT) with thickness down to a few nanometers, which provides a very important piece to the van der Waals structures consisting of various 2D materials. We further demonstrate the giant modulation of the channel resistance of 2D CGT devices via electric field effect. Our results illustrate the gate voltage tunability of 2D CGT and the potential of CGT, a ferromagnetic 2D material, as a new functional quantum material for applications in future nanoelectronics and spintronics.

  6. Vitamin D and 1,25(OH2D Regulation of T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita T. Cantorna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a direct and indirect regulator of T cells. The mechanisms by which vitamin D directly regulates T cells are reviewed and new primary data on the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D on human invariant natural killer (iNKT cells is presented. The in vivo effects of vitamin D on murine T cells include inhibition of T cell proliferation, inhibition of IFN-γ, IL-17 and induction of IL-4. Experiments in mice demonstrate that the effectiveness of 1,25(OH2D requires NKT cells, IL-10, the IL-10R and IL-4. Comparisons of mouse and human T cells show that 1,25(OH2D inhibits IL-17 and IFN-γ, and induces T regulatory cells and IL-4. IL-4 was induced by 1,25(OH2D in mouse and human iNKT cells. Activation for 72h was required for optimal expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR in human and mouse T and iNKT cells. In addition, T cells are potential autocrine sources of 1,25(OH2D but again only 48–72h after activation. Together the data support the late effects of vitamin D on diseases like inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis where reducing IL-17 and IFN-γ, while inducing IL-4 and IL-10, would be beneficial.

  7. Effects of Boreal Lake Wetlands on Atmospheric 13CH3D and 12CH2D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Kohl, I. E.; Schauble, E. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Young, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we developed a theoretical model to investigate the potential use of 13CH3D and 12CH2D2 as tools for tracking atmospheric methane budget. We used electronic structure methods to estimate kinetic isotope fractionations associated with the major sink reactions of CH4 in air (reactions with •OH and Cl•), and literature data with reconnaissance measurements of the relative abundances of 13CH3D and 12CH2D2 to estimate the compositions of the largest atmospheric sources. Here we present new methane rare isotopologue data from boreal wetlands, comprising one of the most important sources, in order to evaluate the robustness of the model. Boreal wetlands (>55° N) account for more than half of the wetland area in the Northern hemisphere. We analyzed methane samples from high latitude lakes representing different geographical regions, geological and ecological contexts, methane fluxes, and isotopic signatures. Using clumped isotopes of CH4 we are able to determine the likely production mechanism for natural CH4 samples. So far, all of our analyzed samples except one plot in the microbial pure-culture methanogenesis field (Young et al. 2017) with ranges of -0.2‰ to +1.2‰ for Δ13CH3D, and -29.6‰ to -18.2‰ for Δ12CH2D2. These compositions are far from equilibrium. The one exception, from Lake Doughnut, Alaska, exhibits Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 values of +5.2‰ and +18.7‰, respectively, which fall near ambient thermodynamic equilibrium values. This may be an effect of methanotrophy. Mean Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 for all lake samples are +1.7‰ and -15.4‰ respectively, compared to our original estimate of +6.1‰ and +21.2‰ for the wetland methane source based on an assumption of equilibrium. If we assume that these samples are representative of the overall wetland source, Δ13CH3D decreases by 0.8‰ and Δ12CH2D2 decreases by 0.6‰ in our model of bulk atmospheric methane. Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 values of air (including •OH and Cl• sink

  8. Infrared spectra and tunneling dynamics of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Rui; Li, Song; Yang, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2013-12-07

    The rovibrational spectra of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O have been measured in a supersonic slit jet expansion using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for these two complexes. All transitions are doubled, due to the heavy water tunneling within the complexes. Assuming the tunneling splittings are the same in K(a) = 0 and K(a) = 1, the band origins, all three rotational and several distortion constants of each tunneling state were determined for N2-D2O in the ground and excited vibrational states, and for OC-D2O in the excited vibrational state, respectively. The averaged band origin of OC-D2O is blueshifted by 2.241 cm(-1) from that of the v2 band of the D2O monomer, compared with 1.247 cm(-1) for N2-D2O. The tunneling splitting of N2-D2O in the ground state is 0.16359(28) cm(-1), which is about five times that of OC-D2O. The tunneling splittings decrease by about 26% for N2-D2O and 23% for OC-D2O, respectively, upon excitation of the D2O bending vibration, indicating an increase of the tunneling barrier in the excited vibrational state. The tunneling splittings are found to have a strong dependence on intramolecular vibrational excitation as well as a weak dependence on quantum number K(a).

  9. Do all the European surgeons perform the same D2? The need of D2 audit in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, Maria; Verlato, Giuseppe; Mengardo, Valentina; Weindelmayer, Jacopo; Allum, William H

    2018-06-04

    Although D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard of care for radical intent surgical treatment of gastric cancer, the real compliance with D2 dissection in Europe is still unknown. The aim of the present study is to analyze the variation in lymph-node harvesting reported after D2 dissection in European series and to present a European project aiming at evaluating the real compliance with D2 lymphadenectomy. A PubMed search for papers using the key words "D2 lymphadenectomy" and "gastric cancer" from 2008 to 2017 was undertaken. Only studies by European authors in English language reporting the number of retrieved lymph nodes after D2 lymphadenectomy were included. The results of literature review were descriptively reported. The literature survey yielded 16 studies: 2 RCTs, 3 observational multicentre studies, and 11 observational monocentric studies. A large variability was found in the number of retrieved nodes, which, overall, was the lowest in the surgical series from Eastern Europe (16.6 and 19.9 in the Lithuanian and Hungarian series, respectively) and the highest in an Italian RCT. The within-study variability was also quite high, especially in multicentre RCTs and observational studies. Sample size tended to have a larger effect on the variability of lymph nodes retrieved than on its actual value. However, in both cases, the relation was not significant, due to the low number of studies considered. There is a large variability in the number of retrieved nodes after D2 dissection in European series. This reflects, at least partly, different approaches to D2 lymphadenectomy by European surgeons and may be responsible of the different outcomes observed in patients with gastric cancer across Europe. Therefore, there is the need to standardize the practice of D2 gastrectomy in Europe and to define possible variations of D2 procedures according to tumour's characteristics.

  10. Soft tubular microfluidics for 2D and 3D applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Kong, Fang; Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Longteng; Sonam, Surabhi; Dao, Ming; Gong, Xiaobo; Teck Lim, Chwee

    2017-10-01

    Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps. In addition, we demonstrate how microtubes with channels of various lengths and cross-sections can be attached modularly into 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for functional applications. We introduce a facile method of fabricating elastomeric microtubes as the basic building blocks for microfluidic devices. These microtubes are transparent, biocompatible, highly deformable, and customizable to various sizes and cross-sectional geometries. By configuring the microtubes into deterministic geometry, we enable rapid, low-cost formation of microfluidic assemblies without compromising their precision and functionality. We demonstrate configurable 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for applications in different domains. These include microparticle sorting, microdroplet generation, biocatalytic micromotor, triboelectric sensor, and even wearable sensing. Our approach, termed soft tubular microfluidics, provides a simple, cheaper, and faster solution for users lacking proficiency and access to cleanroom facilities to design and rapidly construct microfluidic devices for their various applications and needs.

  11. Structural Theory and Classification of 2D Adinkras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iga, Kevin; Zhang, Yan X.

    2016-01-01

    Adinkras are combinatorial objects developed to study (1-dimensional) supersymmetry representations. Recently, 2D Adinkras have been developed to study 2-dimensional supersymmetry. In this paper, we classify all 2D Adinkras, confirming a conjecture of T. Hübsch. Along the way, we obtain other structural results, including a simple characterization of Hübsch’s even-split doubly even codes.

  12. 2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.

  13. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubaiey, Najem A.; Walsh, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Silylenes (silanediyls) have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2) are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas) at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using Lindemann

  14. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rubaiey Najem A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silylenes (silanediyls have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2 are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using

  15. Cocaine-induced adaptation of dopamine D2S, but not D2L autoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brooks G; Condon, Alec F; Radl, Daniela; Borrelli, Emiliana; Williams, John T; Neve, Kim A

    2017-11-20

    The dopamine D2 receptor has two splice variants, D2S (Short) and D2L (Long). In dopamine neurons, both variants can act as autoreceptors to regulate neuronal excitability and dopamine release, but the roles of each variant are incompletely characterized. In a previous study we used viral receptor expression in D2 receptor knockout mice to show distinct effects of calcium signaling on D2S and D2L autoreceptor function (Gantz et al., 2015). However, the cocaine-induced plasticity of D2 receptor desensitization observed in wild type mice was not recapitulated with this method of receptor expression. Here we use mice with genetic knockouts of either the D2S or D2L variant to investigate cocaine-induced plasticity in D2 receptor signaling. Following a single in vivo cocaine exposure, the desensitization of D2 receptors from neurons expressing only the D2S variant was reduced. This did not occur in D2L-expressing neurons, indicating differential drug-induced plasticity between the variants.

  16. From 2D Silhouettes to 3D Object Retrieval: Contributions and Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoléon Thibault

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D retrieval has recently emerged as an important boost for 2D search techniques. This is mainly due to its several complementary aspects, for instance, enriching views in 2D image datasets, overcoming occlusion and serving in many real-world applications such as photography, art, archeology, and geolocalization. In this paper, we introduce a complete "2D photography to 3D object" retrieval framework. Given a (collection of picture(s or sketch(es of the same scene or object, the method allows us to retrieve the underlying similar objects in a database of 3D models. The contribution of our method includes (i a generative approach for alignment able to find canonical views consistently through scenes/objects and (ii the application of an efficient but effective matching method used for ranking. The results are reported through the Princeton Shape Benchmark and the Shrec benchmarking consortium evaluated/compared by a third party. In the two gallery sets, our framework achieves very encouraging performance and outperforms the other runs.

  17. Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossey, D

    1993-01-01

    In the UK, the Chairwoman of the Family Planning Association (FPA) praises the staff and volunteers with whom she has worked for their incessant inability to meet the many challenges they face. During her 6 years, however, the FPA had to reduce the number of regional offices and staff. It did not need to reduce salaries, however. FPA membership directly elects the National Executive Council which is now smaller. FPA is exploring new sources of funding and is adapting to the purchaser/provider relationship in the statutory sector, resulting in its successful financial strategy. The Department of Health helps in maintaining FPA's ability to continue to operate. The Chairwoman sees indications of needing to fight old battles again, e.g., some officials have suggested limiting the range of oral contraceptives available from prescription by the National Health Services (NHS) which would be the end of almost 20 years of free contraception and free choice under the NHS. The government is not open to including sex education the school curriculum. The NHS gives the impression in its report "The Health of the Nation" that it is committed to reducing adolescent pregnancies among the youngest teenagers and to recognizing the importance of good policies on sexual health. Yet, its actions exhibit no compassion for single parents. Participants at FPA's 1992 conference agree that variety, quality, and sensitivity of family planning provisions are needed and that family planning clinics and general practitioners should work together. FPA has contributed to the UK the clinic network; the concept of family planning being an integral part of a comprehensive health service; and the notion that family planning includes contraception, empowerment of women, sexual health, rights, and responsibilities. FPA should reaffirm these ideas and secure the future for informed choice and planned pregnancy.

  18. Comparing 1.5D ONETWO and 2D SOLPS analyses of inter-ELM H-mode plasma in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Larry W.; Canik, John; Groebner, R.; Callen, J.D.; Bonnin, X.; Osborne, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    A DIII-D inter-ELM H-mode plasma that is in approximate transport equilibrium is analysed with the 1.5D ONETWO core code and the 2D SOLPS code. In order to investigate the importance of core-edge coupling and 2D effects, including divertor fuelling across the X-point and poloidal asymmetries that are not explicitly included in ONETWO, the domain of SOLPS is extended to very near the magnetic axis. Two principal objectives are (1) to determine whether poloidal asymmetries in the plasma distributions are large enough to vitiate a core-type interpretive plasma transport analysis and (2) to determine whether the interpretive transport coefficients and neutral beam power and particle sources from ONETWO, when used in 2D SOLPS full plasma simulations, yield the same quality fits to the measured upstream density and temperature profiles as obtained with ONETWO. Results show that only a small increase in the separatrix value of the particle diffusion coefficient, and no change in the thermal diffusivities from ONETWO was needed to get excellent agreement of the upstream SOLPS density and temperature profiles and the Thomson scattering and CER data. Good agreement of the ONETWO and SOLPS flux surface averaged distributions of the core electron and D+ densities and temperatures are also obtained. Likewise the C6+ density, with a simple chemical sputtering model based on a constant fraction of the divertor D+ flux, the core heat and particle fluxes and the neutral density reveal no 2D effects in the core/pedestal region that would vitiate a 1.5D treatment of the inter-ELM H-mode plasma.

  19. Synthesis of 2-acetamido-6-O-(5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-β-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulo-pyranosylonic acid)-2-deoxy-D-glucose [2-acetamido-6-O-(N-acetyl-β-D-neuraminyl)-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Vleugel, D.J.M. van der; Zwikker, J.W.; Boeckel, S.A.A. van; Boom, J.H. van

    1982-01-01

    Silver triflate-promoted condensation of methyl 5-acetamido-4,7,8,9-tetra-O-acetyl-2-chloro-2,3,5-trideoxy-β-D-glycero-D-galacto -2-nonulopyranosonate (9) with benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3,4-O-(1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside, followed by removal of the

  20. D3-??????????????????????? ? ???? ?????????? ?2 ?????? ?????? ?????

    OpenAIRE

    ?????????, ????; ???????, ???????; ??????, ?????????; ?????????????, ????; ??????, ??????

    2011-01-01

    ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?2 ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? D3 ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????. ? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? D3-????????????????? ???????.

  1. F-theory and 2d (0,2) theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-11

    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N=(0,2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0,2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0,2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0,2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.

  2. Markers aiding the diagnosis of chondroid tumors: an immunohistochemical study including osteonectin, bcl-2, cox-2, actin, calponin, D2-40 (podoplanin), mdm-2, CD117 (c-kit), and YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Søren; Christensen, Lise H; Høgdall, Estrid

    2009-01-01

    (s) for the different subgroups. Archival material from three extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, five chordomas, five chondromyxoid fibromas, five chondroblastomas and 25 chondrosarcomas was stained with antibodies against osteonectin, bcl-2, cox-2, actin, calponin, D2-40 (podoplanin), mdm-2, CD117 (c-kit) and YKL......-40. All 25 chondrosarcomas showed a positive staining reaction for D2-40, none for actin and CD117, and a partial reactivity for bcl-2 (36%). Chondroblastomas (5/5) and chondromyxoid fibromas (2/5) were the only tumors with a positive reaction for actin, and all chondroblastomas (n=5...... chondrosarcomas. A convincing immunoreactivity for calponin and/or actin in chondromyxoid fibromas and chondroblastomas may also be helpful in differentiating these tumors from chondrosarcomas....

  3. FluoRender: An application of 2D image space methods for 3D and 4D confocal microscopy data visualization in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Chien, Chi-Bin; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. FluoRender: An application of 2D image space methods for 3D and 4D confocal microscopy data visualization in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yong

    2012-02-01

    2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists\\' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Introduction to AutoCAD 2004 2D and 3D design

    CERN Document Server

    Yarwood, Alf

    2004-01-01

    Taking the reader step-by-step through the features of AutoCAD, Alf Yarwood provides a structured course of work matched to the latest release of this software. Introducing first principles and the creation of 2D technical drawings, the author goes on to demonstrate construction of 3D solid model drawings and rendering of 3D models. Worked examples and exercises are included throughout the text, to enable the reader to apply theory into real-world engineering practice, along with revision notes and exercises at the end of chapters for the reader to check their understanding of the material the

  6. Towards Malaysian LADM Country Profile for 2D and 3D Cadastral Registration System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulkifli, N.A.; Abdul Rahman, A.; Jamil, H.; Teng, C.H.; Tan, L.C.; Looi, K.S.; Chan, K.L.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive Land Administration Domain Model (LADM, ISO 2012) country profile for 2D and 3D cadastral registration system for Malaysia. The proposed Malaysian country profile is partly based on the existing spatial (including survey) and administrative registration systems,

  7. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  8. 2D or Not 2D? Testing the Utility of 2D Vs. 3D Landmark Data in Geometric Morphometrics of the Sculpin Subfamily Oligocottinae (Pisces; Cottoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Thaddaeus J; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Summers, Adam P

    2018-05-01

    We contrast 2D vs. 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics in the fish subfamily Oligocottinae by using 3D landmarks from CT-generated models and comparing the morphospace of the 3D landmarks to one based on 2D landmarks from images. The 2D and 3D shape variables capture common patterns across taxa, such that the pairwise Procrustes distances among taxa correspond and the trends captured by principal component analysis are similar in the xy plane. We use the two sets of landmarks to test several ecomorphological hypotheses from the literature. Both 2D and 3D data reject the hypothesis that head shape correlates significantly with the depth at which a species is commonly found. However, in taxa where shape variation in the z-axis is high, the 2D shape variables show sufficiently strong distortion to influence the outcome of the hypothesis tests regarding the relationship between mouth size and feeding ecology. Only the 3D data support previous studies which showed that large mouth sizes correlate positively with high percentages of elusive prey in the diet. When used to test for morphological divergence, 3D data show no evidence of divergence, while 2D data show that one clade of oligocottines has diverged from all others. This clade shows the greatest degree of z-axis body depth within Oligocottinae, and we conclude that the inability of the 2D approach to capture this lateral body depth causes the incongruence between 2D and 3D analyses. Anat Rec, 301:806-818, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Lectures on 2D gravity and 2D string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.; Moore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This report the following topics: loops and states in conformal field theory; brief review of the Liouville theory; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity I: path integral approach; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity II: canonical approach; states in 2D string theory; matrix model technology I: method of orthogonal polynomials; matrix model technology II: loops on the lattice; matrix model technology III: free fermions from the lattice; loops and states in matrix model quantum gravity; loops and states in the C=1 matrix model; 6V model fermi sea dynamics and collective field theory; and string scattering in two spacetime dimensions

  10. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerell, P.S.; Simons, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated

  11. Analysis results from the Los Alamos 2D/3D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Cappiello, M.W.; Harmony, S.C.; Shire, P.R.; Siebe, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the 2D/3D program. Activities conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of 2D/3D program goals include analysis support of facility design, construction, and operation; provision of boundary and initial conditions for test-facility operations based on analysis of pressurized water reactors; performance of pretest and posttest predictions and analyses; and use of experimental results to validate and assess the single- and multi-dimensional, nonequilibrium features in the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC). During fiscal year 1987, Los Alamos conducted analytical assessment activities using data from the Slab Core Test Facility, The Cylindrical Core Test Facility, and the Upper Plenum Test Facility. Finally, Los Alamos continued work to provide TRAC improvements. In this paper, Los Alamos activities during fiscal year 1987 will be summarized; several significant accomplishments will be described in more detail to illustrate the work activities at Los Alamos

  12. HypGrid2D. A 2-d mesh generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N N

    1998-03-01

    The implementation of a hyperbolic mesh generation procedure, based on an equation for orthogonality and an equation for the cell face area is described. The method is fast, robust and gives meshes with good smoothness and orthogonality. The procedure is implemented in a program called HypGrid2D. The HypGrid2D program is capable of generating C-, O- and `H`-meshes for use in connection with the EllipSys2D Navier-Stokes solver. To illustrate the capabilities of the program, some test examples are shown. First a series of C-meshes are generated around a NACA-0012 airfoil. Secondly a series of O-meshes are generated around a NACA-65-418 airfoil. Finally `H`-meshes are generated over a Gaussian hill and a linear escarpment. (au)

  13. Quantitative imaging of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG in selected histological tissue areas by a novel bioluminescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Fabienne Voelxen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPatients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis with average survival of less than one year. Whereas in other tumor entities the characteristics of tumor metabolism are successfully used for therapeutic approaches, such developments are very rare in brain tumors, notably in gliomas. One metabolic feature characteristic of gliomas, in particular diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors, is the variable content of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG, a metabolite, which was discovered first in this tumor entity. D2HG is generated in large amounts due to various gain-of–function mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH-1 and IDH-2. Meanwhile, D2HG has been detected in several other tumor entities including intrahepatic bile-duct cancer, chondrosarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. D2HG is barely detectable in healthy tissue (< 0.1 mM, but its concentration increases up to 35 mM in malignant tumor tissues. Consequently, the oncometabolite D2HG has gained increasing interest in the field of tumor metabolism. To facilitate its quantitative measurement without loss of spatial resolution at a microscopical level, we have developed a novel bioluminescence assay for determining D2HG in sections of snap-frozen tissue. The assay was verified independently by photometric tests and liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The novel technique allows the microscopically resolved determination of D2HG in a concentration range of 0 – 10 µmol/g tissue (wet weight. In combination with the already established bioluminescence imaging techniques for ATP, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate, the novel D2HG assay enables a comparative characterization of the metabolic profile of individual tumors in a further dimension.

  14. 2D-Driven 3D Object Detection in RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Lahoud, Jean; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique that places 3D bounding boxes around objects in an RGB-D scene. Our approach makes best use of the 2D information to quickly reduce the search space in 3D, benefiting from state-of-the-art 2D object detection

  15. Wearable energy sources based on 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Sun, Xiao; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-08

    Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters. The crucial roles of 2D materials in the wearable energy sources are highlighted. Based on the current progress, the existing challenges and future prospects are outlined and discussed.

  16. From 3 d duality to 2 d duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Razamat, Shlomo S.; Willett, Brian

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we discuss 3 d N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories and their IR dualities when they are compactified on a circle of radius r, and when we take the 2 d limit in which r → 0. The 2 d limit depends on how the mass parameters are scaled as r → 0, and often vacua become infinitely distant in the 2 d limit, leading to a direct sum of different 2 d theories. For generic mass parameters, when we take the same limit on both sides of a duality, we obtain 2 d dualities (between gauge theories and/or Landau-Ginzburg theories) that pass all the usual tests. However, when there are non-compact branches the discussion is subtle because the metric on the moduli space, which is not controlled by supersymmetry, plays an important role in the low-energy dynamics after compactification. Generally speaking, for IR dualities of gauge theories, we conjecture that dualities involving non-compact Higgs branches survive. On the other hand when there is a non-compact Coulomb branch on at least one side of the duality, the duality fails already when the 3 d theories are compactified on a circle. Using the valid reductions we reproduce many known 2 d IR dualities, giving further evidence for their validity, and we also find new 2 d dualities.

  17. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  18. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress. Volume 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  19. Implantation of energetic D{sup +} ions into carbon dioxide ices and implications for our solar system: formation of D{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}CO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Chris J.; Ennis, Courtney P.; Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) ices were irradiated with energetic D{sup +} ions to simulate the exposure of oxygen-bearing solar system ices to energetic protons from the solar wind and magnetospheric sources. The formation of species was observed online and in situ by exploiting FTIR spectroscopy. Molecular products include ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon oxides (CO{sub 3}(C {sub 2v}, D {sub 3h}), CO{sub 4}, CO{sub 5}, CO{sub 6}), D2-water (D{sub 2}O), and D2-carbonic acid (D{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). Species released into the gas phase were sampled via a quadrupole mass spectrometer, and possible minor contributions from D2-formaldehyde (D{sub 2}CO), D4-methanol (CD{sub 3}OD), and D2-formic acid (DCOOD) were additionally identified. The feasibility of several reaction networks was investigated by determining their ability to fit the observed temporal column densities of 10 key species that were quantified during the irradiation period. Directly relevant to the CO{sub 2}-bearing ices of comets, icy satellites in the outer solar system, and the ice caps on Mars, this work illustrates for the first time that D2-water is formed as a product of the exposure of CO{sub 2} ices to D{sup +} ions. These findings provide strong support for water formation from oxygen-bearing materials via non-thermal hydrogen atoms, and predict reaction pathways that are likely to be unfolding on the surfaces of asteroids and the Moon.

  20. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  1. Total scattering cross-sections for the systems nH2 + nH2, pH2 + pH2, nD2 + nD2, oD2 + oD2 and HD + HD for relative energies below ten milli-electron volts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Relative total scattering cross sections for nH 2 + nH 2 , pH 2 + pH 2 , nD 2 + nD 2 , oD 2 + oD 2 , and HD + HD were measured with inclined nozzle beams derived from nozzle sources and intersecting at 21 0 . Both nozzles could be varied in temperature from 4.2K to 300K to provide the velocity range for the cross sections. The use of a parahydrogen converter allowed the measurement of the pH 2 + pH 2 and oD 2 + oD 2 cross sections. Cross sections for the H 2 + H 2 were measured over a relative velocity range of 200 m/s to 1450 m/s. The nH 2 + nH 2 results show an undulation in the velocity range between 350 m/s and 400 m/s that corresponds to a l = 3 orbiting resonance. Analysis of the pH 2 + pH 2 cross section indicates a l = 4 orbiting resonance near 586 m/s. This resonance has a peak energy of 1.79 meV and a measured energy width of 1.05 meV, both which agree well with theoretical predictions. The D 2 + D 2 cross sections have been measured in the velocity range between 190 m/s and 1000 m/s. No orbiting resonances have been observed, but in the oD 2 + oD 2 cross section a deep minimum between the l = 4 and the l = 5 resonances at low velocities is clearly suggested. Initial measurements of the HD + HD cross section suggests the presence of the l = 4 orbiting resonance near a relative velocity of 300 m/s. The experimental results for each system were normalized to the total cross sections, which were convoluted to account for experimental velocity and angular dispersions. Three different potentials were considered, but a chi-square fit of the data indicates that the Schaefer and Meyer potential, which has been theoretically obtained from first principles, provides the best overall description of the hydrogen systems in the low collisional energy range

  2. From 2D Lithography to 3D Patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zeijl, H.W.; Wei, J.; Shen, C.; Verhaar, T.M.; Sarro, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lithography as developed for IC device fabrication is a high volume high accuracy patterning technology with strong 2 dimensional (2D) characteristics. This 2D nature makes it a challenge to integrate this technology in a 3 dimensional (3D) manufacturing environment. This article addresses the

  3. 3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zichun; Guo, Xiaohu; Cai, Yiqi; Yang, Yin; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xun; Mao, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs) are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.

  4. 3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichun Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.

  5. Identification of novel CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids: non-functional and functional variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaedigk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic expression of CYP2D6 contributes to the wide range of activity observed for this clinically important drug metabolizing enzyme. In this report we describe novel CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid genes encoding non-functional and functional CYP2D6 protein and a CYP2D7 variant that mimics a CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene. Five kb long PCR products encompassing the novel genes were entirely sequenced. A quantitative assay probing in different gene regions was employed to determine CYP2D6 and 2D7 copy number variations and the relative position of the hybrid genes within the locus was assessed by long-range PCR. In addition to the previously known CYP2D6*13 and *66 hybrids, we describe three novel non-functional CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids with gene switching in exon 2 (CYP2D6*79, intron 2 (CYP2D6*80 and intron 5 (CYP2D6*67. A CYP2D7-specific T-ins in exon 1 causes a detrimental frame shift. One subject revealed a CYP2D7 conversion in the 5’-flanking region of a CYP2D6*35 allele, was otherwise unaffected (designated CYP2D6*35B. Finally, three DNAs revealed a CYP2D7 gene with a CYP2D6-like region downstream of exon 9 (designated CYP2D7[REP6]. Quantitative copy number determination, sequence analyses and long-range PCR mapping were in agreement and excluded the presence of additional gene units. Undetected hybrid genes may cause over-estimation of CYP2D6 activity (CYP2D6*1/*1 vs *1/hybrid, etc, but may also cause results that may interfere with the genotype determination. Detection of hybrid events, ‘single’ and tandem, will contribute to more accurate phenotype prediction from genotype data.

  6. Preparation and luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped CaSi2O2-dN2+2/3d phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yunxin; Zhang Qinghong; Wang Hongzhi; Li Yaogang

    2009-01-01

    Eu 2+ -doped CaSi 2 O 2-d N 2+2/3d phosphors for white LED lamps were prepared by solid-state reaction, and the effects of heat-treatment conditions and the overall composition of host lattice on the optical properties have been discussed. Eu 2+ -doped CaSi 2 O 2-d N 2+2/3d displayed a single broad emission band peak at 540 nm, which could be assigned to the allowed transition of Eu 2+ from the lowest crystal field component of 4f 6 5d to 4f 7 ground-state level. The excitation band of samples, extending from UV to blue, is extremely wide, so the phosphors are suitable for white LED lamps in combination with a UV or blue LED dies. The highest PL intensity is found for the sample sintered at 1400 0 C. Moreover, the emission intensity decreases when N partially replaces O. A red shift of emission wavelength did not occur with increasing of the N content.

  7. Analysis results from the Los Alamos 2D/3D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Cappiello, M.W.; Stumpf, H.; Shire, P.; Gilbert, J.; Hedstrom, J.

    1986-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the 2D/3D program. Activities conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of 2D/3D program goals include analysis support of facility design, construction, and operation; provision of boundary and initial conditions for test facility operations based on analysis of pressurized water reactors; performance of pretest and posttest predictions and analyses; and use of experimental results to validate and assess the single- and multidimensional nonequilibrium features in the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC). During Fiscal Year 1986, Los Alamos conducted analytical assessment activities using data from the Cylindrical Core Test Facility and the Slab Core Test Facility. Los Alamos also continued to provide support analysis for the planning of Upper Plenum Test Facility experiments. Finally, Los Alamos either completed or is currently working on three areas of TRAC modeling improvement. In this paper, Los Alamos activities during Fiscal Year 1986 are summarized; several significant accomplishments are described in more detail to illustrate the work activities at Los Alamos

  8. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  9. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James B.; Blom, Eric; Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan; Kupfer, Gary M.; Jones, Nigel J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  10. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, James B. [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Blom, Eric [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Kupfer, Gary M. [Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 0652 (United States); Jones, Nigel J., E-mail: njjones@liv.ac.uk [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-07

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  11. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...

  12. 2D/3D/4D ULTRASOUND IN INFERTILITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uršula Reš-Muravec

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound in infertility diagnostics: Ultrasound is used for examination of uterus, tubes, ovaries and peritoneal cause of infertility. It can be used in different menstrual phases: proliferative, periovulatory and secretory phase. Examination of uterus: A 2D scan can measure the size of the uterus (length, width and depth and a 2D flow (colour and power doppler. With 3D technology we can measure the whole volume with VOCAL (virtual organ computer-aided analysis and 3D circulation with the index (VI – vascular index, FI – flow index and VFI – vascular flow index in the uterus. A 2D scan can help us define uterine malformations, fibroids and adenomyosis to a certain extent. However, a 3D scan offers more accurate diagnosis of these malformations. Endometrium is examined separately. With 2D the width is measured and morphology and focal lesions (polyp, fibroids, adhesions are examined. With 3D the real sagital plane for the width measurement can be defined . We can measure the volume of endometrium and subendometrium and 3D circulation in endometrium and subendometrium. The FIS (f luid instlation sonography is very useful when examining the endometrium; saline or gel can be used for uterine instalation. We can measure and define the position of the structures in the endometrium more accurately when they are surrouned by saline or gel. We can view these structures with a surface view, similar to the one used for hysteroscopy. With this information we can explain the pathology to the patient and easily plan the surgical procedures. Examination of the tubes: With 2D US we can see the tubes in the pelvis only if there are dilatations, but sometimes it is difficult to distinguish them from the neighbouring forma- tions. With a 3D ultrasound we can define the shape and continuity of the tube and we can view the tube from different angles (inversion mode. Different contrast media are used for determining tubal patency. Tubal patency can be diagnosed with 2D Hy

  13. Physical limit of stability in supercooled D2O and D2O+H2O mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S. B.; Ely, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory of homogeneous nucleation was applied for calculating the physical boundary of metastable states, the kinetic spinodal, in supercooled D2O and D2O+H2O mixtures. The kinetic spinodal in our approach is completely determined by the surface tension and equation of state of the supercooled liquid. We developed a crossover equation of state for supercooled D2O, which predicts a second critical point of low density water-high density water equilibrium, CP2, and represents all available experimental data in supercooled D2O within experimental accuracy. Using Turnbull's expression for the surface tension we calculated with the crossover equation of state for supercooled D2O the kinetic spinodal, TKS, which lies below the homogeneous nucleation temperature, TH. We show that CP2 always lies inside in the so-called "nonthermodynamic habitat" and physically does not exist. However, the concept of a second "virtual" critical point is physical and very useful. Using this concept we have extended this approach to supercooled D2O+H2O mixtures. As an example, we consider here an equimolar D2O+H2O mixture in normal and supercooled states at atmospheric pressure, P=0.1 MPa.

  14. Power Control for D2D Underlay Cellular Networks With Channel Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Memmi, Amen

    2016-12-26

    Device-to-device (D2D) communications underlying the cellular infrastructure are a technology that have been proposed recently as a promising solution to enhance cellular network capabilities. It improves spectrum utilization, overall throughput, and energy efficiency while enabling new peer-to-peer and location-based applications and services. However, interference is the major challenge, since the same resources are shared by both systems. Therefore, interference management techniques are required to keep the interference under control. In this paper, in order to mitigate interference, we consider centralized and distributed power control algorithms in a one-cell random network model. Existing results on D2D underlay networks assume perfect channel state information (CSI). This assumption is usually unrealistic in practice due to the dynamic nature of wireless channels. Thus, it is of great interest to study and evaluate achievable performances under channel uncertainty. Differently from previous works, we are assuming that the CSI may be imperfect and include estimation errors. In the centralized approach, we derive the optimal powers that maximize the coverage probability and the rate of the cellular user while scheduling as many D2D links as possible. These powers are computed at the base station (BS) and then delivered to the users, and hence the name “centralized”. For the distributed method, the ON–OFF power control and the truncated channel inversion are proposed. Expressions of coverage probabilities are established in the function of D2D links intensity, pathloss exponent, and estimation error variance. Results show the important influence of CSI error on achievable performances and thus how crucial it is to consider it while designing networks and evaluating performances.

  15. 2D Numerical Modelling of the Resin Injection Pultrusion Process Including Experimental Resin Kinetics and Temperature Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Salling; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Larsen, Martin

    In the present study, a two-dimensional (2D) transient Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis of a carbon fibre epoxy thermosetting Resin Injection Pultrusion (RIP) process is carried out. The numerical model is implemented using the well known unconditionally stable Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI......) scheme. The total heat of reaction and the cure kinetics of the epoxy thermosetting are determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). A very good agreement is observed between the fitted cure kinetic model and the experimental measurements. The numerical steady state temperature predictions...

  16. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets

  17. Mechanical Design and Fabrication of a New RF Power Amplifier for LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zukun

    2011-01-01

    A Full-scale prototype of a new 201.25 MHz RF Final Power Amplifier (FPA) for Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has been designed, fabricated, assembled and installed in the test facility. This prototype was successfully tested and met the physics and electronics design criteria. The team faced design and manufacturing challenges, having a goal to produce 2 MW peak power at 13% duty factor, at the elevation of over 2 km in Los Alamos. The mechanical design of the final power amplifier was built around a Thales TH628 Diacrode R , a state-of-art tetrode power tube. The main structure includes Input circuit, Output circuit, Grid decoupling circuit, Output coupler, Tuning pistons, and a cooling system. Many types of material were utilized to make this new RF amplifier. The fabrication processes of the key components were completed in the Prototype Fabrication Division shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The critical plating procedures were achieved by private industry. The FPA mass is nearly 600 kg and installed in a beam structural support stand. In this paper, we summarize the FPA design basis and fabrication, plating, and assembly process steps with necessary lifting and handling fixtures. In addition, to ensure the quality of the FPA support structure a finite element analysis with seismic design forces has also been carried out.

  18. Mechanical Design and Fabrication of a New RF Power Amplifier for LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zukun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    A Full-scale prototype of a new 201.25 MHz RF Final Power Amplifier (FPA) for Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has been designed, fabricated, assembled and installed in the test facility. This prototype was successfully tested and met the physics and electronics design criteria. The team faced design and manufacturing challenges, having a goal to produce 2 MW peak power at 13% duty factor, at the elevation of over 2 km in Los Alamos. The mechanical design of the final power amplifier was built around a Thales TH628 Diacrode{sup R}, a state-of-art tetrode power tube. The main structure includes Input circuit, Output circuit, Grid decoupling circuit, Output coupler, Tuning pistons, and a cooling system. Many types of material were utilized to make this new RF amplifier. The fabrication processes of the key components were completed in the Prototype Fabrication Division shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The critical plating procedures were achieved by private industry. The FPA mass is nearly 600 kg and installed in a beam structural support stand. In this paper, we summarize the FPA design basis and fabrication, plating, and assembly process steps with necessary lifting and handling fixtures. In addition, to ensure the quality of the FPA support structure a finite element analysis with seismic design forces has also been carried out.

  19. 2d-LCA - an alternative to x-wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150 kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.

  20. 2D-Driven 3D Object Detection in RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Lahoud, Jean

    2017-12-25

    In this paper, we present a technique that places 3D bounding boxes around objects in an RGB-D scene. Our approach makes best use of the 2D information to quickly reduce the search space in 3D, benefiting from state-of-the-art 2D object detection techniques. We then use the 3D information to orient, place, and score bounding boxes around objects. We independently estimate the orientation for every object, using previous techniques that utilize normal information. Object locations and sizes in 3D are learned using a multilayer perceptron (MLP). In the final step, we refine our detections based on object class relations within a scene. When compared to state-of-the-art detection methods that operate almost entirely in the sparse 3D domain, extensive experiments on the well-known SUN RGB-D dataset [29] show that our proposed method is much faster (4.1s per image) in detecting 3D objects in RGB-D images and performs better (3 mAP higher) than the state-of-the-art method that is 4.7 times slower and comparably to the method that is two orders of magnitude slower. This work hints at the idea that 2D-driven object detection in 3D should be further explored, especially in cases where the 3D input is sparse.

  1. Isotopic exchange processes in cold plasmas of H2/D2 mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Carrasco, Esther; Herrero, Víctor J; Tanarro, Isabel

    2011-05-28

    Isotope exchange in low pressure cold plasmas of H(2)/D(2) mixtures has been investigated by means of mass spectrometric measurements of neutrals and ions, and kinetic model calculations. The measurements, which include also electron temperatures and densities, were performed in a stainless steel hollow cathode reactor for three discharge pressures: 1, 2 and 8 Pa, and for mixture compositions ranging from 100% H(2) to 100% D(2). The data are analyzed in the light of the model calculations, which are in good global agreement with the experiments. Isotope selective effects are found both in the surface recombination and in the gas-phase ionic chemistry. The dissociation of the fuel gas molecules is followed by wall recycling, which regenerates H(2) and D(2) and produces HD. Atomic recombination at the wall is found to proceed through an Eley-Rideal mechanism, with a preference for reaction of the adsorbed atoms with gas phase D atoms. The best fit probabilities for Eley-Rideal abstraction with H and D are: γ(ER H) = 1.5 × 10(-3), γ(ER D) = 2.0 × 10(-3). Concerning ions, at 1 Pa the diatomic species H(2)(+), D(2)(+) and HD(+), formed directly by electron impact, prevail in the distributions, and at 8 Pa, the triatomic ions H(3)(+), H(2)D(+), HD(2)(+) and D(3)(+), produced primarily in reactions of diatomic ions with molecules, dominate the plasma composition. In this higher pressure regime, the formation of the mixed ions H(2)D(+) and HD(2)(+) is favoured in comparison with that of H(3)(+) and D(3)(+), as expected on statistical grounds. The model results predict a very small preference, undetectable within the precision of the measurements, for the generation of triatomic ions with a higher degree of deuteration, which is probably a residual influence at room temperature of the marked zero point energy effects (ZPE), relevant for deuterium fractionation in interstellar space. In contrast, ZPE effects are found to be decisive for the observed distribution of

  2. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A -dopamine D2 receptor heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, J; Valle-León, M; Sahlholm, K; Watanabe, M; Van Craenenbroeck, K; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Ferré, S; Ciruela, F

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (ie, GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) and dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) predominantly form A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A 2A R and D 2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population. First, in order to avoid possible strain-related differences, a new D 2 R-deficient mouse with the same genetic background (CD-1) than the A 2A R knock-out mouse was generated. Locomotor activity, pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and drug-induced catalepsy were then evaluated in wild-type, A 2A R and D 2 R knock-out mice, with and without the concomitant administration of either the D 2 R agonist sumanirole or the A 2A R antagonist SCH442416. SCH442416-mediated locomotor effects were demonstrated to be dependent on D 2 R signaling. Similarly, a significant dependence on A 2A R signaling was observed for PPI and for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The results could be explained by the existence of one main population of striatal postsynaptic A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers, which may constitute a relevant target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. 3D isotropic T2-weighted fast spin echo (VISTA) versus 2D T2-weighted fast spin echo in evaluation of the calcaneofibular ligament in the oblique coronal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Lee, S Y; Choi, Y J; Hong, H P; Park, S J; Park, J H; Kim, E

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the image quality of three-dimensional (3D) volume isotropic fast spin echo acquisition (VISTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) view is comparable to that of 2D fast spin echo T2-weighted images (2D T2 FSE) for the evaluation of the CFL, and whether 3D VISTA can replace 2D T2 FSE for the evaluation of CFL injuries. This retrospective study included 76 patients who underwent ankle MRI with CFL views of both 2D T2 FSE MRI and 3D VISTA. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of both techniques were measured. The anatomical identification score and diagnostic performances were evaluated by two readers independently. The diagnostic performances of 3D VISTA and 2D T2 FSE were analysed by sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing CFL injury with reference standards of surgically or clinically confirmed diagnoses. Surgical correlation was performed in 29% of the patients, and clinical examination was used in those who did not have surgery (71%). The SNRs and CNRs of 3D VISTA were significantly higher than those of 2D T2 FSE. The anatomical identification scores on 3D VISTA were inferior to those on 2D T2 FSE, and the differences were statistically significant (pT2 FSE for the anatomical evaluation of CFL, 3D VISTA has a diagnostic performance comparable to that of 2D T2 FSE for the diagnosis of CFL injuries. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A New Manufacturing Service Selection and Composition Method Using Improved Flower Pollination Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing number of manufacturing services, the means by which to select and compose these manufacturing services have become a challenging problem. It can be regarded as a multiobjective optimization problem that involves a variety of conflicting quality of service (QoS attributes. In this study, a multiobjective optimization model of manufacturing service composition is presented that is based on QoS and an environmental index. Next, the skyline operator is applied to reduce the solution space. And then a new method called improved Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA is proposed for solving the problem of manufacturing service selection and composition. The improved FPA enhances the performance of basic FPA by combining the latter with crossover and mutation operators of the Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. Finally, a case study is conducted to compare the proposed method with other evolutionary algorithms, including the Genetic Algorithm, DE, basic FPA, and extended FPA. The experimental results reveal that the proposed method performs best at solving the problem of manufacturing service selection and composition.

