WorldWideScience

Sample records for inclined crystal geometry

  1. Interplay between geometry and temperature for inclined Casimir plates

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Alexej

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect. We investigate the temperature dependence of the Casimir force between an inclined semi-infinite plate above an infinite plate in D dimensions using the worldline formalism. Whereas the high-temperature behavior is always found to be linear in T in accordance with dimensional-reduction arguments, different power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. Unlike the case of infinite parallel plates, which shows the well-known T^D behavior of the force, we find a T^{D-1} behavior for inclined plates, and a ~T^{D-0.3} behavior for the edge effect in the limit where the plates become parallel. The strongest temperature dependence ~T^{D-2} occurs for the Casimir torque of inclined plates. Numerical as well as analytical worldline results are presented.

  2. Geometry and Combinatorics of Crystal Melting

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    We survey geometrical and especially combinatorial aspects of generalized Donaldson-Thomas invariants (also called BPS invariants) for toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, emphasizing the role of plane partitions and their generalizations in the recently proposed crystal melting model. We also comment on equivalence with a vicious walker model and the matrix model representation of the partition function.

  3. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  4. A geometry optimization framework for photonic crystal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E. E.; Sóbester, A.; Djidjeli, K.; Molinari, M.; Thomas, K. S.; Cox, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of photonic crystal devices can depend strongly on their geometry. Alas, their fundamental physics offers relatively little by way of pointers in terms of optimum shapes, so numerical design search techniques must be used in an attempt to determine high performance layouts. We discuss strategies for solving this type of optimization problem, the main challenge of which is the conflict between the enormous size of the space of potentially useful designs and the relatively high computational cost of evaluating the performance of putative shapes. The optimization technique proposed here operates over increasing levels of fidelity, both in terms of the resolution of its non-parametric shape definition and in terms of the resolution of the numerical analysis of the performance of putative designs. This is a generic method, potentially applicable to any type of electromagnetic device shape design problem. We also consider a methodology for assessing the robustness of the optima generated through this process, investigating the impact of manufacturing errors on their performance. As an illustration, we apply this technology to the design of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure; the result features a large complete band gap structure and a topology that is different from previously published designs.

  5. Crystallization features of normal alkanes in confined geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunlan; Liu, Guoming; Xie, Baoquan; Fu, Dongsheng; Wang, Dujin

    2014-01-21

    How polymers crystallize can greatly affect their thermal and mechanical properties, which influence the practical applications of these materials. Polymeric materials, such as block copolymers, graft polymers, and polymer blends, have complex molecular structures. Due to the multiple hierarchical structures and different size domains in polymer systems, confined hard environments for polymer crystallization exist widely in these materials. The confined geometry is closely related to both the phase metastability and lifetime of polymer. This affects the phase miscibility, microphase separation, and crystallization behaviors and determines both the performance of polymer materials and how easily these materials can be processed. Furthermore, the size effect of metastable states needs to be clarified in polymers. However, scientists find it difficult to propose a quantitative formula to describe the transition dynamics of metastable states in these complex systems. Normal alkanes [CnH2n+2, n-alkanes], especially linear saturated hydrocarbons, can provide a well-defined model system for studying the complex crystallization behaviors of polymer materials, surfactants, and lipids. Therefore, a deeper investigation of normal alkane phase behavior in confinement will help scientists to understand the crystalline phase transition and ultimate properties of many polymeric materials, especially polyolefins. In this Account, we provide an in-depth look at the research concerning the confined crystallization behavior of n-alkanes and binary mixtures in microcapsules by our laboratory and others. Since 2006, our group has developed a technique for synthesizing nearly monodispersed n-alkane containing microcapsules with controllable size and surface porous morphology. We applied an in situ polymerization method, using melamine-formaldehyde resin as shell material and nonionic surfactants as emulsifiers. The solid shell of microcapsules can provide a stable three-dimensional (3-D

  6. Defects in Nonlinear Elastic Crystals: Differential Geometry, Finite Kinematics, and Second-Order Analytical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    of dislocations in anisotropic crystals, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 5, 171–190 (1967). [92] A. Yavari and A. Goriely, Riemann -Cartan geometry of nonlinear...distributed point defects, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 468, 3902–3922 (2012). [94] A. Yavari and A. Goriely, Riemann -Cartan geometry of nonlinear disclination...ARL-RP-0522 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Defects in Nonlinear Elastic Crystals: Differential Geometry , Finite

  7. Electromechanical constants and their anisotropy in LiNbO sub 3 -type crystals having 180 deg. inclined domain walls

    CERN Document Server

    Topolov, V Y

    1998-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the determination of effective electromechanical constants d sub i sub j sup p , e sub i sub j sup p , epsilon sub k sub l supsigma sup , sup p and s sub f sub g sup E sup , sup p of polydomain LiNbO sub 3 and LiNb sub 0 sub . sub 1 Ta sub 0 sub . sub 9 O sub 3 crystals at room temperature. 180 deg domain structures considered here contain inclined plane walls providing a significant anisotropy of piezoelectric constants e sub i sub j sup p. The effect of such domain structures is established for the first time and discussed. (author)

  8. Promoting protein crystallization using a plate with simple geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Qing; Yin, Da-Chuan; Liu, Yong-Ming; Lu, Qin-Qin; He, Jin; Liu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Increasing the probability of obtaining protein crystals in crystallization screening is always an important goal for protein crystallography. In this paper, a new method called the cross-diffusion microbatch (CDM) method is presented, which aims to efficiently promote protein crystallization and increase the chance of obtaining protein crystals. In this method, a very simple crystallization plate was designed in which all crystallization droplets are in one sealed space, so that a variety of volatile components from one droplet can diffuse into any other droplet via vapour diffusion. Crystallization screening and reproducibility tests indicate that this method could be a potentially powerful technique in practical protein crystallization screening. It can help to obtain crystals with higher probability and at a lower cost, while using a simple and easy procedure.

  9. Surface Geometry and Chemistry of Hydrothermally Synthesized Single Crystal Thorium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    THORIUM DIOXIDE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-87 SURFACE GEOMETRY AND CHEMISTRY OF HYDROTHERMALLY SYNTHESIZED SINGLE CRYSTAL THORIUM DIOXIDE Scott W. Key...27 10. Process chart for determining geometry and chemistry of ThO2. .............................. 28 11. This AFM

  10. Enhanced optical tuning of modified-geometry resonators clad in blue phase liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptasinski, Joanna; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2014-09-15

    Active optical tuning of silicon racetrack resonators clad in dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals (BPLCs) is experimentally demonstrated. An adiabatic racetrack resonator geometry that allows for enhanced tuning is presented and analyzed. The resonance shift of an unmodified geometry racetrack is Δλ=0.7 nm, while an adiabatic racetrack achieves a Δλ=1.23 nm resonance shift because of a greater mode overlap with the cladding. The calculated refractive index change of the BPLC is Δn=0.0041 for both geometries.

  11. Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pedoe, Dan

    1988-01-01

    ""A lucid and masterly survey."" - Mathematics Gazette Professor Pedoe is widely known as a fine teacher and a fine geometer. His abilities in both areas are clearly evident in this self-contained, well-written, and lucid introduction to the scope and methods of elementary geometry. It covers the geometry usually included in undergraduate courses in mathematics, except for the theory of convex sets. Based on a course given by the author for several years at the University of Minnesota, the main purpose of the book is to increase geometrical, and therefore mathematical, understanding and to he

  12. ANALYSIS OF INDEXED-GUIDED HIGHLY BIREFRINGENT PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER EMPLOYING DIFFERENT CLADDING GEOMETRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jouri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available      In this paper, a comparative study of three geometries of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers (HB PCF is presented. The proposed geometries are: V type PCF, Pseudo-Panda PCF and selectively liquid-filled PCF. Based on the famous Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method with the perfectly matched layer (PML boundary condition, the simulations are carried out in the aim to find a tradeoff between the chromatic dispersion, the birefringence and the confinement loss.

  13. Antisolvent crystallization approach to construction of CuI superstructures with defined geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhummal, Rajeevan; Yang, Yang; Güder, Firat; Küçükbayrak, Umut M; Zacharias, Margit

    2013-03-26

    A facile high-yield production of cuprous iodide (CuI) superstructures is reported by antisolvent crystallization using acetonitrile/water as a solvent/antisolvent couple under ambient conditions. In the presence of trace water, the metastable water droplets act as templates to induce the precipitation of hollow spherical CuI superstructures consisting of orderly aligned building blocks after drop coating. With water in excess in the mixed solution, an instant precipitation of CuI random aggregates takes place due to rapid crystal growth via ion-by-ion attachment induced by a strong antisolvent effect. However, this uncontrolled process can be modified by adding polymer polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in water to restrict the size of initially formed CuI crystal nuclei through the effective coordination effect of PVP. As a result, CuI superstructures with a cuboid geometry are constructed by gradual self-assembly of the small CuI crystals via oriented attachment. The precipitated CuI superstructures have been used as competent adsorbents to remove organic dyes from the water due to their mesocrystal feature. Besides, the CuI superstructures have been applied either as a self-sacrificial template or only as a structuring template for the flexible design of other porous materials such as CuO and TiO2. This system provides an ideal platform to simultaneously investigate the superstructure formation enforced by antisolvent crystallization with and without organic additives.

  14. Formation of classical crystals of dipolar particles in a helical geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K. Pedersen, J.; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider crystal formation of particles with dipole-dipole interactions that are confined to move in a one-dimensional helical geometry with their dipole moments oriented along the symmetry axis of the confining helix. The stable classical lowest energy configurations are found to be chain...... revolution. A larger total number of dipoles leads to a clusterization where the dipolar chains move closer to each other. This implies a change in the local density and the emergence of two length scales, one for the cluster size and one for the inter-cluster distance along the helix. Starting from three...

  15. Crystal Structure and Geometry-Optimization Study of N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldene)-4-aminoantipyrme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Feng; BI Caifeng; FAN Yuhua; WANG Aidong; XU Jiakun; ZHANG Xia

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldene)-4-aminoantipyrine has been synthesized. The structure is determined by X-ray diffraction method and elemental analysis. The crystal system belongs to orthorhombic space group P(2)2(1)2(1). The geometry has been ob-tained from the density functional theory (DFT) method and the B3LYP method employing the 6-31G* basis sets. The calculated results propose that the latter is close to the experimental data. The structural parameters from the theory are close to those of the crystal and the calculated total energy of coordination is -31677.172 eV. The energy of HOMO and LUMO and the energy gap are 5.179 eV, -1.603 eV and 3.577 eV, respectively.

  16. Coupled effects of conduction in the crystal and thermo-solutal convection in a rectangular inclined enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennetrier, Christophe; Duval, Walter M. B.

    1990-01-01

    To date modeling of crystal growth of optoelectronic materials using Physical Vapor Transport has been limited to the study of the fluid phase. To achieve it, the equations of coupled heat, mass and momentum transfer in the gas have to be solved. The first objective of this study is to examine the effect of heat conduction in the crystal on the fluid flow in the neighborhood of the interface. Heat transfer boundary conditions on both interfaces were modified to take into account the additional heat flux between gas and solid. It is proved that heat conduction does not affect the fluid flow. In the presence of gravity, density gradients in the fluid phase generate convection responsible for the problem of a nonplanar growth of the interface. The second objective is to study systematically under one-g the different possible flows in order to solve this problem. Depending on the parameters, a diffusive mode and three convective modes (thermal, solutal and thermo-solutal) are observed. The competition between thermal and solutal convections leads to a mathematical condition which can be used to achieve a planar growth. It is proven that, under the physical conditions chosen, this mathematical condition cannot be thermodynamically satisfied.

  17. Laser Beam Shaping For Lithography on Inclined and Curved Surfaces Using a liquid crystal Spatial Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatabi, Javad R.; Geerts, Wilhelmus; Tamir, Dan; Pandey, Kumar

    2013-03-01

    An exposure tool for lithography on non-flat substrates that includes a real time photoresist thickness and surface topography monitor is under development at Texas State University. Exposure dose and focusing are corrected on curved parts of the sample using novel laser beam shaping techniques: two approaches using a Holoeye liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) are being investigated: (1) the implementation of multiple lenses with different focal lengths to split the beam into several parts and keeping each part in focus depending on sample topography; (2) the implementation of a tilted lens function resulting in a tilt of the image plane. Image quality is limited by quantization aberration, caused by the phase modulator's bit depth limitation, and pixelation aberration, caused by the modulator's pixel size. A statistical analysis on lenses with different focal lengths provides a detailed description of the mentioned aberrations. The image quality, i.e. resolution and contrast of both techniques, are determined from developed photoresist patterns on curved samples and compared to the theory.