  5. 2D biological representations with reduced speckle obtained from two perpendicular ultrasonic arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, Miguel A; Gomez-Sacristan, Angel; Sempere-Payá, Víctor M

    2016-04-29

    Ultrasound diagnosis is a widely used medical tool. Among the various ultrasound techniques, ultrasonic imaging is particularly relevant. This paper presents an improvement to a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic system using measurements taken from perpendicular planes, where digital signal processing techniques are used to combine one-dimensional (1D) A-scans were acquired by individual transducers in arrays located in perpendicular planes. An algorithm used to combine measurements is improved based on the wavelet transform, which includes a denoising step during the 2D representation generation process. The inclusion of this new denoising stage generates higher quality 2D representations with a reduced level of speckling. The paper includes different 2D representations obtained from noisy A-scans and compares the improvements obtained by including the denoising stage.

  6. Wireless Device-to-Device (D2D) Links for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communications will play an important role in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks, by increasing the spatial reuse of spectrum resources and enabling communication links with low latency. D2D is composed of two fundamental building blocks: proximity discovery...... and direct communication between nearby users. Another emerging trend in wireless cellular systems is Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications, often characterized by fixed, low transmission rates. In this chapter we motivate the synergy between D2D and M2M, and present technologies that enable M2M-via-D2D...

  7. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated. This report was prepared in a coordination among US, Germany and Japan. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0127 and GRS-101 respectively. (author)

  8. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated. This report was prepared in a coordination among US, Germany and Japan. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0127 and GRS-101 respectively. (author).

  9. Summary of the Minor Actinide-bearing MOX AFC-2C and -2D Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Kenneth; Chichester, Heather; Hayes, Steve; Voit, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Summary of AFC-2C and AFC-2D tests: • AFC-2C and 2D, 1st MOX experiments in FCRD, were irradiated in ATR; • Initial results indicate performance of experimental MA-MOX fuels are similar to standard FR MOX fuels; • Cd-shrouded ATR experiment assembly and 235 U enrichment produce prototypic fast reactor power and temperature profiles leading to classic MOX zone restructuring; • Baseline postirradiation examinations have been completed for AFC-2C MOX and MA-MOX fuels; • Future work includes: – PIE of AFC-2D; – compare results to prototypic MOX fuel performance; – electron microscopy for microstructure and constituent distribution; – advanced NDE on saved pins

  10. Conversion of 2-deoxy-D-ribose into 2-amino-5-(2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyridine, 2'-deoxypseudouridine, and other C-(2'-deoxyribonucleosides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Colin B; Wu, Qinpei

    2003-09-21

    The synthesis of 2-amino-5-(2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyridine 2a, 2-amino-5-(2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)-pyridine 23, 2-amino-5-(2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-3-methylpyridine 2b, 2-amino-5-(2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)-3-methylpyridine 29 and 5-(2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2,4-dioxopyrimidine [2'-deoxypseudouridine] 30a is described. These C-nucleosides are prepared either from 2-deoxy-3,5-O-(1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxan-1,3-diyl)-D-ribofuranose 15 or from 2-deoxy-3,5-O-(1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxan-1,3-diyl)-D-ribono-1,4-lactone 16, which are themselves prepared from 2-deoxy-D-ribose 13. The sugar derivatives are first allowed to react with the appropriate 5-lithio-pyridine or 5-lithio-pyrimidine derivatives, which are prepared from 5-bromo-2-(dibenzylamino)pyridine 12a, 5-bromo-2-[bis(4-methoxybenzyl)amino]pyridine 12b, 5-bromo-2-dibenzylamino-3-methylpyridine 25 and 5-bromo-2,4-bis(4-methoxybenzyloxy)pyrimidine 33. The products from the reactions between the lithio-derivatives and the lactol 15 are cyclized under Mitsunobu conditions; the products from the reactions between the lithio-derivatives and the lactone 16 are first reduced with L-Selectride before cyclization, also under Mitsunobu conditions. In all cases, the beta-anomers of the protected C-nucleosides are the predominant products. Finally, the separation of the alpha- and beta-anomers and the removal of all of the protecting groups are described.

  11. Laser-probing measurements and calculations of lifetimes of the 5d 2D3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 and 5d 2D5 at ∼sol∼ at 2 metastable levels in Ba II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurell, J.; Lundin, P.; Mannervik, S.; Royen, P.; Schef, P.; Biemont, E.; Quinet, P.; Blagoev, K.; Fivet, V.; Norlin, L.-O.; Rostohar, D.

    2007-01-01

    The two metastable levels 5d 2 D 3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 and 5d 2 D 5 at ∼sol∼ at 2 in Ba II both show extremely long lifetimes of the order of several tens of seconds each. This has been found both by experiments and by theoretical predictions. The small transition probabilities associated with these two levels make them interesting and challenging for theoreticians as well as for experimentalists. Several calculations and measurements of these two lifetimes have been made previously but discrepancies between the results are present. This article presents values of τ=89.4±15.6 s for the 2 D 3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 level and τ=32.0±4.6 s for the 2 D 5 at ∼sol∼ at 2 level measured in a beam-laser experiment performed at the ion storage ring CRYRING. These values are supported by our new calculations resulting in τ=82.0 s for the 2 D 3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 level and τ=31.6 s for the 2 D 5 at ∼sol∼ at 2 level

  12. A Comparison of Iterative 2D-3D Pose Estimation Methods for Real-Time Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel; Krüger, Volker; Petersen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This work compares iterative 2D-3D Pose Estimation methods for use in real-time applications. The compared methods are available for public as C++ code. One method is part of the openCV library, namely POSIT. Because POSIT is not applicable for planar 3Dpoint congurations, we include the planar P...

  13. 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikat

    OpenAIRE

    Smolander, Aku

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan erilaisia 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoita. Aluksi luodaan yleiskatsaus animoinnin historiaan ja tekniikoihin piirtämisestä mallintamiseen. Alkukatsauksen jälkeen tutkitaan 2D-hahmon suunnittelua ja liikkeitä koskevia sääntöjä. Hahmoanimaation liikkeissä huomionarvoisia asioita ovat muun muassa ajastus, liioittelu, ennakointi ja painovoima. Seuraavaksi perehdytään itse 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoihin. Tavoitteena on selvittää, tutkia ja vertailla ...

  14. Providing choices for a marginalized community. A community-based project with Malaysian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects.

  15. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D.

    2017-01-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson’s disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other’s effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. PMID:26051403

  16. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bifulco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  17. Heparin-bonded, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-lined stent graft in the treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease: 1-year results of the VIPER (Viabahn Endoprosthesis with Heparin Bioactive Surface in the Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Obstructive Disease) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Richard R; Chervu, Arun; Jones, Paul A; Bajwa, Tanvir K; Gable, Dennis R; Soukas, Peter A; Begg, Richard J; Adams, John G; Ansel, Gary M; Schneider, Darren B; Eichler, Charles M; Rush, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of a heparin-bonded, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-lined nitinol endoprosthesis in the treatment of long-segment occlusive disease of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA) and to identify factors associated with loss of patency. In a single-arm, prospective, 11-center study (VIPER [Gore Viabahn Endoprosthesis with Heparin Bioactive Surface in the Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Obstructive Disease] trial), 119 limbs (113 patients; 69 men; mean age, 67 y), including 88 with Rutherford category 3-5 disease and 72 with Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II) C or D lesions of the FPA, underwent stent graft implantation. The mean lesion length was 19 cm; 56% of lesions were occlusions. Follow-up evaluations included color duplex ultrasonography in all patients, with patency defined as a peak systolic velocity ratio20% was 70% (P = .047). Primary patency was not significantly affected by device diameter (5 vs 6 vs 7 mm) or lesion length (≤20 cm vs>20 cm). The 30-day major adverse event rate was 0.8%. The heparin-bonded, ePTFE/nitinol stent graft provided clinical improvement and a primary patency rate of 73% at 1 year in the treatment of long-segment FPA disease. Careful sizing of the device relative to vessel landing zones is essential for achieving optimal outcomes. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 2-D emittance equation with acceleration and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.D.; Smith, L.

    1988-10-01

    Since both acceleration and compression are required for an Inertial Fusion Driver, the understanding of their effect on the beam quality, emittance, is important. This report attempts to generalize the usual emittance formula for the drifting beam to include these effects. The derivation of the 2-D emittance equation is carried out and a comparison with the particle code results is given. The 2-D emittance at a given axial location is reasonable to consider for a long beam, particularly with velocity tilt; transverse emittance averaged over the entire bunch is not a useful quantity. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Electronic structure of YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub δ/ including strong correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Balle, S.; Salvador, R.

    1989-01-01

    The occupied and unoccupied valence-band density of states of YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub δ/ is determined considering a coherent potential which includes the Coulomb intrasite d-d correlation. The p states tend to be all occupied and, as a consequence, the most localized d states with the XZ symmetry tend to be unoccupied giving rise to an upper Hubbard band. This picture is in good agreement with the direct and inverse photoemission spectroscopies

  20. 3-D Whole-Core Transport Calculation with 3D/2D Rotational Plane Slicing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Han Jong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Use of the method of characteristics (MOC) is very popular due to its capability of heterogeneous geometry treatment and widely used for 2-D core calculation, but direct extension of MOC to 3-D core is not so attractive due to huge calculational cost. 2-D/1-D fusion method was very successful for 3-D calculation of current generation reactor types (highly heterogeneous in radial direction but piece-wise homogeneous in axial direction). In this paper, 2-D MOC concept is extended to 3-D core calculation with little modification of an existing 2-D MOC code. The key idea is to suppose 3-D geometry as a set of many 2-D planes like a phone-directory book. Dividing 3-D structure into a large number of 2-D planes and solving each plane with a simple 2-D SN transport method would give the solution of a 3-D structure. This method was developed independently at KAIST but it is found that this concept is similar with that of 'plane tracing' in the MCCG-3D code. The method developed was tested on the 3-D C5G7 OECD/NEA benchmark problem and compared with the 2-D/1-D fusion method. Results show that the proposed method is worth investigating further. A new approach to 3-D whole-core transport calculation is described and tested. By slicing 3-D structure along characteristic planes and solving each 2-D plane problem, we can get 3-D solution. The numerical test results indicate that the new method is comparable with the 2D/1D fusion method and outperforms other existing methods. But more fair comparison should be done in similar discretization level.

  1. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Shavanova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical. A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  2. Applications of 2D to 3D conversion for educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koido, Yoshihisa; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Saki; Takeuchi, Soya; Maruyama, Wataru; Nakagori, Toshio; Hirakata, Masataka; Shinkai, Hirohisa; Kawai, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    There are three main approaches creating stereoscopic S3D content: stereo filming using two cameras, stereo rendering of 3D computer graphics, and 2D to S3D conversion by adding binocular information to 2D material images. Although manual "off-line" conversion can control the amount of parallax flexibly, 2D material images are converted according to monocular information in most cases, and the flexibility of 2D to S3D conversion has not been exploited. If the depth is expressed flexibly, comprehensions and interests from converted S3D contents are anticipated to be differed from those from 2D. Therefore, in this study we created new S3D content for education by applying 2D to S3D conversion. For surgical education, we created S3D surgical operation content under a surgeon using a partial 2D to S3D conversion technique which was expected to concentrate viewers' attention on significant areas. And for art education, we converted Ukiyoe prints; traditional Japanese artworks made from a woodcut. The conversion of this content, which has little depth information, into S3D, is expected to produce different cognitive processes from those evoked by 2D content, e.g., the excitation of interest, and the understanding of spatial information. In addition, the effects of the representation of these contents were investigated.

  3. Analysis of ν2 of D 2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, James R.; Blatherwick, Ronald D.; Bonomo, Francis S.

    1985-11-01

    The infrared spectrum of ν2 of D 2S was recorded from 740 to 1100 cm -1 on the University of Denver 50-cm FTIR spectrometer system. We have assigned 655 transitions from D 232S and 129 from D 234S, and have analyzed them using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian evaluated in the I r representation. We used the recently published D 232S and D 234S ground state Hamiltonian constants [C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, L. Lechuga-Fossat and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc.109, 300-333 (1985)]. Upper state Hamiltonian constants were obtained from a fit of the ν2 transitions, keeping the ground state constants fixed while varying the upper state constants. The standard deviation of the D 232S ν2 fit is 0.0025 cm -1. The standard deviation of the D 234S ν2 fit is 0.0041 cm -1.

  4. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Li-Ya

    2011-06-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H 2PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H 2O)] n(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)] n(2), and [Cu 2(PHDA) 2(BPP)] n(3) (H 2PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D→2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4 86 68 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state.

  5. 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmin; Gao, Lu

    2009-10-01

    Generally, 2-D spatial data are divided as a series of tiles according to the plane grid. To satisfy the effect of vision, the tiles in the query window including the view point would be displayed quickly at the screen. Aiming at the performance difference of real storage devices, we propose a 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual device. Firstly, we construct a group of virtual devices which have same storage performance and non-limited capacity, then distribute the tiles into M virtual devices according to the query window of 2-D tiles. Secondly, we equably map the tiles in M virtual devices into M equidistant intervals in [0, 1) using pseudo-random number generator. Finally, we devide [0, 1) into M intervals according to the tiles distribution percentage of every real storage device, and distribute the tiles in each interval in the corresponding real storage device. We have designed and realized a prototype GlobeSIGht, and give some related test results. The results show that the average response time of each tile in the query window including the view point using 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual device is more efficient than using other methods.

  6. Comparison of modern 3D and 2D MR imaging sequences of the wrist at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehnitz, C.; Klaan, B.; Amarteifio, E.; Kauczor, H.U.; Weber, M.A.; Stillfried, F. von; Burkholder, I.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the image quality of modern 3 D and 2 D sequences for dedicated wrist imaging at 3 Tesla (T) MRI. At 3 T MRI, 18 patients (mean age: 36.2 years) with wrist pain and 16 healthy volunteers (mean age: 26.4 years) were examined using 2 D proton density-weighted fat-saturated (PDfs), isotropic 3 D TrueFISP, 3 D MEDIC, and 3 D PDfs SPACE sequences. Image quality was rated on a five-point scale (0 - 4) including overall image quality (OIQ), visibility of important structures (cartilage, ligaments, TFCC) and degree of artifacts. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of cartilage/bone/muscle/fluid as well as the mean overall SNR/CNR were calculated using region-of-interest analysis. ANOVA, paired t-, and Wilcoxon-signed-rank tests were applied. The image quality of all tested sequences was superior to 3 D PDfs SPACE (p < 0.01). 3 D TrueFISP had the highest combined cartilage score (mean: 3.4) and performed better in cartilage comparisons against 3 D PDfs SPACE in both groups and 2 D PDfs in volunteers (p < 0.05). 3 D MEDIC performed better in 7 of 8 comparisons (p < 0.05) regarding ligaments and TFCC. 2 D PDfs provided constantly high scores. The mean overall SNR/CNR for 2 D PDfs, 3 D PDfs SPACE, 3 D TrueFISP, and 3 D MEDIC were 68/65, 32/27, 45/47, and 57/45, respectively. 2 D PDfs performed best in most SNR/CNR comparisons (p < 0.05) and 3 D MEDIC performed best within the 3 D sequences (p < 0.05). Except 3 D PDfs SPACE, all tested 3 D and 2 D sequences provided high image quality. 3 D TrueFISP was best for cartilage imaging, 3 D MEDIC for ligaments and TFCC and 2 D PDfs for general wrist imaging.

  7. 1H NMR study of 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexopyranose (2-deoxy-glucopyranose), 2-deoxy-D-lyxo-hexopyranose (2-deoxy-galactopyranose) and 2'-deoxy lactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyn, A. de; Anteunis, M.

    1975-01-01

    Complete analyses of the 1 H n.m.r. spectra at 300 MHz of D 2 O solutions of 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexopyranose, 2-deoxy-D-lyxo-hexopyranose and 2'-deoxy lactose. Chemical shifts in the deoxy monosaccharides and in 2'-deoxy lactose. Chemical shifts in the deoxy monosaccharides and in 2'-deoxy lactose are compared with those previously obtained in the parent aldeohexopyranoses, glucobioses and D-galactopyranosol-D-glucoses. Increment values are suggested in order to predict chemical shifts in 2-deoxy derivatives from the well known rules for aldohexopyranoses. (author)

  8. The MICHELLE 2D/3D ES PIC Code Advances and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petillo, John; De Ford, John F; Dionne, Norman J; Eppley, Kenneth; Held, Ben; Levush, Baruch; Nelson, Eric M; Panagos, Dimitrios; Zhai, Xiaoling

    2005-01-01

    MICHELLE is a new 2D/3D steady-state and time-domain particle-in-cell (PIC) code* that employs electrostatic and now magnetostatic finite-element field solvers. The code has been used to design and analyze a wide variety of devices that includes multistage depressed collectors, gridded guns, multibeam guns, annular-beam guns, sheet-beam guns, beam-transport sections, and ion thrusters. Latest additions to the MICHELLE/Voyager tool are as follows: 1) a prototype 3D self magnetic field solver using the curl-curl finite-element formulation for the magnetic vector potential, employing edge basis functions and accumulating current with MICHELLE's new unstructured grid particle tracker, 2) the electrostatic field solver now accommodates dielectric media, 3) periodic boundary conditions are now functional on all grids, not just structured grids, 4) the addition of a global optimization module to the user interface where both electrical parameters (such as electrode voltages)can be optimized, and 5) adaptive mesh ref...

  9. Measurement of the hyperfine structure of the 31D2, 41D2, 51D2 levels of helium 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemery, H.; Hamel, J.; Barrat, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that, in a discharge in 3 He, the nuclear spins in the ground state can be oriented through metastability exchange, by optical pumping of the metastable 2 3 S 1 atoms. The orientation is transmitted to the other levels excited in the discharge. If the nuclear spins in the ground state are submitted to magnetic resonance, the light emitted from these excited states is modulated at the R.F. field frequency. The degree of modulation is important only near a level crossing, in zero field or in non-zero field. This method has been used to determine the hyperfine structure of the 3 1 D 2 , 4 1 D 2 , 5 1 D 2 levels. The results are in good agreement with those of previous measurements and with theoretical predictions [fr

  10. 3D Simulations of NIF Wetted Foam Experiments to Understand the Transition from 2D to 3D Implosion Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Brian; Olson, Richard; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Peterson, Robert; Bradley, Paul; Shah, Rahul; Wilson, Doug; Kline, John; Leeper, Ramon; Batha, Steve

    2017-10-01

    The high convergence ratio (CR) of layered Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule implosions contribute to high performance in 1D simulations yet make them more susceptible to hydrodynamic instabilities, contributing to the development of 3D flows. The wetted foam platform is an approach to hot spot ignition to achieve low-to-moderate convergence ratios in layered implosions on the NIF unobtainable using an ice layer. Detailed high-resolution modeling of these experiments in 2D and 3D, including all known asymmetries, demonstrates that 2D hydrodynamics explain capsule performance at CR 12 but become less suitable as the CR increases. Mechanisms for this behavior and detailed comparisons of simulations to experiments on NIF will be presented. To evaluate the tradeoff between increased instability and improved 1D performance, we present a full-scale wetted foam capsule design with 17

  11. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones e IT, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicación, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Vázquez-Cabo, José [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Universidad de Vigo, ETSI Telecomunicación, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, Vigo (Spain); Sánchez-Arévalo, Francisco M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales (IIM), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70–360, Cd. Universitaria, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Martín-Ramos, Pablo [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones e IT, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicación, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M. [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Dante, Roberto C., E-mail: rcdante@yahoo.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS.

  12. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Vázquez-Cabo, José; Sánchez-Arévalo, Francisco M.; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Dante, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS

  13. Effect of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] metabolism in vitamin D-deficient rats infused with 1,25-(OH)2D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Fukumoto, S.; Ikeda, K.; Ishizuka, S.; Ogata, E.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that administration of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25-(OH)2D3] to calcium (Ca)-deficient rats causes a dose-dependent reduction in markedly elevated serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 level. Although the results suggested that the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was accelerated by 24,25-(OH)2D3, those experiments could not define whether the enhanced metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 played a role in the reduction in the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 level. In the present study, in order to address this issue more specifically, serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 was maintained solely by exogenous administration through miniosmotic pumps of 1,25-(OH)2D3 into vitamin D-deficient rats. Thus, by measuring the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 concentration, the effect of 24,25-(OH)2D3 on the MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D3 could be examined. Administration of 24,25-(OH)2D3 caused a dose-dependent enhancement in the MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and 1 microgram/100 g rat.day 24,25-(OH)2D3, which elevated serum 24,25-(OH)2D3 to 8.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml, significantly increased MCR and suppressed serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. The effect of 24,25-(OH)2D3 on 1,25-(OH)2D3 metabolism developed with a rapid time course, and the recovery of iv injected [1 beta-3H]1,25-(OH)2D3 in blood was significantly reduced within 1 h. In addition, there was an increase in radioactivity in the water-soluble fraction of serum as well as in urine, suggesting that 1,25-(OH)2D3 is rapidly degraded to a water-soluble metabolite(s). Furthermore, the reduction in serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 was associated with a reduction in both serum and urinary Ca levels. Because the conversion of [3H]24,25-(OH)2D3 to [3H]1,24,25-(OH)2D3 or other metabolites was minimal in these rats, 24,25-(OH)2D3 appears to act without being converted into other metabolites. These results demonstrate that 24,25-(OH)2D3 rapidly stimulates the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and reduces its serum level

  14. FTIR imaging in diffusion studies: CO2 and H2O in a synthetic sector-zoned beryl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo eDella Ventura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of CO2 and H2O in a synthetic beryl having a peculiar hourglass zoning of Cr due to the crystal growth. The sample was treated at 800°C, 500 MPa, in a CO2-rich atmosphere. High-resolution FESEM images revealed that the hourglass boundary is not correlated to physical discontinuities, at least at the scale of tens of nanometers. Polarized FPA-FTIR imaging, on the other side, revealed that the chemical zoning acts as a fast pathway for carbon dioxide diffusion, a feature never observed so far in minerals. The hourglass zone boundary may be thus considered as a structural defect possibly due to the mismatch induced by the different growth rates of each sector. High-resolution synchrotron-light FTIR imaging, in addition, also allows enhancement of CO2 diffusion along the hourglass boundary to be distinguished from diffusion along fractures in the grain. Therefore, FTIR imaging provides evidence that different diffusion mechanisms may locally combine, suggesting that the distribution of the target molecules needs to be be carefully characterized in experimental studies. This piece of information is mandatory when the study is aimed at extracting diffusion coefficients from analytical profiles. Combination of TOF-SIMS and FPA data shows a significant depletion of type II H2O along the hourglass boundary, indicating that water diffusion could be controlled by the distribution of alkali cations within channels, coupled to a plug effect of CO2.

  15. Methane Provenance Determined by CH2D2 and 13CH3D Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, I. E.; Giunta, T.; Warr, O.; Ash, J. L.; Ruffine, L.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Young, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the provenance of naturally occurring methane gases is of major interest to energy companies and atmospheric climate modelers, among others. Bulk isotopic compositions and other geochemical tracers sometimes fail to provide definitive determinations of sources of methane due to complications from mixing and complicated chemical pathways of origin. Recent measurements of doubly-substituted isotopologues of methane, CH2D2 (UCLA) and 13CH3D (UCLA, CalTech, and MIT) have allowed for major improvements in sourcing natural methane gases. Early work has focused on formation temperatures obtained when the relative abundances of both doubly-substituted mass-18 species are consistent with internal equilibrium. When methane gases do not plot on the thermodynamic equilibrium curve in D12CH2D2 vs D13CH3D space, temperatures determined from D13CH3D values alone are usually spurious, even when appearing reasonable. We find that the equilibrium case is actually rare and almost exclusive to thermogenic gases produced at temperatures exceeding 100°C. All other relevant methane production processes appear to generate gases that are not in isotopologue-temperature equilibrium. When gases show departures from equilibrium as determined by the relationship between CH2D2 and 13CH3D abundances, data fall within empirically defined fields representing formation pathways. These fields are thus far consistent between different geological settings and and between lab experiments and natural samples. We have now defined fields for thermogenic gas production, microbial methanogenesis, low temperature abiotic (Sabatier) synthesis and higher temperature FTT synthesis. The majority of our natural methane data can be explained by mixing between end members originating within these production fields. Mixing can appear complex, resulting in both hyper-clumped and anti-clumped isotopologue abundances. In systems where mixtures dominate and end-members are difficult to sample, mixing models

  16. Dopamine D/sub 2/ and D/sub 1/ receptors: biochemical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niznik, H B

    1986-01-01

    In order to label dopamine D/sub 2/ receptors reversibly and selectively the potent substituted benzamide neuroleptic, YM-09151-2, was tritium labeled and its binding characteristics to striatal homogenates investigated. (/sup 3/H) YM-09151-2 bound to D/sub 2/ receptors with high affinity in a specific, saturable, reversible and sodium dependent fashion, displaying an appropriate pharmacological D/sub 2/ receptor profile. (/sup 3/H) YM-09151-2 appears to be the ligand of choice for labeling D/sub 2/ receptors since it displays approximately 20-fold lower affinity for serotonergic S/sub 2/ receptors than does (/sup 3/H) spiperone. As an initial step towards the molecular identification of the ligand binding subunit of the striatal D/sub 2/ receptor, photolabile analogues of the substituted benzamide clebopride were synthesized and their reversible and irreversible binding interactions to D/sub 2/ receptors characterized. D/sub 2/ receptor photoinactivation was prevented in a concentration and stereoselective manner by dopaminergic agonists and antagonists. In vivo biodistribution studies with (/sup 125/I) iodoazidoclebopride confirmed the ligand's ability to bind to D/sub 2/ receptor-rich regions and as such, may become a useful tool for the molecular characterization of D/sub 2/ receptor proteins. Digitonin solubilized striatal dopamine D/sub 2/ and D/sub 1/ receptors can be completely separated with full retention of biological activity by steric exclusion High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with corresponding Stokes radii of 7.1 and 5.6 nm.

  17. 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) based cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Healy, John J.; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cui, Xiao-Guang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    The 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) can describe a variety of paraxial optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically evaluate the 2D-NS-LCTs are not only important in modeling the light field propagations but also of interest in various signal processing based applications, for instance optical encryption. Therefore, in this paper, for the first time, a 2D-NS-LCT based optical Double-random- Phase-Encryption (DRPE) system is proposed which offers encrypting information in multiple degrees of freedom. Compared with the traditional systems, i.e. (i) Fourier transform (FT); (ii) Fresnel transform (FST); (iii) Fractional Fourier transform (FRT); and (iv) Linear Canonical transform (LCT), based DRPE systems, the proposed system is more secure and robust as it encrypts the data with more degrees of freedom with an augmented key-space.

  18. Photonics of 2D gold nanolayers on sapphire surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Nabatov, B. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Konovko, A. A.; Belov, I. V.; Gizetdinov, R. M.; Andreev, A. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kanevsky, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Gold layers with thicknesses of up to several nanometers, including ordered and disordered 2D nanostructures of gold particles, have been formed on sapphire substrates; their morphology is described; and optical investigations are carried out. The possibility of increasing the accuracy of predicting the optical properties of gold layers and 2D nanostructures using quantum-mechanical models based on functional density theory calculation techniques is considered. The application potential of the obtained materials in photonics is estimated.

  19. New and convenient synthesis of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from 2,4-O-ethylidene-D-erythrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauske, J.R.; Rapoport, H.

    1979-01-01

    A new synthesis is described of 2-deoxy-D-erythro-pentose (2-deoxy-D-ribose,2-deoxy-D-arabinose (1)), starting from D-glucose. The synthesis proceeds through direct olefination of 2,4-O-ethylidene-D-erythrose (2) by addition of the stabilized ylides generated from dimethylphosphorylmethyl phenyl sulfide (4) and the corresponding sulfoxide 5. These afford the key intermediates, thio-enol ether 7 and ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated sulfoxide 8, which when subjected to mercuric ion assisted hydrolysis gave high yields of 2-deoxy-D-ribose (1). This facile chain extension of 2 required its existance as a monomer, and conditions effective for obtaining the monomer have been developed. Detailed /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR studies of these compounds are presented.

  20. Towards Malaysian LADM Country Profile for 2D and 3D Cadastral Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, N.A.; Abdul Rahman, A.; Jamil, H.; Teng, C.H.; Tan, L.C.; Looi, K.S.; Chan, K.L.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive Land Administration Domain Model (LADM, ISO 2012) country profile for 2D and 3D cadastral registration system for Malaysia. The proposed Malaysian country profile is partly based on the existing spatial (including survey) and administrative registration systems, and partly based on new developments inspired by the LADM standard. Within the country profile, an attempt is made to cover all Malaysian land administration related information, which are maintaine...

  1. Vitamin D(3) is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Recker, Robert R; Grote, James; Horst, Ronald L; Armas, Laura A G

    2011-03-01

    Current unitage for the calciferols suggests that equimolar quantities of vitamins D(2) (D2) and D(3) (D3) are biologically equivalent. Published studies yield mixed results. The aim of the study was to compare the potencies of D2 and D3. The trial used a single-blind, randomized design in 33 healthy adults. Calciferols were dosed at 50,000 IU/wk for 12 wk. Principal outcome variables were area under the curve for incremental total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and change in calciferol content of sc fat. Incremental mean (sd) 25(OH)D area under the curve at 12 wk was 1366 ng · d/ml (516) for the D2-treated group and 2136 (606) for the D3 (P < 0.001). Mean (sd) steady-state 25(OH)D increments showed similar differences: 24 ng/ml for D2 (10.3) and 45 ng/ml (16.2) for D3 (P <0.001). Subcutaneous fat content of D2 rose by 50 μg/kg in the D2-treated group, and D3 content rose by 104 μg/kg in the D3-treated group. Total calciferol in fat rose by only 33 ng/kg in the D2-treated, whereas it rose by 104 μg/kg in the D3-treated group. Extrapolating to total body fat D3, storage amounted to just 17% of the administered dose. D3 is approximately 87% more potent in raising and maintaining serum 25(OH)D concentrations and produces 2- to 3-fold greater storage of vitamin D than does equimolar D2. For neither was there evidence of sequestration in fat, as had been postulated for doses in this range. Given its greater potency and lower cost, D3 should be the preferred treatment option when correcting vitamin D deficiency.

  2. D-Meson Mixing in 2+1-Flavor Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia Cheng [William-Mary Coll.; Bouchard, C. M. [William-Mary Coll.; El-Khadra, A. X. [Illinois U., Urbana; Freeland, E. [Art Inst. of Chicago; Gámiz, E. [Granada U., Theor. Phys. Astrophys.; Kronfeld, A. S. [Fermilab; Laiho, J. W. [Syracuse U.; Neil, E. T. [Colorado U.; Simone, J. N. [Fermilab; Van de Water, R. S. [Fermilab

    2017-01-20

    We present results for neutral D-meson mixing in 2+1-flavor lattice QCD. We compute the matrix elements for all five operators that contribute to D mixing at short distances, including those that only arise beyond the Standard Model. Our results have an uncertainty similar to those of the ETM collaboration (with 2 and with 2+1+1 flavors). This work shares many features with a recent publication on B mixing and with ongoing work on heavy-light decay constants from the Fermilab Lattice and MILC Collaborations.

  3. Biokinetic Analysis and Metabolic Fate of 2,4-D in 2,4-D-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Joshua J; Simpson, David M; Peterson, Mark A; Riechers, Dean E

    2017-07-26

    The Enlist weed control system allows the use of 2,4-D in soybean but slight necrosis in treated leaves may be observed in the field. The objectives of this research were to measure and compare uptake, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D in Enlist (E, resistant) and non-AAD-12 transformed (NT, sensitive) soybeans. The adjuvant from the Enlist Duo herbicide formulation (ADJ) increased 2,4-D uptake (36%) and displayed the fastest rate of uptake (U 50 = 0.2 h) among treatments. E soybean demonstrated a faster rate of 2,4-D metabolism (M 50 = 0.2 h) compared to NT soybean, but glyphosate did not affect 2,4-D metabolism. Metabolites of 2,4-D in E soybean were qualitatively different than NT. Applying 2,4-D-ethylhexyl ester instead of 2,4-D choline (a quaternary ammonium salt) eliminated visual injury to E soybean, likely due to the time required for initial de-esterification and bioactivation. Excessive 2,4-D acid concentrations in E soybean resulting from ADJ-increased uptake may significantly contribute to foliar injury.

  4. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R

    2015-01-01

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. (paper)

  5. Calculation of the energy of particles emitted by the reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He and D (d,p) T; Calcul de l'energie des particules emises par les reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He et D (d,p) T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oria, M; Sorriaux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    With a view to ease the work of research workers using 150 kV electrostatic accelerators, we have calculated the energy and the emission angle of particles emitted during the reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. The results are classified in tables and arranged according to the acceleration energy of the deuterons. Since the energies considered are relatively low we have limited our study to the non-relativistic domain; this simplification results in a maximum energy variation with respect to the real energy values of 1 per cent. We give also two curves representing the variations in the total cross-sections for the reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He and D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (authors) [French] De facon a faciliter la tache des experimentateurs utilisant des accelerateurs electrostatiques de 150 kV, nous avons calcule l'energie et l'angle d'emission des particules emises lors des reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. Les resultats ont ete classes dans des tableaux, et ordonnes en fonction de l'energie d'acceleration des deuterons. Les energies considerees etant relativement peu elevees, nous avons limite notre etude au domaine non relativiste, cette simplification n'entraine qu'une variation maximale de 1 pour cent sur les valeurs reelles des energies. Nous avons joint a ce calcul deux courbes representant la variation des sections efficaces totales des reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He et D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (auteurs)

  6. Analysis of D2D Communications over Gamma/Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hussain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the outage probability, channel capacity and symbol error rate (SER performance of device-to-device (D2D communication systems. The D2D communication system is affected by several co-channel interferers. Gamma fading channel is considered for the D2D communication system. The channel for the co-channel interference is assumed to be Nakagami faded. An expression for the probability density function (PDF of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR is presented. The PDF is a function of distances between various devices in the D2D system, path-loss, channel fading conditions and signal powers. Based on the PDF expression, we present the expressions for the outage, channel capacity and SER. With the help of numerical results the performance of D2D communication system is discussed under various conditions of interference, path-loss and channel fading.

  7. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Nucleic acid sequences encoding D1 and D1/D2 domains of human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2010-04-06

    The invention provides recombinant human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) polypeptides which bind adenovirus. Specifically, polypeptides corresponding to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2 are provided. In another aspect, the invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains and expression vectors for producing the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. The invention also includes an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide fused to a polypeptide which facilitates folding of D1 when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a CAR D1-binding virus, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. The invention also provides a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  9. Two-way DF relaying assisted D2D communication: ergodic rate and power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yiyang; Wang, Yuxi; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Zhu, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the ergodic rate for a device-to-device (D2D) communication system aided by a two-way decode-and-forward (DF) relay node. We first derive closed-form expressions for the ergodic rate of the D2D link under asymmetric and symmetric cases, respectively. We subsequently discuss two special scenarios including weak interference case and high signal-to-noise ratio case. Then we derive the tight approximations for each of the considered scenarios. Assuming that each transmitter only has access to its own statistical channel state information (CSI), we further derive closed-form power allocation strategy to improve the system performance according to the analytical results of the ergodic rate. Furthermore, some insights are provided for the power allocation strategy based on the analytical results. The strategies are easy to compute and require to know only the channel statistics. Numerical results show the accuracy of the analysis results under various conditions and test the availability of the power allocation strategy.

  10. Thermally activated 3D to 2D structural transformation of [Ni2(en)2(H2O)6(pyr)]·4H2O flexible coordination polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begović, Nebojša N.; Blagojević, Vladimir A.; Ostojić, Sanja B.; Radulović, Aleksandra M.; Poleti, Dejan; Minić, Dragica M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermally activated 3D to 2D structural transformation of the binuclear [Ni 2 (en) 2 (H 2 O) 6 (pyr)]·4H 2 O complex was investigated using a combination of theoretical and experimental methods. Step-wise thermal degradation (dehydration followed by release of ethylene diamine) results in two layered flexible coordination polymer structures. Dehydration process around 365 K results in a conjugated 2D structure with weak interlayer connectivity. It was shown to be a reversible 3D to 2D framework transformation by a guest molecule, and rehydration of the dehydration product occurs at room temperature in saturated water vapor. Rehydrated complex exhibits lower dehydration temperature, due to decreased average crystalline size, with higher surface area resulting in easier release and diffusion of water during dehydration. Thermal degradation of dehydration around 570 K, results in loss of ethylene diamine, producing a related 2D layered polymer structure, without interconnectivity between individual polymer layers. - Highlights: • Reversible 3D to 2D framework topochemical transformation on dehydration around 365 K. • Resulting polymer exhibits 2D layered structure with weak interlayer connectivity. • Dehydration is fully reversible in saturated water vapor at room temperature. • Further degradation around 570 K yields 2D polymer without interlayer connectivity. • 2D polymer exhibits conjugated electronic system

  11. Comparison of 3D cube FLAIR with 2D FLAIR for multiple sclerosis imaging at 3 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzig, M.; Brueckmann, H.; Fesl, G. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Burke, M. [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3 D) MRI sequences allow improved spatial resolution with good signal and contrast properties as well as multiplanar reconstruction. We sought to compare Cube, a 3 D FLAIR sequence, to a standard 2 D FLAIR sequence in multiple sclerosis (MS) imaging. Materials and Methods: Examinations were performed in the clinical routine on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. 12 patients with definite MS were included. Lesions with MS-typical properties on the images of Cube FLAIR and 2 D FLAIR sequences were counted and allocated to different brain regions. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Results: With 384 the overall number of lesions found with Cube FLAIR was significantly higher than with 2 D FLAIR (N = 221). The difference was mostly accounted for by supratentorial lesions (N = 372 vs. N = 216) while the infratentorial lesion counts were low in both sequences. SNRs and CNRs were significantly higher in CUBE FLAIR with the exception of the CNR of lesion to gray matter, which was not significantly different. Conclusion: Cube FLAIR showed a higher sensitivity for MS lesions compared to a 2 D FLAIR sequence. 3 D FLAIR might replace 2 D FLAIR sequences in MS imaging in the future. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic Downlink Spectrum Access for D2D-Enabled Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2018-01-15

    This paper proposes new approaches for underlay device- to-device (D2D) communication in spectrum-shared het- erogeneous cellular networks. It considers devices that share downlink resources and have an enabled D2D feature to improve coverage. The mode of operation classifies devices according to their experienced base station (BS) coverage, potential to be served by BS, ability of BS to meet their quality of service (QoS), and their downlink resources occupancy. The initiation of D2D cooperation is conditioned on proposed provisional access by an active device, wherein its serving BS attempts to meet its QoS using as low number of spectrum channels as possible, while treating remaining channels for feasible D2D cooperation. Detailed formulations for the mode of operation and a proposed D2D path allocation scheme are presented under perfect and imperfect operation scenarios. The developed results are generally applicable for any performance metric and network model.

  13. Flood hazard assessment using 1D and 2D approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaccia, Gabriella; Costabile, Pierfranco; Macchione, Francesco; Natale, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The EU flood risk Directive (Directive 2007/60/EC) prescribes risk assessment and mapping to develop flood risk management plans. Flood hazard mapping may be carried out with mathematical models able to determine flood-prone areas once realistic conditions (in terms of discharge or water levels) are imposed at the boundaries of the case study. The deterministic models are mainly based on shallow water equations expressed in their 1D or 2D formulation. The 1D approach is widely used, especially in technical studies, due to its relative simplicity, its computational efficiency and also because it requires topographical data not as expensive as the ones needed by 2D models. Even if in a great number of practical situations, such as modeling in-channel flows and not too wide floodplains, the 1D approach may provide results close to the prediction of a more sophisticated 2D model, it must be pointed out that the correct use of a 1D model in practical situations is more complex than it may seem. The main issues to be correctly modeled in a 1D approach are the definition of hydraulic structures such as bridges and buildings interacting with the flow and the treatment of the tributaries. Clearly all these aspects have to be taken into account also in the 2D modeling, but with fewer difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to show how the above cited issues can be described using a 1D or 2D unsteady flow modeling. In particular the Authors will show the devices that have to be implemented in 1D modeling to get reliable predictions of water levels and discharges comparable to the ones obtained using a 2D model. Attention will be focused on an actual river (Crati river) located in the South of Italy. This case study is quite complicated since it deals with the simulation of channeled flows, overbank flows, interactions with buildings, bridges and tributaries. Accurate techniques, intentionally developed by the Authors to take into account all these peculiarities in 1D and 2

  14. Comparison of 2D simulations of detached divertor plasmas with divertor Thomson measurements in the DIII-D tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Rognlien

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A modeling study is reported using new 2D data from DIII-D tokamak divertor plasmas and improved 2D transport model that includes large cross-field drifts for the numerically difficult low anomalous transport regime associated with the H-mode. The data set, which spans a range of plasma densities for both forward and reverse toroidal magnetic field (Bt, is provided by divertor Thomson scattering (DTS. Measurements utilizing X-point sweeping give corresponding 2D profiles of electron temperature (Te and density (ne across both divertor legs for individual discharges. The simulations focus on the open magnetic field-line regions, though they also include a small region of closed field lines. The calculations show the same features of in/out divertor plasma asymmetries as measured in the experiment, with the normal Bt direction (ion ∇B drift toward the X-point having higher ne and lower Te in the inner divertor leg than outer. Corresponding emission data for total radiated power shows a strong inner-divertor/outer-divertor asymmetry that is reproduced by the simulations. These 2D UEDGE transport simulations are enabled for steep-gradient H-mode conditions by newly implemented algorithms to control isolated grid-scale irregularities.

  15. Studies of jet cross-sections and production properties with the ATLAS and CMS detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Nuno

    2016-07-01

    Several characteristics of jet production in pp collisions have been measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC. Measurements of event shapes and multi-jet production probe the dynamics of QCD in the soft regime and can constrain parton shower and hadronisation models. Measurements of multi-jet systems with a veto on additional jets probe QCD radiation effects. Double-differential cross-sections for threeand four-jet final states are measured at different centre-of-mass energies of pp collisions and are compared to expectations based on NLO QCD calculations. The distribution of the jet charge has been measured in di-jet events and compared to predictions from different hadronisation models and tunes. Jet-jet energy correlations are sensitive to the strong coupling constant. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime. Work supported by the Beatriu de Pinós program managed by Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca with the support of the Secretaria d'Universitats i Recerca of the Departament d'Economia i Coneixement of the Generalitat de Catalunya, and the Cofund program of the Marie Curie Actions of the 7th R&D Framework Program of the European Union. Work partially supported by MINECO under grants SEV-2012-0234, FPA2013-48308, and FPA2012-38713, which include FEDER funds from the European Union.

  16. Vibrational and rotational excitation effects of the N(2D) + D2(X1Σg +) → ND(X3Σ+) + D(2S) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziliang; Wang, Haijie; Wang, Xiquan; Shi, Yanying

    2018-05-01

    The effects of the rovibrational excitation of reactants in the N(2D) + D2(X1Σg+) → ND(X3Σ+) + D(2S) reaction are calculated in a collision energy range from the threshold to 1.0 eV using the time-dependent wave packet approach and a second-order split operator. The reaction probability, integral cross-section, differential cross-section and rate constant of the title reaction are calculated. The integral cross-section and rate constant of the initial states v = 0, j = 0, 1, are in good agreement with experimental data available in the literature. The rotational excitation of the D2 molecule has little effect on reaction probability, integral cross-section and the rate constant, but it increased the sideways and forward scattering signals. The vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule reduced the threshold and broke up the forward-backward symmetry of the differential cross-section; it also increased the forward scattering signals. This may be because the vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule reduced the lifetime of the intermediate complex.

  17. Potent haloperidol derivatives covalently binding to the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Tobias; Kaindl, Jonas; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R) is a common drug target for the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders including schizophrenia. Structure based design of subtype selective D 2 R antagonists requires high resolution crystal structures of the receptor and pharmacological tools promoting a better understanding of the protein-ligand interactions. Recently, we reported the development of a chemically activated dopamine derivative (FAUC150) designed to covalently bind the L94C mutant of the dopamine D 2 receptor. Using FAUC150 as a template, we elaborated the design and synthesis of irreversible analogs of the potent antipsychotic drug haloperidol forming covalent D 2 R-ligand complexes. The disulfide- and Michael acceptor-functionalized compounds showed significant receptor affinity and an irreversible binding profile in radioligand depletion experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal Variation of Provitamin D2 and Vitamin D2 in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Didion, Thomas; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Ergosterol (provitamin D(2)) is converted to vitamin D(2) in grass by exposure to UV light. Six varieties of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were harvested four times during the season, and the contents of vitamin D(2) and ergosterol were analyzed by a sensitive and selective liquid...... chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Weather factors were recorded, and a principal component analysis was performed to study which factors were important for the formation of vitamin D(2). The results suggest that a combination of weather factors is involved and that the contents of ergosterol...... and vitamin D(2) change more than a factor of 10 during the season. These results demonstrate that grass potentially can be a significant source of vitamin D for grazing animals and animals fed on silage and hay....

  19. High Resolution, Radiation Tolerant Focal Plane Array for Lunar And Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerius Photonics and its partners propose the development of a high resolution, radiation hardened 3-D FLASH Focal Plane Array (FPA), with performance expected to be...

  20. Titan 2D: Understanding Titan’s Seasonal Atmospheric Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael; Zhang, X.; Li, C.; Hu, R.; Shia, R.; Newman, C.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Yung, Y.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we present results from a novel two-dimensional (2D) model that simulates the physics and chemistry of Titan’s atmosphere. Despite being an icy moon of Saturn, Titan is the only Solar System object aside from Earth that is sheathed by a thick nitrogen-dominated atmosphere. This vulnerable gaseous envelope—an embodiment of a delicate coupling between photochemistry, radiation, and dynamics—is Nature’s laboratory for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Titan’s large obliquity generates pronounced seasonal cycles in its atmosphere, and the Cassini spacecraft has been observing these variations since 2004. In particular, Cassini measurements show that the latitudinal distribution of Titan’s rich mélange of hydrocarbon species follows seasonal patterns. The mixing ratios of hydrocarbons increase with latitude towards the winter pole, suggesting a pole-to-pole circulation that reverses after equinox. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model of Titan’s atmosphere, we show that photochemistry alone cannot produce the observed meridional hydrocarbon distribution. This necessitates the employment of a 2D chemistry-transport model that includes meridional circulation as well as diffusive processes and photochemistry. Of additional concern, no previous 2D model of Titan extends beyond 500 km altitude—a critical limitation since the peak of methane photolysis is at 800 km. Our 2D model is the first to include Titan’s stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The meridional circulation in our 2D model is derived from the outputs of two general circulation models (GCMs): the TitanWRF GCM (Newman et al. 2011) covering the troposphere, stratosphere, and lower mesosphere, and a thermosphere general circulation model (TGCM) covering the remainder of the atmosphere through the thermosphere (Müller-Wodarg et al. 2003; 2008). This presentation will focus on the utilization of these advances applied to the 2D Caltech/JPL KINETICS model to

  1. 77 FR 58828 - Northern Indiana Public Service Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ..., Section 219 of the Federal Power Act (FPA) \\1\\ and Order No. 679,\\2\\ filed a petition for declaratory... Pricing Reform, Order No. 679, FERC Stats. & Regs. 31,222 (Order No. 679), order on reh'g, Order No. 679-A... dismissed sub nom., Am. Pub. Power Ass'n. v. FERC, No. 07-1050, 2007 U.S.App. LEXIS 11908 (D.C. Cir. May 14...

  2. Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Paul; Eekhoff, Marelise; van Schoor, Natasja; Oosterwerff, Mirjam; de Jongh, Renate; Krul-Poel, Yvonne; Simsek, Suat

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a decreased insulin release, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. Animal studies show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) stimulates the pancreatic β-cell to secrete insulin. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance could develop through inflammation, as vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased inflammatory markers. In addition, genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D -related genes may predispose to impaired glycemic control and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies showed an association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) concentration and an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. This may be partly explained by an increased fat mass. A possible causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes should be proven by randomized clinical trials showing that either type 2 diabetes can be prevented or insulin release and insulin sensitivity can be improved by vitamin D supplements. The results of randomized clinical trials on the effect of vitamin D versus placebo, sometimes combined with calcium, in patients with impaired glucose tolerance ("prediabetes") or type 2 diabetes are inconsistent. Some studies showed a slight decrease of fasting plasma glucose or improvement of insulin resistance, but often only in posthoc analyses. These effects are mainly visible in patients with vitamin D deficiency and impaired glucose tolerance at baseline. Meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials in general did not show significant effects of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control. Currently, several large scale randomized clinical trials with vitamin D supplementation in doses of 1600-4000IU/d are ongoing with glycemic control or incidence of diabetes mellitus as outcome. Vitamin D deficiency needs to be prevented or cured, but until the results of these trials are published, high

  3. Filters in 2D and 3D Cardiac SPECT Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lyra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiac imaging is a noninvasive, sensitive method providing information on cardiac structure and physiology. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT evaluates myocardial perfusion, viability, and function and is widely used in clinical routine. The quality of the tomographic image is a key for accurate diagnosis. Image filtering, a mathematical processing, compensates for loss of detail in an image while reducing image noise, and it can improve the image resolution and limit the degradation of the image. SPECT images are then reconstructed, either by filter back projection (FBP analytical technique or iteratively, by algebraic methods. The aim of this study is to review filters in cardiac 2D, 3D, and 4D SPECT applications and how these affect the image quality mirroring the diagnostic accuracy of SPECT images. Several filters, including the Hanning, Butterworth, and Parzen filters, were evaluated in combination with the two reconstruction methods as well as with a specified MatLab program. Results showed that for both 3D and 4D cardiac SPECT the Butterworth filter, for different critical frequencies and orders, produced the best results. Between the two reconstruction methods, the iterative one might be more appropriate for cardiac SPECT, since it improves lesion detectability due to the significant improvement of image contrast.

  4. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta; Naculich, Stephen G.; Schnitzer, Howard J.

    2005-01-01

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N 2 D2-branes and N 6 D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N 2 ) gauge theory with N 6 fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N 2 3/2 N 6 1/2 T H 2 , is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N 2 similar to N 6

  5. Weyl and transverse diffeomorphism invariant spin-2 models in D = 2 + 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazi, Denis; Mendonca, E.L.; Santos, A.L.R. dos; Ghosh, Subir

    2017-01-01

    There are two covariant descriptions of massless spin-2 particles in D = 3 + 1 via a symmetric rank-2 tensor: the linearized Einstein-Hilbert (LEH) theory and the Weyl plus transverse diffeomorphism (WTDIFF) invariant model. From the LEH theory one can obtain the linearized new massive gravity (NMG) in D = 2 + 1 via Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction followed by a dual master action. Here we show that a similar route takes us from the WTDIFF model to a linearized scalar-tensor NMG which belongs to a larger class of consistent spin-0 modifications of NMG. We also show that a traceless master action applied to a parity singlet furnishes two new spin-2 self-dual models. Moreover, we examine the singular replacement h_μ_ν → h_μ_ν - η_μ_νh/D and prove that it leads to consistent massive spin-2 models in D = 2 + 1. They include linearized versions of unimodular topologically massive gravity (TMG) and unimodular NMG. Although the free part of those unimodular theories are Weyl invariant, we do not expect any improvement in the renormalizability. Both the linearized K-term (in NMG) and the linearized gravitational Chern-Simons term (in TMG) are invariant under longitudinal reparametrizations δh_μ_ν = ∂_μ∂_νζ, which is not a symmetry of the WTDIFF Einstein-Hilbert term. Therefore, we still have one degree of freedom whose propagator behaves like 1/p"2 for large momentum. (orig.)

  6. Weyl and transverse diffeomorphism invariant spin-2 models in D=2+1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmazi, Denis; dos Santos, A. L. R.; Ghosh, Subir; Mendonça, E. L.

    2017-09-01

    There are two covariant descriptions of massless spin-2 particles in D=3+1 via a symmetric rank-2 tensor: the linearized Einstein-Hilbert (LEH) theory and the Weyl plus transverse diffeomorphism (WTDIFF) invariant model. From the LEH theory one can obtain the linearized new massive gravity (NMG) in D=2+1 via Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction followed by a dual master action. Here we show that a similar route takes us from the WTDIFF model to a linearized scalar-tensor NMG which belongs to a larger class of consistent spin-0 modifications of NMG. We also show that a traceless master action applied to a parity singlet furnishes two new spin-2 self-dual models. Moreover, we examine the singular replacement h_{μ ν } → h_{μ ν } - η _{μ ν }h/D and prove that it leads to consistent massive spin-2 models in D=2+1. They include linearized versions of unimodular topologically massive gravity (TMG) and unimodular NMG. Although the free part of those unimodular theories are Weyl invariant, we do not expect any improvement in the renormalizability. Both the linearized K-term (in NMG) and the linearized gravitational Chern-Simons term (in TMG) are invariant under longitudinal reparametrizations δ h_{μ ν } = partial _{μ }partial _{ν }ζ , which is not a symmetry of the WTDIFF Einstein-Hilbert term. Therefore, we still have one degree of freedom whose propagator behaves like 1/p^2 for large momentum.

  7. Synthesis, properties and applications of 2D non-graphene materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Wang, Fengmei; Yin, Lei; Xu, Kai; Huang, Yun; He, Jun

    2015-01-01

    As an emerging class of new materials, two-dimensional (2D) non-graphene materials, including layered and non-layered, and their heterostructures are currently attracting increasing interest due to their promising applications in electronics, optoelectronics and clean energy. In contrast to traditional semiconductors, such as Si, Ge and III–V group materials, 2D materials show significant merits of ultrathin thickness, very high surface-to-volume ratio, and high compatibility with flexible devices. Owing to these unique properties, while scaling down to ultrathin thickness, devices based on these materials as well as artificially synthetic heterostructures exhibit novel and surprising functions and performances. In this review, we aim to provide a summary on the state-of-the-art research activities on 2D non-graphene materials. The scope of the review will cover the preparation of layered and non-layered 2D materials, construction of 2D vertical van der Waals and lateral ultrathin heterostructures, and especially focus on the applications in electronics, optoelectronics and clean energy. Moreover, the review is concluded with some perspectives on the future developments in this field. (topical review)

  8. 2D-3D registration for cranial radiation therapy using a 3D kV CBCT and a single limited field-of-view 2D kV radiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munbodh, Reshma; Knisely, Jonathan Ps; Jaffray, David A; Moseley, Douglas J

    2018-05-01

    We present and evaluate a fully automated 2D-3D intensity-based registration framework using a single limited field-of-view (FOV) 2D kV radiograph and a 3D kV CBCT for 3D estimation of patient setup errors during brain radiotherapy. We evaluated two similarity measures, the Pearson correlation coefficient on image intensity values (ICC) and maximum likelihood measure with Gaussian noise (MLG), derived from the statistics of transmission images. Pose determination experiments were conducted on 2D kV radiographs in the anterior-posterior (AP) and left lateral (LL) views and 3D kV CBCTs of an anthropomorphic head phantom. In order to minimize radiation exposure and exclude nonrigid structures from the registration, limited FOV 2D kV radiographs were employed. A spatial frequency band useful for the 2D-3D registration was identified from the bone-to-no-bone spectral ratio (BNBSR) of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) computed from the 3D kV planning CT of the phantom. The images being registered were filtered accordingly prior to computation of the similarity measures. We evaluated the registration accuracy achievable with a single 2D kV radiograph and with the registration results from the AP and LL views combined. We also compared the performance of the 2D-3D registration solutions proposed to that of a commercial 3D-3D registration algorithm, which used the entire skull for the registration. The ground truth was determined from markers affixed to the phantom and visible in the CBCT images. The accuracy of the 2D-3D registration solutions, as quantified by the root mean squared value of the target registration error (TRE) calculated over a radius of 3 cm for all poses tested, was ICC AP : 0.56 mm, MLG AP : 0.74 mm, ICC LL : 0.57 mm, MLG LL : 0.54 mm, ICC (AP and LL combined): 0.19 mm, and MLG (AP and LL combined): 0.21 mm. The accuracy of the 3D-3D registration algorithm was 0.27 mm. There was no significant difference in mean TRE for the 2D-3D registration

  9. Anomalous nanoinclusion effects of 2D MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets on the mechanical stiffness of polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Wie, Jeong Jae; Mahmood, Qasim; Park, Ho Seok

    2014-06-01

    Polymer inorganic nanosheet composites hold great promise in enhancing their physical and mechanical properties by increasing the interfacial area. Herein, we demonstrate the nanoinclusion effects of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets on the mechanical properties of the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer. At very small amounts of nanosheets (0.9 wt% for MoS2 and 2.0 wt% for WS2), nanocomposite films exhibit up to 65% improved mechanical properties than the neat PVA film because of strong non-covalent polymer-filler interactions by means of large contact area induced by the 2D geometry of nanosheets. As demonstrated by the decrease in the crystallinity of PVA and the increase in the glass transition temperature, 2D MoS2 is a more attractive filler than 2D WS2 in terms of reinforcing mechanical properties of PVA. These findings fit well with a modified Halpin-Tsai (H-T) model including a nanoscale interfacial layer that can support the observed reinforcements with extremely small 2D filler loadings. This study highlights the strong interplay between the polymer and inorganic nanosheets which plays an important role in greatly improving the mechanical stability of nanocomposites.Polymer inorganic nanosheet composites hold great promise in enhancing their physical and mechanical properties by increasing the interfacial area. Herein, we demonstrate the nanoinclusion effects of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets on the mechanical properties of the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer. At very small amounts of nanosheets (0.9 wt% for MoS2 and 2.0 wt% for WS2), nanocomposite films exhibit up to 65% improved mechanical properties than the neat PVA film because of strong non-covalent polymer-filler interactions by means of large contact area induced by the 2D geometry of nanosheets. As demonstrated by the decrease in the crystallinity of PVA and the increase in the glass

  10. Testing of interposer-based 2.5D integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ran

    2017-01-01

    This book provides readers with an insightful guide to the design, testing and optimization of 2.5D integrated circuits. The authors describe a set of design-for-test methods to address various challenges posed by the new generation of 2.5D ICs, including pre-bond testing of the silicon interposer, at-speed interconnect testing, built-in self-test architecture, extest scheduling, and a programmable method for low-power scan shift in SoC dies. This book covers many testing techniques that have already been used in mainstream semiconductor companies. Readers will benefit from an in-depth look at test-technology solutions that are needed to make 2.5D ICs a reality and commercially viable. Provides a single-source guide to the practical challenges in testing of 2.5D ICs; Presents an efficient method to locate defects in a passive interposer before stacking; Describes an efficient interconnect-test solution to target through-silicon vias (TSVs), the redistribution layer, and micro-bumps for shorts, opens, and dela...

  11. Hybrid 3D-2D printing for bone scaffolds fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. A.; Prinz, V. Ya

    2017-02-01

    It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields.

  12. Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.

  13. Comparison and analysis of 1D/2D/3D neutronics modeling for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Zeng, Q.; Chen, M.; Jiang, J.; Wu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    During the course of analyzing the characteristics for fusion reactors, the refined calculations are needed to confirm that the nuclear design requirements are met. Since the long computational time is consumed, the refined three-dimensional (3D) representation has been used primarily for establishing the baseline reference values, analyzing problems which cannot be reduced by symmetry considerations to lower dimensions, or where a high level of accuracy is desired locally. The two-dimensional (2D) or one-dimensional (1D) description leads itself readily to resolve many problems, such as the studies for the material fraction optimization, or for the blanket size optimization. The purpose of this paper is to find out the differences among different geometric descriptions, which can guide the way to approximate and simplify the computational model. The fusion power reactor named FDS-II was designed as an advanced fusion power reactor to demonstrate and validate the commercialization of fusion power by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science. In this contribution, the dual-cooled lithium lead (DLL) blanket of FDS-II was used as a reference for neutronics comparisons and analyses. The geometric descriptions include 1D concentric sphere model, 1D, 2D and 3D cylinder models. The home-developed multi-functional neutronics analysis code system VisualBUS, the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP and nuclear data library HENDL have been used for these analyses. The neutron wall loading distribution, tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and nuclear heat were calculated to evaluate the nuclear performance. The 3D calculation has been used as a comparison reference because it has the least errors in the treatment of geometry. It is suggested that the value of TBR calculated by the 1D approach should be greater than 1.3 to satisfy the practical need of tritium self-sufficiency. The distribution of nuclear heat based on the 2D and 3D models were similar since they all consider

  14. Image Quality Assessment of 2D versus 3D T2WI and Evaluation of Ultra-high b-Value (b=2,000 mm/s2) DWI for Response Assessment in Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Daniel; Liu, Jing; Budjan, Johannes; Reichert, Miriam; Ong, Melissa; Meyer, Mathias; Smakic, Arman; Grimm, Robert; Strecker, Ralph; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Wang, Xiaoying; Attenberger, Ulrike I

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this IRB-approved, retrospective study was to compare image quality between 2D and high-resolution 3D, T2-weighted (T2WI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and to investigate the additional value of ultra-high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; b=2,000 mm/s 2 ) for both rectal cancer staging and evaluating treatment response. From 12 February to 24 August 2016, 26 consecutive patients (22 males, four females; mean age: 61.9±14.0 years) with histologically-proven rectal cancer. In total 31 examinations [12 prior to and 19 after chemoradiation (CRT)] were included. The patients underwent pelvic MRI on a 3.0-T scanner (Magnetom Skyra, Erlangen, Germany). Three radiologists (3, 4, and 5 years of experience in MRI, respectively) independently assessed all images and rated the image quality of DWI (b=800 mm/s 2 ), apparent diffusion coefficient map, DWI (b=2,000 mm/s 2 ), 3D sagittal T2WI, 3D axial T2WI, 2D sagittal T2WI, and 2D axial T2WI of each patient, respectively. In addition, signal intensity ratios (SIR) were calculated between rectal cancer and obturator internus muscle (background) in all patients after CRT on DWI (b=2,000 mm/s 2 ) and correlated with histopathological regression grade (RG). Tumor delineation was significantly better by 2D T2WI than 3D T2WI both before and after CRT (before CRT: Z=-3.2, p=0.02; after CRT: Z=-4.408, p3D sagittal: 4.00±0.48; 2D sagittal: 4.03±0.34, p=0.713; 3D axial: 3.85±0.61, 2D axial: 3.78±0.64, p=0.537). Independent t-test showed significantly higher SIR between those with RG 1 or 2 (moderate response: mean score=2.02) and those with RG 3+4 (good response: mean score=0.8) (t=3.044, p=0.011). In those with RG 4 (complete response), SIR of b2000 was 0.946 compared to a 1.41 average of the whole cohort. In two patients, tumor was invisible on b2000 following CRT (RG 3 and 4, respectively). Interobserver agreement was mostly good (κ≥0.6) regarding image quality assessment, except for poor

  15. Dynamic Downlink Spectrum Access for D2D-Enabled Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.; Celik, Abdulkadir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes new approaches for underlay device- to-device (D2D) communication in spectrum-shared het- erogeneous cellular networks. It considers devices that share downlink resources and have an enabled D2D feature to improve coverage

  16. Research of Infrared Imaging at Atmospheric Pressure Using a Substrate-Free Focal Plane Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian-Xiong; Cheng Teng; Zhang Qing-Chuan; Zhang Yong; Mao Liang; Gao Jie; Wu Xiao-Ping; Chen Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model to the substrate-free focal plane array (FPA) is established. Using this fast and effective model, the performance of infrared (IR) imaging at atmospheric pressure is investigated and it is found that the substrate-free FPA has the ability of IR imaging at atmospheric pressure, whereas it has a slightly degraded noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) as compared with IR imaging under a high vacuum. This feature is also identified experimentally by a substrate-free FPA with pixel size of 50 × 50 μm 2 . The NETDs are measured to be 160 mK at 10 −2 Pa pressure and 1.08 K at atmospheric pressure

  17. Regulating the electrical behaviors of 2D inorganic nanomaterials for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Wu, Junchi; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2015-02-11

    Recent years have witnessed great developments in inorganic 2D nanomaterials for their unique dimensional confinement and diverse electronic energy bands. Precisely regulating their intrinsic electrical behaviors would bring superior electrical conductivity, rendering 2D nanomaterials ideal candidates for active materials in electrochemical applications when combined with the excellent reaction activity from the inorganic lattice. This Concept focuses on highly conducting inorganic 2D nanomaterials, including intrinsic metallic 2D nanomaterials and artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials. The intrinsic metallicity of 2D nanomaterials is derived from their closely packed atomic structures that ensure maximum overlapping of electron orbitals, while artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials could be achieved by designed methodologies of surface modification, intralayer ion doping, and lattice strain, in which atomic-scale structural modulation plays a vital role in realizing conducting behaviors. Benefiting from fast electron transfer, high reaction activity, as well as large surface areas arising from the 2D inorganic lattice, highly conducting 2D nanomaterials open up prospects for enhancing performance in electrochemical catalysis and electrochemical capacitors. Conductive 2D inorganic nanomaterials promise higher efficiency for electrochemical applications of energy conversion and storage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The 2d-LCA as an alternative to x-wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.

  19. 2d index and surface operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  20. 2D/ 3D Quantitative Ultrasound of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasief, Haidy Gerges

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death of women in the United States, so breast cancer screening for early detection is common. The purpose of this dissertation is to optimize quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods to improve the specificity and objectivity of breast ultrasound. To pursue this goal, the dissertation is divided into two parts: 1) to optimize 2D QUS, and 2) to introduce and validate 3D QUS. Previous studies had validated these methods in phantoms. Applying our QUS analysis on subcutaneous breast fat demonstrated that QUS parameter estimates for subcutaneous fat were consistent among different human subjects. This validated our in vivo data acquisition methods and supported the use of breast fat as a clinical reference tissue for ultrasound BI-RADSRTM assessments. Although current QUS methods perform well for straightforward cases when assumptions of stationarity and diffuse scattering are well-founded, these conditions often are not present due to the complicated nature of in vivo breast tissue. Key improvements in QUS algorithms to address these challenges were: 1) applying a "modified least squares method (MLSM)" to account for the heterogeneous tissue path between the transducer and the region of interest, ROI; 2) detecting anisotropy in acoustic parameters; and 3) detecting and removing the echo sources that depart from diffuse and stationary scattering conditions. The results showed that a Bayesian classifier combining three QUS parameters in a biased pool of high-quality breast ultrasound data successfully differentiated all fibroadenomas from all carcinomas. Given promising initial results in 2D, extension to 3D acquisitions in QUS provided a unique capability to test QUS for the entire breast volume. QUS parameter estimates using 3D data were consistent with those found in 2D for phantoms and in vivo data. Extensions of QUS technology from 2D to 3D can improve the specificity of breast ultrasound, and thus, could lead to

  1. Quantitative studies of the brain specific antigens GFA, 14-3-2, synaptin C1, D1, D2, D3 and D5 in jimpy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacque, C M; Baumann, N A; Bock, E

    1976-01-01

    Seven antigens specific to the nervous tissue were measured in both Jimpy and control mice. The D5 and the GFA protein, both components of the glia, are strongly increased in the mutant while the neuronal components 14-3-2, synaptin C1, D1, D2 and D3 are unchanged....

  2. Lessons from Cuba for Global Precision Medicine: CYP2D6 Genotype Is Not a Robust Predictor of CYP2D6 Ultrarapid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Pedro; González, Idilio; Naranjo, María Eugenia G; de Andrés, Fernando; Peñas-Lledó, Eva María; Calzadilla, Luis Ramón; LLerena, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing question and dilemma in precision medicine is whether and to what extent genotyping or phenotyping drug metabolizing enzymes such as CYP2D6 can be used in real-life global clinical and societal settings. Although in an ideal world using both genotype and phenotype biomarkers are desirable, this is not always feasible for economic and practical reasons. Moreover, an additional barrier for clinical implementation of precision medicine is the lack of correlation between genotype and phenotype, considering that most of the current methods include only genotyping. Thus, the present study evaluated, using dextromethorphan as a phenotyping probe, the relationship between CYP2D6 phenotype and CYP2D6 genotype, especially for the ultrarapid metabolizer (UM) phenotype. We report in this study, to the best of our knowledge, the first comparative clinical pharmacogenomics study in a Cuban population sample (N = 174 healthy volunteers) and show that the CYP2D6 genotype is not a robust predictor of the CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer (mUM) status in Cubans. Importantly, the ultrarapid CYP2D6 phenotype can result in a host of health outcomes, such as drug resistance associated with subtherapeutic drug concentrations, overexposure to active drug metabolites, and altered sensitivity to certain human diseases by virtue of altered metabolism of endogenous substrates of CYP2D6. Hence, phenotyping tests for CYP2D6 UMs appear to be a particular necessity for precision medicine in the Cuban population. Finally, in consideration of ethical and inclusive representation in global science, we recommend further precision medicine biomarker research and funding in support of neglected or understudied populations worldwide.

  3. M-theory solutions invariant under D(2,1; γ) + D(2,1;γ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, C.; D'Hoker, E.; Estes, J.; Krym, D.

    2014-01-01

    We simplify and extend the construction of half-BPS solutions to 11-dimensional supergravity, with isometry superalgebra D(2,1;γ) + D(2,1;γ). Their space-time has the form AdS 3 x S 3 x S 3 warped over a Riemann surface Σ. It describes near-horizon geometries of M2 branes ending on, or intersecting with, M5 branes along a common string. The general solution to the BPS equations is specified by a reduced set of data (γ, h, G), where γ is the real parameter of the isometry superalgebra, and h and G are functions on Σ whose differential equations and regularity conditions depend only on the sign of γ. The magnitude of γ enters only through the map of h,G onto the supergravity fields, thereby promoting all solutions into families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. By analyzing the regularity conditions for the supergravity fields, we prove two general theorems: (i) that the only solution with a 2-dimensional CFT dual is AdS 3 x S 3 x S 3 x R 2 , modulo discrete identifications of the flat R 2 , and (ii) that solutions with γ 4 /Z 2 or AdS 7 ' regions; highly-curved M5-branes; and a coordinate singularity called the ''cap''. By putting these ''Lego'' pieces together we recover all known global regular solutions with the above symmetry, including the self-dual strings on M5 for γ 0, but now promoted to families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. We also construct exactly new regular solutions which are asymptotic to AdS 4 /Z 2 for γ 0 solutions with highly curved M5-brane regions, which are the formal continuation of the self-dual string solutions across the decompactification point at γ = 0. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Corrugated Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A.; Choi, K. K.; Das, N. C.; La, A.; Jhabvala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The corrugated quantum-well infrared photodetector (C-QWIP) uses total internal reflection to couple normal incident light into the optically active quantum wells. The coupling efficiency has been shown to be relatively independent of the pixel size and wavelength thus making the C-QWIP a candidate for detectors over the entire infrared spectrum. The broadband coupling efficiency of the C-QWIP makes it an ideal candidate for multiwavelength detectors. We fabricated and tested C-QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) with cutoff wavelengths of 11.2 and 16.2 micrometers. Each FPA has 256 x 256 pixels that are bump-bonded to a direct injection readout circuit. Both FPAs provided infrared imagery with good aesthetic attributes. For the 11.2-micrometers FPA, background-limited performance (BLIP) was observed at 60 K with f/3 optics. For the 16.2-micrometers FPA, BLIP was observed at 38 K. Besides the reduction of dark current in C-QWIP structures, the measured internal quantum efficiency (eta) remains to be high. The values for responsivity and quantum efficiency obtained from the FPA results agree well with those measured for single devices.

  5. High current density 2D/3D MoS2/GaN Esaki tunnel diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Lee, Edwin W.; Lee, Choong Hee; Zhang, Yuewei; McCulloch, William D.; Johnson, Jared M.; Hwang, Jinwoo; Wu, Yiying; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-10-01

    The integration of two-dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides with bulk semiconductors offer interesting opportunities for 2D/3D heterojunction-based device structures without any constraints of lattice matching. By exploiting the favorable band alignment at the GaN/MoS2 heterojunction, an Esaki interband tunnel diode is demonstrated by transferring large area Nb-doped, p-type MoS2 onto heavily n-doped GaN. A peak current density of 446 A/cm2 with repeatable room temperature negative differential resistance, peak to valley current ratio of 1.2, and minimal hysteresis was measured in the MoS2/GaN non-epitaxial tunnel diode. A high current density of 1 kA/cm2 was measured in the Zener mode (reverse bias) at -1 V bias. The GaN/MoS2 tunnel junction was also modeled by treating MoS2 as a bulk semiconductor, and the electrostatics at the 2D/3D interface was found to be crucial in explaining the experimentally observed device characteristics.

  6. A Hybrid 2D/3D User Interface for Radiological Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalika, Veera Bhadra Harish; Chernoglazov, Alexander I; Billinghurst, Mark; Bartneck, Christoph; Hurrell, Michael A; Ruiter, Niels de; Butler, Anthony P H; Butler, Philip H

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a novel 2D/3D desktop virtual reality hybrid user interface for radiology that focuses on improving 3D manipulation required in some diagnostic tasks. An evaluation of our system revealed that our hybrid interface is more efficient for novice users and more accurate for both novice and experienced users when compared to traditional 2D only interfaces. This is a significant finding because it indicates, as the techniques mature, that hybrid interfaces can provide significant benefit to image evaluation. Our hybrid system combines a zSpace stereoscopic display with 2D displays, and mouse and keyboard input. It allows the use of 2D and 3D components interchangeably, or simultaneously. The system was evaluated against a 2D only interface with a user study that involved performing a scoliosis diagnosis task. There were two user groups: medical students and radiology residents. We found improvements in completion time for medical students, and in accuracy for both groups. In particular, the accuracy of medical students improved to match that of the residents.

  7. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (PD2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (PD2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (PD2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.

  8. Spatially resolved D-T(2) correlation NMR of porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Blümich, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Within the past decade, 2D Laplace nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been developed to analyze pore geometry and diffusion of fluids in porous media on the micrometer scale. Many objects like rocks and concrete are heterogeneous on the macroscopic scale, and an integral analysis of microscopic properties provides volume-averaged information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resolves this spatial average on the contrast scale set by the particular MRI technique. Desirable contrast parameters for studies of fluid transport in porous media derive from the pore-size distribution and the pore connectivity. These microscopic parameters are accessed by 1D and 2D Laplace NMR techniques. It is therefore desirable to combine MRI and 2D Laplace NMR to image functional information on fluid transport in porous media. Because 2D Laplace resolved MRI demands excessive measuring time, this study investigates the possibility to restrict the 2D Laplace analysis to the sum signals from low-resolution pixels, which correspond to pixels of similar amplitude in high-resolution images. In this exploratory study spatially resolved D-T2 correlation maps from glass beads and mortar are analyzed. Regions of similar contrast are first identified in high-resolution images to locate corresponding pixels in low-resolution images generated with D-T2 resolved MRI for subsequent pixel summation to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of contrast-specific D-T2 maps. This method is expected to contribute valuable information on correlated sample heterogeneity from the macroscopic and the microscopic scales in various types of porous materials including building materials and rock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: marta@brandeis.edu; Naculich, Stephen G. [Department of Physics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States)]. E-mail: naculich@bowdoin.edu; Schnitzer, Howard J. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: schnitzer@brandeis.edu

    2005-05-02

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N{sub 2} D2-branes and N{sub 6} D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N{sub 2}) gauge theory with N{sub 6} fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N{sub 2}{sup 3/2}N{sub 6}{sup 1/2}T{sub H}{sup 2}, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N{sub 2} similar to N{sub 6}.

  10. Definitive difference among [DS-D2O], [DS-H2O] and [Bulk-D2O] cells in the deuterization and deuterium-reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue Chang

    2000-01-01

    We observed a new phenomena that the enormous amount of deuterium/hydrogen can be absorbed quickly as a 'solute-atom' into fine metal powders embedded inside a double-structure (DS) cathode in the electrolyses of D 2 O and H 2 O-electrolytes, respectively, but such highly deuterated powders can be produced only using DS-cathode immersed in D 2 O-electrolyte; [DS-D 2 O], and never generated in H 2 O-electrolyte even using the DS-cathode; [DS-H 2 O]. On the other hand, [Bulk-D 2 O] with bulk-cathode made by the bulk Pd metal never produces highly deuterated metal as mentioned above even though using D 2 O-electrolyte. In short, the deuterium-concentration generating in [Bulk-D 2 O] is found to be much lower than that in [DS-D 2 O]. As a result, because of reason mentioned above, in marked contrast to the case with the [DS-D 2 O], neither excess heat nor 4 He production are observed with both [DS-H 2 O] and [Bulk-D 2 O]. (author)

  11. Conventional (2D) Versus Conformal (3D) Techniques in Radiotherapy for Malignant Pediatric Tumors: Dosimetric Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Attia, G.; Radwan, A.; El-Badawy, S.; El-Ghoneimy, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: In pediatric radiotherapy, the enhanced radiosensitivity of the developing tissues combined with the high overall survival, raise the possibility of late complications. The present study aims at comparing two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) planning regarding dose homogeneity within target volume and dose to organs at risk (OARs) to demonstrate the efficacy of 3D in decreasing dose to normal tissue. Material and Methods: Thirty pediatric patients (18 years or less) with different pediatric tumors were planned using 2D and 3D plans. All were CT scanned after proper positioning and immobilization. Structures were contoured; including the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Conformal beams were designed and dose distribution analysis was edited to provide the best dose coverage to the PTV while sparing OARs using dose volume histograms (DVHs) of outlined structures. For the same PTVs conventional plans were created using the conventional simulator data (2-4 coplanar fields). Conventional and 3D plans coverage and distribution were compared using the term of V95% (volume of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose), V107% (volume of PTV receiving 107% of the prescribed dose), and conformity index (CI) (volume receiving 90% of the prescribed dose/PTV). Doses received by OARs were compared in terms of mean dose. In children treated for brain lesions, OAR volume received 90% of the dose (V 90%) and OAR score were calculated. Results: The PTV coverage showed no statistical difference between 2D and 3D radiotherapy in terms of V95% or V107%. However, there was more conformity in 3D planning with CI 1.43 rather than conventional planning with CI 1.86 (p-value <0.001). Regarding OARs, 3D planning shows large gain in healthy tissue sparing. There was no statistical difference in mean dose received by each OAR. However, for brain cases, brain stem mean dose and brain V 90% showed better sparing in 3D planning (brain stem mean dose was

  12. Multiple D2 heteroreceptor complexes: new targets for treatment of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Pintsuk, Julia; Schäfer, Thorsten; Friedland, Kristina; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Liu, Fang; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) neuron system most relevant for schizophrenia is the meso-limbic-cortical DA system inter alia densely innervating subcortical limbic regions. The field of dopamine D2 receptors and schizophrenia changed markedly with the discovery of many types of D2 heteroreceptor complexes in subcortical limbic areas as well as the dorsal striatum. The results indicate that the D2 is a hub receptor which interacts not only with many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including DA isoreceptors but also with ion-channel receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, scaffolding proteins and DA transporters. Disturbances in several of these D2 heteroreceptor complexes may contribute to the development of schizophrenia through changes in the balance of diverse D2 homo- and heteroreceptor complexes mediating the DA signal, especially to the ventral striato-pallidal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathway. This will have consequences for the control of this pathway of the glutamate drive to the prefrontal cortex via the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus which can contribute to psychotic processes. Agonist activation of the A2A protomer in the A2A–D2 heteroreceptor complex inhibits D2 Gi/o mediated signaling but increases the D2 β-arrestin2 mediated signaling. Through this allosteric receptor–receptor interaction, the A2A agonist becomes a biased inhibitory modulator of the Gi/o mediated D2 signaling, which may the main mechanism for its atypical antipsychotic properties especially linked to the limbic A2A–D2 heterocomplexes. The DA and glutamate hypotheses of schizophrenia come together in the signal integration in D2–N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and A2A–D2–metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) heteroreceptor complexes, especially in the ventral striatum. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A)–D2 heteroreceptor complexes are special targets for atypical antipsychotics with high potency to block their 5-HT2A protomer signaling in view of the potential development of

  13. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, M; Hornegger, J; Redel, T; Struffert, T; Doerfler, A

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling.