  18. Effect of inclining strain on the crystal lattice along an extended series of lanthanide hydroxysulfates Ln(OH)SO4 (Ln = Pr-Yb, except Pm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Ralph A; Wilson, Christopher S; Christy, Hunter T; Harris, Kenneth S; Chauhan, Varun; Schutz, Victor; Sullivan, Matthew; Zeller, Matthias; Fronczek, Frank R; Myers, Jacob A; Dammann, Kyle; Duck, James; Smith, Peter M; Okuma, Antony; Johnson, Kristin; Sovesky, Robert; Stroudt, Cameron; Renn, Robert A

    2011-02-07

    A series of trivalent lanthanide hydroxysulfates, Ln(OH)SO(4), (Ln = Pr through Yb, except radioactive Pm) has been synthesized via hydrothermal methods from Ln(2)(SO(4))(3)·8H(2)O by reaction with aqueous NaOH at 170 °C in Teflon lined Parr steel autoclaves, and were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. Two types of arrangements were found in the solid state. The lighter (Ln = Pr-Nd, Sm-Gd) and heavier lanthanide(III) hydroxysulfates (Tb-Yb) are each isostructural. Both structure types exhibit the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, but the unit cell content is doubled with two crystallographically distinct LnO(8) polyhedra for the heavier lanthanide compounds. The lighter complexes maintain the coordination number 9, forming a three-dimensional extended lattice. The heavier counterparts exhibit the coordination number 8, and arrange as infinite columns of two crystallographically different LnO(8) polyhedra, while extending along the "c" axis. These columns of LnO(8) polyhedra are surrounded and separated by six columns of sulfate ions, also elongating in the "c" direction. The rigid sulfate entities seem to obstruct the closing in of the lighter LnO(9) polyhedra, and show an inclining degree of torsion into the "ac" layers. The crystal lattice of the lighter 4f complexes can sufficiently withstand the tension buildup, caused by the decreasing Ln(3+) radius, up to Gd(OH)SO(4). The energy profile of this structural arrangement then seems to exceed levels at which this structure type is favorable. The lattice arrangement of the heavier Ln-analogues seems to offer a lower energy profile. This appears to be the preferred arrangement for the heavier lanthanide hydroxysulfates, whose crystal lattice exhibits more flexibility, as the coordination sphere of these analogues is less crowded. The IR absorbance frequencies of the hydroxide ligands correlate as a function of the Ln(3+) ionic radius. This corresponds well with the X-ray single

  19. Bidimensional distortion in ferroelectric liquid crystals with strong anchoring in bookshelf geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ponti; M Becchi; A Strigazzi; S Torgova

    2003-08-01

    In the last decade, it has been experimentally found that in certain conditions a periodic domain pattern arises in ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) in bookshelf geometry. Such a periodic texture appears after switching-off an external electric field, even in strong anchoring conditions. It has a static character and is bidimensional, being dependent on directions normal to both the smectic planes and the cell plates. Here a new model explaining this phenomenon is proposed, valid in the case of FLC with strong anchoring. The model is based on the coupling between the spontaneous polarization field in the first semi-period of its modulation along the cell plates and the same field in the second semi-period. This coupling competes with the FLC medium elasticity and is trapped by the anchoring. According to our model, in the ferroelectric state the biperiodic texture is favored by increasing the values of spontaneous polarization. The critical value of the spontaneous polarization for which the undeformed state becomes unstable is found. It is shown to be proportional to the square root of the ratio between the FLC elastic constant and the cell thickness. Moreover, it is inversely proportional to the sinus of the pre-tilt angle with respect to the cell walls.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of 3D diffusion, crystal geometry, and initial conditions on retrieved time-scales from Fe-Mg zoning in natural oriented orthopyroxene crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimer, Daniel; Costa, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Volcano petrologists and geochemists increasingly use time-scale determinations of magmatic processes from modeling the chemical zoning patterns in crystals. Most determinations are done using one-dimensional traverses across a two-dimensional crystal section. However, crystals are three-dimensional objects with complex shapes, and diffusion and re-equilibration occurs in multiple dimensions. Given that we can mainly study the crystals in two-dimensional petrographic thin sections, the determined time-scales could be in error if multiple dimensional and geometrical effects are not identified and accounted for. Here we report the results of a numerical study where we investigate the role of multiple dimensions, geometry, and initial conditions of Fe-Mg diffusion in an orthopyroxene crystal with the view towards proper determinations of time scales from modeling natural crystals. We found that merging diffusion fronts (i.e. diffusion from multiple directions) causes 'additional' diffusion that has the greatest influence close to the crystal's corners (i.e. where two crystal faces meet), and with longer times the affected area widens. We also found that the one-dimensional traverses that can lead to the most accurate calculated time-scales from natural crystals are along the b- crystallographic axis on the ab-plane when model inputs (concentration and zoning geometry) are taken as measured (rather than inferred from other observations). More specifically, accurate time-scales are obtained if the compositional traverses are highly symmetrical and contain a concentration plateau measured through the crystal center. On the other hand, for two-dimensional models the ab- and ac-planes are better suited if the initial (pre-diffusion) concentration and zoning geometry inputs are known or can be estimated, although these are a priory unknown, and thus, may be difficult to use in practical terms. We also found that under certain conditions, a combined one-dimensional and two

  1. Dynamical focusing by bent, asymmetrically cut perfect crystals in Laue geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigay, J P; Ferrero, C

    2016-07-01

    A semi-analytical approach based on the influence functions of a point source located on the crystal surface has been adopted to show that the focusing ability of cylindrically bent Laue crystals may be strongly enhanced by replacing symmetrically cut crystals with asymmetrically cut crystals. This approach is generally applicable to any distance between the X-ray source and the focusing bent crystal. A mathematically straightforward method to simplify the derivation of the already known expression of the influence functions in the case of deformed crystals with a constant strain gradient (e.g. cylindrically bent crystals) is also presented.

  2. Influence of external constraint and rolling geometry on deformation banding of copper single crystals with {123} orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Zeng; Jianxin Dong; Maicang Zhang; Xishan Xie; Weimin Mao; Zhensheng Li

    2003-01-01

    In order to further understand the similarity and difference between deformation mechanisms of single crystals and poly-crystalline materials, the influence of external constraint and rolling geometry on the deformation behaviour of copper single crystalswith {123} orientation was investigated by embedding them into metal frames of different strengths. The metal frames weremade of aluminum and mild steel, respectively. The results show that the deformation banding degree of the crystal increases withthe strength of metal frame and shear strain. For the crystals rolled under lower γg (γg is the ratio of the geometrical redundant shearstrain to the normal rolling strain), the deformation is homogeneous. For the crystals rolled under higher γg, the deformation is ex-tremely inhomogeneous. The deformation is more homogeneous in the crystals rolled in steel frames than that rolled in aluminumframes. The S-orientation is more stable in the crystals rolled under lower γg than that rolled under higher γg.

  3. Global radiation on inclined surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinli, S.; Rattunde, R.; Krochmann, J.

    1981-02-01

    Radiation intensities and irradiances resulting from global radiation incident on inclined surfaces are important for solar energy use in heating and air conditioning of buildings. Both quantities are a function of astronomical, meteorological, and other parameters of the insolation geometry. Methods of calculation for cloudy, clear, and partly cloudy skies are described which may be carried out with the aid of programmable desk computers. Computer programs have been specially developed for this purpose. Their results are compared with other theoretical data and with data of the Hamburg Meteorological Observatory. Simplified results obtained with the aid of tables are found to be inaccurate while the computer programs provide satisfactory results.

  4. Role of the Confined Geometry on the Crystallization of Poly(ethylene terephthlate) Ultrathin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHANG; Yong Lai LU; De Yan SHEN

    2005-01-01

    The reflection-absorption infrared (RAIR) was employed to study the crystallization kinetic of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) ultrathin films. During isothermal crystallization the thinner PET film shows a slower kinetic compared with the thicker film. Moreover, the final crystallinity of films with various thickness was found decrease with thickness. The result of fitting our data to Avrami equation showed that the Avrami exponents decrease with film thickness.

  5. Modeling of frost crystal growth over a flat plate using artificial neural networks and fractal geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavvor, Ali Reza

    2016-06-01

    In the present study artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to predict frost thickness and density on a cold flat plate having constant surface temperature under forced convection for different ambient conditions. These methods are very applicable in this area because phase changes such as melting and solidification are simulated by conventional methods but frost formation is a most complicated phase change phenomenon consists of coupled heat and mass transfer. Therefore conventional mathematical techniques cannot capture the effects of all parameters on its growth and development because this process influenced by many factors and it is a time dependent process. Therefore, in this work soft computing method such as artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to do this manner. The databases for modeling are generated from the experimental measurements. First, multilayer perceptron network is used and it is found that the back-propagation algorithm with Levenberg-Marquardt learning rule is the best choice to estimate frost growth properties due to accurate and faster training procedure. Second, fractal geometry based on the Von-Koch curve is used to model frost growth procedure especially in frost thickness and density. Comparison is performed between experimental measurements and soft computing methods. Results show that soft computing methods can be used more efficiently to determine frost properties over a flat plate. Based on the developed models, wide range of frost formation over flat plates can be determined for various conditions.

  6. Modeling of frost crystal growth over a flat plate using artificial neural networks and fractal geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavvor, Ali Reza

    2017-03-01

    In the present study artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to predict frost thickness and density on a cold flat plate having constant surface temperature under forced convection for different ambient conditions. These methods are very applicable in this area because phase changes such as melting and solidification are simulated by conventional methods but frost formation is a most complicated phase change phenomenon consists of coupled heat and mass transfer. Therefore conventional mathematical techniques cannot capture the effects of all parameters on its growth and development because this process influenced by many factors and it is a time dependent process. Therefore, in this work soft computing method such as artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to do this manner. The databases for modeling are generated from the experimental measurements. First, multilayer perceptron network is used and it is found that the back-propagation algorithm with Levenberg-Marquardt learning rule is the best choice to estimate frost growth properties due to accurate and faster training procedure. Second, fractal geometry based on the Von-Koch curve is used to model frost growth procedure especially in frost thickness and density. Comparison is performed between experimental measurements and soft computing methods. Results show that soft computing methods can be used more efficiently to determine frost properties over a flat plate. Based on the developed models, wide range of frost formation over flat plates can be determined for various conditions.

  7. DARPin-Based Crystallization Chaperones Exploit Molecular Geometry as a Screening Dimension in Protein Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyuk, Alexander; Wu, Yufan; Honegger, Annemarie; Heberling, Matthew M; Plückthun, Andreas

    2016-04-24

    DARPin libraries, based on a Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein consensus framework, are a rich source of binding partners for a wide variety of proteins. Their modular structure, stability, ease of in vitro selection and high production yields make DARPins an ideal starting point for further engineering. The X-ray structures of around 30 different DARPin complexes demonstrate their ability to facilitate crystallization of their target proteins by restricting flexibility and preventing undesired interactions of the target molecule. However, their small size (18 kDa), very hydrophilic surface and repetitive structure can limit the DARPins' ability to provide essential crystal contacts and their usefulness as a search model for addressing the crystallographic phase problem in molecular replacement. To optimize DARPins for their application as crystallization chaperones, rigid domain-domain fusions of the DARPins to larger proteins, proven to yield high-resolution crystal structures, were generated. These fusions were designed in such a way that they affect only one of the terminal capping repeats of the DARPin and do not interfere with residues involved in target binding, allowing to exchange at will the binding specificities of the DARPin in the fusion construct. As a proof of principle, we designed rigid fusions of a stabilized version of Escherichia coli TEM-1 β-lactamase to the C-terminal capping repeat of various DARPins in six different relative domain orientations. Five crystal structures representing four different fusion constructs, alone or in complex with the cognate target, show the predicted relative domain orientations and prove the validity of the concept.

  8. Experimental Determination of the Mechanisms of Photomechanical Effects in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomer in a Photomechanical Optical Device Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Nathan J; Neal, Jeremy; Luchette, Paul; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Azo-dye doped liquid crystal elastomers (LCE) are known to show a strong photomechanical response. We report on experiments that suggest that photothermal heating is the underlying mechanism for the photomechanical optical device geometry. In particular, we use optical interferometry to probe the length change of the material and direct temperature measurements to determine heating. LCEs with various dopants and optical density were used to study the individual mechanisms. In the high dye-doped limit, most of the light is absorbed near the entry surface, which causes a local strain from photothermal heating and a nonlocal strain from thermal diffusion. This work is the first step in the design of independent parallel-beam photomechanical actuating/sensing devices, which could be cascaded together to make smart structures.

  9. Geometry Optimization of Crystals by the Quasi-Independent Curvilinear Coordinate Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Németh, K

    2005-01-01

    The quasi-independent curvilinear coordinate approximation (QUICCA) method [K. N\\'emeth and M. Challacombe, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 121}, 2877, (2004)] is extended to the optimization of crystal structures. We demonstrate that QUICCA is valid under periodic boundary conditions, enabling simultaneous relaxation of the lattice and atomic coordinates, as illustrated by tight optimization of polyethylene, hexagonal boron-nitride, a (10,0) carbon-nanotube, hexagonal ice, quartz and sulfur at the $\\Gamma$-point RPBE/STO-3G level of theory.

  10. Fresnel analysis of Kretschmann geometry with a uniaxial crystal layer on a three-layered film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Hung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of total internal reflection within the prism coupling scheme is a simple approach to the generation of surface plasmon polariton waves on a metal/dielectric interface. Unfortunately, an anisotropic layer on a metallic film complicates the derivation of resonance angle. In this study, we present clear Fresnel analysis of a liquid crystal film on a metal surface. Few current simulation packages enable the analysis of multiple layers with a single anisotropic layer. The proposed formulation process is applicable to multi-layered structures.