  14. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  15. Structural modeling of the distamycin A-d(CGCGAATTCGCG)2 complex using 2D NMR and molecular mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, J.G.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the distamycin A-d(CGCGAATTCGCG) 2 complex has been determined through a combination of SKEWSY and NOESY 2D NMR experiments and molecular mechanics calculations. NMR data provided upper bounds on many proton-proton pairs. The advantage of the SKEWSY/NOESY method is that small groups of strongly coupled spins can be treated accurately as isolated systems. The AMBER molecular mechanics package, modified to include the NMR constraints, was used in energy refinements. Distamycin A fits snugly into the 5'-AATT-3' minor-groove binding site. Structural analysis revealed van der Waals contacts between A5, A6, and A18 C2H and drug H3 protons, potential three-center hydrogen bonding between drug amide protons and adenine N3 and thymine O2 atoms analogous to the spine of hydration in the crystal structure of the free DNA, and stacking of the sugar O1' atoms of A6-C21, T7-T20, and T8-T19, over drug pyrrole rings 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In addition to hydrophobic effects, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interactions proposed by others, it is suggested that stacking interactions between DNA sugar O ' atoms and the three drug pyrrole rings contribute to the stability of the complex

  16. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  17. Flap Gap Oscillatory Blowing on 2D and 2.5D Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin NAE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we present preliminary results obtained in developing an active flow control system for highlift systems at advanced TRL level. The work is based on theoretical and experimental workperformed in AVERT EU FP6 project where the oscillatory flap gap blowing system was designedand tested on a INCAS F15 2D wing model. Pressure data and global loads have been recorded fora complex evaluation of the basic flow control mechanism. In 2.5D test cases this work has beenextended so that the proposed system may be selected as a mature technology in the JTI Clean Sky,Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft ITD. For this goal, new experimental setup was used and also updatedelectronics for the blowing system have been introduces. This was complemented by a newextension for the data acquisition system and visualization tools. Finally global correlations forbasic lift increments have been compared with the reference 2D case and analysed with respect tothe system efficiency.

  18. A fast, accurate, and automatic 2D-3D image registration for image-guided cranial radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Dongshan; Kuduvalli, Gopinath

    2008-01-01

    The authors developed a fast and accurate two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) image registration method to perform precise initial patient setup and frequent detection and correction for patient movement during image-guided cranial radiosurgery treatment. In this method, an approximate geometric relationship is first established to decompose a 3D rigid transformation in the 3D patient coordinate into in-plane transformations and out-of-plane rotations in two orthogonal 2D projections. Digitally reconstructed radiographs are generated offline from a preoperative computed tomography volume prior to treatment and used as the reference for patient position. A multiphase framework is designed to register the digitally reconstructed radiographs with the x-ray images periodically acquired during patient setup and treatment. The registration in each projection is performed independently; the results in the two projections are then combined and converted to a 3D rigid transformation by 2D-3D geometric backprojection. The in-plane transformation and the out-of-plane rotation are estimated using different search methods, including multiresolution matching, steepest descent minimization, and one-dimensional search. Two similarity measures, optimized pattern intensity and sum of squared difference, are applied at different registration phases to optimize accuracy and computation speed. Various experiments on an anthropomorphic head-and-neck phantom showed that, using fiducial registration as a gold standard, the registration errors were 0.33±0.16 mm (s.d.) in overall translation and 0.29 deg. ±0.11 deg. (s.d.) in overall rotation. The total targeting errors were 0.34±0.16 mm (s.d.), 0.40±0.2 mm (s.d.), and 0.51±0.26 mm (s.d.) for the targets at the distances of 2, 6, and 10 cm from the rotation center, respectively. The computation time was less than 3 s on a computer with an Intel Pentium 3.0 GHz dual processor

  19. The simulation of 3D microcalcification clusters in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, Eman; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Zanca, Federica; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jurgen; Young, Kenneth C.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    lesions (p > 0.05). Agreement between allocated lesion scores for 2D mammography and those for the tomosynthesis series was poor. Conclusions: The realistic appearance of the 3D models of microcalcification clusters, whether malignant or benign clusters, was confirmed for 2D digital mammography images and the breast tomosynthesis datasets; this database of clusters is suitable for use in future observer performance studies related to the detectability of microcalcification clusters. Such studies include comparing 2D digital mammography to breast tomosynthesis and comparing different reconstruction algorithms.

  20. 1D helix, 2D brick-wall and herringbone, and 3D interpenetration d10 metal-organic framework structures assembled from pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid N-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li-Li; Dang, Dong-Bin; Duan, Chun-Ying; Li, Yi-Zhi; Tian, Zheng-Fang; Meng, Qing-Jin

    2005-10-03

    Five novel interesting d(10) metal coordination polymers, [Zn(PDCO)(H2O)2]n (PDCO = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid N-oxide) (1), [Zn2(PDCO)2(4,4'-bpy)2(H2O)2.3H2O]n (bpy = bipyridine) (2), [Zn(PDCO)(bix)]n (bix = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) (3), [Zn(PDCO)(bbi).0.5H2O]n (bbi = 1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole)) (4), and [Cd(PDCO)(bix)(1.5).1.5H2O]n (5), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 possesses a one-dimensional (1D) helical chainlike structure with 4(1) helices running along the c-axis with a pitch of 10.090 Angstroms. Polymer 2 has an infinite chiral two-dimensional (2D) brick-wall-like layer structure in the ac plane built from achiral components, while both 3 and 4 exhibit an infinite 2D herringbone architecture, respectively extended in the ac and ab plane. Polymer 5 features a most remarkable and unique three-dimensional (3D) porous framework with 2-fold interpenetration related by symmetry, which contains channels in the b and c directions, both distributed in a rectangular grid fashion. Compounds 1-5, with systematic variation in dimensionality from 1D to 2D to 3D, are the first examples of d(10) metal coordination polymers into which pyridinedicarboxylic acid N-oxide has been introduced. In addition, polymers 1, 4, and 5 display strong blue fluorescent emissions in the solid state. Polymer 3 exhibits a strong SHG response, estimated to be approximately 0.9 times that of urea.

  1. Prospective study aiming to compare 2D mammography and tomosynthesis + synthesized mammography in terms of cancer detection and recall. From double reading of 2D mammography to single reading of tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Martín, Sara; Raya Povedano, Jose Luis; Cara García, María; Santos Romero, Ana Luz; Pedrosa Garriguet, Margarita; Álvarez Benito, Marina

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate tomosynthesis compared with 2D-mammography in cancer detection and recalls in a screening-programme, and assess performing synthesized instead of 2D, and compare double reading of 2D with single reading of tomosynthesis. Women (age 50-69 years) participating in the screening-programme were included. 2D-mammography and tomosynthesis were performed. There were four reading models: 2D-mammography (first); 2D-mammography (second); tomosynthesis + synthesized (third); tomosynthesis + synthesized + 2D (fourth reading). Paired double reading of 2D (first+second) and tomosynthesis (third+fourth) were analysed. In 16,067 participants, there were 98 cancers and 1,196 recalls. Comparing double reading of 2D with single reading of tomosynthesis, there was an increase of 12.6 % in cancer detection with the third reading (p= 0.043) and 6.9 % with the fourth reading (p=0.210), and a decrease in recalls of 40.5 % (ptomosynthesis. Single reading of tomosynthesis plus synthesized increased cancer detection and decreased recalls compared with double reading 2D. 2D did not improve results when added to tomosynthesis. • Tomosynthesis increases cancer detection and decreases recall rates versus 2D mammography. • Synthesized-mammography avoids performing 2D, showing higher cancer detection. • Single reading of tomosynthesis + synthesized is feasible as a new practice.

  2. Weyl and transverse diffeomorphism invariant spin-2 models in D = 2 + 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazi, Denis; Mendonca, E.L. [UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, IFT-UNESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, A.L.R. dos [UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Ghosh, Subir [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, IFT-UNESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)

    2017-09-15

    There are two covariant descriptions of massless spin-2 particles in D = 3 + 1 via a symmetric rank-2 tensor: the linearized Einstein-Hilbert (LEH) theory and the Weyl plus transverse diffeomorphism (WTDIFF) invariant model. From the LEH theory one can obtain the linearized new massive gravity (NMG) in D = 2 + 1 via Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction followed by a dual master action. Here we show that a similar route takes us from the WTDIFF model to a linearized scalar-tensor NMG which belongs to a larger class of consistent spin-0 modifications of NMG. We also show that a traceless master action applied to a parity singlet furnishes two new spin-2 self-dual models. Moreover, we examine the singular replacement h{sub μν} → h{sub μν} - η{sub μν}h/D and prove that it leads to consistent massive spin-2 models in D = 2 + 1. They include linearized versions of unimodular topologically massive gravity (TMG) and unimodular NMG. Although the free part of those unimodular theories are Weyl invariant, we do not expect any improvement in the renormalizability. Both the linearized K-term (in NMG) and the linearized gravitational Chern-Simons term (in TMG) are invariant under longitudinal reparametrizations δh{sub μν} = ∂{sub μ}∂{sub ν}ζ, which is not a symmetry of the WTDIFF Einstein-Hilbert term. Therefore, we still have one degree of freedom whose propagator behaves like 1/p{sup 2} for large momentum. (orig.)

  3. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in treatment resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart P de Kwaasteniet

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrated improvement of depressive symptoms in treatment resistant depression (TRD after administering dopamine agonists which suggest abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission in TRD. However, the role of dopaminergic signaling through measurement of striatal dopamine D(2/3 receptor (D2/3R binding has not been investigated in TRD subjects. We used [(123I]IBZM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT to investigate striatal D2/3R binding in TRD. We included 6 severe TRD patients, 11 severe TRD patients on antipsychotics (TRD AP group and 15 matched healthy controls. Results showed no significant difference (p = 0.75 in striatal D2/3R availability was found between TRD patients and healthy controls. In the TRD AP group D2/3R availability was significantly decreased (reflecting occupancy of D2/3Rs by antipsychotics relative to TRD patients and healthy controls (p<0.001 but there were no differences in clinical symptoms between TRD AP and TRD patients. This preliminary study therefore does not provide evidence for large differences in D2/3 availability in severe TRD patients and suggests this TRD subgroup is not characterized by altered dopaminergic transmission. Atypical antipsychotics appear to have no clinical benefit in severe TRD patients who remain depressed, despite their strong occupancy of D2/3Rs.

  4. Color constancy in 3D-2D face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Manuel; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.

    2013-05-01

    Face is one of the most popular biometric modalities. However, up to now, color is rarely actively used in face recognition. Yet, it is well-known that when a person recognizes a face, color cues can become as important as shape, especially when combined with the ability of people to identify the color of objects independent of illuminant color variations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and effect of explicitly embedding illuminant color information in face recognition systems. We empirically examine the theoretical maximum gain of including known illuminant color to a 3D-2D face recognition system. We also investigate the impact of using computational color constancy methods for estimating the illuminant color, which is then incorporated into the face recognition framework. Our experiments show that under close-to-ideal illumination estimates, one can improve face recognition rates by 16%. When the illuminant color is algorithmically estimated, the improvement is approximately 5%. These results suggest that color constancy has a positive impact on face recognition, but the accuracy of the illuminant color estimate has a considerable effect on its benefits.

  5. 2-d spectroscopic imaging of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, N.J.; Brotchie, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster illustrates the use of two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging (2-D SI) in the characterisation of brain tumours, and the monitoring of subsequent treatment. After conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging of patients with known or suspected brain tumours, 2-D SI is performed at a single axial level. The level is chosen to include the maximum volume of abnormal enhancement, or, in non-enhancing lesions. The most extensive T2 signal abnormality. Two different MR systems have been used (Marconi Edge and GE Signa LX); at each site, a PRESS localisation sequence is employed with TE 128-144 ms. Automated software is used to generate spectral arrays, metabolite maps, and metabolite ratio maps from the spectroscopic data. Colour overlays of the maps onto anatomical images are produced using manufacturer software or the Medex imaging data analysis package. High grade gliomas showed choline levels higher than those in apparently normal brain, with decreases in NAA and creatine. Some lesions showed spectral abnormality extending into otherwise normal appearing brain. This was also seen in a case of CNS lymphoma. Lowgrade lesions showed choline levels similar to normal brain, but with decreased NAA. Only a small number of metastases have been studied, but to date no metastasis has shown spectral abnormality beyond the margins suggested by conventional imaging. Follow-up studies generally show spectral heterogeneity. Regions with choline levels higher than those in normal-appearing brain are considered to represent recurrent high-grade tumour. Some regions show choline to be the dominant metabolite, but its level is not greater than that seen in normal brain. These regions are considered suspicious for residual / recurrent tumour when the choline / creatine ratio exceeds 2 (lower ratios may represent treatment effect). 2-D SI improves the initial assessment of brain tumours, and has potential for influencing the radiotherapy treatment strategy. 2-D SI also

  6. Anti-NKG2D mAb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Kasper; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    with a wide range of cell types and proteins involved. Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed on human Natural Killer (NK), γδ T, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), CD56⁺ T, and CD8⁺ T cells. Activation of NKG2D triggers cellular proliferation, cytokine...... production, and target cell killing. Research into the NKG2D mechanism of action has primarily been focused on cancer and viral infections where cytotoxicity evasion is a concern. In human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) this system is less characterized, but the ligands have been shown to be highly...... expressed during intestinal inflammation and the following receptor activation may contribute to tissue degeneration. A recent phase II clinical trial showed that an antibody against NKG2D induced clinical remission of CD in some patients, suggesting NKG2D and its ligands to be of importance...

  7. 3D computer-aided detection for digital breast tomosynthesis: Comparison with 2D computer-aided detection for digital mammography in the detection of calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, A Jung; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Song, Sung Eun; Shin, Sung Ui; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the performance of 3D computer-aided detection (CAD) for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in the detection of calcifications in comparison with 2D CAD for digital mammography (DM). Between 2012 and 2013, both 3D CAD and 2D CAD systems were retrospectively applied to the calcification data set including 69 calcifications (31 malignant calcifications and 38 benign calcifications) and the normal data set including 20 bilateral normal mammograms. Each data set consisted of paired DBT and DM images. Sensitivities for the detection of malignant calcifications were calculated from the calcification data set. False-positive mark rates were calculated from the normal data set. They were compared between the two systems. Sensitivities of 3D CAD [100% (31/31) at levels 2, 1, and 0] were same as those of the 2D CAD system [100% (31/31) at levels 2 and 1] (p = 1.0, respectively). The mean value of false-positive marks per view with 3D CAD was higher than that with 2D CAD at level 2 (0.52 marks ± 0.91 vs. 0.07 marks ± 0.26, p = 0.009). 3D CAD for DBT showed equivalent sensitivity, albeit with a higher false-positive mark rate, than 2D CAD for DM in the detection of calcifications.

  8. PERICLES 2D experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Christophe

    2001-01-01

    Scope of the lecture was the modelling of severe reactor accidents. The PERICLES 2D experiment was compared to CATHARE 3D simulation results considering progression of a quench front inside the reactor core, steam flow rates, heat conduction, cladding temperature. (uke)

  9. Highly Enhanced Many-Body Interactions in Anisotropic 2D Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankur; Yan, Han; Zhang, Linglong; Sun, Xueqian; Liu, Boqing; Lu, Yuerui

    2018-05-15

    dynamics of excitons, trions, and biexcitons in reduced dimensions and fundamental many body interactions. We begin by explaining the fundamental reasons for the highly enhanced interactions in the 2D systems influenced by dielectric screening, resulting in high binding energies of excitons and trions, which are supported by theoretical calculations and experimental observations. Phosphorene has shown much higher binding energies of excitons and trions than TMD monolayers, which allows robust quasi-particles in anisotropic materials at room temperature. We also discuss the role of extrinsic defects induced in phosphorene, resulting in localized excitonic emissions in the near-infrared range, making it suitable for optical telecommunication applications. Finally, we present our vision of the exciting device applications based on the highly enhanced many body interactions in phosphorene, including exciton-polariton devices, polariton lasers, single-photon emitters, and tunable light emitting diodes (LEDs).

  10. Case-matched study of short-term effects of 3D vs 2D laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, QingMin; Lei, Fuming; Gao, ZhaoYa; Wang, YanZhao; Gao, Qing Kun

    2017-09-22

    The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the security and efficacy of 3D vs 2D laparoscopy in rectal cancer treatment. Forty-six patients who suffered from rectal cancer and went on laparoscopic radical resection of rectal carcinoma in Peking University Shougang Hospital from Feb. 2015 to Mar. 2016 were included in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups. The 23 patients operated with the 3D system were compared with 23 patients operated with the 2D system by perioperative data. There were no significant differences in age, sex, pathological type, tumor differentiation, TNM staging, and surgical procedures (P > 0.05). The average operating time of 3D laparoscopic surgery group (172.2 ± 27.5 min) was shorter than that of 2D group (192.6 ± 22.3) (P  0.05) were not significantly different. There were no differences in other complications between the two groups. No significantly different recrudescence and death rates were found between the two groups (P > 0.05). The 3D laparoscopy shortens the operation time of rectum cancer. 3D laparoscopic surgery is more efficient in treatment of rectal cancer than 2D laparoscopy and is worth of being generalized.

  11. Whole-body PET acceptance test in 2D and 3D using NEMA NU 2-2001 protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shamurailatpam Dayananda; Deshpande, D.; Prasad, R.; Shetye, Bina; Rangarajan, V.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Dinshaw, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated PET/CT has emerged as an integral component of oncology management because of its unique potential of providing both functional and morphological images in a single imaging session. In this work, performance of the 'bismuth germinate (BGO) crystal'-based PET of a newly installed Discovery ST PET/CT was evaluated in 2D and 3D mode for whole-body scanning using National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2001 protocol and the recommended phantoms. During the entire measurements, the system operates with an energy window of 375-650 keV and 11.7 ns coincidence time window. The set of tests performed were spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction (SF) and counting rate performance. The average transaxial and axial spatial resolution measured as full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function at 1 cm (and 10 cm) off-axis was 0.632 (0.691) and 0.491 (0.653) cm in 2D and 0.646 (0.682) and 0.54 (0.601) cm in 3D respectively. The average sensitivity for the two radial positions (R = 0 cm and R = 10 cm) was 2.56 (2.63) cps/kBq in 2D and 11.85 (12.14) cps/kBq in 3D. The average scatter fraction was 19.79% in 2D and 46.19% in 3D. The peak noise equivalent counting rate (NECR) evaluated with single random subtraction was 89.41 kcps at 49 kBq/cc in 2D and 60 kcps at 12 kBq/cc in 3D acquisition mode. The NECR with delayed random subtraction was 61.47 kcps at 40.67 kBq/cc in 2D and 45.57 kcps at 16.45 kBq/cc in 3D. The performance of the PET scanner was satisfactory within the manufacturer-specified limits. The test result of PET shows excellent system sensitivity with relatively uniform resolution throughout the FOV, making this scanner highly suitable for whole-body studies. (author)

  12. D2O-induced cell excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andjus, P.R.; Vucelic, D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) on giant internodal cells of the fresh water alga Chara gymnophylla, were investigated. D 2 O causes membrane excitation followed by potassium leakage. The primary effect consists of an almost instantaneous membrane depolarization resembling an action potential with incomplete repolarization. A hypothesis was proposed which deals with an osmotic stress effect of D 2 O on membrane ion channels followed by the suppression of the electrogenic pump activity. The initial changes (potential spike and rapid K+ efflux) may represent the previously undetected link between the D 2 O-induced temporary arrest of protoplasmic streaming and the early events triggered at the plasma membrane level as the primary site of D 2 O action

  13. Differential regulation of striatal motor behavior and related cellular responses by dopamine D2L and D2S isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; Chiacchiaretta, Martina; Lewis, Robert G; Brami-Cherrier, Karen; Arcuri, Ludovico; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2018-01-02

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a major component of the dopamine system. D2R-mediated signaling in dopamine neurons is involved in the presynaptic regulation of dopamine levels. Postsynaptically, i.e., in striatal neurons, D2R signaling controls complex functions such as motor activity through regulation of cell firing and heterologous neurotransmitter release. The presence of two isoforms, D2L and D2S, which are generated by a mechanism of alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene, raises the question of whether both isoforms may equally control presynaptic and postsynaptic events. Here, we addressed this question by comparing behavioral and cellular responses of mice with the selective ablation of either D2L or D2S isoform. We establish that the presence of either D2L or D2S can support postsynaptic functions related to the control of motor activity in basal conditions. On the contrary, absence of D2S but not D2L prevents the inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and, thereby, of dopamine synthesis, supporting a major presynaptic role for D2S. Interestingly, boosting dopamine signaling in the striatum by acute cocaine administration reveals that absence of D2L, but not of D2S, strongly impairs the motor and cellular response to the drug, in a manner similar to the ablation of both isoforms. These results suggest that when the dopamine system is challenged, D2L signaling is required for the control of striatal circuits regulating motor activity. Thus, our findings show that D2L and D2S share similar functions in basal conditions but not in response to stimulation of the dopamine system.

  14. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itkonen, Suvi T.; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi

    2016-01-01

    -irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20–37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February–April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d......; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  15. Color camera computed tomography imaging spectrometer for improved spatial-spectral image accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTIS"s) having color focal plane array detectors are provided. The color FPA detector may comprise a digital color camera including a digital image sensor, such as a Foveon X3.RTM. digital image sensor or a Bayer color filter mosaic. In another embodiment, the CTIS includes a pattern imposed either directly on the object scene being imaged or at the field stop aperture. The use of a color FPA detector and the pattern improves the accuracy of the captured spatial and spectral information.

  16. Comparative evaluation of HD 2D/3D laparoscopic monitors and benchmarking to a theoretically ideal 3D pseudodisplay: even well-experienced laparoscopists perform better with 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, D; Reiser, S; Kohn, N; Witte, M; Leiner, U; Mühlbach, L; Ruschin, D; Reiner, W; Feussner, H

    2014-08-01

    Though theoretically superior to standard 2D visualization, 3D video systems have not yet achieved a breakthrough in laparoscopy. The latest 3D monitors, including autostereoscopic displays and high-definition (HD) resolution, are designed to overcome the existing limitations. We performed a randomized study on 48 individuals with different experience levels in laparoscopy. Three different 3D displays (glasses-based 3D monitor, autostereoscopic display, and a mirror-based theoretically ideal 3D display) were compared to a 2D HD display by assessing multiple performance and mental workload parameters and rating the subjects during a laparoscopic suturing task. Electromagnetic tracking provided information on the instruments' pathlength, movement velocity, and economy. The usability, the perception of visual discomfort, and the quality of image transmission of each monitor were subjectively rated. Almost all performance parameters were superior with the conventional glasses-based 3D display compared to the 2D display and the autostereoscopic display, but were often significantly exceeded by the mirror-based 3D display. Subjects performed a task faster and with greater precision when visualization was achieved with the 3D and the mirror-based display. Instrument pathlength was shortened by improved depth perception. Workload parameters (NASA TLX) did not show significant differences. Test persons complained of impaired vision while using the autostereoscopic monitor. The 3D and 2D displays were rated user-friendly and applicable in daily work. Experienced and inexperienced laparoscopists profited equally from using a 3D display, with an improvement in task performance about 20%. Novel 3D displays improve laparoscopic interventions as a result of faster performance and higher precision without causing a higher mental workload. Therefore, they have the potential to significantly impact the further development of minimally invasive surgery. However, as shown by the

  17. Digit Ratio (2D:4D and Gender Inequalities Across Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Manning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality varies across nations, where such inequality is defined as the disproportionate representation of one sex over the other in desirable social, economic, and biological roles (typically male over female. Thus in Norway, 40% of parliamentarians are women, in the USA 17%, and in Saudi Arabia 0%. Some of this variation is associated with economic prosperity but there is evidence that this cause and effect can go in either direction. Here we show that within a population the average ratio of index (2D to ring (4D finger lengths (2D:4D—a proxy measure of the relative degree to which offspring is exposed in utero to testosterone versus estrogen—is correlated with measures of gender inequality between nations. We compared male and female 2D:4D ratios to female parliamentary representation, labor force participation, female education level, maternal mortality rates, and juvenile pregnancy rates per nation in a sample of 29 countries. We found those nations who showed higher than expected female fetal exposure to testosterone (low 2D:4D and lower than expected male exposure to fetal testosterone (high 2D:4D had higher rates of female parliamentary representation, and higher female labor force participation. In short, the more similar the two sexes were in 2D:4D, the more equal were the two sexes in parliamentary and labor force participation. The other variables were not as strongly correlated. We suggest that higher than expected fetal testosterone in females and lower fetal testosterone in males may lead to high female representation in the national labor force and in parliament.

  18. Weighted linear regression using D2H and D2 as the independent variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans T. Schreuder; Michael S. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Several error structures for weighted regression equations used for predicting volume were examined for 2 large data sets of felled and standing loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.). The generally accepted model with variance of error proportional to the value of the covariate squared ( D2H = diameter squared times height or D...

  19. Facts and Misconceptions about 2D:4D, Social and Risk Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Judit; Di Paolo, Roberto; Ponti, Giovanni; Sartarelli, Marcello

    2018-01-01

    We study how the ratio between the length of the second and fourth digit (2D:4D) correlates with choices in social and risk preferences elicitation tasks by building a large dataset from five experimental projects with more than 800 subjects. Our results confirm the recent literature that downplays the link between 2D:4D and many domains of economic interest, such as social and risk preferences. As for the former, we find that social preferences are significantly lower when 2D:4D is above the median value only for subjects with low cognitive ability. As for the latter, we find that a high 2D:4D is not correlated with the frequency of subjects' risky choices. PMID:29487510

  20. 2D:4D digit ratio predicts delay of gratification in preschoolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Da Silva

    Full Text Available We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification.

  1. MARVEL analysis of the rotational-vibrational states of the molecular ions H2D+ and D2H+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Fábri, Csaba; Császár, Attila G

    2013-07-07

    Critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed labels and uncertainties, are reported for two deuterated isotopologues of the H3(+) molecular ion: H2D(+) and D2H(+). The procedure MARVEL, standing for Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels, is used to determine the validated levels and lines and their self-consistent uncertainties based on the experimentally available information. The spectral ranges covered for the isotopologues H2D(+) and D2H(+) are 5.2-7105.5 and 23.0-6581.1 cm(-1), respectively. The MARVEL energy levels of the ortho and para forms of the ions are checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing the best available adiabatic ab initio potential energy surfaces of these isotopologues. The number of critically evaluated, validated and recommended experimental (levels, lines) are (109, 185) and (104, 136) for H2D(+) and D2H(+), respectively. The lists of assigned MARVEL lines and levels and variational levels obtained for H2D(+) and D2H(+) as part of this study are deposited in the ESI to this paper.

  2. A convenient route to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-C-d and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine-2-C-d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, L.; Bujtas, G.

    1977-01-01

    Title compounds were prepared through epimerisation of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose in NaOD. The isotopic purity of the products was determined by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The mechanism of epimerisation is briefly discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Paternity testing with VNTR DNA systems. II. Evaluation of 271 cases of disputed paternity with the VNTR systems D2S44, D5S43, D7S21, D7S22, and D12S11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanna Elsebeth; Morling, N

    1993-01-01

    Paternity testing was carried out in 271 cases of disputed paternity using the 5 VNTR systems D2S44 (YNH24), D5S43 (MS8), D7S21 (MS31), D7S22 (g3), and D12S11 (MS43a), and 10-15 conventional marker systems including the HLA-A,B system. By means of the matching criteria for the VNTR systems...

  4. More-than-Moore 2.5D and 3D SiP integration

    CERN Document Server

    Radojcic, Riko

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a realistic and a holistic review of the microelectronic and semiconductor technology options in the post Moore’s Law regime. Technical tradeoffs, from architecture down to manufacturing processes, associated with the 2.5D and 3D integration technologies, as well as the business and product management considerations encountered when faced by disruptive technology options, are presented. Coverage includes a discussion of Integrated Device Manufacturer (IDM) vs Fabless, vs Foundry, and Outsourced Assembly and Test (OSAT) barriers to implementation of disruptive technology options. This book is a must-read for any IC product team that is considering getting off the Moore’s Law track, and leveraging some of the More-than-Moore technology options for their next microelectronic product. .

  5. Comparison Between Digital and Synthetic 2D Mammograms in Breast Density Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshafeiy, Taghreed I; Wadih, Antoine; Nicholson, Brandi T; Rochman, Carrie M; Peppard, Heather R; Patrie, James T; Harvey, Jennifer A

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare assessments of breast density on synthetic 2D images as compared with digital 2D mammograms. This retrospective study included consecutive women undergoing screening with digital 2D mammography and tomosynthesis during May 2015 with a negative or benign outcome. In separate reading sessions, three radiologists with 5-25 years of clinical experience and 1 year of experience with synthetic 2D mammography read digital 2D and synthetic 2D images and assigned breast density categories according to the 5th edition of BI-RADS. Inter- and intrareader agreement was assessed for each BI-RADS density assessment and combined dense and nondense categories using percent agreement and Cohen kappa coefficient for consensus and all reads. A total of 309 patients met study inclusion criteria. Agreement between consensus BI-RADS density categories assigned for digital and synthetic 2D mammography was 80.3% (95% CI, 75.4-84.5%) with κ = 0.73 (95% CI, 0.66-0.79). For combined dense and nondense categories, agreement reached 91.9% (95% CI, 88.2-94.7%). For consensus readings, similar numbers of patients were shifted between nondense and dense categories (11 and 14, respectively) with the synthetic 2D compared with digital 2D mammography. Interreader differences were apparent; assignment to dense categories was greater with digital 2D mammography for reader 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.26; p = 0.002), the same for reader 2 (OR, 0.91; p = 0.262), and greater with synthetic 2D mammography for reader 3 (OR, 0.86; p = 0.033). Overall, synthetic 2D mammography is comparable with digital 2D mammography in assessment of breast density, though there is some variability by reader. Practices can readily adopt synthetic 2D mammography without concern that it will affect density assessment and subsequent recommendations for supplemental screening.

  6. ¿Es equivalente la suplementación diaria con vitamina D2 o vitamina D3 en adultos mayores? Is daily supplementation with vitamin D2 equivalent to daily supplementation with vitamin D3 in the elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Seijo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la equivalencia entre colecalciferol (D3 y ergocalciferol (D2, como las dosis y forma de administración de ambos, son actualmente un tema controvertido. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la efectividad de 800 UI/día de D2 (gotas y D3 (comprimidos para alcanzar niveles adecuados de 25 hidroxivitamina D (25OHD (= 30 ng/ml. Veintiún mujeres posmenopáusicas que vivían en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, edad promedio ( ± DS 77.1 ± 6.8 años fueron incluidas y asignadas en forma aleatoria a uno de los siguientes grupos: GD2 (n = 13: 800 UI (gotas y GD3 (n = 8: 800 UI (comprimidos. Se midió 25OHD sérica (RIA-DIASORIN basal y a los 7, 28 y 45 días del estudio. Basalmente, 19 de las 21 mujeres presentaron niveles de deficiencia de 25(OHD (The equivalence of cholecalciferol (D3 and ergocalciferol (D2 as well as their corresponding doses and administration route remain controversial to date. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of daily supplementation with 800 IU of D2 (drops and D3 (pills on 25-hydroxivitamin D (25OHD levels (= 30 ng/ml. Twenty-one ambulatory postmenopausal women from Buenos Aires City with a mean ( ± SD age of 77.1 ± 6.8 years were included. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: GD2 (n = 13: 800 IU (drops and GD3 (n = 8: 800 IU (pills. Serum 25OHD levels were measured (RIA-DIASORIN at baseline, and at 7, 28 and 45 days. Nineteen out of twenty one women showed deficient levels of 25OHD at baseline (< 20 ng/ml: GD2: 14.0 ± 4.8 ng/ml and GD3: 13.2 ± 4.9 ng/ml (NS. Whereas only GD3 exhibited an increase (~25% at 7 days, both groups showed a significant increase at the end of the study. However, neither attained adequate 25OHD levels (GD2: 17.4 ± 5.5 vs. GD3:22.9 ± 4.6 ng/ml; p < 0.001. Administration of 800 IU of vitamin D3 during 45 days was more effective than D2 in increasing 25OHD, but both failed to achieve adequate levels of 25OHD (= 30 ng/ml. but neither

  7. BranchAnalysis2D/3D automates morphometry analyses of branching structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Aditya; Muñoz-Estrada, Jesús; Bourgeois, Justin R; Nalwalk, Julia W; Pumiglia, Kevin M; Sheen, Volney L; Ferland, Russell J

    2018-01-15

    Morphometric analyses of biological features have become increasingly common in recent years with such analyses being subject to a large degree of observer bias, variability, and time consumption. While commercial software packages exist to perform these analyses, they are expensive, require extensive user training, and are usually dependent on the observer tracing the morphology. To address these issues, we have developed a broadly applicable, no-cost ImageJ plugin we call 'BranchAnalysis2D/3D', to perform morphometric analyses of structures with branching morphologies, such as neuronal dendritic spines, vascular morphology, and primary cilia. Our BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm allows for rapid quantification of the length and thickness of branching morphologies, independent of user tracing, in both 2D and 3D data sets. We validated the performance of BranchAnalysis2D/3D against pre-existing software packages using trained human observers and images from brain and retina. We found that the BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm outputs results similar to available software (i.e., Metamorph, AngioTool, Neurolucida), while allowing faster analysis times and unbiased quantification. BranchAnalysis2D/3D allows inexperienced observers to output results like a trained observer but more efficiently, thereby increasing the consistency, speed, and reliability of morphometric analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 2D/3D Program work summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants, and was prepared in a coordination among three countries. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0126 and GRS-100, respectively. (author).

  9. 2D/3D Program work summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants, and was prepared in a coordination among three countries. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0126 and GRS-100, respectively. (author)

  10. Predicting 2D target velocity cannot help 2D motion integration for smooth pursuit initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Anna; Spering, Miriam; Masson, Guillaume S

    2006-12-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements reflect the temporal dynamics of bidimensional (2D) visual motion integration. When tracking a single, tilted line, initial pursuit direction is biased toward unidimensional (1D) edge motion signals, which are orthogonal to the line orientation. Over 200 ms, tracking direction is slowly corrected to finally match the 2D object motion during steady-state pursuit. We now show that repetition of line orientation and/or motion direction does not eliminate the transient tracking direction error nor change the time course of pursuit correction. Nonetheless, multiple successive presentations of a single orientation/direction condition elicit robust anticipatory pursuit eye movements that always go in the 2D object motion direction not the 1D edge motion direction. These results demonstrate that predictive signals about target motion cannot be used for an efficient integration of ambiguous velocity signals at pursuit initiation.

  11. TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY AND GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE BENDING VIBRATIONS OF ACETYLENE 12C2D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12 C 2 D 2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν 5 -ν 4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12 C 2 D 2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D 2 O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC 2 ) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν 4 and ν 5 of 12 C 2 D 2 , which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12 C 2 D 2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  12. Inflammation alters AMPA-stimulated calcium responses in dorsal striatal D2 but not D1 spiny projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, Carissa D; Welsh, Nora; Sepulveda-Rodriguez, Alberto; Vicini, Stefano; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A

    2017-11-01

    Neuroinflammation precedes neuronal loss in striatal neurodegenerative diseases and can be exacerbated by the release of proinflammatory molecules by microglia. These molecules can affect trafficking of AMPARs. The preferential trafficking of calcium-permeable versus impermeable AMPARs can result in disruptions of [Ca 2+ ] i and alter cellular functions. In striatal neurodegenerative diseases, changes in [Ca 2+ ] i and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) have been reported. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether a proinflammatory environment alters AMPA-stimulated [Ca 2+ ] i through calcium-permeable AMPARs and/or L-type VGCCs in dopamine-2- and dopamine-1-expressing striatal spiny projection neurons (D2 and D1 SPNs) in the dorsal striatum. Mice expressing the calcium indicator protein, GCaMP in D2 or D1 SPNs, were utilized for calcium imaging. Microglial activation was assessed by morphology analyses. To induce inflammation, acute mouse striatal slices were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report that LPS treatment potentiated AMPA responses only in D2 SPNs. When a nonspecific VGCC blocker was included, we observed a decrease of AMPA-stimulated calcium fluorescence in D2 but not D1 SPNs. The remaining agonist-induced [Ca 2+ ] i was mediated by calcium-permeable AMPARs because the responses were completely blocked by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR antagonist. We used isradipine, the highly selective L-type VGCC antagonist to determine the role of L-type VGCCs in SPNs treated with LPS. Isradipine decreased AMPA-stimulated responses selectively in D2 SPNs after LPS treatment. Our findings suggest that dorsal striatal D2 SPNs are specifically targeted in proinflammatory conditions and that L-type VGCCs and calcium-permeable AMPARs are important mediators of this effect. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A novel injection strategy of flurbiprofen axetil by inhibiting protein binding with 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kenji; Takamura, Norito; Tokunaga, Jin; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Setoguchi, Nao; Tanda, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Tetsuo; Nishio, Toyotaka; Kawai, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Flurbiprofen axetil (FPA) is an injection product and a prodrug of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). After injection, it is rapidly hydrolyzed to the active form, flurbiprofen (FP). Since frequent injections of FPA can lead to abnormal physiology, an administration strategy is necessary to ensure there is enhancement of the analgesic efficiency of FP after a single dose and to reduce the total number of doses. FP strongly binds to site II of albumin, and thus the free (unbound) FP concentration is low. This study focused on 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), the active metabolite of nabumetone (a prodrug of NSAID). We performed ultrafiltration experiments and pharmacokinetics analysis in rats to investigate whether the inhibitory effect of 6-MNA on FP binding to albumin increased the free FP concentration in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that 6-MNA inhibited the binding of FP to albumin competitively. When 6-MNA was injected in rats, there was a significant increase in the free FP concentration and the area under concentration-time curve (AUC) calculated from the free FP concentration, while there was a significant decrease in the total (bound + free) FP concentration and the AUC calculated from the total FP concentration. These findings indicate that 6-MNA inhibits the protein binding of FP in vivo. This suggests that the frequency of FPA injections can be reduced when administered with nabumetone, as there is increase in the free FP concentration associated with pharmacological effect.

  14. Is 'bosonic matter' unstable in 2D?

    CERN Document Server

    Manoukian, E B

    2003-01-01

    An upper bound is derived for the exact ground-state energy in 2D, E sub N <= -(me sup 4 /2 h-bar sup 2)(N sup 3 sup / sup 2 /50 pi sup 2), of 'bosonic matter' consisting of N positive and N negative charges with Coulombic interactions. This is to be compared with the classic N sup 7 sup / sup 5 3D-law of Dyson and gives rise to a more 'violent' collapse of such matter in 2D for large N. The derivation is based on a rigorous analysis which, in the process, controls the negative part of the Hamiltonian over its positive kinetic energy part and detailed estimates needed for counting trial wavefunctions of arbitrary states. A formal dimensional analysis in the style of Dyson alone shows, in arbitrary dimensions of space d = 1, 2, ..., that E sub N approx = -(me sup 4 /2 h-bar sup 2)C sub d N suprho, rho = (d + 4)/(d + 2), where C sub d is a positive constant depending on d, consistent with our rigorous bound, and we are led to conjecture that 'bosonic matter' is unstable in all dimensions.