  11. Designing an ultra negative dispersion Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCFs) with square lattice geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Partha Sona

    2015-01-01

    In this article we have theoretically investigated the dispersion characteristics of dual-core PCF, based on square-lattice geometry by varying different parameters. The fiber exhibits a very large negative dispersion because of rapid slope change of the refractive indices at the coupling wavelength between the inner core and outer core. The dependence of different geometrical parameters namely hole-to-hole spacing (pitch) and different air-hole diameter (d) was investigated in detail. By proper adjustment of the available parameters, a high negative dispersion value of -47,500 ps/nm/km has been achieved around the wavelength of 1550nm. Our proposed fiber will be an excellent device for dispersion compensation in long-haul data transmission as being thousand times more than the available DCFs.

  12. Compact dual-crystal optical parametric amplification for broadband IR pulse generation using a collinear geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuofei; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2013-04-22

    A novel compact dual-crystal optical parametric amplification (DOPA) scheme, collinearly pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser (0.8 μm), is theoretically investigated for efficiently generating broadband IR pulses at non-degenerate wavelengths (1.2 μm~1.4 μm and 1.8 μm~2.1 μm). By inserting a pair of barium fluoride (BaF(2)) wedges between two thin β-barium borate (BBO) crystals, the group velocity mismatch (GVM) between the three interacting pulses can be compensated simultaneously. In this case, the obtained signal spectrum centered at 1.3 μm is nearly 20% broader and the conversion efficiency is increased, but also the pulse contrast and beam quality are improved due to the better temporal overlap. Furthermore, sub-two-cycle idler pulses with carrier-envelope phase (CEP) fluctuation of sub-100-mrad root mean square (RMS) can be generated. Because a tunable few-cycle IR pulse with millijoule energy is attainable in this scheme, it will contribute to ultrafast community and be particularly useful as a driving or controlling field for the generation of ultrafast coherent x-ray supercontinuum.

  13. Switching behaviour of nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on photonic crystal geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Man Mohan Gupta; S Medhekar

    2014-06-01

    Nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer (NMZI) created with photonic crystal waveguides (PCW) and with Kerr-type nonlinearity has been investigated in this paper. The NMZI has been simulated using two-dimensional finite difference time domain (2D-FDTD) method. Input verses output (I/O) characteristics have been obtained for different lengths of the nonlinear arm, nonlinear coefficients of the nonlinear arm, wavelengths of the input beam, sizes of defect rods and NMZI offset. The results obtained are compared with earlier published results of NMZI created with conventional step index waveguides (SIW). It is shown that all useful features of light switching offered by SIW-based NMZIs are also possible with PCW-based NMZIs of extremely small dimensions. Moreover, PCW-based NMZIs offer additional useful feature not available with SIW-based NMZIs.

  14. Investigation of Crystal Surface Finish and Geometry on Single LYSO Scintillator Detector Performance for Depth-of-Interaction Measurement with Silicon Photomultipliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Chad; Shao, Yiping

    2012-11-21

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.5×1.5×20 mm(3) and 2×2×20 mm(3) with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 micron roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays.

  15. Multiplicity factor and diffraction geometry factor for single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and measurement of phase content in cubic GaN/GaAs(001) epilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of integrated intensity of rocking curves, the multiplicity factor and the diffraction geometry factor for single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were proposed and a general formula for calculating the content of mixed phases was obtained. With a multifunction four-circle X-ray double-crystal diffractometer, pole figures of cubic (002), {111} and hexagonal {1010} and reciprocal space mapping were measured to investigate the distributive character of mixed phases and to obtain their multiplicity factors and diffraction geometry factors. The contents of cubic twins and hexagonal inclusions were calculated by the integrated intensities of rocking curves of cubic (002), cubic twin {111}, hexagonal {1010} and {1011}.

  16. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-02-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets.

  17. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  18. Geometry from Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Caticha, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    We use the method of maximum entropy to model physical space as a curved statistical manifold. It is then natural to use information geometry to explain the geometry of space. We find that the resultant information metric does not describe the full geometry of space but only its conformal geometry -- the geometry up to local changes of scale. Remarkably, this is precisely what is needed to model "physical" space in general relativity.

  19. Correlation between proton transfer and (35)Cl NQR frequency as well as molecular geometry of chloranilic acid in co-crystals with some organic bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaji, Tetsuo; Seliger, Janez; Zagar, Veselko; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-01

    Proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded organic co-crystals of chloranilic acid with some organic bases was investigated by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy. The (35)Cl NQR frequencies of chloranilic acid molecule as well as (14)N NQR frequencies of the organic base molecule were measured with the conventional pulse methods as well as double-resonance methods, respectively. The extent of proton transfer in the O...H...N hydrogen bond was estimated from Townes-Dailey analysis of the (14)N NQR parameters. The (35)Cl NQR frequency and molecular geometry of chloranilic acid are correlated to the extent of proton transfer in the protonation process of the organic base molecule. It is shown that the hydrogen bond affects the pi-electron system of chloranilic acid. Geometry dependence of the O...H...N hydrogen bond, i.e. the H-N valence bond order versus the hydrogen-bond geometry correlation is also discussed.

  20. Efficient defrosting of an inclined flat surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrata Roy; Haribalan Kumar; Anderson, R. [Kettering University, Flint, MI (United States). Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory

    2005-06-01

    We present a deicing simulation for a practical three-dimensional geometry inside which hot air jets impinge upon a flat inclined glass surface with a layer of ice on the outside. The main goal is to study the unsteady two-phase melting process over the inclined flat surface, and to identify the traditional control parameters such as jet impingement angles for minimization of the defrosting time for given ice and glass thicknesses. A correlation for defrosting as functions of time, heat transfer parameters and impingement angles has been found. Also, in this study, the first Joule heating defroster using transparent electrodes are proposed and numerically simulated as a viable alternative. A correlation between the electrical Joule power requirement and the defrosting time is given. It is demonstrated that substantial improvements (roughly 70% reduction) in defrosting time may be achieved using Joule heating compared to the traditional jet impingement HVAC technology. (author)

  1. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  2. Analysis of inclined showers measured with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saftoiu, A. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: allixme@gmail.com; Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Inst. Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Auffenberg, J. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Badea, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, we analyze the radio signal from inclined air showers recorded by LOPES-30 in coincidence with KASCADE-Grande. LOPES-30 consists of 30 East-West oriented digital antennas, which are amplitude calibrated by an external source. Radio emission from air showers is considered a geomagnetic effect. Inclined events provide a larger range of values for geomagnetic angle (angle between shower axis and geomagnetic field direction) than vertical showers and thus more information on the emission processes can be gathered. In order to have the geometry of the air shower we use the reconstruction provided by the KASCADE-Grande particle detectors array. Analyzing events observed by both LOPES and the extended part of the KASCADE array, Grande, gives the possibility to test in particular the capability and efficiency of radio detection of more distant events. The results are compared with a previous analysis of inclined events recorded by the initial 10 antenna set-up, LOPES-10, in coincidence with the Grande array.

  3. Geometry explains the large difference in the elastic properties of fcc and hcp crystals of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sushko, N; van der Schoot, P

    2005-01-01

    As is well known, hard-sphere crystals of the fcc and hcp type differ very little in their thermodynamic properties. Nonetheless, recent computer simulations by Pronk and Frenkel indicate that the elastic response to mechanical deformation of these two types of crystal are quite different [S. Pronk

  4. Critical inclinations in satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprit, A.

    1978-01-01

    The main problem of satellite theory is described in polar coordinates by a Hamiltonian function. It is proposed to find a solution of the Hamiltonian function with the following properties: (1) the reference orbit is Keplerian; (2) no restriction is imposed on the eccentricity; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small eccentricities; and (3) no restriction is imposed on the inclination; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small inclinations; also it is valid even in the neighborhood of inclinations at which the perigee is stationary.

  5. Influence of the crucible geometry on the shape of the melt crystal interface during growth of sapphire crystal using a heat exchanger method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh-Chen; Lu, Chung-Wei

    2004-05-01

    Computer simulations using the commercial code FIDAP, which is based on finite element techniques, were performed to investigate the effect of the shape of the crucible on the temperature distribution, velocity distribution and shape of the melt-crystal interface, during the application of the heat exchanger method (HEM) of growing sapphire crystals. Heat transfer from the furnace to the crucible and heat extraction from the heat exchanger can be modeled by the convection boundary conditions. Cylindrical crucibles with differently curved corners at their base are considered. The curved base of the crucible decreases the convexity of the melt-crystal interface and suppresses the appearance of "hot spots". A hemispherically shaped crucible base yields the lowest maximum convexity. The variation in convexity of the melt-crystal interface is less abrupt for a cylindrical crucible with curved corners at the base than one without curved corners. The effects of the thickness and the conductivity of the crucible are also addressed. The convexity of the melt-crystal interface decreases as the thickness of the crucible wall increases. The convexity also declines as the conductivity of the crucible increases.

  6. Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L

    2015-01-07

    Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response.

  7. Frequency-selective near-field radiative heat transfer between photonic crystal slabs: a computational approach for arbitrary geometries and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Ilic, Ognjen; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Johnson, Steven G

    2011-09-09

    We demonstrate the possibility of achieving enhanced frequency-selective near-field radiative heat transfer between patterned (photonic-crystal) slabs at designable frequencies and separations, exploiting a general numerical approach for computing heat transfer in arbitrary geometries and materials based on the finite-difference time-domain method. Our simulations reveal a tradeoff between selectivity and near-field enhancement as the slab-slab separation decreases, with the patterned heat transfer eventually reducing to the unpatterned result multiplied by a fill factor (described by a standard proximity approximation). We also find that heat transfer can be further enhanced at selective frequencies when the slabs are brought into a glide-symmetric configuration, a consequence of the degeneracies associated with the nonsymmorphic symmetry group.

  8. Crystal and geometry-optimized structure, and Hirshfeld surface analysis of 1-(2-bromoethylindoline-2,3-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sharmila

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8BrNO2, the isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione moiety is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.026 Å. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the ab plane, and enclosing R44(24 loops. There are a low percentage (19.3% of intermolecular H...H contacts in the structure, as estimated by the analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces. This could be due to the presence of the Br atom, present in the bromoethylene group, which makes ca 18.7% Br...H contacts.

  9. Lightcurves of Stars & Exoplanets: Estimating Inclination, Obliquity, and Albedo

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, Nicolas B; Haggard, Hal M

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] It is possible to determine a star or planet's brightness markings by analyzing its disk-integrated brightness variations, in either thermal or reflected light. We compute the "harmonic lightcurves" resulting from spherical harmonic maps of intensity or albedo. These convolutions often contain a nullspace: a class of non-zero maps that have no lightcurve signature. We derive harmonic thermal lightcurves for both equatorial and inclined observers. The nullspace for these two viewing geometries is significantly different, with odd modes being present in the latter case, but not the former. We therefore suggest that the Fourier spectrum of a thermal lightcurve is sufficient to determine the orbital inclination of non-transiting short-period planets, the rotational inclination of stars and brown dwarfs, and the obliquity of directly imaged planets. In the best-case scenario of a nearly edge-on rotator, factor-of-two measurements of the amplitudes of odd modes in the thermal lightcurve provide an inclin...

  10. Twistor geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of the relation between the geometry of twistor space and the geometry of Minkowski space. The paper has a didactical purpose; no use has been made of differential geometry and cohomology.

  11. SEDIMENTATION BROKEN IN INCLINED SEOIMENTADORES

    OpenAIRE

    Lama-Ramirez, R.; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.; Condorhuamán-Ccorimanya, C.; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the batch sedimentation of aqueous suspensions of precipitated calcium carbonate, barium sulfate and lead oxide settlers inclined rectangular and circular cross section. The énguio tilt with respect to the horizontal between 35 ° and 75 °, to suspensions that vary in strength between 39.4 and 1070 g / l.Las obtained apparent sedimentation velocities ranging from 0.071 to 17.6 cm / min. the apparent sedimentation rate has been correlated using a modified version of the equation...

  12. Universal correlators from geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Korteweg-de Vries Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Temuerhan, Mine; Sinkovics, Annamaria [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: sinkovic@science.uva.nl

    2004-11-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion. (author)

  13. Universal Correlators from Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Temurhan, Mine

    2004-11-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion.

  14. Universal Correlators from Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Temurhan, M; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Temurhan, Mine

    2004-01-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion.

  15. Hiding Planets Behind a Big Friend: Mutual Inclinations of Multi-Planet Systems with External Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The {\\it Kepler} mission has detected thousands of planetary systems with 1-7 transiting planets packed within 0.7~au from their host stars. There is an apparent excess of single-transit planet systems that cannot be explained by transit geometries alone, when a single planetary mutual inclination dispersion is assumed. This suggests that the observed compact planetary systems have at least two different architectures. We present a scenario where the "Kepler dichotomy" can be explained by the action of an external giant planet (or stellar) companion misaligned with the inner multi-planet system. The external companion excites mutual inclinations of the inner planets, causing such systems to appear as "Kepler singles" in transit surveys. We derive approximate analytic expressions (in various limiting regimes), calibrated with numerical calculations, for the mutual inclination excitations for various planetary systems and perturber properties (mass $m_p$, semi-major axis $a_p$ and inclination $\\theta_p$). In ge...