  15. Influence of isotopic disorder on solid state amorphization and polyamorphism in solid H2O -D2O solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Danilov, I. V.; Lyapin, A. G.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a low-temperature and high-pressure ultrasonic study of elastic properties of isotopic H2O-D2O solid solutions, comparing their properties with those of the isotopically pure H2O and D2O ices. Measurements were carried out for solid state amorphization (SSA) from 1h to high-density amorphous (HDA) ice upon compression up to 1.8 GPa at 77 K and for the temperature-induced (77 -190 K ) u-HDA (unrelaxed HDA) → e-HDA (expanded HDA) → low-density amorphous (LDA )→1 c cascade of ice transformations near room pressure. There are many similarities in the elasticity behaviour of H2O ,D2O , and H2O-D2O solid solutions, including the softening of the shear elastic modulus as a precursor of SSA and the HDA →LDA transition. We have found significant isotopic effects during H/D substitution, including elastic softening of H2O -D2O solid solutions with respect to the isotopically pure ices in the case of the bulk moduli of ices 1c and 1h and for both bulk and shear elastic moduli of HDA ice at high pressures (>1 GPa ) . This softening is related to the configurational isotopic disorder in the solid solutions. At low pressures, the isotope concentration dependence of the elastic moduli of u-HDA ice changes remarkably and becomes monotonic with pronounced change of the bulk modulus (≈20 %) .

  16. Magnetoresistance in Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Quhe, Ruge; Pan, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ying; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Guo, Wanlin; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-28

    Semiconducting single-layer (SL) and few-layer MoS2 have a flat surface, free of dangling bonds. Using density functional theory coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions with MoS2 layer numbers of N = 1, 3, and 5. Well-defined interfaces are formed between MoS2 and metal electrodes. The junctions with a SL MoS2 spacer are almost metallic owing to the strong coupling between MoS2 and the ferromagnets, while those are tunneling with a few layer MoS2 spacer. Both large magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance are found when fcc or hcp Co is used as an electrode. Therefore, flat single- and few-layer MoS2 can serve as an effective nonmagnetic spacer in a magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance device with a well-defined interface.

  17. Vitamina D y cáncer: acción antineoplásica de la 1α, 25(OH2 -vitamina D3 Vitamin D and cancer: antineoplastic effects of 1α,25(OH2-vitamin D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica González Pardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La forma hormonalmente activa de la vitamina D, 1α,25(OH2-vitamina D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, además de desempeñar un rol crucial en el mantenimiento de la homeostasis de calcio en el cuerpo, también regula el crecimiento y la diferenciación de diferentes tipos celulares, incluyendo células cancerosas. Actualmente hay numerosos estudios que investigan los efectos de la hormona en estas células, debido al interés en el uso terapéutico del 1α,25(OH2D3 y de análogos con menor actividad calcémica para el tratamiento o prevención del cáncer. En este trabajo de revisión se describe el sistema endocrino de la vitamina D, su mecanismo de acción, su acción antineoplásica y se provee información sobre los últimos avances en el estudio de nuevos análogos de la hormona con menos actividad calcémica para el tratamiento del cáncer.The hormonal form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH2-vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, in addition of playing a central role in the control of calcium homeostasis in the body, regulates the growth and differentiation of different cell types, including cancer cells. At present several epidemiologic and clinical studies investigate the effect of the hormone in these cells due to the interest in the therapeutic use of 1α,25(OH2D3 and analogues with less calcemic activity for prevention or treatment of cancer. This review describes vitamin D endocrine system, its mechanism of action, its antineoplastic activity and provides information about the latest advances in the study of new hormone analogues with less calcemic activity for cancer treatment.

  18. Differentiation of chronic total occlusion and subtotal occlusion of the femoropopliteal artery-role of retrograde flow sign and collateral circulation on CT angiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Su, Yanfei; Chen, Haisong

    2017-08-01

    To study the value of a retrograde flow sign and the collateral circulation on CT angiography (CTA) for the differential diagnosis of chronic total occlusion from subtotal occlusion of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA). 50 patients with obstruction of the FPA underwent CTA and digital subtraction angiography examinations of the lower limbs. The frequency of a retrograde flow sign and collateral circulation on CTA in chronic total and subtotal occlusion was noted and analyzed, with the results of digital subtraction angiography as a standard to judge total or subtotal occlusion. The decreasing CT value from the distal to proximal direction on CTA suggests the existence of retrograde flow. There were significant differences in the occurrence rates of a retrograde flow sign on CTA in the chronic total and subtotal obstruction groups (X 2 = 13.1, p collateral circulation sign (X 2 = 13.5, p collateral circulation sign to diagnose chronic total obstruction of the FPA had a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 89.8%. The retrograde flow sign combined with a collateral circulation sign is of great clinical value for differentiation of chronic total stenosis from severe stenosis (subtotal occlusion) of the FPA. Advances in knowledge: A retrograde flow sign combined with a collateral circulation sign is of great clinical value to differentiate between chronic total stenosis and severe stenosis (subtotal occlusion) of the FPA.

  19. High-efficiency exfoliation of layered materials into 2D nanosheets in switchable CO2/Surfactant/H2O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Xu, Qun; Xu, Shanshan; Qi, Yuhang; Chen, Meng; Li, Hongxiang; Han, Buxing

    2015-11-01

    Layered materials present attractive and important properties due to their two-dimensional (2D) structure, allowing potential applications including electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. However, fully exploiting the outstanding properties will require a method for their efficient exfoliation. Here we present that a series of layered materials can be successfully exfoliated into single- and few-layer nanosheets using the driving forces coming from the phase inversion, i.e., from micelles to reverse micelles in the emulsion microenvironment built by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). The effect of variable experimental parameters including CO2 pressure, ethanol/water ratio, and initial concentration of bulk materials on the exfoliation yield have been investigated. Moreover, we demonstrate that the exfoliated 2D nanosheets have their worthwhile applications, for example, graphene can be used to prepare conductive paper, MoS2 can be used as fluorescent label to perform cellular labelling, and BN can effectively reinforce polymers leading to the promising mechanical properties.

  20. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  1. Vapour pressure of D2O - Ice at temperatures below 237 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, J.M.; Asensio, M.C.; Estiu, G.; Viscido, L.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate measurements of heavy water ice vapour pressures between 193 and 253 K have been carried out and an equation based on thermodynamic data has been derived in order to calculate the D 2 O-ice vapour pressures between 173 and 273 K. The agreement between our calculated vapour pressures and the available experimental data including those in this paper, is very good. The comparison between the theoretical calculations of H 2 O-ice and D 2 O-ice vapour pressures confirms the experimental evidence that H 2 O-ice is more volatile than D 2 O-ice at all temperatures in agreement with the vapour isotopic effect theory (VPIE).(author)

  2. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-15

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe 2 ), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  3. Vitamin D status and health-related quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krul-Poel, Y H M; Westra, S; van Wijland, H J

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To test whether vitamin D status was associated with health-related quality of life in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life scores, were obtained from 241 adult patients with Type 2 diabetes managed...... associations were found between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status was not associated with health-related quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This could be explained by the relatively high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, good glycaemic...... of the patients included in the study was 67 ± 8 years. Their mean HbA1c concentration was 52 ± 8 mmol/mol (6.9 ± 0.7%) and their mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 59 ± 23 nmol/l. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

  4. Contributions in compression of 3D medical images and 2D images; Contributions en compression d'images medicales 3D et d'images naturelles 2D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudeau, Y

    2006-12-15

    The huge amounts of volumetric data generated by current medical imaging techniques in the context of an increasing demand for long term archiving solutions, as well as the rapid development of distant radiology make the use of compression inevitable. Indeed, if the medical community has sided until now with compression without losses, most of applications suffer from compression ratios which are too low with this kind of compression. In this context, compression with acceptable losses could be the most appropriate answer. So, we propose a new loss coding scheme based on 3D (3 dimensional) Wavelet Transform and Dead Zone Lattice Vector Quantization 3D (DZLVQ) for medical images. Our algorithm has been evaluated on several computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image volumes. The main contribution of this work is the design of a multidimensional dead zone which enables to take into account correlations between neighbouring elementary volumes. At high compression ratios, we show that it can out-perform visually and numerically the best existing methods. These promising results are confirmed on head CT by two medical patricians. The second contribution of this document assesses the effect with-loss image compression on CAD (Computer-Aided Decision) detection performance of solid lung nodules. This work on 120 significant lungs images shows that detection did not suffer until 48:1 compression and still was robust at 96:1. The last contribution consists in the complexity reduction of our compression scheme. The first allocation dedicated to 2D DZLVQ uses an exponential of the rate-distortion (R-D) functions. The second allocation for 2D and 3D medical images is based on block statistical model to estimate the R-D curves. These R-D models are based on the joint distribution of wavelet vectors using a multidimensional mixture of generalized Gaussian (MMGG) densities. (author)

  5. Comparative Study of 2D and 3D Optical Imaging Systems: Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery in an Ex Vivo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaça, Jaime; Pinto, José Pedro; Fernandes, Sandra; Costa, Patrício; Pinto, Jorge Correia; Leão, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    Usually laparoscopy is performed by means of a 2-dimensional (2D) image system and multiport approach. To overcome the lack of depth perception, new 3-dimensional (3D) systems are arising with the added advantage of providing stereoscopic vision. To further reduce surgery-related trauma, there are new minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed, such as LESS (laparoendoscopic single-site) surgery. The aim of this study was to compare 2D and 3D laparoscopic systems in LESS surgical procedures. All participants were selected from different levels of experience in laparoscopic surgery-10 novices, 7 intermediates, and 10 experts were included. None of the participants had had previous experience in LESS surgery. Participants were chosen randomly to begin their experience with either the 2D or 3D laparoscopic system. The exercise consisted of performing an ex vivo pork cholecystectomy through a SILS port with the assistance of a fixed distance laparoscope. Errors, time, and participants' preference were recorded. Statistical analysis of time and errors between groups was conducted with a Student's t test (using independent samples) and the Mann-Whitney test. In all 3 groups, the average time with the 2D system was significantly reduced after having used the 3D system ( P 3D system. This study suggests that the 3D system may improve the learning curve and that learning from the 3D system is transferable to the 2D environment. Additionally, the majority of participants prefer 3D equipment.

  6. Comparison between a coupled 1D-2D model and a fully 2D model for supercritical flow simulation in crossroads

    KAUST Repository

    Ghostine, Rabih

    2014-12-01

    In open channel networks, flow is usually approximated by the one-dimensional (1D) Saint-Venant equations coupled with an empirical junction model. In this work, a comparison in terms of accuracy and computational cost between a coupled 1D-2D shallow water model and a fully two-dimensional (2D) model is presented. The paper explores the ability of a coupled model to simulate the flow processes during supercritical flows in crossroads. This combination leads to a significant reduction in the computational time, as a 1D approach is used in branches and a 2D approach is employed in selected areas only where detailed flow information is essential. Overall, the numerical results suggest that the coupled model is able to accurately simulate the main flow processes. In particular, hydraulic jumps, recirculation zones, and discharge distribution are reasonably well reproduced and clearly identified. Overall, the proposed model leads to a 30% reduction in run times. © 2014 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.

  7. Design, synthesis, and characterization of 0-D, 1-D, and 2-D Zinc–Adeninate coordination assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji Hyun [Dept. of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Geib, Steven J. [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (United States); Kim, Myung Gil [Dept. of Chemistry, Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of zinc– adeninate coordination polymers with 0-D, 1-D, and 2-D structures. We describe methods for controlling the structure of these materials by applying different synthetic conditions and discuss their structural relationships. 0-D, 1-D, and 2-D zinc–adeninate coordination polymers with the same metal–adeninate coordination mode were synthesized and characterized. By controlling the temperature, a material with 0-D macrocycle or 1-D chain coordination polymer was prepared. A replacement of pyridine with bipyridine formed 2-D sheet structure by connecting 1-D chains with each other. They exhibited an interesting relationship between synthetic methods and structures. Further study of metal–adeninate coordination chemistry will render a precise control of the structure in synthesis and will open a new venue to new materials with fascinating properties.

  8. IGUANA A high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L A

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high- performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, sl...

  9. 2D Crystal Semiconductors New Materials for GHz-THz Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    authorization procedures , e.g. RD/FRD, PROPIN, ITAR, etc. Include copyright information. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES. Enter information not included elsewhere...out of the plane in equilibrium. The energy bandgaps and the band lineups of a few 2-D crystals are shown in Fig. 2. The figure also indicates the...Phys. Lett., vol. 72, pp. 1899–1901, 1998. [34] R. Schlaf, O. Lang, C. Pettenkofer, and W. Jaegermann, ‘‘Band lineup of layered semiconductor

  10. The signaling pathway of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation using normal mode analysis (NMA) and the construction of pharmacophore models for D2R ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Stein, Matthias; Yurtsever, Mine; Seeman, Philip; Erol, Ismail; Mestanoglu, Mert; Durdagi, Serdar

    2017-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are targets of more than 30% of marketed drugs. Investigation on the GPCRs may shed light on upcoming drug design studies. In the present study, we performed a combination of receptor- and ligand-based analysis targeting the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). The signaling pathway of D2R activation and the construction of universal pharmacophore models for D2R ligands were also studied. The key amino acids, which contributed to the regular activation of the D2R, were in detail investigated by means of normal mode analysis (NMA). A derived cross-correlation matrix provided us an understanding of the degree of pair residue correlations. Although negative correlations were not observed in the case of the inactive D2R state, a high degree of correlation appeared between the residues in the active state. NMA results showed that the cytoplasmic side of the TM5 plays a significant role in promoting of residue-residue correlations in the active state of D2R. Tracing motions of the amino acids Arg219, Arg220, Val223, Asn224, Lys226, and Ser228 in the position of the TM5 are found to be critical in signal transduction. Complementing the receptor-based modeling, ligand-based modeling was also performed using known D2R ligands. The top-scored pharmacophore models were found as 5-sited (AADPR.671, AADRR.1398, AAPRR.3900, and ADHRR.2864) hypotheses from PHASE modeling from a pool consisting of more than 100 initial candidates. The constructed models using 38 D2R ligands (in the training set) were validated with 15 additional test set compounds. The resulting model correctly predicted the pIC 50 values of an additional test set compounds as true unknowns.

  11. 3D T2-weighted imaging to shorten multiparametric prostate MRI protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanec, Stephan H; Lazar, Mathias; Wengert, Georg J; Bickel, Hubert; Spick, Claudio; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh; Clauser, Paola; Baltzer, Pascal A T

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether 3D acquisitions provide equivalent image quality, lesion delineation quality and PI-RADS v2 performance compared to 2D acquisitions in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 T. This IRB-approved, prospective study included 150 consecutive patients (mean age 63.7 years, 35-84 years; mean PSA 7.2 ng/ml, 0.4-31.1 ng/ml). Two uroradiologists (R1, R2) independently rated image quality and lesion delineation quality using a five-point ordinal scale and assigned a PI-RADS score for 2D and 3D T2-weighted image data sets. Data were compared using visual grading characteristics (VGC) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC)/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Image quality was similarly good to excellent for 2D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.81; R2, 4.7 ± 0.83) and 3D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.82; R2, 4.7 ± 0.69), p = 0.269. Lesion delineation was rated good to excellent for 2D (mean score R1, 4.16 ± 0.81; R2, 4.19 ± 0.92) and 3D T2w (R1, 4.19 ± 0.94; R2, 4.27 ± 0.94) without significant differences (p = 0.785). ROC analysis showed an equivalent performance for 2D (AUC 0.580-0.623) and 3D (AUC 0.576-0.629) T2w (p > 0.05, respectively). Three-dimensional acquisitions demonstrated equivalent image and lesion delineation quality, and PI-RADS v2 performance, compared to 2D in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate. Three-dimensional T2-weighted imaging could be used to considerably shorten prostate MRI protocols in clinical practice. • 3D shows equivalent image quality and lesion delineation compared to 2D T2w. • 3D T2w and 2D T2w image acquisition demonstrated comparable diagnostic performance. • Using a single 3D T2w acquisition may shorten the protocol by 40%. • Combined with short DCE, multiparametric protocols of 10 min are feasible.

  12. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  13. Involvement of dopamine D1/D2 receptors on harmane-induced amnesia in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Piri, Morteza; Nouri, Maryam; Farzin, Davood; Nayer-Nouri, Touraj; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-25

    Ingestion of harmane and other alkaloids derived from plant Peganum harmala has been shown to elicit profound behavioural and toxic effects in humans, including hallucinations, excitation, feelings of elation, and euphoria. These alkaloids in the high doses can cause a toxic syndrome characterized by tremors and convulsions. Harmane has also been shown to act on a variety of receptor systems in the mammalian brain, including those for serotonin, dopamine and benzodiazepines. In animals, it has been reported to affect short and long term memory. In the present study, effects of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on the harmane (HA)-induced amnesia and exploratory behaviors were examined in mice. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used for the assessment of memory retention and exploratory behaviors in adult male NMRI mice respectively. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HA (5 and 10 mg/kg) immediately after training decreased memory consolidation, while had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. Memory retrieval was not altered by 15- or 30 min pre-testing administration of the D1 (SCH23390, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or D2 (sulpiride 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) receptor antagonists, respectively. In contrast, SCH23390 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or sulpiride (25 and 50 mg/kg) pre-test administration fully reversed HA-induced impairment of memory consolidation. Finally, neither D1 nor D2 receptor blockade affected exploratory behaviors in the hole-board paradigm. Altogether, these findings strongly suggest an involvement of D1 and D2 receptors modulation in the HA-induced impairment of memory consolidation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 3-D portal image analysis in clinical practice: an evaluation of 2-D and 3-D analysis techniques as applied to 30 prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remeijer, Peter; Geerlof, Erik; Ploeger, Lennert; Gilhuijs, Kenneth; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical importance and feasibility of a 3-D portal image analysis method in comparison with a standard 2-D portal image analysis method for pelvic irradiation techniques. Methods and Materials: In this study, images of 30 patients who were treated for prostate cancer were used. A total of 837 imaged fields were analyzed by a single technologist, using automatic 2-D and 3-D techniques independently. Standard deviations (SDs) of the random, systematic, and overall variations, and the overall mean were calculated for the resulting data sets (2-D and 3-D), in the three principal directions (left-right [L-R], cranial-caudal [C-C], anterior-posterior [A-P]). The 3-D analysis included rotations as well. For the translational differences between the three data sets, the overall SD and overall mean were computed. The influence of out-of-plane rotations on the 2-D registration accuracy was determined by analyzing the difference between the 2-D and 3-D translation data as function of rotations. To assess the reliability of the 2-D and 3-D methods, the number of times the automatic match was manually adjusted was counted. Finally, an estimate of the workload was made. Results: The SDs of the random and systematic components of the rotations around the three orthogonal axes were 1.1 (L-R), 0.6 (C-C), 0.5 (A-P) and 0.9 (L-R), 0.6 (C-C), 0.8 (A-P) degrees, respectively. The overall mean rotation around the L-R axis was 0.7 deg., which deviated significantly from zero. Translational setup errors were comparable for 2-D and 3-D analysis (ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 mm SD and from 1.5 to 2.5 mm SD, respectively). The variation of the difference between the 2-D and 3-D translation data increased from 1.1 mm (SD) for zero rotations to 2.7 mm (SD) for out-of-plane rotations of 3 deg., due to a reduced 2-D registration accuracy for large rotations. The number of times the analysis was not considered acceptable and was manually adjusted was 44% for the 2-D

  15. Low 2D:4D values are associated with video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Zenses, Eva-Maria; Lenz, Bernd; Stoessel, Christina; Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit) ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we quantified video gaming behavior in young males. We found lower mean 2D:4D values in subjects who were classified according to the CSAS-II as having at-risk/addicted behavior (n = 27) compared with individuals with unproblematic video gaming behavior (n = 27). Thus, prenatal androgen exposure and a hyper-male brain organization, as represented by low 2D:4D values, are associated with problematic video gaming behavior. These results may be used to improve the diagnosis, prediction, and prevention of video game addiction.

  16. Low 2D:4D values are associated with video game addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kornhuber

    Full Text Available Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we quantified video gaming behavior in young males. We found lower mean 2D:4D values in subjects who were classified according to the CSAS-II as having at-risk/addicted behavior (n = 27 compared with individuals with unproblematic video gaming behavior (n = 27. Thus, prenatal androgen exposure and a hyper-male brain organization, as represented by low 2D:4D values, are associated with problematic video gaming behavior. These results may be used to improve the diagnosis, prediction, and prevention of video game addiction.

  17. 2D CFT blocks for the 4D class Sk theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, Vladimir; Pomoni, Elli

    2017-03-01

    This is the first in a series of papers on the search for the 2D CFT description of a large class of 4D N=1 gauge theories. Here, we identify the 2D CFT symmetry algebra and its representations, namely the conformal blocks of the Virasoro/W-algebra, that underlie the 2D theory and reproduce the Seiberg-Witten curves of the N=1 gauge theories. We find that the blocks corresponding to the SU(N) S k gauge theories involve fields in certain non-unitary representations of the W kN algebra. These conformal blocks give a prediction for the instanton partition functions of the 4D N=1 SCFTs of class S k .

  18. Mineralization of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) and Mixtures of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J. S.; Reddy, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented for mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in nutrient-rich media (high-nitrogen and malt extract media) by wild-type Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by a peroxidase-negative mutant of this organism. Mass balance analysis of [U-ring-14C]2,4-D mineralization in malt extract cultures showed 82.7% recovery of radioactivity. Of this, 38.6% was released as 14CO2 and 27.0, 11.2, and 5.9% were present in the aqueous, methylene chloride, and mycelial fractions, respectively. 2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) were simultaneously mineralized when presented as a mixture, and mutual inhibition of degradation was not observed. In contrast, a relatively higher rate of mineralization of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was observed when these compounds were tested as mixtures than when they were tested alone. PMID:16349039

  19. Expression of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in a model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Legaspi J Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been related to the affective component of pain. Dopaminergic mesocortical circuits, including the ACC, are able to inhibit neuropathic nociception measured as autotomy behaviour. We determined the changes in dopamine D1 and D2 (D1R and D2R receptor expression in the ACC (cg1 and cg2 in an animal model of neuropathic pain. The neuropathic group had noxious heat applied in the right hind paw followed 30 min. later by right sciatic denervation. Autotomy score (AS was recorded for eight days and subsequently classified in low, medium and high AS groups. The control consisted of naïve animals. A semiquantitative RT-PCR procedure was done to determine mRNA levels for D1R and D2R in cg1 and cg2, and protein levels were measured by Western Blot. Results The results of D1R mRNA in cg1 showed a decrease in all groups. D2R mRNA levels in cg1 decreased in low AS and increased in medium and high AS. Regarding D1R in cg2, there was an increase in all groups. D2R expression levels in cg2 decreased in all groups. In cg1, the D2R mRNA correlated positively with autotomy behaviour. Protein levels of D2R in cg1 increased in all groups but to a higher degree in low AS. In cg2 D2R protein only decreased discretely. D1R protein was not found in either ACC region. Conclusions This is the first evidence of an increase of inhibitory dopaminergic receptor (D2R mRNA and protein in cg1 in correlation with nociceptive behaviour in a neuropathic model of pain in the rat.

  20. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Purcaru; Cristian Toma

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features ...

  1. 2D sparse array transducer optimization for 3D ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hoon; Park, Kwan Kyu

    2014-01-01

    A 3D ultrasound image is desired in many medical examinations. However, the implementation of a 2D array, which is needed for a 3D image, is challenging with respect to fabrication, interconnection and cabling. A 2D sparse array, which needs fewer elements than a dense array, is a realistic way to achieve 3D images. Because the number of ways the elements can be placed in an array is extremely large, a method for optimizing the array configuration is needed. Previous research placed the target point far from the transducer array, making it impossible to optimize the array in the operating range. In our study, we focused on optimizing a 2D sparse array transducer for 3D imaging by using a simulated annealing method. We compared the far-field optimization method with the near-field optimization method by analyzing a point-spread function (PSF). The resolution of the optimized sparse array is comparable to that of the dense array.

  2. Principal Component Analysis Based Two-Dimensional (PCA-2D) Correlation Spectroscopy: PCA Denoising for 2D Correlation Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Mee

    2003-01-01

    Principal component analysis based two-dimensional (PCA-2D) correlation analysis is applied to FTIR spectra of polystyrene/methyl ethyl ketone/toluene solution mixture during the solvent evaporation. Substantial amount of artificial noise were added to the experimental data to demonstrate the practical noise-suppressing benefit of PCA-2D technique. 2D correlation analysis of the reconstructed data matrix from PCA loading vectors and scores successfully extracted only the most important features of synchronicity and asynchronicity without interference from noise or insignificant minor components. 2D correlation spectra constructed with only one principal component yield strictly synchronous response with no discernible a asynchronous features, while those involving at least two or more principal components generated meaningful asynchronous 2D correlation spectra. Deliberate manipulation of the rank of the reconstructed data matrix, by choosing the appropriate number and type of PCs, yields potentially more refined 2D correlation spectra

  3. Homogeneous catalysis of deuterium transfer by potassium hydroxide and potassium methoxide D2-H2O and D2-CH3OH exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathdee, G.G.; Garner, D.M.; Given, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of exchange of deuterium between D 2 and water and between D 2 and methanol, catalyzed respectively by concentrated potassium hydroxide and potassium methoxide, has been studied between 348 and 398 K. In the D 2 -KOH-H 2 O case, the transfer of deuterium was found to be controlled by the rate of activation of the D 2 molecule by OH - . Rapid exchange of D + with the aqueous solution followed. From the D 2 -KOCH 3 -CH 3 OH studies, it was concluded that deuterium exchange depended upon the rates of both D 2 activation by methoxide and interaction of the solvent with the transition, or encounter, complex. The dependence of second-order rate constants on solvent activity for both systems was determined by normalization of the exchange reaction rates to unit reagent activity. Analysis of the kinetic isotope effects for each system suggested that their increase with base concentration or temperature was due to solvation effects. (author)

  4. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) in adults with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernd; Noll, Thomas; Delsignore, Aba; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs

    2009-06-01

    From early childhood, gender identity and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio (2D:4D) are discriminative characteristics between sexes. Both the human brain and 2D:4D may be influenced by prenatal testosterone levels. This calls for an examination of 2D:4D in patients with gender identity disorder (GID) to study the possible influence of prenatal testosterone on gender identity. Until now, the only study carried out on this issue suggests lower prenatal testosterone levels in right-handed male-to-female GID patients (MtF). We compared 2D:4D of 56 GID patients (39 MtF; 17 female-to-male GID patients, FtM) with data from a control sample of 176 men and 190 women. Bivariate group comparisons showed that right hand 2D:4D in MtF was significantly higher (feminized) than in male controls, but similar to female controls. The comparison of 2D:4D ratios of biological women revealed significantly higher (feminized) values for right hands of right handed FtM. Analysis of variance confirmed significant effects for sex and for gender identity on 2D:4D ratios but not for sexual orientation or for the interaction among variables. Our results indirectly point to the possibility of a weak influence of reduced prenatal testosterone as an etiological factor in the multifactorially influenced development of MtF GID. The development of FtM GID seems even more unlikely to be notably influenced by prenatal testosterone.

  5. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  6. Investigation of the structural requirements of K-Ras(G12D) selective inhibitory peptide KRpep-2d using alanine scans and cysteine bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Yonemori, Kazuko; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Asami, Taiji; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamaura, Masahiro

    2017-06-15

    A structure-activity relationship study of a K-Ras(G12D) selective inhibitory cyclic peptide, KRpep-2d was performed. Alanine scanning of KRpep-2d focusing on the cyclic moiety showed that Leu 7 , Ile 9 , and Asp 12 are the key elements for K-Ras(G12D) selective inhibition of KRpep-2d. The cysteine bridging was also examined to identify the stable analog of KRpep-2d under reductive conditions. As a result, the KRpep-2d analog (12) including mono-methylene bridging showed potent K-Ras(G12D) selective inhibition in both the presence and the absence of dithiothreitol. This means that mono-methylene bridging is an effective strategy to obtain a reduction-resistance analog of parent disulfide cyclic peptides. Peptide 12 inhibited proliferation of K-Ras(G12D)-driven cancer cells significantly. These results gave valuable information for further optimization of KRpep-2d to provide novel anti-cancer drug candidates targeting the K-Ras(G12D) mutant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Computer assisted determination of acetabular cup orientation using 2D-3D image registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan

    2010-01-01

    2D-3D image-based registration methods have been developed to measure acetabular cup orientation after total hip arthroplasty (THA). These methods require registration of both the prosthesis and the CT images to 2D radiographs and compute implant position with respect to a reference. The application of these methods is limited in clinical practice due to two limitations: (1) the requirement of a computer-aided design (CAD) model of the prosthesis, which may be unavailable due to the proprietary concerns of the manufacturer, and (2) the requirement of either multiple radiographs or radiograph-specific calibration, usually unavailable for retrospective studies. In this paper, we propose a new method to address these limitations. A new formulation for determination of post-operative cup orientation, which couples a radiographic measurement with 2D-3D image matching, was developed. In our formulation, the radiographic measurement can be obtained with known methods so that the challenge lies in the 2D-3D image matching. To solve this problem, a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining a landmark-to-ray 2D-3D alignment with a robust intensity-based 2D-3D registration was used. The hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme allows computing both the post-operative cup orientation with respect to an anatomical reference and the pelvic tilt and rotation with respect to the X-ray imaging table/plate. The method was validated using 2D adult cadaver hips. Using the hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme, our method showed a mean accuracy of 1.0 ± 0.7 (range from 0.1 to 2.0 ) for inclination and 1.7 ± 1.2 (range from 0.0 to 3.9 ) for anteversion, taking the measurements from post-operative CT images as ground truths. Our new solution formulation and the hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme facilitate estimation of post-operative cup orientation and measurement of pelvic tilt and rotation. (orig.)

  8. Urinary coagulation-fibrinolysis, kallirein-kinin systems and kininase in cases of preclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, S; Kobayashi, M; Hirata, J; Itoh, N; Maki, M; Komatsu, Y; Yoshida, A; Sasa, H; Kuroda, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1992-01-01

    Urinary kallikrein and kallikrein activity significantly decreased in cases of preeclampsia (u-kall./CRE.index 42.39 +/- 9.66 ng/mg, u-kall. act./CRE.index 0.26 +/- 0.06 ng/min/mg), and urinary kininase II and kininase activity significantly increased (u-kininase/CRE.index 10.91 +/- 1.26 x 10(-3) IU/min/mg, u-kininase act./CRE.index 506.37 +/- 178.45 pg/min/mg) when compared with those of normal gravidas from 28 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation (u-kall./CRE.index 189.31 +/- 14.17 ng/mg, u-kall. act./CRE index 1.08 +/- 0.10 ng/min/mg, u-kininase/CRE.index 6.24 +/- 0.31 x 10(-3) IU/min/mg, u-kininase act./CRE.index 15.64 +/- 0.10 pg/min/mg). Urinary FPA, B beta 5-42, alpha 2-PI, and alpha 2PI-plasmin-complex (PIC) significantly increased in preeclampsia (u-FPA/CRE.index 23.59 +/- 8.47 ng/mg, u-B beta/CRE.index 105.26 +/- 29.30 ng/mg, u-alpha 2PI/CRE.index 121.53 +/- 43.57 ng/mg, u-PIC/CRE index 278.39 +/- 60.50 ng/mg) when compared with those of normal control group (u-FPA/CRE.index 0.92 +/- 0.04 ng/mg, u-B beta/CRE.index 12.15 +/- 0.44 ng/mg, u-alpha 2PI/CRE.index 4.18 +/- 0.33 ng/mg, u-PIC/CRE.index 5.98 +/- 1.15 ng/mg). Urinary urokinase markedly increased and urinary D-dimer was detected in severe cases of preeclampsia (u-UK/CRE.index 58.20 +/- 43.69 ng/mg, u-D-dimer 54.76 +/- 9.89 ng/ml) when compared with those of normal control group. These findings suggest that deficiency in urinary kinin excretion may induce hypertension in addition to the changes of urinary coagulation-fibrinolysis system that represents the occurrence of either the endothelial cell injury in the glomerulus or the renal tulbular damage in mild cases of preeclampsia, eventually resulting in the intra-renal vascular coagulation.

  9. 78 FR 52984 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ....; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment... Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado Springs, Colorado (hereafter collectively referred to as..., Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, including on-site leased workers from Express...

  10. Application of 3D and 2D quantitative shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate between benign and malignant breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Liu, Qianqi; Wang, Xi; Xing, Ping; Yang, Zhuowen; Wu, Changjun

    2017-01-20

    As breast cancer tissues are stiffer than normal tissues, shear wave elastography (SWE) can locally quantify tissue stiffness and provide histological information. Moreover, tissue stiffness can be observed on three-dimensional (3D) colour-coded elasticity maps. Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic performances of quantitative features in differentiating breast masses by two-dimensional (2D) and 3D SWE. Two hundred ten consecutive women with 210 breast masses were examined with B-mode ultrasound (US) and SWE. Quantitative features of 3D and 2D SWE were assessed, including elastic modulus standard deviation (E SD E ) measured on SWE mode images and E SD U measured on B-mode images, as well as maximum elasticity (E max ). Adding quantitative features to B-mode US improved the diagnostic performance (p < 0.05) and reduced false-positive biopsies (p < 0.0001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 3D SWE was similar to that of 2D SWE for E SD E (p = 0.026) and E SD U (p = 0.159) but inferior to that of 2D SWE for E max (p = 0.002). Compared with E SD U , E SD E showed a higher AUC on 2D (p = 0.0038) and 3D SWE (p = 0.0057). Our study indicates that quantitative features of 3D and 2D SWE can significantly improve the diagnostic performance of B-mode US, especially 3D SWE E SD E , which shows considerable clinical value.

  11. 2ΔH(D) and 1ΔN(D) isotope effects on nuclear shielding of ammonium ions in complexes with crown ethers and cryptands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.E.; Hansen, Aa.E.; Lycka, A.; Buvari-Barcza, A.

    1993-01-01

    One-bond deuterium isotope effects on nitrogen nuclear shielding, 1 ΔN(D) and two-bond isotope effects at 1 H nuclear shielding, 2 ΔH(D), have been investigated in a series of inclusion complexes. The hosts comprise, SC-24, [2.2.2], [2.2.1], [2.2.1] D, [2.2] DD, K5, 18-crown-6 and 18-crown-6 tetracarboxylic acid. The structure of the host [2.2.1] is discussed based on isotope effects and 1 H chemical shifts, and an interesting exchange reaction is observed between CDCl 3 and ammonium ions in the [2.2.1] complex. The counterion dependence is shown to be zero for ammonium ions fully included in cages such as SC-24 and [2.2.2] and for 18-C-6(COOH) 4 . For cryptands and podands such as [2.2.1] and K5 a weak counterion dependence of 2 ΔH(D) opposite to that found for ammonium ions in water is observed, while 1 ΔN(D) and 15 N chemical shifts depend very strongly on the counterions, as also found for ammonium ions in water solution. The anilinium ion shows effects similar to those observed for the ammonium ion. 1 ΔN(D) isotope effects correlate well with δN and 2 ΔH(D) correlate with δNH. The correlation between 1 ΔN(D) and 2 ΔH(D) is different for ammonium ions in water and ions included in crowns, cryptands or podands. This shows that different mechanisms are operating. The 2 ΔH(D) isotope effects and δNH chemical shifts depend on the distance to the nearest acceptor (oxygen or nitrogen), and they also depend on the type of acceptor. 2 ΔH(D) isotope effects are found to be a good gauge of N ... N or N ... O distances of the inclusion complexes. The 2 ΔH(D) isotope effects vary with temperature, but the dramatic changes in the 1 H NMR spectra of the host are not reflected in the isotope effects. The one-bond couplings, 1 J(N,H), correlate with 2 ΔH(D). The variations are much larger for the cryptands than found in water solutions. (au) (50 refs.)

  12. /sup 1/H NMR study of 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexopyranose (2-deoxy-glucopyranose), 2-deoxy-D-lyxo-hexopyranose (2-deoxy-galactopyranose) and 2'-deoxy lactose. Shift increment studies in 2-deoxy carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bruyn, A; Anteunis, M [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium)

    1975-01-01

    Complete analyses are given of the /sup 1/H n.m.r. spectra at 300 MHz of D/sub 2/O solutions of 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexopyranose, 2-deoxy-D-lyxo-hexopyranose and 2'-deoxy lactose. Chemical shifts in the deoxy monosaccharides and in 2'-deoxy lactose are compared with those previously obtained in the parent aldeohexopyranoses, glucobioses and D-galactopyranosol-D-glucoses. Increment values are suggested in order to predict chemical shifts in 2-deoxy derivatives from the well known rules for aldohexopyranoses.

  13. Light field morphing using 2D features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Stephen; Lee, Seungyong; Guo, Baining; Shum, Heung-Yeung

    2005-01-01

    We present a 2D feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Existing light field morphing methods require the user to specify corresponding 3D feature elements to guide morph computation. Since slight errors in 3D specification can lead to significant morphing artifacts, we propose a scheme based on 2D feature elements that is less sensitive to imprecise marking of features. First, 2D features are specified by the user in a number of key views in the source and target light fields. Then the two light fields are warped view by view as guided by the corresponding 2D features. Finally, the two warped light fields are blended together to yield the desired light field morph. Two key issues in light field morphing are feature specification and warping of light field rays. For feature specification, we introduce a user interface for delineating 2D features in key views of a light field, which are automatically interpolated to other views. For ray warping, we describe a 2D technique that accounts for visibility changes and present a comparison to the ideal morphing of light fields. Light field morphing based on 2D features makes it simple to incorporate previous image morphing techniques such as nonuniform blending, as well as to morph between an image and a light field.

  14. Comparison of 2D and 3D brachytherpay planning for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoom

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of 3-dimensional brachytherapy(BT) planning technique based on CT in cervical cancer. Patients with cervical cancer underwent 2-D BT treatment planning and then CT scan with HDR intracavitary applicators in place with same positions. Dose was prescribed to Point A with 5Gy per fraction on 2-D BT planning. For 3-D BT planning, and dose was prescribed to the High risk CTV for BT (HR CTV) with 5Gy. The 3-D BT planning goal was to cover at least 90% of the HR CTV with target 5Gy isodose surface while limiting the dose to 2 cm3 of bladder to less than 7.5 Gy, and 2cm"3 of rectum to less than 5Gy. In one patient of 10 patients, D2cm3 of rectal dose was over 5Gy and 6 patients at D2cm"3 of bladder dose on 2-D BT planning. There was a tendency to underestimate ICRU bladder dose than ICRU rectal dose. CT based 3-D BT planning for cervical cancer will enable evaluation of dose distributions for tumor and critical organs at risk. So, rectal and bladder morbidity as well as geographic miss will be reduced in case of the bulky disease or uterine malposition

  15. Comparison of 2D and 3D brachytherpay planning for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoom [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, KonYang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of 3-dimensional brachytherapy(BT) planning technique based on CT in cervical cancer. Patients with cervical cancer underwent 2-D BT treatment planning and then CT scan with HDR intracavitary applicators in place with same positions. Dose was prescribed to Point A with 5Gy per fraction on 2-D BT planning. For 3-D BT planning, and dose was prescribed to the High risk CTV for BT (HR CTV) with 5Gy. The 3-D BT planning goal was to cover at least 90% of the HR CTV with target 5Gy isodose surface while limiting the dose to 2 cm3 of bladder to less than 7.5 Gy, and 2cm{sup 3} of rectum to less than 5Gy. In one patient of 10 patients, D2cm3 of rectal dose was over 5Gy and 6 patients at D2cm{sup 3} of bladder dose on 2-D BT planning. There was a tendency to underestimate ICRU bladder dose than ICRU rectal dose. CT based 3-D BT planning for cervical cancer will enable evaluation of dose distributions for tumor and critical organs at risk. So, rectal and bladder morbidity as well as geographic miss will be reduced in case of the bulky disease or uterine malposition.

  16. Memory and visual search in naturalistic 2D and 3D environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Ling; Aivar, M Pilar; Kit, Dmitry M; Tong, Matthew H; Hayhoe, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    The role of memory in guiding attention allocation in daily behaviors is not well understood. In experiments with two-dimensional (2D) images, there is mixed evidence about the importance of memory. Because the stimulus context in laboratory experiments and daily behaviors differs extensively, we investigated the role of memory in visual search, in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments. A 3D immersive virtual apartment composed of two rooms was created, and a parallel 2D visual search experiment composed of snapshots from the 3D environment was developed. Eye movements were tracked in both experiments. Repeated searches for geometric objects were performed to assess the role of spatial memory. Subsequently, subjects searched for realistic context objects to test for incidental learning. Our results show that subjects learned the room-target associations in 3D but less so in 2D. Gaze was increasingly restricted to relevant regions of the room with experience in both settings. Search for local contextual objects, however, was not facilitated by early experience. Incidental fixations to context objects do not necessarily benefit search performance. Together, these results demonstrate that memory for global aspects of the environment guides search by restricting allocation of attention to likely regions, whereas task relevance determines what is learned from the active search experience. Behaviors in 2D and 3D environments are comparable, although there is greater use of memory in 3D.

  17. Calculating excitons, plasmons, and quasiparticles in 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2017-01-01

    and quasiparticle band structures in 2D materials and their heterostructures. The general theory is illustrated by applications to various types of 2D materials including transition metal dichalcogenides, graphene, phosphorene, and hexagonal boron nitride. The weak and highly non-local dielectric function...

  18. Excitonic and Polaronic Properties of 2D Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun

    2017-01-20

    We theoretically characterize the unusual white-light emission properties of two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic inorganic perovskites with an APbX(4) structure (where A is a bidentate organic cation and X = Cl, Br). In addition to band structure calculations including corrections due to spin orbit couplings and electron hole interactions, a computationally intensive molecular cluster approach is exploited to describe the excitonic and polaronic properties of these 2D perovskites at the atomistic level. Upon adding or removing an electron from the neutral systems, we find that strongly localized small polarons form in the 2D clusters. The polaron charge density is distributed over just lattice sites, which is consistent with the calculated large polaron binding energies, on the order of similar to 0.4-1.2 eV.

  19. 21 CFR 172.379 - Vitamin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D2. 172.379 Section 172.379 Food and Drugs... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.379 Vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 may be used safely in foods as a... prescribed conditions: (a) Vitamin D2, also known as ergocalciferol, is the chemical 9,10-seco(5Z,7E,22E)-5,7...

  20. 2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…

  1. [Applications of 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in landscape pattern analysis of mountainous area at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Qi, Wei; Li, Le; Sun, Yao; Qin, Tian-Tian; Wang, Na-Na

    2012-05-01

    Landscape pattern indices are the commonly used tools for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern. However, the traditional 2D landscape pattern indices neglect the effects of terrain on landscape, existing definite limitations in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns in mountains areas. Taking the Qixia City, a typical mountainous and hilly region in Shandong Province of East China, as a case, this paper compared the differences between 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns and their dynamic changes in mountainous areas. On the basis of terrain structure analysis, a set of landscape pattern indices were selected, including area and density (class area and mean patch size), edge and shape (edge density, landscape shape index, and fractal dimension of mean patch), diversity (Shannon's diversity index and evenness index) , and gathering and spread (contagion index). There existed obvious differences between the 3D class area, mean patch area, and edge density and the corresponding 2D indices, but no significant differences between the 3D landscape shape index, fractal dimension of mean patch, and Shannon' s diversity index and evenness index and the corresponding 2D indices. The 3D contagion index and 2D contagion index had no difference. Because the 3D landscape pattern indices were calculated by using patch surface area and surface perimeter whereas the 2D landscape pattern indices were calculated by adopting patch projective area and projective perimeter, the 3D landscape pattern indices could be relative accurate and efficient in describing the landscape area, density and borderline, in mountainous areas. However, there were no distinct differences in describing landscape shape, diversity, and gathering and spread between the 3D and 2D landscape pattern indices. Generally, by introducing 3D landscape pattern indices to topographic pattern, the description of landscape pattern and its dynamic

  2. Production of the excited charm mesons D1 and D*2 at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2012-08-01

    The production of the excited charm mesons D 1 (2420) and D * 2 (2460) in ep collisions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 373 pb -1 . The masses of the neutral and charged states, the widths of the neutral states, and the helicity parameter of D 1 (2420) 0 were determined and compared with other measurements and with theoretical expectations. The measured helicity parameter of the D 0 1 allows for some mixing of S- and D-waves in its decay to D *± π -+ . The result is also consistent with a pure D-wave decay. Ratios of branching fractions of the two decay modes of the D * 2 (2460) 0 and D * 2 (2460) ± states were measured and compared with previous measurements. The fractions of charm quarks hadronising into D 1 and D * 2 were measured and are consistent with those obtained in e + e - annihilations.

  3. Satisfactory surgical outcome of T2 gastric cancer after modified D2 lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shupeng; Wu, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Xuewei; Liang, Han

    2017-04-01

    Though D2 lymphadenectomy has been increasingly regarded as standard surgical procedure for advanced gastric cancer (GC), the modified D2 (D1 + 7, 8a and 9) lymphadenectomy may be more suitable than D2 dissection for T2 stage GC. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether the surgical outcome of modified D2 lymphadenectomy was comparable to that of standard D2 dissection in T2 stage GC patients. A retrospective cohort study with 77 cases and 77 controls matched for baseline characteristics was conducted. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the extent of lymphadenectomy: the modified D2 group (mD2) and the standard D2 group (D2). Surgical outcome and recurrence date were compared between the two groups. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 71.4% for patients accepted mD2 lymphadenectomy and 70.1% for those accepted standard D2, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that curability, tumor size, TNM stage and postoperative complications were independently prognostic factors for T2 stage GC patients. Patients in the mD2 group tended to have less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.001) and shorter operation time (P<0.001) than those in the D2 group. While there were no significant differences in recurrence rate and types, especially lymph node recurrence, between the two groups. The surgical outcome of mD2 lymphadenectomy was equal to that of standard D2, and the use of mD2 instead of standard D2 can be a better option for T2 stage GC.

  4. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress. Volume 1, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  5. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  6. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  7. Flibe-D2 Permeation Experiment and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R.; Schuetz, S.T.; O'Brien, J.E.; Nishimura, H.; Hatano, Y.; Terai, T.; Petti, D.A.; Sze, D.-K.; Tanaka, S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiment of D 2 permeation through Ni facing with purified Flibe is being carried out under the Japan-US joint research project (JUPITER-II). The experiment is proceeding in the following phases; (i) fabrication and assembly of a dual-probe permeation apparatus, (ii) a single-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iii) a dual-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iv) Flibe chemical purification by HF/H 2 gas bubbling, (v) physical purification by Flibe transport through a porous Ni filter, (vi) Ni/Flibe/D 2 permeation experiment, and (vii) Ni/Flibe/HT permeation experiment. The present paper describes results of the single and dual Ni/D 2 permeation experiments in detail

  8. Lagrangian MHD in 2D and 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliphant, T.A.; Morel, J.E.; Gula, W.P.; Pfeufer, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    The cell-centered diffusion differencing scheme presented by Morel et al. has been applied to magnetic diffusion associated with Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes. Thus, the method applies to non-orthogonal meshes. Although the present application involves structured meshes, the method applies equally well to unstructured meshes. Morel's example of application is to 2D diffusion using Ficke's law. Thus, a volume integral approach is applied to the divergence operator. In 2D magnetic diffusion symmetry allows the use of an area integral approach involving the field components normal to the area, e.g. A-theta and B-theta. Instead of a divergence of a term proportional to the field gradient a curl of a term proportional to the curl of the field is used. An essential fact that allows this procedure is that the solenoidal property of the magnetic field is automatic. In the case of 3D it is necessary to return to the volumetric integral approach and to use rectangular components of the vector potential. Successful benchmarks have been run in comparison with the 1D code RAVEN. A typical example is that of a metal cylinder being compressed by a magnetic field applied at the outer boundary. So far, the 3D diffusion model has been tested in the orthogonal case and found to preserve the linear, homogeneous solution. Results of these and further tests are presented

  9. Survey of 1 1/2D transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, H.

    1978-10-01

    A survey is given of a family of classical transport codes, recently termed ''1 1/2D'', which efficiently and accurately follow the evolution of plasma configurations on a long time scale, following coupled changes in plasma shape and topology with transport (but not wave motion). Codes have been constructed and operated (since 1974) which include various combinations of finite beta, general plasma cross-section and aspect, various topologies (Doublet, tearing, reversed-field mirror) including time dependent transitions in topology resulting from external coil variation and plasma transport, with models including (classical) tensor resistivity and heat flow as well as the adiabatic limiting case

  10. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.

  11. The 2D:4D Marker and Different Forms of Internet Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Müller

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet use disorder (IUD presents a growing problem worldwide. Among others, it manifests in loss of control over Internet usage and social problems due to problematic Internet use. Although IUD currently is not an official diagnosis in DSM-5 or ICD-10, mounting evidence suggests that IUD indeed could be categorized as a behavioral addiction. On a systemic neuroscientific level, IUD is well characterized and dysfunctions in the fronto-striatal-limbic loop have been observed in persons being afflicted with IUD. On a molecular level underlying these neural dysfunctions less is known. Therefore, the present research investigates the influence of prenatal testosterone as measured via the 2D:4D marker of the hand on IUD. Testosterone represents an interesting hormonal marker, because sex differences in IUD have been observed, e.g., males show higher tendencies toward Internet gaming disorder (IGD or females toward overusage of online social networks (both compared to the contrary sex. In N = 217 participants associations between the 2D:4D marker of the hand and both unspecified IUD and specific forms of IUD were investigated. It appeared that more female hands (right side; characterized by higher digit ratio of the index to the ring finger, i.e., >1, meaning lower prenatal testosterone were associated with lower IGD (rho = −0.17, p = 0.01, N = 211. This effect was driven by the facet of loss of control of Internet Gaming in the whole sample (rho = −0.20, p < 0.01, N = 211 and the female subsample (rho = −0.20, p = 0.02, N(f = 137. Aside from this, a negative association appeared between the facet of loss of control of generalized IUD and the right digit ratio in males underlining earlier work. In sum, the present work demonstrates that the 2D:4D marker is an interesting marker for Internet addiction and can be easily included as a biomarker to understand the biological underpinnings of Internet (over-usage.

  12. The 2D:4D Marker and Different Forms of Internet Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marko; Brand, Matthias; Mies, Julia; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna Yordanova; Montag, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Internet use disorder (IUD) presents a growing problem worldwide. Among others, it manifests in loss of control over Internet usage and social problems due to problematic Internet use. Although IUD currently is not an official diagnosis in DSM-5 or ICD-10, mounting evidence suggests that IUD indeed could be categorized as a behavioral addiction. On a systemic neuroscientific level, IUD is well characterized and dysfunctions in the fronto-striatal-limbic loop have been observed in persons being afflicted with IUD. On a molecular level underlying these neural dysfunctions less is known. Therefore, the present research investigates the influence of prenatal testosterone as measured via the 2D:4D marker of the hand on IUD. Testosterone represents an interesting hormonal marker, because sex differences in IUD have been observed, e.g., males show higher tendencies toward Internet gaming disorder (IGD) or females toward overusage of online social networks (both compared to the contrary sex). In N  = 217 participants associations between the 2D:4D marker of the hand and both unspecified IUD and specific forms of IUD were investigated. It appeared that more female hands (right side; characterized by higher digit ratio of the index to the ring finger, i.e., >1, meaning lower prenatal testosterone) were associated with lower IGD ( rho  = -0.17, p  = 0.01, N  = 211). This effect was driven by the facet of loss of control of Internet Gaming in the whole sample ( rho  = -0.20, p  negative association appeared between the facet of loss of control of generalized IUD and the right digit ratio in males underlining earlier work. In sum, the present work demonstrates that the 2D:4D marker is an interesting marker for Internet addiction and can be easily included as a biomarker to understand the biological underpinnings of Internet (over-)usage.

  13. A general synthesis strategy for the multifunctional 3D polypyrrole foam of thin 2D nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiangli; Mo, Maosong; Liu, Zhuming; Ye, Dapeng; Cheng, Zhihua; Xu, Tong; Qu, Liangti

    2018-05-01

    A 3D macroporous conductive polymer foam of thin 2D polypyrrole (PPy) nanosheets is developed by adopting a novel intercalation of guest (monomer Py) between the layers of the lamellar host (3D vanadium oxide foam) template-replication strategy. The 3D PPy foam of thin 2D nanosheets exhibits diverse functions including reversible compressibility, shape memory, absorption/adsorption and mechanically deformable supercapacitor characteristics. The as-prepared 3D PPy foam of thin nanosheets is highly light weight with a density of 12 mg·cm-3 which can bear the large compressive strain up to 80% whether in wet or dry states; and can absorb organic solutions or extract dye molecules fast and efficiently. In particular, the PPy nanosheet-based foamas a mechanically deformable electrode material for supercapacitors exhibits high specific capacitance of 70 F·g-1 at a fast charge-discharge rate of 50 mA·g-1, superior to that of any other typical pure PPy-based capacitor. We envision that the strategy presented here should be applicable to fabrication of a wide variety of organic polymer foams and hydrogels of low-dimensional nanostructures and even inorganic foams and hydrogels of low-dimensional nanostructures, and thus allow for exploration of their advanced physical and chemical properties.

  14. Nonsequential double ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, H.; Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D+ fragments obtained from the ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses includes a high-energy component extending up to ˜10 eV. These fragments are only present for linearly, or slightly elliptically, polarized light. Both the maximum kinetic...

  15. The development of agoraphobia is associated with the symptoms and location of a patient's first panic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Naomi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The place where a patient experiences his/her first panic attack (FPA may be related to their agoraphobia later in life. However, no investigations have been done into the clinical features according to the place where the FPA was experienced. In particular, there is an absence of detailed research examining patients who experienced their FPA at home. In this study, patients were classified by the location of their FPA and the differences in their clinical features were explored (e.g., symptoms of FPA, frequency of agoraphobia, and severity of FPA. Methods The subjects comprised 830 panic disorder patients who were classified into 5 groups based on the place of their FPA (home, school/office, driving a car, in a public transportation vehicle, outside of home, The clinical features of these patients were investigated. Additionally, for panic disorder patients with agoraphobia at their initial clinic visit, the clinical features of patients who experienced their FPA at home were compared to those who experienced their attack elsewhere. Results In comparison of the FPAs of the 5 groups, significant differences were seen among the 7 descriptors (sex ratio, drinking status, smoking status, severity of the panic attack, depression score, ratio of agoraphobia, and degree of avoidance behavior and 4 symptoms (sweating, chest pain, feeling dizzy, and fear of dying. The driving and public transportation group patients showed a higher incidence of co-morbid agoraphobia than did the other groups. Additionally, for panic disorder patients with co-morbid agoraphobia, the at-home group had a higher frequency of fear of dying compared to the patients in the outside-of-home group and felt more severe distress elicited by their FPA. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the clinical features of panic disorder patients vary according to the place of their FPA. The at-home group patients experienced "fear of dying" more frequently

  16. Experimental search for B=2, T=0 states in the d+d->d+X reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, M.P.; Berthet, P.; Frascaria, R.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Tatischeff, B.; Willis, N.; Aslanides, E.; Hibou, F.; Bing, O.; Beurtey, R.; Boivin, M.; Hutcheon, D.; Le Bornec, Y.; Fabbri, F.; Picozza, P.; Satta, L.; Yonnet, J.

    1984-01-01

    A search for isoscalar dibaryonic resonances by means of missing-mass spectra in the d + d -> d + X reaction has been attempted using deuteron beams of T = 2.29, 2.00 and 1.65 GeV. The results do not show any evidence for a narrow peak with a limit of 30 nb/GeV 2 for a 15 MeV width or a broad enhancement which could be unambiguously attributed to a dibaryonic resonance. (orig.)

  17. Comparison between a coupled 1D-2D model and a fully 2D model for supercritical flow simulation in crossroads

    KAUST Repository

    Ghostine, Rabih; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Vazquez, Jose; Terfous, Abdelali; Ghenaim, Abdellah; Mose, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In open channel networks, flow is usually approximated by the one-dimensional (1D) Saint-Venant equations coupled with an empirical junction model. In this work, a comparison in terms of accuracy and computational cost between a coupled 1D-2D

  18. Thermally activated 3D to 2D structural transformation of [Ni{sub 2}(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}(pyr)]·4H{sub 2}O flexible coordination polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begović, Nebojša N. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Belgrade (Serbia); Blagojević, Vladimir A. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Ostojić, Sanja B.; Radulović, Aleksandra M. [Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Belgrade (Serbia); Poleti, Dejan [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Minić, Dragica M., E-mail: dminic@ffh.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Department of Biomedical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar (Serbia)

    2015-01-15

    Thermally activated 3D to 2D structural transformation of the binuclear [Ni{sub 2}(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}(pyr)]·4H{sub 2}O complex was investigated using a combination of theoretical and experimental methods. Step-wise thermal degradation (dehydration followed by release of ethylene diamine) results in two layered flexible coordination polymer structures. Dehydration process around 365 K results in a conjugated 2D structure with weak interlayer connectivity. It was shown to be a reversible 3D to 2D framework transformation by a guest molecule, and rehydration of the dehydration product occurs at room temperature in saturated water vapor. Rehydrated complex exhibits lower dehydration temperature, due to decreased average crystalline size, with higher surface area resulting in easier release and diffusion of water during dehydration. Thermal degradation of dehydration around 570 K, results in loss of ethylene diamine, producing a related 2D layered polymer structure, without interconnectivity between individual polymer layers. - Highlights: • Reversible 3D to 2D framework topochemical transformation on dehydration around 365 K. • Resulting polymer exhibits 2D layered structure with weak interlayer connectivity. • Dehydration is fully reversible in saturated water vapor at room temperature. • Further degradation around 570 K yields 2D polymer without interlayer connectivity. • 2D polymer exhibits conjugated electronic system.

  19. Membranes from nanoporous 1D and 2D materials: A review of opportunities, developments, and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2013-12-01

    Membranes utilizing nanoporous one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials are emerging as attractive candidates for applications in molecular separations and related areas. Such nanotubular and nanolayered materials include carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes, layered zeolites, porous layered oxides, layered aluminophosphates, and porous graphenes. By virtue of their unique shape, size, and structure, they possess transport properties that are advantageous for membrane and thin film applications. These materials also have very different chemistry from more conventional porous 3D materials, due to the existence of a large, chemically active, external surface area. This feature also necessitates the development of innovative strategies to process these materials into membranes and thin films with high performance. This work provides the first comprehensive review of this emerging area. We first discuss approaches for the synthesis and structural characterization of nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. Thereafter, we elucidate different approaches for fabrication of membranes and thin films from these materials, either as multiphase (composite/hybrid) or single-phase membranes. The influence of surface chemistry and processing techniques on the membrane morphology is highlighted. We then discuss the applications of such membranes in areas relating to molecular transport and separation, e.g. gas and liquid-phase separations, water purification, and ion-conducting membranes. The review concludes with a discussion of the present outlook and some of the key scientific challenges to be addressed on the path to industrially applicable membranes containing nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Application of the Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Detection of Caprine Antibodies to Brucella melitensis in Areas of High Prevalence and Widespread Vaccination▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pfeiffer, C.; Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Marín-Ricalde, F.; Rodríguez-Padilla, C.; Gomez-Flores, R.

    2007-01-01

    The screening Rose Bengal test (RBT), the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), and the confirmatory complement fixation test (CFT) are currently approved by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of goat brucellosis. However, RBT (at 3% or 8% cell concentration) is known to be affected by vaccinal antibodies. In the present study, Mexican and Canadian OIE tests were compared with the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA), alone or in combination, using indirect and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as classification variables for goat sera obtained from an area of high prevalence and widespread vaccination. The relative sensitivities and specificities were, respectively, 99.7% and 32.5% for RBT3, 92.8% and 68.8% for RBT8, 98.4% and 84.8% for Canadian CFT, 83.7% and 65.5% for Mexican CFT, and 78.1% and 89.3% for FPA. The use of FPA as the confirmatory test in combination with other tests significantly increased the final specificities of the screening tests alone; BPAT, RBT3, and RBT8 plus FPA resulted in final specificities of 90%, 91.2%, and 91.3%, respectively, whereas for the combinations RBT3 plus Mexican CFT, RBT8 plus Mexican CFT, and BPAT plus Canadian CFT, specificities were 65.5%, 63.2%, and 91.7%, respectively. We suggest that FPA may be routinely applied as an adaptable screening test for diagnosis of goat brucellosis and as a confirmatory test for screening test series. Some advantages of FPA are that its cutoff can be adjusted to improve its sensitivity or specificity, it is a low-cost and easy-to-perform test of choice when specificity is relevant or when an alternative confirmatory test is not available, and it is not affected by vaccination, thus reducing the number of misdiagnosed and killed goats. PMID:17267588

  1. T-duality of Green-Schwarz superstrings on AdS_d×S"d×M"1"0"−"2"d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Murugan, Jeff; Penati, Silvia; Pittelli, Antonio; Sorokin, Dmitri; Sundin, Per; Tarrant, Justine; Wolf, Martin; Wulff, Linus

    2015-01-01

    We verify the self-duality of Green-Schwarz supercoset sigma models on AdS_d×S"d backgrounds (d=2,3,5) under combined bosonic and fermionic T-dualities without gauge fixing kappa symmetry. We also prove this property for superstrings on AdS_d×S"d×S"d(d=2,3) described by supercoset sigma models with the isometries governed by the exceptional Lie supergroups D(2,1;α) (d=2) and D(2,1;α)×D(2,1;α) (d=3), which requires an additional T-dualisation along one of the spheres. Then, by taking into account the contribution of non-supercoset fermionic modes (up to the second order), we provide evidence for the T-self-duality of the complete type IIA and IIB Green-Schwarz superstring theory on AdS_d×S"d×T"1"0"−"2"d (d=2,3) backgrounds with Ramond-Ramond fluxes. Finally, applying the Buscher-like rules to T-dualising supergravity fields, we prove the T-self-duality of the whole class of the AdS_d×S"d×M"1"0"−"2"d superbackgrounds with Ramond-Ramond fluxes in the context of supergravity.

  2. Comparison of 3D and 2D FSE T2-weighted MRI in the diagnosis of deep pelvic endometriosis: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazot, M.; Stivalet, A.; Daraï, E.; Coudray, C.; Thomassin-Naggara, I.; Poncelet, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy of two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Materials and methods: One hundred and ten consecutive patients with suspicion of endometriosis were recruited at two institutions over a 5-month period. Twenty-three women underwent surgery, 18 had DIE at histology. Two readers independently evaluated 3D and 2D MRI for image quality and diagnosis of DIE. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test for categorical or nominal variables, McNemar test for comparison between 3D and 2D T2-weighted MRI, and weighted “statistics” for intra- and interobserver agreement were used for statistical analysis. Results: Both readers found that 3D yielded significantly lower image quality than 2D MRI (p < 0.0001). Acquisition time for 3D was significantly shorter than 2D MRI (p < 0.01). 3D offered similar accuracy to diagnose DIE compared to 2D MRI. For all locations of endometriosis, a high or variable intra-observer agreement was observed for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions: Despite a lower overall image quality, 3D provides significant time saving and similar accuracy than multiplanar 2D MRI in the diagnosis of specific DIE locations.

  3. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  4. 2D/2D nano-hybrids of γ-MnO{sub 2} on reduced graphene oxide for catalytic ozonation and coupling peroxymonosulfate activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxian [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Xie, Yongbing, E-mail: ybxie@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, Hongqi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Xiao, Jiadong; Cao, Hongbin [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Shaobin, E-mail: shaobin.wang@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • 2D γ-MnO{sub 2}/2D rGO hybrids (MnO{sub 2}/rGO) via a facile hydrothermal route were prepared. • MnO{sub 2}/rGO exhibits high activity in catalytic ozonation of 4-nitrophenol. • ·O{sub 2}{sup ̄} and {sup 1}O{sub 2} are the major radicals for 4-nitrophenol degradation and mineralization. • A synergistic effect of ozonation and peroxymonosulfate oxidation was evaluated. - Abstract: Two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (2D rGO) was employed as both a shape-directing medium and support to fabricate 2D γ-MnO{sub 2}/2D rGO nano-hybrids (MnO{sub 2}/rGO) via a facile hydrothermal route. For the first time, the 2D/2D hybrid materials were used for catalytic ozonation of 4-nitrophenol. The catalytic efficiency of MnO{sub 2}/rGO was much higher than either MnO{sub 2} or rGO only, and rGO was suggested to play the role for promoting electron transfers. Quenching tests using tert-butanol, p-benzoquinone, and sodium azide suggested that the major radicals responsible for 4-nitrophenol degradation and mineralization are O{sub 2}{sup ̄} and {sup 1}O{sub 2}, but not ·OH. Reusability tests demonstrated a high stability of the materials in catalytic ozonation with minor Mn leaching below 0.5 ppm. Degradation mechanism, reaction kinetics, reusability and a synergistic effect between catalytic ozonation and coupling peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation were also discussed.

  5. Measurement of astrophysical S-factors and electron screening potentials for d(d,n)3He reaction in ZrD2, TiD2 and TaD0.5 targets in the ultralow energy region using plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritsky, V.M.; Bystritskii, Vit.M.; Dudkin, G.N.; Filipowicz, M.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Kobzev, A.P.; Mesyats, G.A.; Nechaev, B.A.; Padalko, V.N.; Parzhitskii, S.S.; Pen'kov, F.M.; Philippov, A.V.; Kaminskii, V.L.; Tuleushev, Yu.Zh.; Wozniak, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the study of the electron screening effect influence on the rate of d(d,n) 3 He reaction in the ultralow deuteron collision energy range in the deuterated metals (ZrD 2 , TiD 2 and TaD 0.5 ). The ZrD 2 , TiD 2 and TaD0.5 targets were fabricated via magnetron sputtering of titanium, zirconium and tantalum in gas (deuterium) environment. The experiments have been carried out using the high-current pulsed Hall plasma accelerator (NSR TPU, Russia). The detection of neutrons with energy of 2.5 MeV from the dd reaction was done with plastic scintillation spectrometers. As a result of the experiments, the energy dependences of the astrophysical S-factor for the dd reaction in the deuteron collision energy range of 2-7 keV and the values of the electron screening potential U e of the interacting deuterons have been measured for the above targets: U e (ZrD 2 )=(205±35) eV; U e (TiD 2 )=(125±34) eV; U e (TaD 0.5 )=(313±58) eV. Our results are compared with the other published experimental and calculated data.

  6. The Comparison 2D and 3D Treatment Planning in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy with Emphasis on Dose Homogeneity and Lung Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Falahatpour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast conserving radiotherapy is one of the most common procedures performed in any radiation oncology department. A tangential parallel-opposed pair is usually used for this purpose. This technique is performed using 2D or 3D treatment planning systems. The aim of this study was to compare 2D treatment planning with 3D treatment planning in tangential irradiation in breast conserving radiotherapy. In this comparison, homogeneity of isodoses in the breast volume and lung dose were considered. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery were included in this study. The patients were CT scanned. Two-dimensional treatment planning with the Alfard 2D TPS was performed for each patient using a single central CT slice. The data used on the Alfard 2D TPS was imported into the Eclipse 3D TPS, on which 3D treatment planning was performed. Cobalt-60 beams were used in all plans. Results: Comparing 2D and 3D treatment planning, homogeneity of isodoses was improved in 3D treatment planning (p30Gy was increased in 3D treatment planning (p< 0.01. Discussion and Conclusion: 3D treatment planning is a more suitable option for patients with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery because of improved dose homogeneity in 3D treatment planning. The results of the treatment can be improved with reduced recurrence probability and skin problems.

  7. Contributions in compression of 3D medical images and 2D images; Contributions en compression d'images medicales 3D et d'images naturelles 2D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudeau, Y

    2006-12-15

    The huge amounts of volumetric data generated by current medical imaging techniques in the context of an increasing demand for long term archiving solutions, as well as the rapid development of distant radiology make the use of compression inevitable. Indeed, if the medical community has sided until now with compression without losses, most of applications suffer from compression ratios which are too low with this kind of compression. In this context, compression with acceptable losses could be the most appropriate answer. So, we propose a new loss coding scheme based on 3D (3 dimensional) Wavelet Transform and Dead Zone Lattice Vector Quantization 3D (DZLVQ) for medical images. Our algorithm has been evaluated on several computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image volumes. The main contribution of this work is the design of a multidimensional dead zone which enables to take into account correlations between neighbouring elementary volumes. At high compression ratios, we show that it can out-perform visually and numerically the best existing methods. These promising results are confirmed on head CT by two medical patricians. The second contribution of this document assesses the effect with-loss image compression on CAD (Computer-Aided Decision) detection performance of solid lung nodules. This work on 120 significant lungs images shows that detection did not suffer until 48:1 compression and still was robust at 96:1. The last contribution consists in the complexity reduction of our compression scheme. The first allocation dedicated to 2D DZLVQ uses an exponential of the rate-distortion (R-D) functions. The second allocation for 2D and 3D medical images is based on block statistical model to estimate the R-D curves. These R-D models are based on the joint distribution of wavelet vectors using a multidimensional mixture of generalized Gaussian (MMGG) densities. (author)

  8. Statistical 2D and 3D shape analysis using Non-Euclidean Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Wrobel, Mark Christoph

    2002-01-01

    We address the problem of extracting meaningful, uncorrelated biological modes of variation from tangent space shape coordinates in 2D and 3D using non-Euclidean metrics. We adapt the maximum autocorrelation factor analysis and the minimum noise fraction transform to shape decomposition. Furtherm......We address the problem of extracting meaningful, uncorrelated biological modes of variation from tangent space shape coordinates in 2D and 3D using non-Euclidean metrics. We adapt the maximum autocorrelation factor analysis and the minimum noise fraction transform to shape decomposition....... Furthermore, we study metrics based on repated annotations of a training set. We define a way of assessing the correlation between landmarks contrary to landmark coordinates. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to a 2D data set consisting of outlines of lungs and a 3D/(4D) data set consisting of sets...

  9. Stent Design Affects Femoropopliteal Artery Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTaggart, Jason; Poulson, William; Seas, Andreas; Deegan, Paul; Lomneth, Carol; Desyatova, Anastasia; Maleckis, Kaspars; Kamenskiy, Alexey

    2018-03-23

    Poor durability of femoropopliteal artery (FPA) stenting is multifactorial, and severe FPA deformations occurring with limb flexion are likely involved. Different stent designs result in dissimilar stent-artery interactions, but the degree of these effects in the FPA is insufficiently understood. To determine how different stent designs affect limb flexion-induced FPA deformations. Retrievable markers were deployed into n = 28 FPAs of lightly embalmed human cadavers. Bodies were perfused and CT images were acquired with limbs in the standing, walking, sitting, and gardening postures. Image analysis allowed measurement of baseline FPA foreshortening, bending, and twisting associated with each posture. Markers were retrieved and 7 different stents were deployed across the adductor hiatus in the same limbs. Markers were then redeployed in the stented FPAs, and limbs were reimaged. Baseline and stented FPA deformations were compared to determine the influence of each stent design. Proximal to the stent, Innova, Supera, and SmartFlex exacerbated foreshortening, SmartFlex exacerbated twisting, and SmartControl restricted bending of the FPA. Within the stent, all devices except Viabahn restricted foreshortening; Supera, SmartControl, and AbsolutePro restricted twisting; SmartFlex and Innova exacerbated twisting; and Supera and Viabahn restricted bending. Distal to the stents, all devices except AbsolutePro and Innova exacerbated foreshortening, and Viabahn, Supera, Zilver, and SmartControl exacerbated twisting. All stents except Supera were pinched in flexed limb postures. Peripheral self-expanding stents significantly affect limb flexion-induced FPA deformations, but in different ways. Although certain designs seem to accommodate some deformation modes, no device was able to match all FPA deformations.

  10. Reconocimiento facial combinando técnicas 2D y 3D

    OpenAIRE

    González Ferreiro, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    El propósito del proyecto es permitir combinar imágenes 3D y 2D para realizar un reconocimiento facial automático. Para ello se procesarán las imágenes 3D de profundidad sin textura de la base de datos GavabDB para posteriormente utilizarlas como imágenes de entrenamiento en un sistema de reconocimiento facial que emplee el algoritmo de P2CA (Partial Principal Components Analysis). Las imágenes 3D se procesarán, mediante unos editores programados en Matlab, de manera que fin...

  11. M-theory solutions invariant under D(2,1; γ) + D(2,1;γ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachas, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure Unite mixte (UMR 8549) du CNRS et de l' ENS, Paris (France); D' Hoker, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Estes, J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Krym, D. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2014-03-06

    We simplify and extend the construction of half-BPS solutions to 11-dimensional supergravity, with isometry superalgebra D(2,1;γ) + D(2,1;γ). Their space-time has the form AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} warped over a Riemann surface Σ. It describes near-horizon geometries of M2 branes ending on, or intersecting with, M5 branes along a common string. The general solution to the BPS equations is specified by a reduced set of data (γ, h, G), where γ is the real parameter of the isometry superalgebra, and h and G are functions on Σ whose differential equations and regularity conditions depend only on the sign of γ. The magnitude of γ enters only through the map of h,G onto the supergravity fields, thereby promoting all solutions into families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. By analyzing the regularity conditions for the supergravity fields, we prove two general theorems: (i) that the only solution with a 2-dimensional CFT dual is AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} x R {sup 2}, modulo discrete identifications of the flat R {sup 2}, and (ii) that solutions with γ < 0 cannot have more than one asymptotic higher-dimensional AdS region. We classify the allowed singularities of h and G near the boundary of Σ, and identify four local solutions: asymptotic AdS{sub 4}/Z{sub 2} or AdS{sub 7}' regions; highly-curved M5-branes; and a coordinate singularity called the ''cap''. By putting these ''Lego'' pieces together we recover all known global regular solutions with the above symmetry, including the self-dual strings on M5 for γ <0, and the Janus solution for γ > 0, but now promoted to families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. We also construct exactly new regular solutions which are asymptotic to AdS{sub 4}/Z{sub 2} for γ < 0, and conjecture that they are a different superconformal limit of the self-dual string. Finally, we construct exactly γ > 0 solutions with highly curved M5

  12. Comparison between 3D isotropic and 2D conventional MR arthrography for diagnosing rotator cuff tear and labral lesions: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Yun, Seong Jong; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam

    2018-03-30

    Although 3D-isotropic MR arthrography has been characterized as a substitute imaging tool for rotator cuff tear (RCT) and labral lesions, it has not been commonly used in clinical practice because of controversy related to image blurring and indistinctness of structural edges. To perform a comparison of the diagnostic performance of 3D-isotropic MR arthrography and 2D-conventional MR arthrography for diagnosis of RCT (solely RCT, full/partial-thickness supraspinatus [SST]-infraspinatus [IST] tear, or subscapularis [SSc] tear) and labral lesions. Meta-analysis. Patients with shoulder pain. 3D-isotropic and 2D-conventional MR arthrography at 3.0T or 1.5T. PubMed and EMBASE were searched following the PRISMA guidelines. Bivariate modeling and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic modeling were performed to compare the overall diagnostic performance of 3D-isotropic and 2D-conventional MR arthrography. Multiple-subgroup analyses were performed for diagnosing RCT, full/partial-thickness SST-IST tear, SSc tear, and labral lesions. Meta-regression analyses were performed according to subject, study, and MR arthrography characteristics including 3D-isotropic sequences (turbo spine echo [TSE] vs. gradient echo [GRE]). Eleven studies (825 patients) were included. Overall, 3D-isotropic MR arthrography had similar pooled sensitivity (0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.93]) (P = 0.95) and specificity (0.92 [95% CI, 0.87-0.95]) (P = 0.99), relative to 2D-conventional MR arthrography (sensitivity, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86-0.94]); specificity, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.87-0.95]). Multiple-subgroup analyses showed that sensitivities (P = 0.13-0.91) and specificities (P = 0.26-0.99) on 3D-isotropic MR arthrography for diagnosing RCT, full/partial-thickness SST-IST tear, SSC tear, and labral lesions were not significantly different from 2D-conventional MR arthrography. On meta-regression analysis, 3D-TSE sequence demonstrated higher sensitivity (P 3D-GRE for RCT and labral

  13. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fine genetic structure of the 2D3-2F5 region of the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdev, V.A.; Gostimsky, S.A.; Gerasimova, T.I.; Dubrovskaya, E.S.; Braslavskaya, O.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    97 lethal and semilethal mutations were induced by ethyl methanesulfonate, nitrosomethyl urea and γ-irradiation in the 2D3-F5 region of the X-chromosome of D. melanogaster. Approximately 1 per cent of the tested X-chromosomes carried a lethal in the 2D3-2F5 region. The mutation frequencies per band of DNA content in this region and the whole X-chromosome are equal. Complementation analysis revealed at least 10 functionally independent essential loci in this region including about 10 bands. The data presented in this study support the one band - one gene hypothesis. The Pgd locus coding for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is mapped in the 2D3 (or 2D4) band. Isolation of 11 lethal or semilethal point mutations with null or reduced 6PGD acticity shows that the Pgd locus is a vital one. (orig.) [de

  15. Measurement of the Deuteron Spin Structure Function g_1^d(x) for 1 (GeV/c)^2 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2

    OpenAIRE

    E155 Collaboration

    1999-01-01

    New measurements are reported on the deuteron spin structure function g_1^d. These results were obtained from deep inelastic scattering of 48.3 GeV electrons on polarized deuterons in the kinematic range 0.01 < x < 0.9 and 1 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2. These are the first high dose electron scattering data obtained using lithium deuteride (6Li2H) as the target material. Extrapolations of the data were performed to obtain moments of g_1^d, including Gamma_1^d, and the net quark polarization Delta Si...

  16. Measurement of the deuteron spin structure function $g^{d}_1(x)$ for $1\\ (GeV/c)^2 < Q^2 < 40\\ (GeV/c)^2$.

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony , P.L.; Arnold , R.G.; Averett , T.; Band , H.R.; Berisso , M.C.; Borel , H.; Bosted , P.E.; Bultmann , S.L.; Buenerd , M.; Chupp , T.; Churchwell , S.; Court , G.R.; Crabb , D.; Day , D.; Decowski , P.

    1999-01-01

    New measurements are reported on the deuteron spin structure function g_1^d. These results were obtained from deep inelastic scattering of 48.3 GeV electrons on polarized deuterons in the kinematic range 0.01 < x < 0.9 and 1 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2. These are the first high dose electron scattering data obtained using lithium deuteride (6Li2H) as the target material. Extrapolations of the data were performed to obtain moments of g_1^d, including Gamma_1^d, and the net quark polarization Delta Si...

  17. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alverson, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Eulisse, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Muzaffar, S. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Osborne, I. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Taylor, L. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: lucas.taylor@cern.ch; Tuura, L.A. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user.

  18. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, G.; Eulisse, G.; Muzaffar, S.; Osborne, I.; Taylor, L.; Tuura, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user

  19. Exact Dispersion Study of an Asymmetric Thin Planar Slab Dielectric Waveguide without Computing {d^2}β/{d{k^2}} Numerically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Palodiya, Vikram

    2017-08-01

    Waveguide dispersion can be tailored but not the material dispersion. Hence, the total dispersion can be shifted at any desired band by adjusting the waveguide dispersion. Waveguide dispersion is proportional to {d^2}β/d{k^2} and need to be computed numerically. In this paper, we have tried to compute analytical expression for {d^2}β/d{k^2} in terms of {d^2}β/d{k^2} accurately with numerical technique, ≈ 10^{-5} decimal point. This constraint sometimes generates the error in calculation of waveguide dispersion. To formulate the problem we will use the graphical method. Our study reveals that we can compute the waveguide dispersion enough accurately for various modes by knowing - β only.

  20. Detection of radiation transitions between 4d9(D5/3,3/2)5s2nl and 4d105p(2P1/2,3/20)nl of self-ionized states of cadmium atom at electron-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonaj, A.N.; Imre, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation transitions between 4d 9 ( 2 D 5/2,3/2 )5s 2 nl and 4d 10 5p( 2 P 1/2,3/2 0 )nl self-ionized states of Cd atom being dielectron satellites of λ325.0 nm (4d 9 5s 22 D 3/2 →4d 10 5p 2 P 1/2 0 ) and λ353.6 nm (4d 9 5s 22 D 3/2 → 4d 10 5p 2 P 3/2 0 ) laser lines of Cd + ion were detected for the first time at electron-ion collisions. One studied energy dependences of the effective cross sections of electron excitation of the satellite lines within 7-10 eV energy range. The effective cross sections of excitation of dielectron satellites constitutes ∼ 10 -17 cm 2 that is comparable with the efficiency of excitation of the laser lines [ru

  1. Photodissociaton of allyl-d2 iodide excited at 193 nm: Stability of highly rotationally excited H2CDCH2 radicals to C-D fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, D.E.; Liu, Y.; McCullagh, M.J.; Butler, L.J.; Shu, J.