  16. Particle transport in inclined annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtzhals, Erik

    1993-12-31

    A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)

  17. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Guggenheimer, Heinrich W

    1977-01-01

    This is a text of local differential geometry considered as an application of advanced calculus and linear algebra. The discussion is designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate study, and presumes of readers only a fair knowledge of matrix algebra and of advanced calculus of functions of several real variables. The author, who is a Professor of Mathematics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York, begins with a discussion of plane geometry and then treats the local theory of Lie groups and transformation groups, solid differential geometry, and Riemannian geometry, leading to a

  18. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  19. Heat transfer enhancement induced by wall inclination in turbulent thermal convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenjereš, Saša

    2015-11-01

    We present a series of numerical simulations of turbulent thermal convection of air in an intermediate range or Rayleigh numbers (10(6)≤Ra≤10(9)) with different configurations of a thermally active lower surface. The geometry of the lower surface is designed in such a way that it represents a simplified version of a mountain slope with different inclinations (i.e., "Λ"- and "V"-shaped geometry). We find that different wall inclinations significantly affect the local heat transfer by imposing local clustering of instantaneous thermal plumes along the inclination peaks. The present results reveal that significant enhancement of the integral heat transfer can be obtained (up to 32%) when compared to a standard Rayleigh-Bénard configuration with flat horizontal walls. This is achieved through combined effects of the enlargement of the heated surface and reorganization of the large-scale flow structures.

  20. Dipper disks not inclined towards edge-on orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, M; Williams, J P; Kennedy, G; Wyatt, M C; LaCourse, D M; Jacobs, T L; Mann, A W

    2016-01-01

    The so-called "dipper" stars host circumstellar disks and have optical and infrared light curves that exhibit quasi-periodic or aperiodic dimming events consistent with extinction by transiting dusty structures orbiting in the inner disk. Most of the proposed mechanisms explaining the dips---i.e., occulting disk warps, vortices, and forming planetesimals---assume nearly edge-on viewing geometries. However, our analysis of the three known dippers with publicly available resolved sub-mm data reveals disks with a range of inclinations, most notably the face-on transition disk J1604-2130 (EPIC 204638512). This suggests that nearly edge-on viewing geometries are not a defining characteristic of the dippers and that additional models should be explored. If confirmed by further observations of more dippers, this would point to inner disk processes that regularly produce dusty structures far above the outer disk midplane in regions relevant to planet formation.

  1. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  2. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-11155, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 19938-91176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ({mu}). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 {mu}. If {mu} > 2/7 tan {theta}, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  3. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; 10.1088/0143-0807/32/4/017

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the article using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ($\\mu$). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the article the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is $2/7}\\ \\mu$. If $\\mu> 2/7 \\tan\\theta$, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling center of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  4. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  5. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  6. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Graustein, William C

    2006-01-01

    This first course in differential geometry presents the fundamentals of the metric differential geometry of curves and surfaces in a Euclidean space of three dimensions. Written by an outstanding teacher and mathematician, it explains the material in the most effective way, using vector notation and technique. It also provides an introduction to the study of Riemannian geometry.Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, the text presupposes a knowledge of calculus. The first nine chapters focus on the theory, treating the basic properties of curves and surfaces, the mapping of

  7. Algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  8. Information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...

  9. Subtracted geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Zain Hamid

    In this thesis we study a special class of black hole geometries called subtracted geometries. Subtracted geometry black holes are obtained when one omits certain terms from the warp factor of the metric of general charged rotating black holes. The omission of these terms allows one to write the wave equation of the black hole in a completely separable way and one can explicitly see that the wave equation of a massless scalar field in this slightly altered background of a general multi-charged rotating black hole acquires an SL(2, R) x SL(2, R) x SO(3) symmetry. The "subtracted limit" is considered an appropriate limit for studying the internal structure of the non-subtracted black holes because new 'subtracted' black holes have the same horizon area and periodicity of the angular and time coordinates in the near horizon regions as the original black hole geometry it was constructed from. The new geometry is asymptotically conical and is physically similar to that of a black hole in an asymptotically confining box. We use the different nice properties of these geometries to understand various classically and quantum mechanically important features of general charged rotating black holes.

  10. Hiding Planets behind a Big Friend: Mutual Inclinations of Multi-planet Systems with External Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Pu, Bonan

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected thousands of planetary systems with one to seven transiting planets packed within 0.7 au from their host stars. There is an apparent excess of single-transit planet systems that cannot be explained by transit geometries alone, when a single planetary mutual inclination dispersion is assumed. This suggests that the observed compact planetary systems have at least two different architectures. We present a scenario where the “Kepler dichotomy” may be explained by the action of an external giant planet or stellar companion misaligned with the inner multi-planet system. The external companion excites mutual inclinations of the inner planets, causing such systems to appear as “Kepler singles” in transit surveys. We derive approximate analytic expressions (in various limiting regimes), calibrated with numerical calculations, for the mutual inclination excitations for various planetary systems and perturber properties (mass mp, semimajor axis ap, and inclination {θ }p). In general, the excited mutual inclination increases with {m}p/{a}p3 and {θ }p, though secular resonances may lead to large mutual inclinations even for small {θ }p. We discuss the implications of our results for understanding the dynamical history of transiting planet systems with known external perturbers.

  11. Inclination of Nations to Control Press and Attitudes on Professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Interviews official representatives of 58 nations to investigate their "inclination to control" the press. Finds the region most inclined to control the press is the Middle East, whereas regions least inclined are Western Europe and North America. (RS)

  12. Excitation of inclinations in ring-satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borderies, N.; Goldreich, P.; Tremaine, S.

    1984-01-01

    Resonant gravitational interactions between a ring and a satellite produce secular variations of their orbital inclinations. Interactions at vertical resonances, analogous to Lindblad resonances but involving inclinations instead of eccentricities, excite inclinations. There is no inclination analog of the corotation resonance. An equatorial ring changes the inclination of a nearby satellite in qualitatively the same way that a satellite in an equatorial orbit changes the inclination of a nearby ring. Viscous dissipation in a ring leads to an equilibrium value of its inclination. These results provide a basis for discussing the origins of the inclinations of planetary rings.

  13. Installation of a flow control device in an inclined air-curtain fume hood to control wake-induced exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2016-08-01

    An inclined plate for flow control was installed at the lower edge of the sash of an inclined air-curtain fume hood to reduce the effects of the wake around a worker standing in front of the fume hood. Flow inside the fume hood is controlled by the inclined air-curtain and deflection plates, thereby forming a quad-vortex flow structure. Controlling the face velocity of the fume hood resulted in convex, straight, concave, and attachment flow profiles in the inclined air-curtain. We used the flow visualization and conducted a tracer gas test with a mannequin to determine the performance of two sash geometries, namely, the half-cylinder and inclined plate designs. When the half-cylinder design was used, the tracer gas test registered a high leakage concentration at Vf ≦ 57.1 fpm or less. This concentration occurred at the top of the sash opening, which was close to the breathing zone of the mannequin placed in front of the fume hood. When the inclined plate design was used, the containment was good, with concentrations of 0.002-0.004 ppm, at Vf ≦ 63.0 fpm. Results indicate that an inclined plate effectively reduces the leakage concentration induced by recirculation flow structures that form in the wake of a worker standing in front of an inclined air-curtain fume hood.

  14. Geometry Revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,

  15. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  16. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  17. An inclined plane system with microcontroller to determine limb motor function of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a high-accuracy inclined plane test system for quantitative measurement of the limb motor function of laboratory rats. The system is built around a microcontroller and uses a stepping motor to drive a ball screw, which changes the angle of the inclined plane. Any of the seven inclination speeds can be selected by the user. Two infrared (IR) LED/detector pairs function as interrupt sensors for objective determination of the moment that the rat loses its grip on the textured flooring of the starting area and slips down the plane. Inclination angle at the moment of IR interrupt (i.e. rat slip) is recorded. A liquid crystal display module shows the inclination speed and the inclination angle. The system can function as a stand alone device but a RS232 port allows connection to a personal computer (PC), so data can be sent directly to hard disk for storage and analysis. Experiments can be controlled by a local keypad or by the connected PC. Advantages of the presented system include easy operation, high accuracy, non-dependence on human observation for determination of slip angle, stand-alone capability, low cost and easy modification of the controlling software for different types of experiments. A fully functional prototype of the system is described. The prototype was used experimentally by a hospital group testing traumatic brain injury experiments, and some of their results are presented for system verification. It is found that the system is stable, accurate and easily used by investigators.

  18. Architectural geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, A.; Wallner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural

  19. Architectural geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, A.; Wallner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural

  20. Plastic Limit Load Analysis of Cylindrical Pressure Vessels with Different Nozzle Inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Anupam; Raval, Harit Kishorchandra; Gandhi, Anish; Pawar, Dipak Bapu

    2016-04-01

    Sudden change in geometry of pressure vessel due to nozzle cutout, leads to local stress concentration and deformation, decreasing its strength. Elastic plastic analysis of cylindrical pressure vessels with different inclination angles of nozzle is important to estimate plastic limit load. In the present study, cylindrical pressure vessels with combined inclination of nozzles (i.e. in longitudinal and radial plane) are considered for elastic plastic limit load analysis. Three dimensional static nonlinear finite element analyses of cylindrical pressure vessels with nozzle are performed for incremental pressure loading. The von Mises stress distribution on pressure vessel shows higher stress zones at shell-nozzle junction. Approximate plastic limit load is obtained by twice elastic slope method. Variation in limit pressure with different combined inclination angle of nozzle is analyzed and found to be distinct in nature. Reported results can be helpful in optimizing pressure vessel design.

  1. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-04-07

    A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.

  2. A MODIFIED METHOD FOR IMAGE TRIANGULATION USING INCLINED ANGLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alsadik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing technical improvements in photogrammetry, Geomatics, computer vision (CV, and robotics offer new possibilities for many applications requiring efficient acquisition of three-dimensional data. Image orientation is one of these important techniques in many applications like mapping, precise measurements, 3D modeling and navigation. Image orientation comprises three main techniques of resection, intersection (triangulation and relative orientation, which are conventionally solved by collinearity equations or by using projection and fundamental matrices. However, different problems still exist in the state – of –the –art of image orientation because of the nonlinearity and the sensitivity to proper initialization and spatial distribution of the points. In this research, a modified method is presented to solve the triangulation problem using inclined angles derived from the measured image coordinates and based on spherical trigonometry rules and vector geometry. The developed procedure shows promising results compared to collinearity approach and to converge to the global minimum even when starting from far approximations. This is based on the strong geometric constraint offered by the inclined angles that are enclosed between the object points and the camera stations. Numerical evaluations with perspective and panoramic images are presented and compared with the conventional solution of collinearity equations. The results show the efficiency of the developed model and the convergence of the solution to global minimum even with improper starting values.

  3. a Modified Method for Image Triangulation Using Inclined Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadik, Bashar

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing technical improvements in photogrammetry, Geomatics, computer vision (CV), and robotics offer new possibilities for many applications requiring efficient acquisition of three-dimensional data. Image orientation is one of these important techniques in many applications like mapping, precise measurements, 3D modeling and navigation. Image orientation comprises three main techniques of resection, intersection (triangulation) and relative orientation, which are conventionally solved by collinearity equations or by using projection and fundamental matrices. However, different problems still exist in the state - of -the -art of image orientation because of the nonlinearity and the sensitivity to proper initialization and spatial distribution of the points. In this research, a modified method is presented to solve the triangulation problem using inclined angles derived from the measured image coordinates and based on spherical trigonometry rules and vector geometry. The developed procedure shows promising results compared to collinearity approach and to converge to the global minimum even when starting from far approximations. This is based on the strong geometric constraint offered by the inclined angles that are enclosed between the object points and the camera stations. Numerical evaluations with perspective and panoramic images are presented and compared with the conventional solution of collinearity equations. The results show the efficiency of the developed model and the convergence of the solution to global minimum even with improper starting values.

  4. Influence of inclined twin boundaries on the deformation behavior of Cu micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imrich, P.J., E-mail: peter.imrich@stud.unileoben.ac.at [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstraße 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Kirchlechner, C., E-mail: c.kirchlechner@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität, Jahnstraße 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Dehm, G., E-mail: dehm@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-08-26

    In situ micromechanical compression tests on Cu pillars were performed to evaluate the influence of twin boundaries on the mechanical behavior. The 1 µm sized Cu samples on a Si substrate prepared by focused ion beam milling were either single crystalline or contained 2–5 twin boundaries that were inclined to the compression direction. The strengths of the pillars vary, depending on the crystal orientation, associated twin boundary inclination and orientation of slip systems. Results show, that multiple slip systems are activated in each pillar. However, slip parallel to the twin boundaries prevails due to the long mean free path for dislocation movement.