    2003-01-01

    The photodissociation of allyl-d2 iodide (H2C=CDCH2I) and the dynamics of the nascent allyl-d2 radical (H2CCDCH2) were studied using photofragment translational spectroscopy. A previous study found the allyl radical stable at internal energies up to 15 kcal/mol higher than the 60 kcal/mol barrier to allene + H formation as the result of a centrifugal barrier. The deuterated allyl radical should then also show a stability to secondary dissociation at internal energies well above the barrier due to centrifugal effects. A comparison in this paper shows the allyl-d2 radical is stable to allene + D formation at energies of 2-3 kcal/mol higher than that of the non-deuterated allyl radical following photolysis of allyl iodide at 193 nm. This is most likely a result of a combination of the slight raising of the barrier from the difference in zero-point levels and a reduction of the impact parameter of the dissociative fragments due to the decrease in frequency of the C-D bending modes, and the refore allene + D product orbital angular momentum. Integrated signal taken at m/e = 40 (allene) and m/e = 41 (allene-d1 and propyne-d3) shows a minor fraction of the allyl-d2 radicals isomerize to the 2-propenyl radical, in qualitative support of earlier conclusions of the domination of direct allene + H formation over isomerization

  2. Ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model using human normal vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaqi; Yang, Yan; Guo, Juanjuan; Dai, Ying; Ye, Lina; Qiu, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhihong; Wu, Xiaoting; Xing, Yanmei; Long, Xiang; Wu, Xufeng; Ye, Lin; Wang, Shubin; Li, Hui

    2017-02-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. It is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. One of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. In this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (HNVEC) culture using co-culture system. HNVEC cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined culture condition. HNVEC cells exhibited a normal diploid karyotype and formed the well-defined and polarized spheres in matrigel three-dimension (3D) culture, while malignant cells (HeLa) formed disorganized and nonpolar solid spheres. HNVEC cells had a normal cellular response to DNA damage and had no transforming property using soft agar assays. HNVEC expressed epithelial marker cytokeratin 14 (CK14) and p63, but not cytokeratin 18 (CK18). Next, we reconstructed HNVEC-derived 3D vaginal epithelium using air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. This 3D vaginal epithelium has the basal and apical layers with expression of epithelial markers as its originated human vaginal tissue. Finally, we established an HSV-2 infection model based on the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium. After inoculation of HSV-2 (G strain) at apical layer of the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium, we observed obvious pathological effects gradually spreading from the apical layer to basal layer with expression of a viral protein. Thus, we established an ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model that can be used for HSV-2 virology and anti-viral drug discovery.

  3. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  4. Crossed beam studies of O-+D2→OD-+D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; Kremer, L.N.; Metral, C.J.; Cross, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Using the crossed-beam machine EVA we have measured the product angular and energy distributions of the reaction O - +D 2 →OD - +D in the relative energy range of 1.2-4.7 eV (5.7-23.1 eV LAB). Below 2.5 eV the product distribution is centered about the center of mass, indicating a long-lived complex. Above 2.5 eV the distribution slowly moves forward. Most of the available energy goes into internal energy of the products

  5. FEM-2D - Input description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.A.R.

    1975-03-01

    FEM-2D solves the 2d diffusion equation by the Finite Element Method. This version of the code was written for x-y geometry, triangular elements with first and second order flux approximations, and has a solution routine which is based on a modified Cholesky procedure. FEM-2D is fully integrated into the modular system RSYST. However, we have developed a simulation program RSIMK which simulates some of the functions of RSYST and allows to run FEM-2D independently. (orig.) [de

  6. BRST quantization, IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) invariance and the PCT theorem. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, E.; Reuter, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) extension of the Poincare group in the BRST quantization of the spinning particle. We construct the corresponding field theory and prove its dimensional reduction a la Parisi-Sourlas. As for the scalar particle, we show that the PCT transformation is induced by a certain element of the SO(D,2) subgroup of the IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2). This gives us the tools for a simple interpretation of the PCT theorem for Dirac fields. We then continue by clarifying the role of the 'modular' transformation (i.e. world-line orientation-reversing diffeomorphism) and indicating how the PCT transformation could be regarded as a modular transformation in a 'SO(D,2)-rotated' frame. In this work we also consider BRST field theories leading to D-dimensional chiral theories. In this case, of the full IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) symmetry, only the subgroup IO(D-1,1)xOSp(1,1vertical stroke2) survives together with the (isolated) SO(D,2) transformation that implements PCT. (orig.)

  7. Spatial Frequency Selectivity Is Impaired in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Bruno Oliveira Ferreira; Abou Rjeili, Mira; Quintana, Clémentine; Beaulieu, Jean M.; Casanova, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter implicated in several brain functions, including vision. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of the lack of D2 dopamine receptors on the structure and function of the primary visual cortex (V1) of D2-KO mice using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Retinotopic maps were generated in order to measure anatomo-functional parameters such as V1 shape, cortical magnification factor, scatter, and ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency selectivity (SF) functions were computed from responses to drifting gratings. When compared to control mice, none of the parameters of the retinotopic maps were affected by D2 receptor loss of function. While the contrast sensitivity function of D2-KO mice did not differ from their wild-type counterparts, SF selectivity function was significantly affected as the optimal SF and the high cut-off frequency (p D2-KO than in WT mice. These findings show that the lack of function of D2 dopamine receptors had no influence on cortical structure whereas it had a significant impact on the spatial frequency selectivity and high cut-off. Taken together, our results suggest that D2 receptors play a specific role on the processing of spatial features in early visual cortex while they do not seem to participate in its development. PMID:29379422

  8. The relationship between second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios and problematic and pathological Internet use among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Fatih; Karaca, Servet; Düzgün, Melike; Erdem, Ayşe Merve; Karaçaylı, Esranur; Topan, Nur Begüm; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Zhai, Zu Wei; Kuloğlu, Murat; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The ratio of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D ratio) is a sexually dimorphic trait, with men tending to have lower values than women. This ratio has been related to prenatal testosterone concentrations and addictive behaviors including problematic video-gaming. We aimed to investigate the possible association between 2D:4D ratios and Internet addiction and whether such a relationship would be independent of impulsivity. Methods A total of 652 university students (369 women, 283 men), aged 17-27 years, were enrolled in the study. Problematic and pathological Internet use (PPIU) was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The participants also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (version 11; BIS-11) and had their 2D:4D ratios measured. Results 2D:4D ratios were not significantly different in women with PPIU and in those with adaptive Internet use (AIU). Men with PPIU exhibited lower 2D:4D ratios on both hands when compared with those with AIU. Correlation analysis revealed that 2D:4D ratios on both hands were negatively correlated with IAT scores among men, but not among women. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age, duration of weekly Internet use, impulsiveness, and 2D:4D ratios on the right hand were independently associated with IAT scores among men, and impulsivity did not mediate the relationship between 2D:4D ratios and PPIU. Conclusions For men, 2D:4D ratios on the right hand were inversely correlated with Internet addiction severity even after controlling for individual differences in impulsivity. These findings suggest that high prenatal testosterone levels may contribute to the occurrence of PPIU among men.

  9. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-10-24

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to play a key role in 5G networks as a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and its impact on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, the users who want to establish communication with the BS can act as relays for each other’s signals. While this problem is traditionally considered in the literature as a multiple-access channel with cooperation in the uplink, and a broadcast channel with cooperation in the downlink, we propose a different treatment of the problem as a multi-way channel. A simple communication scheme is proposed, and is shown to achieve significant gain in terms of fairness (measured by the symmetric rate supported) in comparison to the aforementioned traditional treatment.

  10. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to play a key role in 5G networks as a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and its impact on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, the users who want to establish communication with the BS can act as relays for each other’s signals. While this problem is traditionally considered in the literature as a multiple-access channel with cooperation in the uplink, and a broadcast channel with cooperation in the downlink, we propose a different treatment of the problem as a multi-way channel. A simple communication scheme is proposed, and is shown to achieve significant gain in terms of fairness (measured by the symmetric rate supported) in comparison to the aforementioned traditional treatment.

  11. On relating multiple M2 and D2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Nilsson, B.E.W; Petersson, C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the difficulties of finding superconformal Lagrangian theories for multiple M2-branes, we will in this paper instead focus on the field equations. By relaxing the requirement of a Lagrangian formulation we can explore the possibility of having structure constants f ABC D satisfying the fundamental identity but which are not totally antisymmetric. We exemplify this discussion by making use of an explicit choice of a non-antisymmetric f ABC D constructed from the Lie algebra structure constants f ab c of an arbitrary gauge group. Although this choice of f ABC D does not admit an obvious Lagrangian description, it does reproduce the correct SYM theory for a stack of N D2-branes to leading order in g YM -1 upon reduction and, moreover, it sheds new light on the centre of mass coordinates for multiple M2-branes.

  12. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  13. 2-D blood vector velocity estimation using a phase shift estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper

    are presented. Here the TO method is tested both in simulations using the Field II program and in flow phantom experiments using the RASMUS scanner. Both simulations and flow phantom experiments indicate that the TO method can estimate the 2-D vector velocity with an acceptable low bias and standard deviation...... velocity estimation is discussed. The TO method is introduced, and the basic theory behind the method is explained. This includes the creation of the acoustic fields, beamforming, echo-canceling and the velocity estimator. In the second part of the thesis the eight papers produced during this PhD project...... when the angle between the blood and the ultrasound beam is above $50^\\circ$. Furthermore, the TO method is tested in-vivo where the scannings are performed by skilled sonographers. The in-vivo scannings resulted in a sequence of 2-D vector CFM images which showed 2-D flow patterns in the bifurcation...

  14. Hydrodynamic model for 2D degenerate free-electron gas for arbitrary frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, M D; Cocoletzi, G H

    2003-01-01

    Following Halevi's procedure for 3D degenerate free-electron gas (3D-DEG), we investigate the response function in the hydrodynamic model (HM) for 2D-DEG confined in low dimensional systems when collisions are included. For small wave vectors we found from the two- dimensional Boltzmann-Mermin model a useful expression for the HM complex stiffness parameter of the nonlocal dielectric function beta, which is beta = [((3 omega/ 4) + i(v/ 2)) / (w + iv)]v sub F , where omega and v are the circular and collisional frequencies and v sub F is the Fermi velocity. (Author)

  15. Regularity of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations with viewpoint of 2D flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeong-Ohk

    2018-04-01

    The regularity of 2D Navier-Stokes flow is well known. In this article we study the relationship of 3D and 2D flow, and the regularity of the 3D Naiver-Stokes equations with viewpoint of 2D equations. We consider the problem in the Cartesian and in the cylindrical coordinates.

  16. Horns Rev II, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Brorsen, Michael

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. The starting point for the present report is the previously carried out run-up tests described in Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006. The......-shaped access platforms on piles. The Model tests include mainly regular waves and a few irregular wave tests. These tests have been conducted at Aalborg University from 9. November, 2006 to 17. November, 2006.......This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. The starting point for the present report is the previously carried out run-up tests described in Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006....... The objective of the tests was to investigate the impact pressures generated on a horizontal platform and a cone platform for selected sea states calibrated by Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006. The measurements should be used for assessment of slamming coefficients for the design of horizontal and cone...

  17. Effects of the dopamine D2 allosteric modulator, PAOPA, on the expression of GRK2, arrestin-3, ERK1/2, and on receptor internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipannita Basu

    Full Text Available The activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is intricately regulated by a range of intracellular proteins, including G protein-coupled kinases (GRKs and arrestins. Understanding the effects of ligands on these signaling pathways could provide insights into disease pathophysiologies and treatment. The dopamine D2 receptor is a GPCR strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Previous studies from our lab have shown the preclinical efficacy of a novel allosteric drug, 3(R-[(2(S-pyrrolidinylcarbonylamino]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide (PAOPA, in attenuating schizophrenia-like behavioural abnormalities in rodent models of the disease. As an allosteric modulator, PAOPA binds to a site on the D2 receptor, which is distinct from the endogenous ligand-binding site, in order to modulate the binding of the D2 receptor ligand, dopamine. The exact signaling pathways affected by this allosteric modulator are currently unknown. The objectives of this study were to decipher the in vivo effects, in rats, of chronic PAOPA administration on D2 receptor regulatory and downstream molecules, including GRK2, arrestin-3 and extracellular receptor kinase (ERK 1/2. Additionally, an in vitro cellular model was also used to study PAOPA's effects on D2 receptor internalization. Results from western immunoblots showed that chronic PAOPA treatment increased the striatal expression of GRK2 by 41%, arrestin-3 by 34%, phospho-ERK1 by 51% and phospho-ERK2 by 36%. Results also showed that the addition of PAOPA to agonist treatment in cells increased D2 receptor internalization by 33%. This study provides the foundational evidence of putative signaling pathways, and changes in receptor localization, affected by treatment with PAOPA. It improves our understanding on the diverse mechanisms of action of allosteric modulators, while advancing PAOPA's development into a novel drug for the

  18. "3D fusion" echocardiography improves 3D left ventricular assessment: comparison with 2D contrast echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Daniel; Yaqub, Mohammad; Szmigielski, Cezary; Lima, Eduardo; Petersen, Steffen E; Becher, Harald; Noble, J Alison; Leeson, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional fusion echocardiography (3DFE) is a novel postprocessing approach that utilizes imaging data acquired from multiple 3D acquisitions. We assessed image quality, endocardial border definition, and cardiac wall motion in patients using 3DFE compared to standard 3D images (3D) and results obtained with contrast echocardiography (2DC). Twenty-four patients (mean age 66.9 ± 13 years, 17 males, 7 females) undergoing 2DC had three, noncontrast, 3D apical volumes acquired at rest. Images were fused using an automated image fusion approach. Quality of the 3DFE was compared to both 3D and 2DC based on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and endocardial border definition. We then compared clinical wall-motion score index (WMSI) calculated from 3DFE and 3D to those obtained from 2DC images. Fused 3D volumes had significantly improved CNR (8.92 ± 1.35 vs. 6.59 ± 1.19, P echocardiography (1.06 ± 0.09 vs. 1.07 ± 0.15, P = 0.69), whereas unfused images produced significantly more variable results (1.19 ± 0.30). This was confirmed by a better intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 0.72; 95% CI 0.32-0.88) relative to comparisons with unfused images (ICC 0.56; 95% CI 0.02-0.81). 3DFE significantly improves left ventricular image quality compared to unfused 3D in a patient population and allows noncontrast assessment of wall motion that approaches that achieved with 2D contrast echocardiography. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Power Control for D2D Underlay Cellular Networks with Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Memmi, Amen

    2017-02-09

    Device-to-Device communications underlying the cellular infrastructure is a technology that has recently been proposed as a promising solution to enhance cellular network capabilities. However, interference is the major challenge since the same resources are shared by both systems. Therefore, interference management techniques are required to keep the interference under control. In this work, in order to mitigate interference, we consider centralized and distributed power control algorithms in a one-cell random network model. Differently from previous works, we are assuming that the channel state information may be imperfect and include estimation errors. We evaluate how this uncertainty impacts performances. In the centralized approach, we derive the optimal powers that maximize the coverage probability and the rate of the cellular user while scheduling as many D2D links as possible. These powers are computed at the base station (BS) and then delivered to the users, and hence the name

  20. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under any...

  1. A small molecule inhibitor of mutant IDH2 rescues cardiomyopathy in a D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria type II mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Travins, Jeremy; Lin, Zhizhong; Si, Yaguang; Chen, Yue; Powe, Josh; Murray, Stuart; Zhu, Dongwei; Artin, Erin; Gross, Stefan; Santiago, Stephanie; Steadman, Mya; Kernytsky, Andrew; Straley, Kimberly; Lu, Chenming; Pop, Ana; Struys, Eduard A; Jansen, Erwin E W; Salomons, Gajja S; David, Muriel D; Quivoron, Cyril; Penard-Lacronique, Virginie; Regan, Karen S; Liu, Wei; Dang, Lenny; Yang, Hua; Silverman, Lee; Agresta, Samuel; Dorsch, Marion; Biller, Scott; Yen, Katharine; Cang, Yong; Su, Shin-San Michael; Jin, Shengfang

    2016-11-01

    D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D2HGA) type II is a rare neurometabolic disorder caused by germline gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), resulting in accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). Patients exhibit a wide spectrum of symptoms including cardiomyopathy, epilepsy, developmental delay and limited life span. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic interventions. We generated a D2HGA type II mouse model by introducing the Idh2R140Q mutation at the native chromosomal locus. Idh2R140Q mice displayed significantly elevated 2HG levels and recapitulated multiple defects seen in patients. AGI-026, a potent, selective inhibitor of the human IDH2R140Q-mutant enzyme, suppressed 2HG production, rescued cardiomyopathy, and provided a survival benefit in Idh2R140Q mice; treatment withdrawal resulted in deterioration of cardiac function. We observed differential expression of multiple genes and metabolites that are associated with cardiomyopathy, which were largely reversed by AGI-026. These findings demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefit of an IDH2R140Q inhibitor in patients with D2HGA type II.

  2. 2D director calculation for liquid crystal optical phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L; Zhang, J; Wu, L Y

    2005-01-01

    A practical numerical model for a liquid crystal cell is set up based on the geometrical structure of liquid crystal optical phased arrays. Model parameters include width and space of electrodes, thickness of liquid crystal layer, alignment layers and glass substrates, pre-tilted angles, dielectric constants, elastic constants and so on. According to electrostatic field theory and Frank-Oseen elastic continuum theory, 2D electric potential distribution and 2D director distribution are calculated by means of the finite difference method on non-uniform grids. The influence of cell sizes on director distribution is analyzed. The fringe field effect between electrodes is also discussed

  3. Advances in research on 2D and 3D graphene-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Johannes Ph.; Poochai, Chatwarin; Kerdpocha, Sadanan; Sriprachuabwong, Chakrit; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2017-09-01

    Graphene-based materials in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) configurations are promising as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their large surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, high electrochemical activity and high stability. In this article recent advances in research on 2D and 3D graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes are reviewed extensively in aspects of fabrication methods and electrochemical performances. From the survey, the performance of 2D and 3D graphene-based materials could be significantly enhanced by employing nanostructures of metal oxides, metals and polymers as well as doping graphene with hetero atoms such as nitrogen and boron. In addition, the charge storage performances were found to depend greatly on materials, preparation method and structural configuration. With similar material components, 3D graphene-based networks tended to exhibit superior supercapacitive performances. Therefore, future research should be focusing on further development of 3D graphene-based materials for supercapacitor applications. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  4. Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2004-11-01

    A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)

  5. Evidence for genetic heterogeneity in D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, Martijn; Struys, Eduard A; Gibson, K Michael

    2010-01-01

    We performed molecular, enzyme, and metabolic studies in 50 patients with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA) who accumulated D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) in physiological fluids. Presumed pathogenic mutations were detected in 24 of 50 patients in the D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGD...

  6. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System-based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Kimble, Christopher J; Sieck, Gary C; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Blaha, Charles D; Lee, Kendall H

    2009-10-01

    In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig. The

  7. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System–based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    Object In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. Methods The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal

  8. D=2 and D=4 realization of κ-conformal algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, M.

    1996-01-01

    The generators of κ-conformal transformations leaving the κ-deformed d'Alembert equation invariant are described. The algebraic structure of the conformal extension of the off-shell spin zero realization of κ-Poincare algebra is discussed for D=4. The D=2 off-shell realization of κ-conformal algebra for an arbitrary spin and its commutation relations were studied. 14 refs

  9. Intermolecular potential and rovibrational states of the H2O–D2 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avoird, Ad van der; Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; Weida, Miles J.; Fair, Joanna R.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: H 2 O–D 2 potential surface and pH 2 O–oD 2 ground state wave function, for planar geometries. Highlights: ► The interaction between H 2 O and H 2 is of great astrophysical interest. ► The rovibrational states of H 2 O–D 2 were computed on an ab initio potential surface. ► Results are compared with the rovibrational states of H 2 O–H 2 computed recently. ► We measured the high-resolution infrared spectrum of H 2 O–D 2 in the H 2 O bend region. ► Comparison with the calculations provides information on H 2 O–H 2 potential surface. - Abstract: A five-dimensional intermolecular potential for H 2 O–D 2 was obtained from the full nine-dimensional ab initio potential surface of Valiron et al. [P. Valiron, M. Wernli, A. Faure, L. Wiesenfeld, C. Rist, S. Kedžuch, J. Noga, J. Chem. Phys. 129 (2008) 134306] by averaging over the ground state vibrational wave functions of H 2 O and D 2 . On this five-dimensional potential with a well depth D e of 232.12 cm −1 we calculated the bound rovibrational levels of H 2 O–D 2 for total angular momentum J = 0–3. The method used to compute the rovibrational levels is similar to a scattering approach—it involves a basis of coupled free rotor wave functions for the hindered internal rotations and the overall rotation of the dimer—while it uses a discrete variable representation of the intermolecular distance coordinate R. The basis was adapted to the permutation symmetry associated with the para/ortho (p/o) nature of both H 2 O and D 2 , as well as to inversion symmetry. As expected, the H 2 O–D 2 dimer is more strongly bound than its H 2 O–H 2 isotopologue [cf. A. van der Avoird, D.J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 134 (2011) 044314], with dissociation energies D 0 of 46.10, 50.59, 67.43, and 73.53 cm −1 for pH 2 O–oD 2 , oH 2 O–oD 2 , pH 2 O–pD 2 , and oH 2 O–pD 2 . A rotationally resolved infrared spectrum of H 2 O–D 2 was measured in the frequency region of the H 2 O bend

  10. Modeling Cellular Networks with Full Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2016-08-24

    Full-duplex (FD) communication is optimistically promoted to double the spectral efficiency if sufficient self-interference cancellation (SIC) is achieved. However, this is not true when deploying FD-communication in a large-scale setup due to the induced mutual interference. Therefore, a large-scale study is necessary to draw legitimate conclusions about gains associated with FD-communication. This paper studies the FD operation for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink resources in cellular networks. We propose a disjoint fine-tuned selection criterion for the D2D and FD modes of operation. Then, we develop a tractable analytical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, to calculate the outage probability and rate for cellular and D2D users. The results reveal that even in the case of perfect SIC, due to the increased interference injected to the network by FD-D2D communication, having all proximity UEs transmit in FD-D2D is not beneficial for the network. However, if the system parameters are carefully tuned, non-trivial network spectral-efficiency gains (64% shown) can be harvested. We also investigate the effects of imperfect SIC and D2D-link distance distribution on the harvested FD gains.

  11. Vitamin D levels and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D has important actions on glucose metabolism. These include improved insulin exocytosis, direct stimulation of insulin receptor, improved uptake of glucose by peripheral tissues, improving insulin resistance. It has got various pleiotropic effects like suppression of cell mediated immunity, regulation of cell proliferation, stimulation of neurotropic factors such as nerve growth factor, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotropin, suppression of RAAS, reduction of albuminuria, immunomodulatory effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, vitamin D is implicated in many ways in the pathogenesis of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. Objectives: To study the correlation of vitamin D levels with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional case-control study of 18 patients (18-70 years, who met the American Diabetes Association 2011 criteria for type 2 diabetes, was conducted. Age and sex matched healthy controls were taken. Subjects were evaluated for the presence of microvascular complications by clinical evaluation, urine examination, fundus examination, nerve conduction studies, and various biochemical tests. 25-OH cholecalciferol levels were done for each. Cut off level for vitamin D deficiency was 20 ng/ml. Results: Mean vitamin D was lower in type 2 diabetics than healthy subjects (19.046 vs. 27.186 ng/ml. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was found to significantly higher in diabetics when compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.0001. Vitamin D deficiency was found to be significantly associated with neuropathy (χ2 = 5.39, df = 1, P = 0.020, retinopathy, (χ2 = 6.6, df = 1, P = 0.010 and nephropathy (χ2 = 10. 52, df = 1, P = 0.001. Lower levels of vitamin D were found to be associated with increasing prevalence of combinations of microvascular complications namely neuropathy with retinopathy (P = 0.036, neuropathy with nephropathy (P = 0

  12. Production of the excited charm mesons D1 and D*2 at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbytskyi, Andrii

    2013-02-01

    The production of the excited charm mesons D 1 , D * 2 and D + s1 in ep collisions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at Hera. The data sample taken by the ZEUS detector in the years 2003-2007, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 373 pb -1 has been used. The masses of the neutral, charged and strange states, the widths of the neutral states, the helicity parameters of D 0 1 and D + s1 were determined and compared with other measurements and with theoretical expectations. The measured helicity parameters of the D 0 1 and D + s1 allows for some mixing of S- and D-waves in their decays to D *± π -+ and D *± K 0 respectively. The measured value of the D 0 1 helicity parameter is also consistent with a pure D-wave decay. Ratios of branching fractions of the two decay modes of the D *0 2 , D2 and D + s1 states were measured and compared with previous measurements. The fractions of charm quarks hadronising into D 1 , D * 2 and D + s1 were measured and are consistent with those obtained in e + e - annihilations. The Grid computing technology has a high importance for modern High Energy Physics. This technology has been successfully used in Zeus experiment for the MC simulations and data analysis. The dedicated infrastructure has been maintained by the author since 2010. In addition to continuous support, the author has upgraded and improved the performance of the Grid MC simulations and contributed to the Zeus data preservation project.

  13. 21 CFR 582.5950 - Vitamin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin D2. 582.5950 Section 582.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5950 Vitamin D2. (a) Product. Vitamin D2. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. Evaluation of 2D- Shear Wave Elastography for Characterisation of Focal Liver Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ludmila; Fitting, Daniel; Srikantharajah, Kajana; Weiler, Nina; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Bojunga, Joerg; Schulze, Falko; Bon, Dimitra; Zeuzem, Stefan; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen

    2017-09-01

    This is a prospective study for evaluation of 2D-shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for characterisation and differentiation of benign und malignant focal liver lesions (FLLs). The patients referred to our ultrasound unit were prospectively included. B-mode ultrasound and 2D-SWE (Aixplorer® France) were performed for one FLL in each patient. Liver histology and/or contrast-enhanced imaging were used as a reference method. 140 patients with FLL were included. SWE acquisitions failed in 24% of them. Therefore, 106 patients with FLL could be analysed, 42/106 with benign and 64/106 with malignant FLLs. The median stiffness for benign FLLs was 16.4 (2.1-71.9) kPa: 16.55 kPa for 18 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 16.35 kPa for 18 hemangioma, 9.8 kPa for 3 focal fatty sparings (FFS), 8.9 kPa for 1 adenoma, 20 kPa for one regenerative node and 29 kPa for one cholangiofibroma, and for the malignant FLLs 36 (4.1-142.9) kPa: 44.8 kPa for 16 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 70.7 kPa for 7 cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) and 29.5 kPa for the 41 metastasis (p<0.001). Malignant FLLs were significantly stiffer than benign FLLs (p<0.0001). Cholangiocarcinomas were the stiffest malignant FFLs with significantly higher values as compared to HCCs and metastases (p=0.033 and p=0.0079, respectively). No significant difference in stiffness could be observed between the different benign FLL entities. No significant difference was observed whether 2D-SWE included the whole FLL, the periphery or only the hardest area of the FLL. 2D-SWE provides further characterising information for interpretation of FLLs and may be useful at least in differentiation of CCCs and HCCs.

  15. Analysis of chronic aortic regurgitation by 2D and 3D echocardiography and cardiac MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoebe, Stephan; Metze, Michael; Jurisch, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    ) were assessed retrospectively by 2D, 3D echocardiography and cMRI in 55 chronic AR patients. Semi-quantitative parameters were assessed by 2D echocardiography. RESULTS: 22 (40%) patients had mild, 25 (46%) moderate and 8 (14%) severe AR. The quantitative volumetric approach was feasible using 2D, 3D...... echocardiography and cMRI, whereas the feasibility of semi-quantitative parameters varied considerably. LV volume (LVEDV, LVESV, SVtot) analyses showed good correlations between the different imaging modalities, although significantly increased LV volumes were assessed by cMRI. RVol was significantly different...... between 2D/3D echocardiography and 2D echocardiography/cMRI but was not significantly different between 3D echocardiography/cMRI. RF was not statistically different between 2D echocardiography/cMRI and 3D echocardiography/cMRI showing poor correlations (r

  16. M2 to D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Papageorgakis, Constantinos

    2008-01-01

    We examine the recently proposed ''3-algebra'' field theory for multiple M2-branes and show that when a scalar field valued in the 3-algebra develops a vacuum expectation value, the resulting Higgs mechanism has the novel effect of promoting topological (Chern-Simons) to dynamical (Yang-Mills) gauge fields. This leads to a precise derivation of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on multiple D2-branes and thereby provides a relationship between 3-algebras and Yang-Mills theories. We discuss the physical interpretation of this result.

  17. Development of an immunoassay for determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) based upon the recombinant Fab fragment of 2,4-D specific antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van C.; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Dau, Hung A.; Tham, Thu N.; Quyen, Dinh T.; Bachmman, Till; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2001-09-01

    To develop an immunoassay and further an immunosensor for 2,4-D based upon recombinant antibody, the Fab fragments of 2,4-D specific antibody were expressed in E. coli. Western blotting analysis of the periplasmic cell fractions shown that under the non-reducing condition only a single protein band at a molecular mass of 45-kDa, corresponding to the whole Fab fragment was detected. Antigen binding activity for 2,4-D was found only in the extract of cells bearing the 2,4-D plasmid. An immunoassay based on the competitive reaction of 2,4-D and enzyme tracer with 2,4-D Fab fragments immobilized on micro titer plates via rabbit anti-mouse IgC was developed. Using this assay, 2,4-D could be detected at concentration range of 0.5 (mu) g/1 to 10(mu) g/1. The center point of the 2,4-D test was found at a concentration of 5 (mu) g/l. The assay was applied for detection of 2,4-D in spiked orange samples, resulting in recovery rate of 90 percent. The immunoassay could be applied to monitor human exposure to 2,4-D from contamination in fruit samples.

  18. Zero-Outage Cellular Downlink with Fixed-Rate D2D Underlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    . D2D connections can be instrumental in localized aggregation of uplink M2M traffic to a more capable cellular device, before being finally delivered to the Base Station (BS). In this paper we show that a fixed M2M rate is an enabler of efficient Machine-Type D2D underlay operation taking place......, but not the interfering channels from the MTDs to U, we prove that there is a positive downlink rate that can always be decoded by U, leading to zero-outage of the downlink signal. This is a rather surprising consequence of the features of the multiple access channel and the fixed rate RM. We also consider the case...... of a simpler, single-user decoder at U with successive interference cancellation. However, with single-user decoder, a positive zero-outage rate exists only when NM = 1 and is zero when NM > 1. This implies that joint decoding is instrumental in enabling fixed-rate underlay operation....

  19. Amphetamine Self-Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2 Autoreceptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Sun, Haiguo; Eldeeb, Khalil; Luessen, Deborah J; Feng, Xin; Howlett, Allyn C; Jones, Sara R; Chen, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D2 autoreceptors located on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons modulate dopamine (DA) neuron firing, DA release, and DA synthesis through a negative-feedback mechanism. Dysfunctional D2 autoreceptors following repeated drug exposure could lead to aberrant DA activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection areas such as nucleus accumbens (NAcc), promoting drug-seeking and -taking behavior. Therefore, it is important to understand molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced changes in D2 autoreceptors. Here, we reported that 5 days of amphetamine (AMPH) self-administration reduced the ability of D2 autoreceptors to inhibit DA release in the NAcc as determined by voltammetry. Using the antibody-capture [35S]GTPγS scintillation proximity assay, we demonstrated for the first time that midbrain D2/D3 receptors were preferentially coupled to Gαi2, whereas striatal D2/D3 receptors were coupled equally to Gαi2 and Gαo for signaling. Importantly, AMPH abolished the interaction between Gαi2 and D2/D3 receptors in the midbrain while leaving striatal D2/D3 receptors unchanged. The disruption of the coupling between D2/D3 receptors and Gαi2 by AMPH is at least partially explained by the enhanced RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling 2) activity resulting from an increased RGS2 trafficking to the membrane. AMPH had no effects on the midbrain expression and trafficking of other RGS proteins such as RGS4 and RGS8. Our data suggest that midbrain D2/D3 receptors are more susceptible to AMPH-induced alterations. Reduced D2 autoreceptor function could lead to enhanced DA signaling and ultimately addiction-related behavior. RGS2 may be a potential non-dopaminergic target for pharmacological intervention of dysfunctional DA transmission and drug addiction. PMID:24513972

  20. 4D scattering amplitudes and asymptotic symmetries from 2D CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; de la Fuente, Anton; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    We reformulate the scattering amplitudes of 4D flat space gauge theory and gravity in the language of a 2D CFT on the celestial sphere. The resulting CFT structure exhibits an OPE constructed from 4D collinear singularities, as well as infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody and Virasoro algebras encoding the asymptotic symmetries of 4D flat space. We derive these results by recasting 4D dynamics in terms of a convenient foliation of flat space into 3D Euclidean AdS and Lorentzian dS geometries. Tree-level scattering amplitudes take the form of Witten diagrams for a continuum of (A)dS modes, which are in turn equivalent to CFT correlators via the (A)dS/CFT dictionary. The Ward identities for the 2D conserved currents are dual to 4D soft theorems, while the bulk-boundary propagators of massless (A)dS modes are superpositions of the leading and subleading Weinberg soft factors of gauge theory and gravity. In general, the massless (A)dS modes are 3D Chern-Simons gauge fields describing the soft, single helicity sectors of 4D gauge theory and gravity. Consistent with the topological nature of Chern-Simons theory, Aharonov-Bohm effects record the "tracks" of hard particles in the soft radiation, leading to a simple characterization of gauge and gravitational memories. Soft particle exchanges between hard processes define the Kac-Moody level and Virasoro central charge, which are thereby related to the 4D gauge coupling and gravitational strength in units of an infrared cutoff. Finally, we discuss a toy model for black hole horizons via a restriction to the Rindler region.

  1. Can Full Duplex reduce the discovery time in D2D Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the key technologies to support new types of services, such as public safety and proximity-based applications. D2D communication requires a discovery phase, i.e., the node awareness procedure prior to the communication phase. Conventional...... half duplex transmission may not be sufficient to provide fast discovery and cope with the strict latency targets of future 5G services. On the other hand, in-band full duplex, by allowing simultaneous transmission and reception, may complete the discovery phase faster. In this paper, the potential...... of full duplex in providing fast discovery for the next 5th generation (5G) system supporting D2D communication is investigated. A design for such system is presented and evaluated via simulations, showing that full duplex can accelerate the discovery phase by supporting a higher transmission probability...

  2. Learning from graphically integrated 2D and 3D representations improves retention of neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaz, Farah

    Visualizations in the form of computer-based learning environments are highly encouraged in science education, especially for teaching spatial material. Some spatial material, such as sectional neuroanatomy, is very challenging to learn. It involves learning the two dimensional (2D) representations that are sampled from the three dimensional (3D) object. In this study, a computer-based learning environment was used to explore the hypothesis that learning sectional neuroanatomy from a graphically integrated 2D and 3D representation will lead to better learning outcomes than learning from a sequential presentation. The integrated representation explicitly demonstrates the 2D-3D transformation and should lead to effective learning. This study was conducted using a computer graphical model of the human brain. There were two learning groups: Whole then Sections, and Integrated 2D3D. Both groups learned whole anatomy (3D neuroanatomy) before learning sectional anatomy (2D neuroanatomy). The Whole then Sections group then learned sectional anatomy using 2D representations only. The Integrated 2D3D group learned sectional anatomy from a graphically integrated 3D and 2D model. A set of tests for generalization of knowledge to interpreting biomedical images was conducted immediately after learning was completed. The order of presentation of the tests of generalization of knowledge was counterbalanced across participants to explore a secondary hypothesis of the study: preparation for future learning. If the computer-based instruction programs used in this study are effective tools for teaching anatomy, the participants should continue learning neuroanatomy with exposure to new representations. A test of long-term retention of sectional anatomy was conducted 4-8 weeks after learning was completed. The Integrated 2D3D group was better than the Whole then Sections group in retaining knowledge of difficult instances of sectional anatomy after the retention interval. The benefit

  3. Tomo3D 2.0--exploitation of advanced vector extensions (AVX) for 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulleiro, Jose-Ignacio; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus

    2015-02-01

    Tomo3D is a program for fast tomographic reconstruction on multicore computers. Its high speed stems from code optimization, vectorization with Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE), multithreading and optimization of disk access. Recently, Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX) have been introduced in the x86 processor architecture. Compared to SSE, AVX double the number of simultaneous operations, thus pointing to a potential twofold gain in speed. However, in practice, achieving this potential is extremely difficult. Here, we provide a technical description and an assessment of the optimizations included in Tomo3D to take advantage of AVX instructions. Tomo3D 2.0 allows huge reconstructions to be calculated in standard computers in a matter of minutes. Thus, it will be a valuable tool for electron tomography studies with increasing resolution needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [18F]fallypride characterization of striatal and extrastriatal D2/3 receptors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Adam J; Smith, Christopher T; Petersen, Kalen J; Trujillo, Paula; van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Donahue, Manus J; Kessler, Robert M; Deutch, Ariel Y; Zald, David H; Claassen, Daniel O

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by widespread degeneration of monoaminergic (especially dopaminergic) networks, manifesting with a number of both motor and non-motor symptoms. Regional alterations to dopamine D 2/3 receptors in PD patients are documented in striatal and some extrastriatal areas, and medications that target D 2/3 receptors can improve motor and non-motor symptoms. However, data regarding the combined pattern of D 2/3 receptor binding in both striatal and extrastriatal regions in PD are limited. We studied 35 PD patients off-medication and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) using PET imaging with [ 18 F]fallypride, a high affinity D 2/3 receptor ligand, to measure striatal and extrastriatal D 2/3 nondisplaceable binding potential (BP ND ). PD patients completed PET imaging in the off medication state, and motor severity was concurrently assessed. Voxel-wise evaluation between groups revealed significant BP ND reductions in PD patients in striatal and several extrastriatal regions, including the locus coeruleus and mesotemporal cortex. A region-of-interest (ROI) based approach quantified differences in dopamine D 2/3 receptors, where reduced BP ND was noted in the globus pallidus, caudate, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral midbrain, and thalamus of PD patients relative to HC subjects. Motor severity positively correlated with D 2/3 receptor density in the putamen and globus pallidus. These findings support the hypothesis that abnormal D 2/3 expression occurs in regions related to both the motor and non-motor symptoms of PD, including areas richly invested with noradrenergic neurons.

  5. Excitonic and Polaronic Properties of 2D Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun; Li, Hong; Cortecchia, Daniele; Soci, Cesare; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    calculations including corrections due to spin orbit couplings and electron hole interactions, a computationally intensive molecular cluster approach is exploited to describe the excitonic and polaronic properties of these 2D perovskites at the atomistic level

  6. Radio resource management scheme and outage analysis for network-assisted multi-hop D2D communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Melki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cellular network it's very difficult to make spectrum resource more efficiently. Device-to-Device (D2D technology enables new service opportunities, and provides high throughput and reliable communication while reducing the base station load. For better total performance, short-range D2D links and cellular links share the same radio resource and the management of interference becomes a crucial task. Here we argue that single-hop D2D technology can be used to further improve cellular networks performance if the key D2D radio resource management algorithms are suitably extended to support multi-hop D2D communications. Aiming to establish a new paradigm for the analysis and design of multi-hop D2D communications, We propose a radio resource allocation for multi-hop D2D routes based on interference avoidance approach in LTE-A networks. On top of that, we investigate the outage probability of D2D communication. We first introduce a new definition of outage probability by considering the maximum distance to be allowable for single-hop transmission. Then we study and analyze the outage performance of a multi-hop D2D route. We derive the general closed form expression of outage probability of the multi-hop D2D routes. The results demonstrate that the D2D radio, sharing the same resources as the cellular network, provide higher capacity compared to pure cellular communication where all the data is transmitted through the base station. They also demonstrate that the new method of calculation of D2D multi hop outage probability has better performance than classical method defined in the literature.