  5. Temperature dependence of the crystal structure and g-values of trans-diaquabis(methoxyacetato)copper(II): evidence for a thermal equilibrium between complexes with tetragonally elongated and compressed geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charles J; Stratemeier, Horst; Hitchman, Michael A; Reinen, Dirk; Masters, Vanessa M; Riley, Mark J

    2011-06-06

    The crystal structures of trans-diaquabis(methoxyacetato)copper(II) and the isostructural nickel(II) complex have been determined over a wide temperature range. In conjunction with the reported behavior of the g-values, the structural data suggest that the copper(II) compound exhibits a thermal equilibrium between three structural forms, two having orthorhombically distorted, tetragonally elongated geometries but with the long and intermediate bonds to different atoms, and the third with a tetragonally compressed geometry. This is apparently the first reported example of a copper(II) complex undergoing an equilibrium between tetragonally elongated and compressed forms. The optical spectrum of single crystals of the copper(II) compound is used to obtain metal-ligand bonding parameters which yield the g-values of the compressed form of the complex and hence the proportions of the complex in each structural form at every temperature. When combined with estimates of the Jahn-Teller distortions of the different forms, the latter produce excellent agreement with the observed temperature dependence of the bond lengths. The behavior of an infrared combination band is consistent with such a thermal equilibrium, as is the temperature dependence of the thermal ellipsoid parameters and the XAFS. The potential surfaces of the different forms of the copper(II) complex have been calculated by a model based upon Jahn-Teller coupling. It is suggested that cooperative effects may cause the development of the population of tetragonally compressed complexes, and the crystal packing is consistent with this hypothesis, though the present model may oversimplify the diversity of structural forms present at high temperature. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intended for a one year course, this text serves as a single source, introducing readers to the important techniques and theorems, while also containing enough background on advanced topics to appeal to those students wishing to specialize in Riemannian geometry. This is one of the few Works to combine both the geometric parts of Riemannian geometry and the analytic aspects of the theory. The book will appeal to a readership that have a basic knowledge of standard manifold theory, including tensors, forms, and Lie groups. Important revisions to the third edition include: a substantial addition of unique and enriching exercises scattered throughout the text; inclusion of an increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature; addition of general formulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions; integration of variational calculus into the text allowing for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a proof by Berger; incorporation of several recent results about manifolds with posit...

  7. Ring formation on an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robert; Du, Xiyu

    2015-11-01

    A drop dried on a solid surface will typically leave a narrow band of solute deposited along the contact line. We examined variations of this deposit due to the inclination of the substrate using numerical simulations of a two-dimensional drop, equivalent to a strip-like drop. An asymptotic analysis of the contact line region predicts that the upslope deposit will grow faster at early times, but the growth of this deposit ends sooner because the upper contact line depins first. From our simulations we find that the deposit can be larger at either the upper or lower contact line depending on the initial drop volume and substrate inclination. For larger drops and steeper inclinations, the early lead in deposited mass at the upper contact line is wiped out by the earlier depinning of the upper contact line and subsequent continued growth at the lower contact line. Conversely, for smaller drops and shallower inclinations, the early lead of the upper contact line is insurmountable despite its earlier termination in growth. Our results show that it is difficult to reconstruct a postiorithe inclination of the substrate based solely on the shape of the deposit. The authors thank the James S. McDonnell Foundation for support through a 21st Century Science Initiative in Studying Complex Systems Research Award, and the National Science Foundation for support under Grant No. 0932600.

  8. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kreyszig, Erwin

    1991-01-01

    An introductory textbook on the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, presented in its simplest, most essential form, but with many explanatory details, figures and examples, and in a manner that conveys the theoretical and practical importance of the different concepts, methods and results involved. With problems at the end of each section, and solutions listed at the end of the book. Includes 99 illustrations.

  9. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino De Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined arms. The inclined arms are known to have a potentially beneficial role in the power extraction from the wind current but, due to the complexity of the phenomena, the investigation on aerodynamics of this type of turbine is often impossible through analytical models, such as blade-element momentum theory. It turns out that adequate studies can only be carried out by wind tunnel experiments or CFD simulations. This work presents a methodical CFD study on how inclined arms can be used on a selected wind turbine configuration to harvest additional power from the wind. The turbine configuration, geometry, and some fundamental definitions are introduced first. Then an in-depth CFD analysis is presented and discussed.

  10. Discharge Coefficient of 3-in-1 Hole with Various Inclination Angle and Hole Pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guangchao; Zhu Huiren; Fan Huiming

    2008-01-01

    Discharge coefficients of 3-in- 1 hole of three inclination angles and three spacing between holes are presented which described the discharge behavior of a row of holes. The inlet and outlet of the 3-in-1 hole both have a 15° lateral expansion. The flow conditions considered are mainstream turbulence intensities and density ratios of secondary flow to mainstream. The momentum flux ratios varied in the range froom 1 to 4. The comparison is made of the discharge coefficients of three shaped holes to find an optimal hole with low flow loss. The results show that the discharge coefficients of 3-in-1 hole are highest in three shaped holes and therefore this article is focused on the measurements of discharge coefficients of 3-in-1 hole for various geometries and aerodynamic parameters. The measured results of 3-in-1 hole indicate that turbulence intensities, density ratios and momentum flux ratios have weak influence on discharge coefficients for inclination angle of 20°. The high turbulence intensity yields the small discharge coefficients for inclination angle of 45° and 90°.The increased both momentum flux ratios and density ratios lead to the increased discharge coefficients for inclination angle of 45° and 90°. The increased inclination angle causes the rapidly increased discharge coefficients. There is a weak dependence of discharge coefficients on hole pitches.

  11. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  12. Recognizing the threshold magnetic anisotropy for inclination shallowing: Implications for correcting inclination errors of sedimentary rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang eLi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-depositional compaction is an integral part of sedimentary rock formation and thus has been reasonably deemed as a major culprit for the long-recognized inclination-shallowing problem in sedimentary rocks. Although theoretical treatment elegantly envisions magnetic anisotropy (or oblate fabrics to correspond to the degree of compaction and the magnitude of inclination flattening, such correspondence has rarely been seen in nature quantitavely, which leaves the possibility of misidentification and/or over-correction for inclination shallowing using magnetic anisotropy. This is because the extent to which oblate magnetic fabrics are developed strongly enough for inclination to start becoming shallow is not yet known. Here, we present sedimentary paleomagnetic data from two ~6 m long gravity cores GHE24L and GHE27L from the northern slope of the South China Sea to examine the down-core changes in magnetic anisotropy and inclinations, and to explore the possible connection between the two parameters. The results show that oblate fabrics are dominantly developed at depths >~2m and the degree of anisotropy displays an overall gradual increase with depth. Inclination shallowing occurs in the > 5m segment of the relatively distal core GHE27L and the amount of shallowing largely correlates with the degree of anisotropy, suggesting a causal relation between the development of magnetic anisotropy and the degree of inclination shallowing. Examination of down-core changes in inclination and magnetic anisotropy suggests that a threshold anisotropy of PAMS~1.04 and PAAR~1.10 exists for inclination shallowing in the cores. For PAAR10° if particle anisotropy is <1.4. This study provides strong field evidence that complements and substantiates the theoretical model and suggests that the threshold anisotropy can be used as a first-order criterion to identify inclination errors of some sedimentary rocks.

  13. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  14. Optimizing snake locomotion on an inclined plane

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model to study the locomotion of snakes on an inclined plane. We determine numerically which snake motions are optimal for two retrograde traveling-wave body shapes---triangular and sinusoidal waves---across a wide range of frictional parameters and incline angles. In the regime of large transverse friction coefficient, we find power-law scalings for the optimal wave amplitudes and corresponding costs of locomotion. We give an asymptotic analysis to show that the optimal snake motions are traveling-wave motions with amplitudes given by the same scaling laws found in the numerics.

  15. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  16. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    2007-01-01

    This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and

  17. Magnetotransmission of unpolarized infrared radiation in Hg1 - x Cd x Cr2Se4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) single crystals studied using the voigt geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Telegin, A. V.; Bebenin, N. G.; Patrakov, E. I.; Naumov, S. V.; Fedorov, V. A.; Menshchikova, T. K.

    2013-11-01

    The features characterizing the behavior of magnetotransmission in Hg1 - x Cd x Cr2Se4 single crystals are studied using natural light in the infrared spectral range. The relation between the changes in the magneto-optical properties and in the electron band structure is found. It is shown that the most significant changes in the magnetotransmission spectrum and the band structure occur within the 0.1 < x < 0.25 range.

  18. Crystal structure of diethyl 2-amino-6-[(thiophen-3-ylethynyl]azulene-1,3-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Förster

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H19NO4S, has an almost planar geometry supported by intramolecular N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The thiophene ring is inclined to the azulene ring by 4.85 (16°, while the ethoxycarbonyl groups are inclined to the azulene ring by 7.0 (2 and 5.7 (2°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(12 ring motif. The dimers are linked via C—H...π interactions, forming sheets parallel to (10-1.

  19. Crystallization Growth of Single Crystal Cu by ContinuousCasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Crystallization growth of single-crystal Cu by continuous casting has been investigated using selfdesigned horizontal continuous casting equipment and XRD. Experimental results showed that the crystallization plane of (311), (220) and (111) were eliminated sequentially in evolutionary process. The final growth plane of crystal was (200), the direction of crystallization was [100],the growth direction of both sides of the rod inclined to axis, and the degree of deviation of direction [100] from the crystal axis was less than 10. In order to produce high quality single crystal, the solid-liquid interface morphology must be smooth, even be planar.

  20. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  1. Inclined test of nacelle wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael

    A nacelle wind lidar, placed at ground level, is tested by inclining the laser beams to bisect a measurement mast at a known distance and height. The horizontal wind speed reported by the lidar is compared to a reference cup anemometer mounted on the mast at the comparison height....

  2. Airborne LIDAR point cloud tower inclination judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    liang, Chen; zhengjun, Liu; jianguo, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Inclined transmission line towers for the safe operation of the line caused a great threat, how to effectively, quickly and accurately perform inclined judgment tower of power supply company safety and security of supply has played a key role. In recent years, with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a laser scanner, GPS, inertial navigation is one of the high-precision 3D Remote Sensing System in the electricity sector more and more. By airborne radar scan point cloud to visually show the whole picture of the three-dimensional spatial information of the power line corridors, such as the line facilities and equipment, terrain and trees. Currently, LIDAR point cloud research in the field has not yet formed an algorithm to determine tower inclination, the paper through the existing power line corridor on the tower base extraction, through their own tower shape characteristic analysis, a vertical stratification the method of combining convex hull algorithm for point cloud tower scarce two cases using two different methods for the tower was Inclined to judge, and the results with high reliability.

  3. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  4. Liquid drops sliding down an inclined plane

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Inwon

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a one-dimensional model describing the motion of liquid drops sliding down an inclined plane (the so-called quasi-static approximation model). We prove existence and uniqueness of a solution and investigate its long time behavior for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous medium (i.e. constant and non-constant contact angle). We also obtain some homogenization results.

  5. Inclination of Broad Line Region in Narrow Line and Broad Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The sizes of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of some Seyfert 1 galax-ies and nearby quasars can be determined by the reverberation mapping method.Combining with the observed FWHM of Hβ emission line and assuming that themotion of BLR clouds is virialized, the black hole masses of these objects have beenestimated. However, this method strongly depends on the poorly-understood geom-etry and inclination of the BLR. On the other hand, a tight correlation between theblack hole mass and the bulge velocity dispersion was recently found for both activeand nearby inactive galaxies. This may provide another method, independent of theBLR geometry, for estimating the black hole mass. Using this method for estimatingthe black hole mass and combining with the measured BLR size and FWHM of Hβemission line, we derived the BLR inclination angles for 20 Seyfert I galaxies underthe assumption that the BLR is disk-like. The derived inclination angles agree wellwith those derived previously by fitting the UV continuum and Hβ emission lineprofiles. Adopting a relation between the FWHMs of [OⅢ]λ5007 forbidden line andthe stellar velocity dispersion, we also estimated the BLR inclinations for 50 nar-row line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSls). We found that the inclinations of broad LineSeyfert 1 galaxies (BLS1s) are systematically greater than those of NLS1s, whichseldom exceed 30. This may be an important factor that leads to the differencesbetween NLS1s and BLS1s if the BLR of NLS1s is really disk-like.

  6. Coherent X-Radiation Excited by a Beam of Multiply Scattered Relativistic Electrons in a Single Crystal in the Bragg Scattering Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazhevich, S. V.; Noskov, A. V.; Nemtsev, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    A dynamic theory of coherent x-radiation emitted by a divergent beam of relativistic electrons traversing a thin single-crystal plate is developed which takes into account multiple scattering of the electrons on the target atoms. The case is considered in which the target is quite thin, so that it is not necessary to take absorption of radiation into account, but the electron path in the target is quite long, so that it is necessary to take multiple scattering into account. Expressions are obtained which describe the spectral-angular characteristics of parametric x-radiation and diffracted transient radiation under these conditions. Conditions are described under which diffracted bremsstrahlung radiation can be neglected. The possibility of manifesting the effects of dynamic diffraction is investigated.

  7. Evaporation dynamics of water droplets on inclined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    When a water droplet is gently placed on a flat substrate, particularly which is tilted at an inclined angle, usually there are advancing and receding angles inside the droplet formed by inclination under gravitational force. Evaporation dynamics of an nonspherical inclined droplet at inclinations would deviate from that of a spherical droplet. Here we study on evaporation dynamics rates of inclined droplets by measuring mass changes with time and their lifetimes. We find that the lifetime of an evaporating inclined droplets becomes longer as the gravitational influence becomes stronger. The lifetime depends on the pinning-depinning transitions and the depinning onset times, which are changed by the gravitational influence. This The dependence inclination-induced evaporation behavior would be useful important in understanding evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  8. Evaluation of the Linear and Second-Order NLO Properties of Molecular Crystals within the Local Field Theory: Electron Correlation Effects, Choice of XC Functional, ZPVA Contributions, and Impact of the Geometry in the Case of 2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Tomasz; Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Champagne, Benoît

    2014-05-13

    The linear [χ((1))] and second-order nonlinear [χ((2))] optical susceptibilities of the 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) crystal are calculated within the local field theory, which consists of first computing the molecular properties, accounting for the dressing effects of the surroundings, and then taking into account the local field effects. Several aspects of these calculations are tackled with the aim of monitoring the convergence of the χ((1)) and χ((2)) predictions with respect to experiment by accounting for the effects of (i) the dressing field within successive approximations, of (ii) the first-order ZPVA corrections, and of (iii) the geometry. With respect to the reference CCSD-based results, besides double hybrid functionals, the most reliable exchange-correlation functionals are LC-BLYP for the static χ((1)) and CAM-B3LYP (and M05-2X, to a lesser extent) for the dynamic χ((1)) but they strongly underestimate χ((2)). Double hybrids perform better for χ((2)) but not necessarily for χ((1)), and, moreover, their performances are much similar to MP2, which is known to slightly overestimate β, with respect to high-level coupled-clusters calculations and, therefore, χ((2)). Other XC functionals with less HF exchange perform poorly with overestimations/underestimations of χ((1))/χ((2)), whereas the HF method leads to underestimations of both. The first-order ZPVA corrections, estimated at the B3LYP level, are usually small but not negligible. Indeed, after ZPVA corrections, the molecular polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities increase by 2% and 5%, respectively, whereas their impact is magnified on the macroscopic responses with enhancements of χ((1)) by up to 5% and of χ((2)) by as much as 10%-12% at λ = 1064 nm. The geometry plays also a key role in view of predicting accurate susceptibilities, particularly for push-pull π-conjugated compounds such as MNA. So, the geometry optimized using periodic boundary conditions is characterized

  9. Inclined transpression in the Neka Valley, eastern Alborz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Tohid; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Talbot, Christopher J.

    2016-09-01

    Three major nappes in the Neka Valley in the eastern Alborz Mountains of Iran allow the Cimmerian to present convergence following the oblique collision between Iran and the southern margin of Eurasia. This work reports the identification of an inclined transpression zone recognized by field investigations and strain analyses of the geometries of formations and detailed mesoscopic structural analyses of multiple faults, folds and a cleavage. The main structures encountered include refolded recumbent asymmetric fold nappes, highly curved fold hinges, in a transpression zone that dips 37° to the NW between boundaries thrusts striking from N050° to N060°. The β angle (the angle between the zone boundary and direction of horizontal far-field shortening) is about 80°. The north-west and south-east boundaries of this zone coincide with the Haji-abad thrust and the Shah-Kuh thrust, respectively. Fold axes generally trend NE-SW and step to both right and left as a result of strike-slip components of fault displacements. Strain analyses using Fry's method on macroscopic ooids and fusulina deformed into oblate ellipsoids indicate that the natural strain varies between 2.1 and 3.14. The estimated angle between the maximum instantaneous strain axis (ISAmax) and the transpression zone boundary (θ') is between 6° and 20°. The estimated oblique convergence angle (α), therefore, ranges between 31° and 43°. The average kinematic vorticity number (W k ) is 0.6, in a zone of sinistral pure shear-dominated inclined triclinic transpression. These results support the applicability of kinematic models of triclinic transpression to natural brittle-ductile shear zones.

  10. Quasi-crystalline geometry for architectural structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture; Weinzieri, Barbara

    The quasi-crystal (QC) type of material was discovered in 1983 by Dan Schechtman from Technion, Haifa. This new crystalline structure of material broke totally with the traditional conception of crystals and geometry introducing non-periodic close packing of cells with fivefold symmetry in 3D space...

  11. Energetics of ascent: insects on inclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, R J; Tullis, A

    1990-03-01

    Small animals use more metabolic energy per unit mass than large animals to run on a level surface. If the cost to lift one gram of mass one vertical meter is constant, small animals should require proportionally smaller increases in metabolic cost to run uphill. To test this hypothesis on very small animals possessing an exceptional capacity for ascending steep gradients, we measured the metabolic cost of locomotion in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, running at angles of 0, 45 and 90 degrees to the horizontal. Resting oxygen consumption (VO2rest) was not affected by incline angle. Steady-state oxygen consumption (VO2ss) increased linearly with speed at all angles of ascent. The minimum cost of locomotion (the slope of the VO2ss versus speed function) increased with increasing angle of ascent. The minimum cost of locomotion on 45 and 90 degrees inclines was two and three times greater, respectively, than the cost during horizontal running. The cockroach's metabolic cost of ascent greatly exceeds that predicted from the hypothesis of a constant efficiency for vertical work. Variations in stride frequency and contact time cannot account for the high metabolic cost, because they were independent of incline angle. An increase in the metabolic cost or amount of force production may best explain the increase in metabolic cost. Small animals, such as P. americana, can easily scale vertical surfaces, but the energetic cost is considerable.

  12. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999), 10.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  13. Energy calibration of very inclined air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Roth, Markus [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hebbeker, Thomas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects extensive air showers which are initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The properties of the cosmic rays are derived indirectly from the air shower observation. The surface detector of the observatory is well suited to detect showers with zenith angles from 0 to 90 . Standard analyses focus on so called vertical showers with inclinations smaller than 60 . Showers with larger zenith angles are called very inclined showers. Both have distinct experimental signatures which require separate event reconstructions. The ground signal of very inclined air showers is muon dominated and the energy reconstruction uses the variable R{sub {mu}} as an estimator for the cosmic ray energy which is proportional to the total number of muons N{sub {mu}} on the ground. The talk will focus on the energy calibration of R{sub {mu}} with events observed simultaneously in the surface and fluorescence detector of the observatory. This calibration procedure also offers the unique opportunity to derive the shower-to-shower fluctuations of R{sub {mu}} which are sensitive to the cosmic ray mass composition.

  14. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  15. 47 CFR 25.280 - Inclined orbit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inclined orbit operations. 25.280 Section 25... COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.280 Inclined orbit operations. (a) Satellite operators may commence operation in inclined orbit mode without obtaining prior Commission authorization provided that...

  16. How to Detect Inclined Water Maser Disks (and Possibly Measure Black Hole Masses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Jeremy

    2017-03-01

    We describe a method for identifying inclined water maser disks orbiting massive black holes and for potentially using them to measure black hole masses. Owing to the geometry of maser amplification pathways, the minority of water maser disks are observable: only those viewed nearly edge-on have been identified, suggesting that an order of magnitude additional maser disks exist. We suggest that inward-propagating masers are gravitationally deflected by the central black hole, thereby scattering water maser emission out of the disk plane and enabling detection. The signature of an inclined water maser disk would be narrow masers near the systemic velocity that appear to emit from the black hole position, as identified by the radio continuum core. To explore this possibility, we present high-resolution (0.″07-0.″17) Very Large Array line and continuum observations of 13 galaxies with narrow water maser emission and show that three are good inclined-disk candidates (five remain ambiguous). For the best case, CGCG 120-039, we show that the maser and continuum emission are coincident to within 3.5 ± 1.4 pc (6.7 ± 2.7 mas). Subsequent very long baseline interferometric maps can confirm candidate inclined disks and have the potential to show maser rings or arcs that provide a direct measurement of black hole mass, although the mass precision will rely on knowledge of the size of the maser disk.

  17. Quasi-crystalline geometry for architectural structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weizierl, Barbara; Wester, Ture

    2001-01-01

    Artikel på CD-Rom 8 sider. The quasi-crystal (QC) type of material was discovered in 1983 by Dan Schechtman from Technion, Haifa. This new crystalline structure of material broke totally with the traditional conception of crystals and geometry introducing non-periodic close packing of cells....... The purpose of the paper is to investigate some possibilities for the application of Quasi-Crystal geometry for structures in architecture. The basis for the investigations is A: to use the Golden Cubes (the two different hexahedra consisting of rhombic facets where the length of the diagonals has the Golden...

  18. Generation of highly inclined protoplanetary discs through single stellar flybys

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang-Gruess, Meng

    2015-01-01

    We study the three-dimensional evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disc which is perturbed by a passing star on a parabolic orbit. The aim is to test whether a single stellar flyby is capable to excite significant disc inclinations which would favour the formation of so-called misaligned planets. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics to study inclination, disc mass and angular momentum changes of the disc for passing stars with different masses. We explore different orbital configurations for the perturber's orbit to find the parameter spaces which allow significant disc inclination generation. Prograde inclined parabolic orbits are most destructive leading to significant disc mass and angular momentum loss. In the remaining disc, the final disc inclination is only below $20^\\circ$. This is due to the removal of disc particles which have experienced the strongest perturbing effects. Retrograde inclined parabolic orbits are less destructive and can generate disc inclinations up to $60^\\circ$. The final disc...

  19. Support grid with integral inclined waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, W.H.

    1991-06-18

    This paper describes improvement in a fuel element support grid for supporting a plurality of nuclear fuel elements intermediate their ends in spaced relation for fluid flow therebetween. The grid including a polygonal perimeter and a plurality of fuel element compartments defined by pairs of first and second intersecting and slottedly interlocked wave defining grid-forming strips attached to the perimeter and to each other. The improvement comprises: at least some of the strips having its waves defined by bends at spring bases inclined from the vertical and at least some of the strips having spring cantilevered into the compartments from the strips.

  20. The performance test of anti-scattering x-ray grid with inclined shielding material by MCNP code simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The scattered photons cause reduction of the contrast of radiographic image and it results in the degradation of the quality of the image. In order to acquire better quality image, an anti-scattering x-ray gird should be equipped in radiography system. The X-ray anti-scattering grid of the inclined type based on the hybrid concept for that of parallel and focused type was tested by MCNP code. The MCNPX 2.7.0 was used for the simulation based test. The geometry for the test was based on the IEC 60627 which was an international standard for diagnostic X-ray imaging equipment-Characteristics of general purpose and mammographic anti-scatter grids. The performance of grids with four inclined shielding material types was compared with that of the parallel type. The grid with completely tapered type the best performance where there were little performance difference according to the degree of inclination.

  1. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  2. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  3. Planet formation in slightly inclined binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems of planet formation in close binary systems, such as α Centauri AB, is the formation of planetary embryos or cores by mutual accretion of km-sized planetesimals. In this contribution, we test the planetesimal accretion in such close binary systems but with small inclinations iB = 0.1–10° between the binary orbital plane and the gas disk plane. Compared to previous studies (coplanar case with iB = 0, we find that (1 planetesimal disk is stratified in the vertical direction and planetesimals are redistributed on different orbit groups with respect to their sizes, thus (2 collisions between similar-sized bodies dominate, leading to low dV and favoring planetesimal accretion (3 the planetesimal collision timescale at 1–2 AU is estimated as: T ∼ (1 + 100iB × 103 yrs, where 0 ≤ iB ≤ 10°. As a conclusion, although planetesimal accretion are much more favored in slightly inclined binary systems, it is significantly less efficient and slowed-down as compared to the single-star case.

  4. Temperature Distribution on Inclined plate Caused by Interaction with Supersonic Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TsuyoshiYasunobu; ToshiakiSetoguchi; 等

    2000-01-01

    The phenomena of the interaction between a supersonic jet and an obstcle is a very interesting and important problem relating to the industrial engineering.This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of the two-dimensional temperature distribution on an inclined plate surface and the relation between the temperature distribution and some shock waves formed in the flow field,In this study,the measurement of temperature distribution on an inclined plate suface and the flow visualization has carried out for various conditions using the thermo-sensitive liquid crystal sheet and the schlieren method.The two dimensional temperature distribution on the plate surface is clearly obtained by the thermo-sensitive liquid crystal sheet,The relation between the temperature distribution on an inclined plate surface and some shock waves reached at a plate surface is discussed.In this paper,the characteristics of the temperature distribution and the maximum temperature,and some other experimental evidences are presented.

  5. Determining Inclinations of Active Galactic Nuclei Via Their Narrow-Line Region Kinematics - II. Correlation With Observed Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, T C; Kraemer, S B; Schmitt, H R; Turner, T J

    2014-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight, yet the specific inclinations of all but a few AGN are generally unknown. By determining the inclinations and geometries of nearby Seyfert galaxies using the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), and comparing them with observed properties, we find strong correlations between inclination and total hydrogen column density, infrared color, and H-beta full-width at half maximum (FWHM). These correlations provide evidence that the orientation of AGN with respect to our line of sight affects how we perceive them, beyond the Seyfert type dichotomy. They can also be used to constrain 3D models of AGN components such as the broad-line region and torus. Additionally, we find weak correlations between AGN luminosity and several modeled NLR parameters, which suggests that the NLR geometry and kinematics are dependent to some degree on the ...