  7. Methodology to include a correction for offset in the calibration of a Diode-based 2D verification device; Metodologia para incluir una correccion por offset en la calibracion de un dispositivo de verificacion 2D basado en diodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Pamos Urena, M.; Jerez Sainz, M.; Lobato Munoz, M.; Jodar Lopez, C. A.; Ruiz Lopez, M. a.; Carrasco Rodriguez, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    We propose a methodology to correct doses of device verification 2D MapChek2 planes by offset. This methodology provides an array of correction by Offset applied to the calibration per dose due to the Offset of the diode Central as well as the correction of the Offset of each diode on each acquisition. (Author)

  8. Common genetic variants of surfactant protein-D (SP-D are associated with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Pueyo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Surfactant protein-D (SP-D is a primordial component of the innate immune system intrinsically linked to metabolic pathways. We aimed to study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affecting SP-D with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated a common genetic variant located in the SP-D coding region (rs721917, Met(31Thr in a sample of T2D patients and non-diabetic controls (n = 2,711. In a subset of subjects (n = 1,062, this SNP was analyzed in association with circulating SP-D concentrations, insulin resistance, and T2D. This SNP and others were also screened in the publicly available Genome Wide Association (GWA database of the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC. RESULTS: We found the significant association of rs721917 with circulating SP-D, parameters of insulin resistance and T2D. Indeed, G carriers showed decreased circulating SP-D (p = 0.004, decreased fasting glucose (p = 0.0002, glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.0005, and 33% (p = 0.002 lower prevalence of T2D, estimated under a dominant model, especially among women. Interestingly, these differences remained significant after controlling for origin, age, gender, and circulating SP-D. Moreover, this SNP and others within the SP-D genomic region (i.e. rs10887344 were significantly associated with quantitative measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and T2D, according to GWAS datasets from MAGIC. CONCLUSIONS: SP-D gene polymorphisms are associated with insulin resistance and T2D. These associations are independent of circulating SP-D concentrations.

  9. Blockchain-Empowered Fair Computational Resource Sharing System in the D2D Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges when building a satisfactory resource sharing system in the D2D network. Specifically, user mobility is one of the top concerns for designing a cooperative D2D computational resource sharing system since mutual communication may not be stably available due to user mobility. A previous endeavour has demonstrated and proven how connectivity can be incorporated into cooperative task scheduling among users in the D2D network to effectively lower average task execution time. There are doubts about whether this type of task scheduling scheme, though effective, presents fairness among users. In other words, it can be unfair for users who contribute many computational resources while receiving little when in need. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain-based credit system that can be incorporated into the connectivity-aware task scheduling scheme to enforce fairness among users in the D2D network. Users’ computational task cooperation will be recorded on the public blockchain ledger in the system as transactions, and each user’s credit balance can be easily accessible from the ledger. A supernode at the base station is responsible for scheduling cooperative computational tasks based on user mobility and user credit balance. We investigated the performance of the credit system, and simulation results showed that with a minor sacrifice of average task execution time, the level of fairness can obtain a major enhancement.

  10. Time-lapse seismic - repeatability versus usefulness and 2D versus 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landro, M.

    2017-12-01

    Time-lapse seismic has developed rapidly over the past decades, especially for monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs and subsurface storage of CO2. I will review and discuss some of the critical enabling factors for the commercial success of this technology. It was early realized that how well we are able to repeat our seismic experiment is crucial. However, it is always a question of detectability versus repeatability. For marine seismic, there are several factors limiting the repeatability: Weather conditions, positioning of sources and receivers and so on. I will discuss recent improvements in both acquisition and processing methods over the last decade. It is well known that repeated 3D seismic data is the most accurate tool for reservoir monitoring purposes. However, several examples show that 2D seismic data may be used for monitoring purposes despite lower repeatability. I will use examples from an underground blow out in the North Sea, and repeated 2D seismic lines acquired before and after the Tohoku earthquake in 2011 to illustrate this. A major challenge when using repeated 2D seismic for subsurface monitoring purposes is the lack of 3D calibration points and significantly less amount of data. For marine seismic acquisition, feathering issues and crossline dip effects become more critical compared to 3D seismic acquisition. Furthermore, the uncertainties arising from a non-ideal 2D seismic acquisition are hard to assess, since the 3D subsurface geometry has not been mapped. One way to shed more light on this challenge is to use 3D time lapse seismic modeling testing various crossline dips or geometries. Other ways are to use alternative data sources, such as bathymetry, time lapse gravity or electromagnetic data. The end result for all time-lapse monitoring projects is an interpretation associated with uncertainties, and for the 2D case these uncertainties are often large. The purpose of this talk is to discuss how to reduces and control these

  11. The Green-Schwarz mechanism and geometric anomaly relations in 2d (0,2) F-theory vacua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Timo; Xu, Fengjun

    2018-04-01

    We study the structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies in 2d N = (0 , 2) theories obtained by compactification of F-theory on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 5-folds. Abelian gauge anomalies, induced at 1-loop in perturbation theory, are cancelled by a generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism operating at the level of chiral scalar fields in the 2d supergravity theory. We derive closed expressions for the gravitational and the non-abelian and abelian gauge anomalies including the Green-Schwarz counterterms. These expressions involve topological invariants of the underlying elliptic fibration and the gauge background thereon. Cancellation of anomalies in the effective theory predicts intricate topological identities which must hold on every elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 5-fold. We verify these relations in a non-trivial example, but their proof from a purely mathematical perspective remains as an interesting open problem. Some of the identities we find on elliptic 5-folds are related in an intriguing way to previously studied topological identities governing the structure of anomalies in 6d N = (1 , 0) and 4d N = 1 theories obtained from F-theory.

  12. 2D Kagome ordering in the 3D frustrated spinel Li2Mn2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, C R; Russo, P L; Savici, A T; Uemura, Y J; MacDougall, G J; Luke, G M; Kuchta, S; Greedan, J E

    2005-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) experiments on the geometrically frustrated spinel oxide, Li 2 Mn 2 O 4 , show the development of spin correlations over a range of lengthscales with decreasing temperature. Increased relaxation below ∼150 K is consistent with the onset of spin correlations. Below 50 K, spin order, on a lengthscale which is long range for the μSR probe, appears abruptly in temperature, consistent with prior neutron diffraction results. The oscillations in the zero field asymmetry are analysed using a three frequency model. By locating the muon site, this is shown to be consistent with the unexpected 2Dq=√3x√3 structure on the Kagome planes proposed originally from neutron data. Longitudinal field data demonstrate that some spin dynamics persist even at 2 K. Thus, a very complex magnetic ground state, featuring the coexistence of long lengthscale 2D ordering and significant spin dynamics, is proposed. This is unusual considering the 3D topology of the Mn 3+ spins in this material

  13. CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in Papua New Guinea: High frequency of previously uncharacterized CYP2D6 alleles and heterozygote excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahsen, Nicolas; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Gomorrai, Servina; Ura, Alice; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Davis, Timothy M E; Mueller, Ivo; Ilett, Kenneth F; Oellerich, Michael

    2010-08-18

    A high frequency of previously unknown CYP2D6 alleles have been reported in Oceania populations. Genetic and functional properties of these alleles remain unknown. We performed analyses of the genetic variability of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes using AmpliChip genotyping in cohorts from two distinct Papua New Guinea (PNG) populations (Kunjingini, n=88; Alexishafen, n=84) focussing on the genetic characterisation of PNG-specific alleles by re-sequencing. Previously unknown CYP2D6 alleles have population frequencies of 24% (Kunjingini) and 12% (Alexishafen). An allele similar to CYP2D6*1, but carrying the 1661G>C substitution, was the second most frequent CYP2D6 allele (20% Kunjingini and 10% Alexishafen population frequency). Sequencing suggests the CYP2D6* 1661G>C allele originated from a cross-over between CYP2D6*1 and *2 and thus is predicted to confer fully active CYP2D6 enzyme. Two additional predicted full activity alleles [1661G>C;4180G>C] and 31G>A were found in the Kunjingini cohort (frequencies 3 c/c and 1%, respectively) and a novel predicted reduced activity allele [100C>T;1039C>T] was found in the Alexishafen cohort (frequency 2%). A high frequency of ultra-rapid (15%) and notably low frequencies of intermediate and poor CYP2D6 metabolizers (exogamy and recent introduction of alleles by migration that are yet to reach HWE in relatively isolated populations. The CYP2D6*1661 allele common in Oceania may be regarded as functionally equivalent to the full activity CYP2D6*1 allele.

  14. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  15. 2D and 3D organisation of nano-particles: synthesis and specific properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, Abdelhafed

    1998-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis addresses the synthesis of nano-particles of silver and cobalt in the inverse micellar system, and highlights the feasibility of two- and three-dimensional structures of these particles. The author first presents the micellar system (micro-emulsions, surfactant, properties of inverse micelles, functionalized inverse micelles, application to the synthesis of nano-particles), and then reports the study of the synthesis and organisation of colloids in 2D and 3D. He also reports the study of optical properties of metallic colloids: free electron approximation, optical properties of electron gases, optical properties of colloids, optical response of two-dimensional and three-dimensional nano-structures. The magnetic properties of colloids are then studied: magnetism of the massive metallic state, magnetic properties of nano-particles (influence of size, interactions and field, notions of magnetic order and disorder), effect of organisation. The second part of this thesis is made of a set of published articles: Synthesis of highly mono-disperse silver nano-particles from AOT reverse micelles (a way to 2D and 3D self-organisation), Optical properties of self-assembled 2D and 3D super-lattices of silver nano-particles, Collective optical properties of silver nano-particles organised in 2D super-lattices, Self assembled in 2D cobalt nano-sized particles, Self organisation of magnetic nano-sized cobalt particles, Organisation in 2D cobalt nano-particles (synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties) [fr

  16. D2-D8 system with massive strings and the Lifshitz spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harvendra [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute,Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-04-04

    The Romans’ type IIA supergravity allows fundamental strings to have explicit mass term at the tree level. We show that there exists a (F1,D2,D8) brane configuration which gives rise to Lif{sub 4}{sup (2)}×R{sup 1}×S{sup 5} vacua supported by the massive strings. The presence of D8-branes naturally excites massive fundamental strings. A compactification on circle relates these Lifshitz massive type-IIA background with the axion-flux Lif{sub 4}{sup (2)}×S{sup 1}×S{sup 5} vacua in ordinary type-IIB theory. The massive T-duality in eight dimensions further relates them to yet another (Lif)-tilde {sub 4}{sup (2)}×S{sup 1}×S{sup 5} vacua constituted by (F1,D0,D6) system in ordinary type IIA theory. The latter vacua after compactification to four dimensions generate two ‘distinct’ electric charges and a constant magnetic field, all living over 2-dimensional plane. This somewhat reminds us of a similar set up in quantum Hall systems.

  17. Aggregation and Trunking of M2M Traffic via D2D Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigazzi, Giovanni; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications is one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT). Billions of devices are expected to be deployed in the near future for novel M2M applications demanding ubiquitous access and global connectivity. In order to cope with the massive number of machines......, there is a need for new techniques to coordinate the access and allocate the resources. Although the majority of the proposed solutions are focused on the adaptation of the traditional cellular networks to the M2M traffic patterns, novel approaches based on the direct communication among nearby devices may...... represent an effective way to avoid access congestion and cell overload. In this paper, we propose a new strategy inspired by the classical Trunked Radio Systems (TRS), exploiting the Device-to-Device (D2D) connectivity between cellular users and Machine-Type Devices (MTDs). The aggregation of the locally...

  18. Use and acute toxicity associated with the novel psychoactive substances diphenylprolinol (D2PM) and desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been greater use of novel psychoactive substances ('legal highs') across Europe and the United States, including increasing reports of use of diphenylprolinol (D2PM) and desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP). This review will discuss the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of these two compounds, available data on their sources and prevalence of use and reports of acute toxicity and fatalities associated with their use. PubMed was searched using the search terms 'D2PM', '2-DPMP', 'diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinyl-methanol', 'diphenylprolinol', '2-diphenylmethylpiperidine' and 'desoxypipradrol'. These searches identified 70 articles, only five of which were relevant. PHARMACOLOGY AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION: D2PM is a pyrrolidine analogue and 2-DPMP is a desoxy analogue of pipradrol. Animal studies have shown that 2-DPMP increases the release of dopamine and decreases dopamine re-uptake comparable to the effects of cocaine. The binding and activity of D2PM at the dopamine re-uptake transporter, based on currently published data, is also similar to cocaine, although it appears that D2PM has less biological activity. SOURCES AND PREVALENCE OF USE: D2PM and 2-DPMP is available from internet-based suppliers and street level drug dealers; there is currently no systematic data to be able to determine the relative importance of these routes of supply. There is no population level, and limited subpopulation level, data on the prevalence of use of D2PM/2-DPMP. In one 2011 study, 1.6% of 315 individuals in 'gay friendly' nightclubs in South London reported that they had used a pipradrol: 1.0% had used within the last year and 0.6% had used or were planning to use a pipradrol on the night of the survey. ACUTE TOXICITY: Reports on internet discussion fora describe prolonged euphoria and stimulant effects including euphoria, sweating and bruxism with use of D2PM and 2-DPMP. The first report of analytically confirmed acute D2PM toxicity described chest pain and

  19. 2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Eun-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF waves in the scape-off layer (SOL of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.

  20. 2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Bertelli, Nicola; Johnson, Jay; Valeo, Ernest; Hosea, Joel

    2017-10-01

    Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D) for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry) and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF) waves in the scape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.

  1. Probing the pre-reactive a Cl (2P) + H2(D2) Van der Waals well through the photodetachment spectroscopy of Cl- H2(D2). CP-31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosal, Subhas; Mahapatra, Susanta

    2004-01-01

    The photodetachment spectrum of ClH 2 - and ClD 2 , probing the van der Waals well region of the reactive Cl( 2 P) + H 2 (D 2 ) potential energy surface, is theoretically calculated and compared with the experiment. A time-dependent wave packet approach is employed using the Capecchi-Werner coupled multi-sheeted ab initio potential energy surfaces of neutral ClH 2 for this purpose

  2. Thermochemical data for D{sub 2}O. Table 2A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axblom, Einar

    1961-03-15

    The above mentioned data are given in table form 10 (10) 370 deg C (p. 6) and 4 (1) 370 deg C (pp. 7-14). This report was written in order to sum up measurements of v'{sub s} for D{sub 2}O according to available references up to 300 deg C, and suggests an extrapolation formula for the range 300 - 370 deg C with great accuracy. p{sub s} for D{sub 2}O was calculated from an empirical formula. v''{sub s} for D{sub 2}O was calculated by assuming that the molecular volumes of D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O are the same at the same pressure and reduced temperature.

  3. On the clinical impact of cerebral dopamine D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy; Zur klinischen Wertigkeit der zerebralen Dopamin-D{sub 2}-Rezeptorszintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larisch, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Klimke, A. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik

    1998-12-31

    The present review describes findings and clinical indications for the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy. Methods for the examination of D{sub 2} receptors are positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 11}C- or {sup 18}F-labelled butyrophenones or benzamides or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) using {sup 123}I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) respectively. The most important indication in neurology is the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism: Patients with early Parkinson`s disease show an increased D{sub 2} receptor binding (D{sub 2}-RB) compared to control subjects. However, patients suffering from Steele-Richardson-Olszewski-Syndrome or Multiple System Atrophy show a decreased D{sub 2}-RB and are generally non-responsive to treatment. Postsynaptic blockade of D{sub 2} receptors results in a drug induced Parkinsonian syndrome, which can be diagnosed by D{sub 2} scintigraphy. Further possible indications occur in psychiatry: The assessment of receptor occupancy is useful in schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics. Additionally, D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy might help to clarify the differential diagnosis between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lethal catatonia. The method might be useful for supervising neurobiochemical changes in drug dependency and during withdrawal. Assessment of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor binding can simplify the choice of therapy in depressive disorder: Patients showing a low D{sub 2} binding are likely to improve following an antidepressive drug treatment whereas sleep deprivation is promising in patients with high D{sub 2} binding. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt eine Uebersicht ueber Befunde und klinische Indikationen zur Dopamin-D{sub 2}-Rezeptorszintigraphie. Methoden zur Untersuchung der D{sub 2}-Rezeptoren sind die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) mit {sup 11}C- oder {sup 18}F-markierten Butyrophenonen oder Benzamiden oder die Einzelphotonen-Emissions-Tomographie (SPECT) mit {sup 123}I

  4. Folate mediated self-assembled phytosterol-alginate nanoparticles for targeted intracellular anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Wang, Ming; Zheng, Mingming; Guo, Qiong; Wang, Yafan; Wang, Heqing; Xie, Xiangrong; Huang, Fenghong; Gong, Renmin

    2015-05-01

    Self-assembled core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from water-soluble alginate substituted by hydrophobic phytosterols. Folate, a cancer-cell-specific ligand, was conjugated to the phytosterol-alginate (PA) NPs for targeting folate-receptor-overexpressing cancer cells. The physicochemical properties of folate-phytosterol-alginate (FPA) NPs were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, was entrapped inside prepared NPs by dialysis method. The identification of prepared FPA NPs to folate-receptor-overexpressing cancer cells (KB cells) was confirmed by cytotoxicity and folate competition assays. Compared to the pure DOX and DOX/PA NPs, the DOX/FPA NPs had lower IC50 value to KB cells because of folate-receptor-mediated endocytosis process and the cytotoxicity of DOX/FPA NPs to KB cells could be competitively inhibited by free folate. The cellular uptake and internalization of pure DOX and DOX/FPA NPs was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy image and the higher intracellular uptake of drug for DOX/FPA NPs over pure DOX was observed. The FPA NPs had the potential as a promising carrier to target drugs to cancer cells overexpressing folate receptors and avoid cytotoxicity to normal tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Kürklüoglu, Mustafa [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Lovejoy, John [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Yaniv, Ziv, E-mail: ZYaniv@childrensnational.org [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 and Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on

  6. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the

  7. Lattice simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, M.; Gattringer, C.; Hermann, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We discuss a Monte Carlo simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models on the lattice. The four-Fermi interaction is written as a Gaussian integral with an auxiliary field and the fermion determinant is included by reweighting. We present results for bulk quantities and correlators and compare them to a simulation using a fermion-loop representation. (author)

  8. Registration of 2D C-Arm and 3D CT Images for a C-Arm Image-Assisted Navigation System for Spinal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ju Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C-Arm image-assisted surgical navigation system has been broadly applied to spinal surgery. However, accurate path planning on the C-Arm AP-view image is difficult. This research studies 2D-3D image registration methods to obtain the optimum transformation matrix between C-Arm and CT image frames. Through the transformation matrix, the surgical path planned on preoperative CT images can be transformed and displayed on the C-Arm images for surgical guidance. The positions of surgical instruments will also be displayed on both CT and C-Arm in the real time. Five similarity measure methods of 2D-3D image registration including Normalized Cross-Correlation, Gradient Correlation, Pattern Intensity, Gradient Difference Correlation, and Mutual Information combined with three optimization methods including Powell’s method, Downhill simplex algorithm, and genetic algorithm are applied to evaluate their performance in converge range, efficiency, and accuracy. Experimental results show that the combination of Normalized Cross-Correlation measure method with Downhill simplex algorithm obtains maximum correlation and similarity in C-Arm and Digital Reconstructed Radiograph (DRR images. Spine saw bones are used in the experiment to evaluate 2D-3D image registration accuracy. The average error in displacement is 0.22 mm. The success rate is approximately 90% and average registration time takes 16 seconds.

  9. Double Dirac point semimetal in 2D material: Ta2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yandong; Jing, Yu; Heine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Here, we report by first-principles calculations one new stable 2D Dirac material, Ta2Se3 monolayer. For this system, stable layered bulk phase exists, and exfoliation should be possible. Ta2Se3 monolayer is demonstrated to support two Dirac points close to the Fermi level, achieving the exotic 2D double Dirac semimetal. And like 2D single Dirac and 2D node-line semimetals, spin-orbit coupling could introduce an insulating state in this new class of 2D Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the Dirac feature in this system is layer-dependent and a metal-to-insulator transition is identified in Ta2Se3 when reducing the layer-thickness from bilayer to monolayer. These findings are of fundamental interests and of great importance for nanoscale device applications.

  10. 2D gravity, random surfaces and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1990-11-01

    I review the recent progress in 2d gravity and discuss the new numerical simulations for 2d gravity and for random surfaces in d>2. The random surface theories of interest in d>2 have extrinsic curvature terms, and for a finite value of the extrinsic curvature coupling there seems to be a second order phase transition where the string tension scales. (orig.)

  11. Risk Preferences and Predictions about Others: No Association with 2D:4D Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lima de Miranda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal androgen exposure affects the brain development of the fetus which may facilitate certain behaviors and decision patterns in the later life. The ratio between the lengths of second and the fourth fingers (2D:4D is a negative biomarker of the ratio between prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure and men typically have lower ratios than women. In line with the typical findings suggesting that women are more risk averse than men, several studies have also shown negative relationships between 2D:4D and risk taking although the evidence is not conclusive. Previous studies have also reported that both men and women believe women are more risk averse than men. In the current study, we re-test the relationship between 2D:4D and risk preferences in a German student sample and also investigate whether the 2D:4D ratio is associated with people’s perceptions about others’ risk preferences. Following an incentivized risk elicitation task, we asked all participants their predictions about (i others’ responses (without sex specification, (ii men’s responses, and (iii women’s responses; then measured their 2D:4D ratios. In line with the previous findings, female participants in our sample were more risk averse. While both men and women underestimated other participants’ (non sex-specific and women’s risky decisions on average, their predictions about men were accurate. We also found evidence for the false consensus effect, as risky choices are positively correlated with predictions about other participants’ risky choices. The 2D:4D ratio was not directly associated either with risk preferences or the predictions of other participants’ choices. An unexpected finding was that women with mid-range levels of 2D:4D estimated significantly larger sex differences in participants’ decisions. This finding needs further testing in future studies.

  12. Risk Preferences and Predictions about Others: No Association with 2D:4D Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Miranda, Katharina; Neyse, Levent; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgen exposure affects the brain development of the fetus which may facilitate certain behaviors and decision patterns in the later life. The ratio between the lengths of second and the fourth fingers (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker of the ratio between prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure and men typically have lower ratios than women. In line with the typical findings suggesting that women are more risk averse than men, several studies have also shown negative relationships between 2D:4D and risk taking although the evidence is not conclusive. Previous studies have also reported that both men and women believe women are more risk averse than men. In the current study, we re-test the relationship between 2D:4D and risk preferences in a German student sample and also investigate whether the 2D:4D ratio is associated with people’s perceptions about others’ risk preferences. Following an incentivized risk elicitation task, we asked all participants their predictions about (i) others’ responses (without sex specification), (ii) men’s responses, and (iii) women’s responses; then measured their 2D:4D ratios. In line with the previous findings, female participants in our sample were more risk averse. While both men and women underestimated other participants’ (non sex-specific) and women’s risky decisions on average, their predictions about men were accurate. We also found evidence for the false consensus effect, as risky choices are positively correlated with predictions about other participants’ risky choices. The 2D:4D ratio was not directly associated either with risk preferences or the predictions of other participants’ choices. An unexpected finding was that women with mid-range levels of 2D:4D estimated significantly larger sex differences in participants’ decisions. This finding needs further testing in future studies. PMID:29472846

  13. AtHD2D gene plays a role in plant growth, development and response to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofen eHan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: The histone deacetylases play important roles in the regulation of gene expression and the subsequent control of a number of important biological processes, including those involved in the response to environmental stress. A specific group of histone deacetylase genes, HD2, is present in plants. In Arabidopsis, HD2s include HD2A, HD2B, HD2C and HD2D. Previous research showed that HD2A, HD2B and HD2C are more related in terms of expression and function, but not HD2D. In this report, we studied different aspects of AtHD2D in Arabidopsis with respect to plant response to drought and other abiotic stresses. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that HD2D is distantly related to other HD2 genes. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and stable expression in Arabidopsis of AtHD2D fused with gfp showed that AtHD2D was expressed in the nucleus. Overexpression of AtHD2D resulted in developmental changes including fewer main roots, more lateral roots, and a higher root:shoot ratio. Seed germination and plant flowering time were delayed in transgenic plants expressing AtHD2D, but these plants exhibited higher degrees of tolerance to abiotic stresses, including drought, salt and cold stresses. Physiological studies indicated that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was high in wild-type plants but in plants overexpressing HD2D the MDA level increased slowly in response to stress conditions of drought, cold, and salt stress. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage in leaf cells of wild type plants increased but remained stable in transgenic plants. Our results indicate that AtHD2D is unique among HD2 genes and it plays a role in plant growth and development regulation and these changes can modulate plant stress responses.

  14. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in primary brain tumor patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Sliauzys, Albertas; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-12-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54.31±13.68years; 68% women) gender and age matched controls were obtained. The most common brain tumor diagnoses were meningioma (41%), glioblastoma (20%) and pituitary adenoma (16%). Right and left 2D:4D ratios, and right minus left 2D:4D (D r-l ) were compared between patients and controls, and were correlated with age. Right and left 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to controls (t=-4.28, pbrain tumor patients and controls (p=0.27). In meningioma and glioma patients, age at presentation correlated negatively with left 2D:4D ratio (rho=-0.42, p=0.01 and rho=-0.36, p=0.02, respectively) and positively with D r-l (rho=0.45, p=0.009 and rho=0.65, p=0.04, respectively). Right and left hand 2D:4D ratios are lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to healthy individuals suggesting greater prenatal testosterone and lower prenatal estrogen exposure in brain tumor patients. Greater age at presentation is associated with greater D r-l and with lower left 2D:4D ratio of meningioma and glioma patients. Due to small sample size our results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How Y-Family DNA polymerase IV is more accurate than Dpo4 at dCTP insertion opposite an N2-dG adduct of benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholder, Gabriel; Creech, Amanda; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-11-01

    To bypass DNA damage, cells have Y-Family DNA polymerases (DNAPs). One Y-Family-class includes DNAP κ and DNAP IV, which accurately insert dCTP opposite N(2)-dG adducts, including from the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP). Another class includes DNAP η and DNAP V, which insert accurately opposite UV-damage, but inaccurately opposite BP-N(2)-dG. To investigate structural differences between Y-Family-classes, regions are swapped between DNAP IV (a κ/IV-class-member) and Dpo4 (a η/V-class-member); the kinetic consequences are evaluated via primer-extension studies with a BP-N(2)-dG-containing template. Four key structural elements are revealed. (1) Y-Family DNAPs have discreet non-covalent contacts between their little finger-domain (LF-Domain) and their catalytic core-domain (CC-Domain), which we call "non-covalent bridges" (NCBs). Arg37 and Arg38 in DNAP IV's CC-Domain near the active site form a non-covalent bridge (AS-NCB) by interacting with Glu251 and Asp252, respectively, in DNAP IV's LF-Domain. Without these interactions dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions increase. DNAP IV's AS-NCB suppresses misinsertions better than Dpo4's equivalent AS-NCB. (2) DNAP IV also suppresses dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions via a second non-covalent bridge, which is ∼8Å from the active site (Distal-NCB). Dpo4 has no Distal-NCB, rendering it inferior at dATP/dGTP/dTTP suppression. (3) dCTP insertion is facilitated by the larger minor groove opening near the active site in DNAP IV versus Dpo4, which is sensible given that Watson/Crick-like [dCTP:BP-N(2)-dG] pairing requires the BP-moiety to be in the minor groove. (4) Compared to Dpo4, DNAP IV has a smaller major groove opening, which suppresses dGTP misinsertion, implying BP-N(2)-dG bulk in the major groove during Hoogsteen syn-adduct-dG:dGTP pairing. In summary, DNAP IV has a large minor groove opening to enhance dCTP insertion, a plugged major groove opening to suppress dGTP misinsertion, and two non-covalent bridges (near and distal

  16. Human NKG2D-ligands: cell biology strategies to ensure immune recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola eFernández-Messina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune recognition mediated by the activating receptor NKG2D plays an important role for the elimination of stressed cells, including tumours and virus-infected cells. On the other hand, the ligands for NKG2D can also be shed into the sera of cancer patients where they weaken the immune response by downmodulating the receptor on effector cells, mainly NK and T cells. Although both families of NKG2D-ligands, MICA/B and ULBPs, are related to MHC molecules and their expression is increased after stress, many differences are observed in terms of their biochemical properties and cell trafficking. In this paper, we summarise the variety of NKG2D-ligands and propose that selection pressure has driven evolution of diversity in their trafficking and shedding, but not receptor binding affinity. However, it is also possible to identify functional properties common to individual ULBP molecules and MICA/B alleles, but not generally conserved within the MIC or ULBP families. These characteristics likely represent examples of convergent evolution for efficient immune recognition, but are also attractive targets for pathogen immune evasion strategies. Categorization of NKG2D-ligands according to their biological features, rather than their genetic family, may help to achieve a better understanding of NKG2D-ligand association with disease.

  17. Multipole induced splitting of metal-cage vibrations in crystalline endohedral D2d-M2@C84 dimetallofullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Popov, V N; Inakuma, M; Tagmatarchis, N; Shinohara, H; Georgi, P; Dunsch, L; Kuzmany, H

    2004-01-22

    Metal-carbon cage vibrations of crystalline endohedral D2d-M2@C84 (M=Sc,Y,Dy) dimetallofullerenes were analyzed by temperature dependent Raman scattering and a dynamical force field model. Three groups of metal-carbon cage modes were found at energies of 35-200 cm(-1) and assigned to metal-cage stretching and deformation vibrations. They exhibit a textbook example for the splitting of molecular vibrations in a crystal field. Induced dipole-dipole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions account quantitatively for the observed mode splitting. Based on the metal-cage vibrational structure it is demonstrated that D2d-Y2@C84 dimetallofullerene retains a monoclinic crystal structure up to 550 K and undergoes a transition from a disordered to an ordered orientational state at a temperature of approximately 150 K.

  18. Bilateral implantation of +2.5 D multifocal intraocular lens and contralateral implantation of +2.5 D and +3.0 D multifocal intraocular lenses: Clinical outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijts, Rudy M. M. A.; Jonker, Soraya M. R.; Kaufer, Robert A.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Mendicute, Javier; Martinez, Cristina Peris; Schmickler, Stefanie; Kohnen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To assess the clinical visual outcomes of bilateral implantation of Restor +2.5 diopter (D) multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and contralateral implantation of a Restor +2.5 D multifocal IOL in the dominant eye and Restor +3.0 D multifocal IOL in the fellow eye. Multicenter study at 8

  19. 2D NMR studies of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamerichs, R.M.J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis comprises two related subjects. The first part describes methods to derive high-resolution structures of proteins in solution using two-dimensional (2-D) NMR. The second part describes 2-D NMR studies on the interaction between proteins and DNA. (author). 261 refs.; 52 figs.; 23 tabs

  20. 3-D Imaging using Row--Column-Addressed 2-D Arrays with a Diverging Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that row–column-addressed (RCA) 2-D arrays can be an inexpensive alternative to fully addressed 2-D arrays. Generally imaging with an RCA 2-D array is limited to its forward-looking volume region. Constructing a double-curved RCA 2-D array or applying a diverging lens over......, is designed for imaging down to 14 cm at a volume rate of 88 Hz. The curvilinear imaging performance of a λ/2-pitch 3 MHz 62+62 RCA 2-D array is investigated as a function of depth, using a diverging lens with f-number of -1. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed beamforming approach...

  1. Synthesis of P1-(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P2-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-α-D-rhamnopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate and P1-(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P2-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate for the investigation of biosynthesis of O-antigenic polysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli O104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgov, Vladimir; Danilov, Leonid; Utkina, Natalia; Veselovsky, Vladimir; Brockhausen, Inka

    2017-12-01

    Two new phenoxyundecyl diphosphate sugars were synthesized for the first time: P 1 -(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P 2 - (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-α-D-rhamnopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate and P 1 -(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P 2 -(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate to study the third step of biosynthesis of the repeating units of O-antigenic polysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E.coli O104 respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 2D-3D Face Recognition Method Basedon a Modified CCA-PCA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kamencay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed methodology for face recognition based on an information theory approach to coding and decoding face images. In this paper, we propose a 2D-3D face-matching method based on a principal component analysis (PCA algorithm using canonical correlation analysis (CCA to learn the mapping between a 2D face image and 3D face data. This method makes it possible to match a 2D face image with enrolled 3D face data. Our proposed fusion algorithm is based on the PCA method, which is applied to extract base features. PCA feature-level fusion requires the extraction of different features from the source data before features are merged together. Experimental results on the TEXAS face image database have shown that the classification and recognition results based on the modified CCA-PCA method are superior to those based on the CCA method. Testing the 2D-3D face match results gave a recognition rate for the CCA method of a quite poor 55% while the modified CCA method based on PCA-level fusion achieved a very good recognition score of 85%.

  3. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-12-15

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D 1 or D 2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D 2 than on D 1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine

  4. Comparing Dislodgeable 2,4-D Residues across Athletic Field Turfgrass Species and Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Jeffries

    Full Text Available 2,4-dimethylamine salt (2,4-D is an herbicide commonly applied on athletic fields for broadleaf weed control that can dislodge from treated turfgrass. Dislodge potential is affected by numerous factors, including turfgrass canopy conditions. Building on previous research confirming herbicide-turfgrass dynamics can vary widely between species, field research was initiated in 2014 and 2015 in Raleigh, NC, USA to quantify dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from dormant hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis and hybrid bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., which are common athletic field playing surfaces in subtropical climates. Additionally, dislodgeable 2,4-D was compared at AM (7:00 eastern standard time and PM (14:00 sample timings within a day. Samples collected from perennial ryegrass consistently resulted in greater 2,4-D dislodgment immediately after application (9.4 to 9.9% of applied compared to dormant hybrid bermudagrass (2.3 to 2.9%, as well as at all AM compared to PM timings from 1 to 3 d after treatment (DAT; 0.4 to 6.3% compared to 0.1 to 0.8%. Dislodgeable 2,4-D did not differ across turfgrass species at PM sample collections, with ≤ 0.1% of the 2,4-D applied dislodged from 1 to 6 DAT, and 2,4-D detection did not occur at 12 and 24 DAT. In conclusion, dislodgeable 2,4-D from treated turfgrass can vary between species and over short time-scales within a day. This information should be taken into account in human exposure risk assessments, as well as by turfgrass managers and athletic field event coordinators to minimize 2,4-D exposure.

  5. COMPARISON OF 2D AND 3D VIDEO DISPLAYS FOR TEACHING VITREORETINAL SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaya, Nisarg; Helmy, Omar; Piri, Niloofar; Palacio, Agustina; Schaal, Shlomit

    2017-07-11

    To compare medical students' learning uptake and understanding of vitreoretinal surgeries by watching either 2D or 3D video recordings. Three vitreoretinal procedures (tractional retinal detachment, exposed scleral buckle removal, and four-point scleral fixation of an intraocular lens [TSS]) were recorded simultaneously with a conventional recorder for two-dimensional viewing and a VERION 3D HD system using Sony HVO-1000MD for three-dimensional viewing. Two videos of each surgery, one 2D and the other 3D, were edited to have the same content side by side. One hundred UMass medical students randomly assigned to a 2D group or 3D, then watched corresponding videos on a MacBook. All groups wore BiAL Red-blue 3D glasses and were appropriately randomized. Students filled out questionnaires about surgical steps or anatomical relationships of the pathologies or tissues, and their answers were compared. There was no significant difference in comprehension between the two groups for the extraocular scleral buckle procedure. However, for the intraocular TSS and tractional retinal detachment videos, the 3D group performed better than 2D (P < 0.05) on anatomy comprehension questions. Three-dimensional videos may have value in teaching intraocular ophthalmic surgeries. Surgical procedure steps and basic ocular anatomy may have to be reviewed to ensure maximal teaching efficacy.

  6. Interpretation of mandibular condyle fractures using 2D- and 3D-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa e Silva Adriana Paula de Andrade da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT has been increasingly used in the examination of patients with craniofacial trauma. This technique is useful in the examination of the temporomandibular joint and allows the diagnosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle. Aiming to verify whether the three-dimensional reconstructed images from CT (3D-CT produce more effective visual information than the two-dimensional (2D-CT ones, we evaluated 2D-CT and 3D-CT examinations of 18 patients with mandibular condyle fractures. We observed that 2D-CT and 3D-CT reconstructed images produced similar information for the diagnosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle, although the 3D-CT allowed a better visualization of the position and displacement of bone fragments, as well as the comminution of fractures. These results, together with the possibility of refining and manipulating perspectives in 3D images, reinforce the importance of its use in the surgical planning and evaluation of treatment. We concluded that 3D-CT presented supplementary information for a more effective diagnosis of mandibular condyle fractures.

  7. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Lila T; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors on the same population of striatal neurons.

  8. On physical states in 2d (topological) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwknegt, P.; McCarthy, J.; Pilch, K.

    1993-01-01

    We review the BRST computation of physical states in various 2d gravity theories. First we discuss the cohomology relevant for 2d gravity coupled to c ≤ 1 conformal matter. We then use these results to compute the cohomology of a c=26 βγ-system, i.e. restricted 2d topological gravity. We also comment on the cohomology for the complete 2d topological gravity. (author). 39 refs

  9. Comprehensive Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease by Using First-Pass Analysis Dynamic CT Perfusion: Validation in a Swine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Logan; Lipinski, Jerry; Ziemer, Benjamin; Malkasian, Shant; Sadeghi, Bahman; Javan, Hanna; Groves, Elliott M; Dertli, Brian; Molloi, Sabee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively validate a first-pass analysis (FPA) technique that combines computed tomographic (CT) angiography and dynamic CT perfusion measurement into one low-dose examination. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the animal care committee. The FPA technique was retrospectively validated in six swine (mean weight, 37.3 kg ± 7.5 [standard deviation]) between April 2015 and October 2016. Four to five intermediate-severity stenoses were generated in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), and 20 contrast material-enhanced volume scans were acquired per stenosis. All volume scans were used for maximum slope model (MSM) perfusion measurement, but only two volume scans were used for FPA perfusion measurement. Perfusion measurements in the LAD, left circumflex artery (LCx), right coronary artery, and all three coronary arteries combined were compared with microsphere perfusion measurements by using regression, root-mean-square error, root-mean-square deviation, Lin concordance correlation, and diagnostic outcomes analysis. The CT dose index and size-specific dose estimate per two-volume FPA perfusion measurement were also determined. Results FPA and MSM perfusion measurements (P FPA and P MSM ) in all three coronary arteries combined were related to reference standard microsphere perfusion measurements (P MICRO ), as follows: P FPA_COMBINED = 1.02 P MICRO_COMBINED + 0.11 (r = 0.96) and P MSM_COMBINED = 0.28 P MICRO_COMBINED + 0.23 (r = 0.89). The CT dose index and size-specific dose estimate per two-volume FPA perfusion measurement were 10.8 and 17.8 mGy, respectively. Conclusion The FPA technique was retrospectively validated in a swine model and has the potential to be used for accurate, low-dose vessel-specific morphologic and physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease. © RSNA, 2017.

  10. Metal-Free 2D/2D Phosphorene/g-C3 N4 Van der Waals Heterojunction for Highly Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jingrun; Guo, Weiwei; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Bicheng; Yu, Jiaguo; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2018-04-30

    The generation of green hydrogen (H 2 ) energy using sunlight is of great significance to solve the worldwide energy and environmental issues. Particularly, photocatalytic H 2 production is a highly promising strategy for solar-to-H 2 conversion. Recently, various heterostructured photocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability have been fabricated. Among them, 2D/2D van der Waals (VDW) heterojunctions have received tremendous attention, since this architecture can promote the interfacial charge separation and transfer and provide massive reactive centers. On the other hand, currently, most photocatalysts are composed of metal elements with high cost, limited reserves, and hazardous environmental impact. Hence, the development of metal-free photocatalysts is desirable. Here, a novel 2D/2D VDW heterostructure of metal-free phosphorene/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) is fabricated. The phosphorene/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite shows an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H 2 production activity of 571 µmol h -1 g -1 in 18 v% lactic acid aqueous solution. This improved performance arises from the intimate electronic coupling at the 2D/2D interface, corroborated by the advanced characterizations techniques, e.g., synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure, and theoretical calculations. This work not only reports a new metal-free phosphorene/g-C 3 N 4 photocatalyst but also sheds lights on the design and fabrication of 2D/2D VDW heterojunction for applications in catalysis, electronics, and optoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Measurement of astrophysical S-factors and electron screening potentials for d(d,n){sup 3}He reaction in ZrD{sub 2}, TiD{sub 2} and TaD{sub 0.5} targets in the ultralow energy region using plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bystritsky, V.M., E-mail: bystvm@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Bystritskii, Vit.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine (United States); Dudkin, G.N. [National Scientific Research Tomsk Polytechnical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Filipowicz, M. [Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Gazi, S.; Huran, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kobzev, A.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Mesyats, G.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nechaev, B.A.; Padalko, V.N. [National Scientific Research Tomsk Polytechnical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Parzhitskii, S.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Pen' kov, F.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NNC, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Philippov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kaminskii, V.L. [National Scientific Research Tomsk Polytechnical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tuleushev, Yu.Zh. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NNC, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Wozniak, J. [Faculty of Physics and Appl