  6. Evolution of inclined planets in three-dimensional radiative discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram

    2011-01-01

    While planets in the solar system only have a low inclination with respect to the ecliptic there is mounting evidence that in extrasolar systems the inclination can be very high, at least for close-in planets. One process to alter the inclination of a planet is through planet-disc interactions. Recent simulations considering radiative transport have shown that the evolution of migration and eccentricity can strongly depend on the thermodynamic state of the disc. We extend previous studies to investigate the planet-disc interactions of fixed and moving planets on inclined and eccentric orbits. We also analyse the effect of the disc's thermodynamic properties on the orbital evolution of embedded planets in detail. The protoplanetary disc is modelled as a viscous gas where the internally produced dissipation is transported by radiation. For locally isothermal discs, we confirm previous results and find inclination damping and inward migration for planetary cores. For low inclinations i < 2 H/r, the damping is...

  7. On wind turbine power performance measurements at inclined airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T. F.

    2004-07-01

    The average airflow inclination in complex terrain may be substantial. The airflow inclination affects wind turbine performance and also affects the cup anemometer being used in power performance measurements. In this article the overall dependence of the power curve on inclined airflow is analysed for its influence on both the wind turbine and the cup anemometer. The wind turbine performance analysis is based on results of measurements and theoretical calculations with the aeroelastic code HAWC coupled to a 3D actuator disc model for varying yaw angle. The cup anemometer analysis at inclined flow is based on an averaging of measured angular characteristics in a wind tunnel with the distribution of airflow inclination angles over time. The relative difference in annual energy production in terrain with inclined airflow compared with flat terrain is simulated for cup anemometers with theoretical optimal angular characteristics for two different definitions of wind speed, as well as for five commercial cup anemometers with measured angular characteristics. Copyright

  8. A technique to determine a desired preparation axial inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Harry; Ivanhoe, John R; Blalock, John S; Frazier, Kevin B; Plummer, Kevin D

    2003-10-01

    The guidelines recommended in the literature for the convergence angle of a crown preparation vary from 3 to 24 degrees. There is a lack of guidelines on techniques to achieve a specific axial inclination. The purpose of this article was to present a practical technique, with a diamond rotary cutting instrument of known axial inclination, to determine the diamond rotary cutting instrument angulations required to achieve the desired axial inclination of a preparation.

  9. Crystal structure of di-n-butylbis(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienylhafnium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdita Arndt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Hf(C10H152(C4H92], reveals two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction experiment was performed with a racemically twinned crystal showing a 0.529 (5:0.471 (5 component ratio. Each HfIV atom is coordinated by two pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and two n-butyl ligands in a distorted tetrahedral geometry, with the cyclopentadienyl rings inclined to one another by 45.11 (15 and 45.37 (16°. In contrast to the isostructural di(n-butylbis(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienylzirconium(IV complex with a noticeable difference in the Zr–butyl bonding, the Hf—Cbutyl bond lengths differ from each other by no more than 0.039 (3 Å.

  10. Interaction between massive planets on inclined orbits and circumstellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang-Gruess, Meng

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between massive planets and a gas disc with a mass in the range expected for protoplanetary discs. We use SPH simulations to study the orbital evolution of a massive planet as well as the dynamical response of the disc for planet masses between 1 and $6\\ \\rmn{M_J}$ and the full range of initial relative orbital inclinations. Gap formation can occur for planets in inclined orbits. For given planet mass, a threshold relative orbital inclination exists under which a gap forms. At high relative inclinations, the inclination decay rate increases for increasing planet mass and decreasing initial relative inclination. For an initial semi-major axis of 5 AU and relative inclination of $i_0=80^\\circ,$ the times required for the inclination to decay by $10^\\circ$ is $\\sim10^{6}\\ \\rmn{yr}$ and $\\sim10^{5}\\ \\rmn{yr}$ for $1\\ \\rmn{M_J}$ and $6\\ \\rmn{M_J}$. Planets on inclined orbits warp the disc by an extent that is negligible for $1\\ \\rmn{M_J}$ but increases with increasing mass becoming quite s...

  11. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  12. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  13. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  14. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Lance, Blake; Ho, Clifford K.

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0deg, 10deg, and 45deg), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47deg contact angle and non-wetting = 93deg contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of %7E3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45deg tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  15. Global Differential Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian; Schwarz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of well-written surveys provided by experts in Global Differential Geometry to give an overview over recent developments in Riemannian Geometry, Geometric Analysis and Symplectic Geometry. The papers are written for graduate students and researchers with a general interest in geometry, who want to get acquainted with the current trends in these central fields of modern mathematics.

  16. Geometry in Medias Res

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…

  17. Magnetism in curved geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.; Gaididei, Yuri; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2016-09-01

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-like interaction. As a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. These recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.

  18. Small-Size Resonant Photoacoustic Cell of Inclined Geometry for Gas Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, A V; Nikonovich, F N; Zakharich, M P; Chebotar, A I; Firago, V A; Stetsik, V M; Kazak, N S; Starovoitov, V S

    2009-01-01

    A photoacoustic cell intended for laser detection of trace gases is represented. The cell is adapted so as to enhance the gas-detection performance and, simultaneously, to reduce the cell size. The cell design provides an efficient cancellation of the window background (a parasite response due to absorption of laser beam in the cell windows) and acoustic isolation from the environment for an acoustic resonance of the cell. The useful photoacoustic response from a detected gas, window background and noise are analyzed in demonstration experiments as functions of the modulation frequency for a prototype cell with the internal volume ~ 0.5 cm^3. The minimal detectable absorption for the prototype is estimated to be ~ 1.2 10^{-8} cm^{-1} W Hz^{-1/2}.

  19. Morphological Properties of z~0.5 Absorption-Selected Galaxies: The Role of Galaxy Inclination

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Evans, Jessica L; Murphy, M T; Steidel, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    We have used GIM2D to quantify the morphological properties of 40 intermediate redshift MgII absorption-selected galaxies (0.03inclination correlates with MgII absorption properties after normalizing out the relationship (and scatter) between the absorption properties and D. We find a 4.3 sigma correlation between Wr(2796) and galaxy inclination, normalized by impact parameter, i/D. Other measures of absorption optical depth also correlate with i/D at greater than 3.2 sigma significance. Overall, this result suggests that MgII gas has a co-planer geometry, not necessarily disk-like, that is coupled to the galaxy inclination. It...

  20. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-cui; LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; ZHANG Qi-jun; DAI Qi-gen

    2013-01-01

    A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI) decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  1. Experimental and numerical study of restraining force development in inclined draw beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, K. S.; Narainen, R.; Smith, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Inclined (angled) draw bead geometries are becoming increasingly common as body styling requirements necessitate external panel shapes with considerable curvature. The restraining force that develops as material undergoes bending and frictional contact varies with bead geometry, material strength level and ambient lubrication conditions. In this study, an FEA based parametric approach is used to model the effects of material strength, friction condition, and binder angle on draw bead restraining force (DBRF). A finite element draw bead simulation was calibrated to experimental data for a 250 MPa electro-galvanized bake-hardenable specimen. The experimental data is used to confirm that the DBRF vs. binder angle curve roughly follows a concave shaped second order function with a maximum somewhere in the positive binder angle domain.

  2. Real Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mahé, Louis; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1992-01-01

    Ten years after the first Rennes international meeting on real algebraic geometry, the second one looked at the developments in the subject during the intervening decade - see the 6 survey papers listed below. Further contributions from the participants on recent research covered real algebra and geometry, topology of real algebraic varieties and 16thHilbert problem, classical algebraic geometry, techniques in real algebraic geometry, algorithms in real algebraic geometry, semialgebraic geometry, real analytic geometry. CONTENTS: Survey papers: M. Knebusch: Semialgebraic topology in the last ten years.- R. Parimala: Algebraic and topological invariants of real algebraic varieties.- Polotovskii, G.M.: On the classification of decomposing plane algebraic curves.- Scheiderer, C.: Real algebra and its applications to geometry in the last ten years: some major developments and results.- Shustin, E.L.: Topology of real plane algebraic curves.- Silhol, R.: Moduli problems in real algebraic geometry. Further contribu...

  3. Relationships between Migration to Urban Settings and Children's Creative Inclinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Lu, Yongli; Dai, David Yun; Lin, Chongde

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 909 5th- and 6th-grade children were recruited as participants, and questionnaires were used to investigate the relationships between migration to urban settings and children's creative inclinations. The study was broken down to 2 parts. Study 1 compared scores on measures of creative inclinations among migrant, rural, and urban…

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  5. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  6. A compendium of AGN inclinations with corresponding UV/optical continuum polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.

    2014-06-01

    The anisotropic nature of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is thought to be responsible for the observational differences between type-1 (pole-on) and type-2 (edge-on) nearby Seyfert-like galaxies. In this picture, the detection of emission and/or absorption features is directly correlated to the inclination of the system. The AGN structure can be further probed by using the geometry-sensitive technique of polarimetry, yet the pairing between observed polarization and Seyfert type remains poorly examined. Based on archival data, I report here the first compilation of 53 estimated AGN inclinations matched with ultraviolet/optical continuum polarization measurements. Corrections, based on the polarization of broad emission lines, are applied to the sample of Seyfert-2 AGN to remove dilution by starburst light and derive information about the scattered continuum alone. The resulting compendium agrees with past empirical results, i.e. type-1 AGN show low polarization degrees (P ≤ 1 per cent) predominantly associated with a polarization position angle parallel to the projected radio axis of the system, while type-2 objects show stronger polarization percentages (P > 7 per cent) with perpendicular polarization angles. The transition between type-1 and type-2 inclination occurs between 45° and 60° without noticeable impact on P. The compendium is further used as a test to investigate the relevance of four AGN models. While an AGN model with fragmented regions matches observations better than uniform models, a structure with a failed dusty wind along the equator and disc-born, ionized, polar outflows is by far closer to observations. However, although the models correctly reproduce the observed dichotomy between parallel and perpendicular polarization, as well as correct polarization percentages at type-2 inclinations, further work is needed to account for some highly polarized type-1 AGN.

  7. Use of IQRF technology for detection of construction inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pies; Radovan, Hajovsky

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the application of wireless measurement of inclination of objects located at mining dumps. Measurement of inclination uses a set of sensors including a gyroscope, an accelerometer and a magnetometer. Measured data is processed by AHRS algorithm that, once applied, allows getting more precise information on rotation of the object in the area compared to unprocessed data from accelerometer or gyroscope. Measurement chain consists of two parts. The first one is a wireless module reading the data from particular sensors via I2C bus and sends it consequently to a computer that performs evaluation and visualization of inclination. Communication among particular devices is ensured by IQRF technology working within ISM band of 868MHz. Application of this approach for measurement of inclination is a reasonable choice in case of measurement of inclination by inclinometers.

  8. Oscillations of Relative Inclination Angles in Compact Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Juliette C

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multi transiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multi-planet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently...

  9. Digital Differential Geometry Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Guo Liu; Hu-Jun Bao; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2006-01-01

    The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient,Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.

  10. Bioinspired dynamic inclination measurement using inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Vishesh; Crane, Carl

    2015-04-16

    Biologically, the vestibular feedback is critical to the ability of human body to balance in different conditions. This balancing ability inspires analysis of the reference equilibrium position in dynamic environments. The research proposes and experimentally validates the concept of equilibrium for the human body modeled as an inverted pendulum, which is instrumental in explaining why we align the body along the surface normal when standing on a surface but not on an incline, and tend to lean backward or forward on non-static surfaces e.g. accelerating or decelerating bus. This equilibrium position--the dynamic equilibrium axis--is dependent only on the acceleration of surface of contact (e.g. gravity) and acts as the reference to the orientation measurements. The research also draws design inspiration from the two human ears--symmetry and plurality of inertial sensors. The vestibular dynamic inclinometer and planar vestibular dynamic inclinometer consist of multiple (two or four) symmetrically placed accelerometers and a gyroscope. The sensors measure the angular acceleration and absolute orientation, not the change in orientation, from the reference equilibrium position and are successful in separating gravity from motion for objects moving on ground. The measurement algorithm is an analytical solution that is not time-recursive, independent of body dynamics and devoid of integration errors. The experimental results for the two sensor combinations validate the theoretically (kinematics) derived analytical solution of the measurement algorithm.

  11. Avalanche dynamics on a rough inclined plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Halsey, Thomas C; Ecke, Robert E

    2008-07-01

    The avalanche behavior of gravitationally forced granular layers on a rough inclined plane is investigated experimentally for different materials and for a variety of grain shapes ranging from spherical beads to highly anisotropic particles with dendritic shape. We measure the front velocity, area, and height of many avalanches and correlate the motion with the area and height. We also measure the avalanche profiles for several example cases. As the shape irregularity of the grains is increased, there is a dramatic qualitative change in avalanche properties. For rough nonspherical grains, avalanches are faster, bigger, and overturning in the sense that individual particles have down-slope speeds u p that exceed the front speed uf as compared with avalanches of spherical glass beads that are quantitatively slower and smaller and where particles always travel slower than the front speed. There is a linear increase of three quantities: (i) dimensionless avalanche height, (ii) ratio of particle to front speed, and (iii) the growth rate of avalanche speed with increasing avalanche size with increasing tan theta r where theta r is the bulk angle of repose, or with increasing beta P, the slope of the depth averaged flow rule, where both theta r and beta P reflect the grain shape irregularity. These relations provide a tool for predicting important dynamical properties of avalanches as a function of grain shape irregularity. A relatively simple depth-averaged theoretical description captures some important elements of the avalanche motion, notably the existence of two regimes of this motion.

  12. Geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Walter J

    2006-01-01

    Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...

  13. Riemann-Finsler geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Enli; MO Xiaohuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,a survey on Riemann-Finsler geometry is given.Non-trivial examples of Finsler metrics satisfying different curvature conditions are presented.Local and global results in Finsler geometry are analyzed.

  14. Inclinations of the facial profile: art versus reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, L G; Sohm, P; Kolar, J C; Katic, M J; Munro, I R

    1985-04-01

    The average inclinations of five basic facial profile lines and five individual facial profile segments were determined by direct anthropometry in a total group of 232 healthy young adults, all North American Caucasians. Significant sex-related differences were found only in the inclination of the forehead, the lower face, and the lower third of the face, with greater inclinations in males. These results were compared with data obtained from 49 art works produced by ancient, Renaissance, post-Renaissance, and contemporary artists and drawings of the face in scientific papers published by anthropologists, orthodontists, anatomists, and plastic surgeons. In the population study the average inclination of the general and the aesthetic profile lines, the lower face, the forehead, and the lower lip show a receding trend. The upper face is slightly protruded in the males and close to vertical in the females. The chin and the nose are equally prominent in both sexes. The only significant difference is in the greater recession of the lower face in males. The average female population values are reminiscent of those of the Renaissance. The average male inclinations come closest to the findings in the statues of antiquity. The population sample and the contemporary artists showed similar inclinations of the nasal bridge and the lower lip. Generally, the average inclination of the chin in the population is smaller than in any artistic style.

  15. Trajectory of a projectile on a frictional inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosun

    2014-08-01

    A closed form solution is given for the trajectory of a particle sliding on an inclined plane with Coulomb-type friction. If the inclination of the plane is less than the friction angle, the particle eventually comes to rest and expressions for the location of this point and the duration of the motion are given. If the initial launch is inclined at a small angle with respect to the upward line of greatest slope, the direction of the velocity changes rapidly during the last instants of motion.

  16. Geometry essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque

  17. Introduction to projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wylie, C R

    2008-01-01

    This lucid introductory text offers both an analytic and an axiomatic approach to plane projective geometry. The analytic treatment builds and expands upon students' familiarity with elementary plane analytic geometry and provides a well-motivated approach to projective geometry. Subsequent chapters explore Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry as specializations of the projective plane, revealing the existence of an infinite number of geometries, each Euclidean in nature but characterized by a different set of distance- and angle-measurement formulas. Outstanding pedagogical features include w

  18. Affine and Projective Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M K

    1995-01-01

    An important new perspective on AFFINE AND PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY. This innovative book treats math majors and math education students to a fresh look at affine and projective geometry from algebraic, synthetic, and lattice theoretic points of view. Affine and Projective Geometry comes complete with ninety illustrations, and numerous examples and exercises, covering material for two semesters of upper-level undergraduate mathematics. The first part of the book deals with the correlation between synthetic geometry and linear algebra. In the second part, geometry is used to introduce lattice theory

  19. Symplectic geometries on supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2007-01-01

    Extension of symplectic geometry on manifolds to the supersymmetric case is considered. In the even case it leads to the even symplectic geometry (or, equivalently, to the geometry on supermanifolds endowed with an non-degenerate Poisson bracket) or to the geometry on an even Fedosov supermanifolds. It is proven that in the odd case there are two different scalar symplectic structures (namely, an odd closed differential 2-form and the antibracket) which can be used for construction of different symplectic geometries on supermanifolds.

  20. Generalized Kahler geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Generalized Kahler geometry is the natural analogue of Kahler geometry, in the context of generalized complex geometry. Just as we may require a complex structure to be compatible with a Riemannian metric in a way which gives rise to a symplectic form, we may require a generalized complex structure to be compatible with a metric so that it defines a second generalized complex structure. We explore the fundamental aspects of this geometry, including its equivalence with the bi-Hermitian geometry on the target of a 2-dimensional sigma model with (2,2) supersymmetry, as well as the relation to holomorphic Dirac geometry and the resulting derived deformation theory. We also explore the analogy between pre-quantum line bundles and gerbes in the context of generalized Kahler geometry.

  1. Methods for euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Byer, Owen; Smeltzer, Deirdre L

    2010-01-01

    Euclidean plane geometry is one of the oldest and most beautiful topics in mathematics. Instead of carefully building geometries from axiom sets, this book uses a wealth of methods to solve problems in Euclidean geometry. Many of these methods arose where existing techniques proved inadequate. In several cases, the new ideas used in solving specific problems later developed into independent areas of mathematics. This book is primarily a geometry textbook, but studying geometry in this way will also develop students' appreciation of the subject and of mathematics as a whole. For instance, despite the fact that the analytic method has been part of mathematics for four centuries, it is rarely a tool a student considers using when faced with a geometry problem. Methods for Euclidean Geometry explores the application of a broad range of mathematical topics to the solution of Euclidean problems.

  2. The Behavior and Characteristics of the Interfacial Waves in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Separated Flow Thorugh Downward Inclined Rectangular Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    An Experimental investigation on the behavior and characteristics of interfacial waves in downward inclined rectangular channel was conducted.The interfacial waves were traced and measured by using conductance technique.The wave patterns were distingushed and defined.The characteristics of the interfacial waves.such as time-averaged film thickness,wave height,wave propagation speed,wavelength and wave frequency,were systematically examined in terms of gas and liquid superficial volumetric fluxes.The effect of the inclination and flow channel geometry of the test section on the interfacial wave was also investigated.

  3. Dependence of convective secondary flow on inclination angle in an inclined pulse tube refrigerator revealed by visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Masao; Takamatsu, Koichi; Murakami, Masahide; Nakano, Akihiro

    2004-02-01

    Secondary flow in an inclined orifice pulse tube refrigerator at typical inclination angles of 0-180° was studied by using a smoke-wire flow visualization technique. It was revealed that the secondary flow formed a unicellular convective flow in the pulse tube and had two flow patterns depending on the angle. This dependence of flow pattern on the inclination angle is well explained by the superposition of gravity-driven convective flow on acoustic streaming. Even if the cold end was lower than the hot end, the gravity-driven convective flow occurred and the secondary flow was affected by gravity.

  4. Excitation of the Orbital Inclination of Iapetus during Planetary Encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, David; Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Saturn's moon Iapetus has an orbit in a transition region where the Laplace surface is bending from the equator to the orbital plane of Saturn. The orbital inclination of Iapetus to the local Laplace plane is ~8 deg, which is unexpected, because the inclination should be ~0 if Iapetus formed from a circumplanetary disk on the Laplace surface. It thus appears that some process has pumped up Iapetus's inclination while leaving its eccentricity near zero (e=0.03 at present). Here we examined the possibility that Iapetus's inclination was excited during the early solar system instability when encounters between Saturn and ice giants occurred. We found that the dynamical effects of planetary encounters on Iapetus's orbit sensitively depend on the distance of the few closest encounters. In four out of ten instability cases studied here, the orbital perturbations were too large to be plausible. In one case, Iapetus's orbit was practically unneffected. In the remaining five cases, the perturbations of Iapetus's incli...

  5. Shrinkage and trajectory of the flat jet with inclination angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufeng Ye; Yusheng Xie; Hongzhi Guo; Ye Huang; Shantong Jin

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the flat jet with an inclination angle was investigated by a water model. A mathematical model for theshrinkage and the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle was derived theoretically and verified by experimental data of thewater model. The experimental results indicate that the inclination angle (α) has no influence on the shrinkage of the flat jet, theshrinkage of the flat jet along the width direction decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity at the exit (u0) and the initialthickness of the flat jet (t0). Enough bigger initial exit velocity (u0) and initial thickness can suppress the shrinkage of the flat jetalong the width direction and keep the flat jet stabilized. In addition, the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle is parabolicand must be taking into consideration when to determine the striking distance.

  6. Aqua/Aura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Thomas; Stezelberger, Shane

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the AquaAura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series.

  7. Stability of stratified two-phase flows in inclined channels

    CERN Document Server

    Barmak, Ilya; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima

    2016-01-01

    Linear stability of stratified gas-liquid and liquid-liquid plane-parallel flows in inclined channels is studied with respect to all wavenumber perturbations. The main objective is to predict parameter regions in which stable stratified configuration in inclined channels exists. Up to three distinct base states with different holdups exist in inclined flows, so that the stability analysis has to be carried out for each branch separately. Special attention is paid to the multiple solution regions to reveal the feasibility of non-unique stable stratified configurations in inclined channels. The stability boundaries of each branch of steady state solutions are presented on the flow pattern map and are accompanied by critical wavenumbers and spatial profiles of the most unstable perturbations. Instabilities of different nature are visualized by streamlines of the neutrally stable perturbed flows, consisting of the critical perturbation superimposed on the base flow. The present analysis confirms the existence of ...

  8. Developed Opinions and Inclinations of Teachers Regarding to Written Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Ömer BEYDOĞAN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to determine teachers’ developed opinions and inclinations regarding to written expression skills. For this purpose, “Opinions and Inclinations Scale Regarding Written Expression Skills” was developed by the researcher. Work group of the study comprised 326 teachers from central Kırşehir and its district elementary schools. Internal reliability coefficient of the scale was 0,94. Data obtained were subjected to frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, t-test, variance analyzes a significance level of 0,05 and findings were evaluated. Teachers’ developed opinions and inclinations regarding written expression skills were analyzed in accordance with their seniority, field of study and the class level they were teaching. There were some significant differentiations observed in opinions and inclinations developed by teachers regarding students’ written expression skills, in respect to certain variables. Some suggestions were brought forward in accordance with obtained findings.

  9. ANALYSIS ON INCLINATION ANGLE OF SHEAR BAND UNDER LOW CONFINING PRESSURE BASED ON GRADIENT-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY%围压对剪切带倾角影响的梯度塑性理论分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学滨; 姚再兴; 潘一山

    2004-01-01

    The inclination angle of shear band is analyzed considering heterogeneity of rock material when a single shear band is formed in the center of specimen under triaxial compression. The analytical solution of post-peak axial stress-axial strain curve is deduced using the assumption that the total post-peak deformation is composed of entire uniform elastic deformation and localized shear plastic deformation dependent on the thickness of shear band. The obtained solution shows that the post-peak stiffness is related to the inclination angle of shear band,confining pressure,thickness of shear band and elastic modulus,etc. Using the solution,the expression for the inclination angle of shear band can be presented easily and it is dependent on constitutive parameters of rock material and geometry parameters of rock specimen. Larger dilation angle or loading rate leads to increment of the inclination angle. In addition,the inclination angle increases with the thickness of the shear band,which cannot be explained or forecasted by other existing solutions,such as Coulomb inclination,Roscoe inclination and Arthur inclination,etc.

  10. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  11. Spreading dynamics of droplet on an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chaoqun; Yu, Cheng; Chen, Yongping

    2016-06-01

    A three-dimensional unsteady theoretical model of droplet spreading process on an inclined surface is developed and numerically analyzed to investigate the droplet spreading dynamics via the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The contact line motion and morphology evolution for the droplet spreading on an inclined surface, which are, respectively, represented by the advancing/receding spreading factor and droplet wetted length, are evaluated and analyzed. The effects of surface wettability and inclination on the droplet spreading behaviors are examined. The results indicate that, dominated by gravity and capillarity, the droplet experiences a complex asymmetric deformation and sliding motion after the droplet comes into contact with the inclined surfaces. The droplet firstly deforms near the solid surface and mainly exhibits a radial expansion flow in the start-up stage. An evident sliding-down motion along the inclination is observed in the middle stage. And the surface-tension-driven retraction occurs during the retract stage. Increases in inclination angle and equilibrium contact angle lead to a faster droplet motion and a smaller wetted area. In addition, increases in equilibrium contact angle lead to a shorter duration time of the middle stage and an earlier entry into the retract stage.

  12. Deriving stellar inclination of slow rotators using stellar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumusque, X., E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclination for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than ∼2-2.5 km s{sup –1}. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 which can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit observations of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. For HD 189733, we estimate the stellar inclination to be i=84{sub −20}{sup +6} deg, which implies a star-planet obliquity of ψ=4{sub −4}{sup +18} considering previous measurements of the spin-orbit angle. For α Cen B, we derive an inclination of i=45{sub −19}{sup +9}, which implies that the rotational spin of the star is not aligned with the orbital spin of the α Cen binary system. In addition, assuming that α Cen Bb is aligned with its host star, no transit would occur. The inclination of α Cen B can be measured using 40 radial-velocity measurements, which is remarkable given that the projected rotational velocity of the star is smaller than 1.15 km s{sup –1}.

  13. Size Distribution of Main-Belt Asteroids with High Inclination

    CERN Document Server

    Terai, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the size distribution of high-inclination main-belt asteroids (MBAs) to explore asteroid collisional evolution under hypervelocity collisions of around 10 km/s. We performed a wide-field survey for high-inclination sub-km MBAs using the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope with the Subaru Prime Focus Camera (Suprime-Cam). Suprime-Cam archival data were also used. A total of 616 MBA candidates were detected in an area of 9.0 deg^2 with a limiting magnitude of 24.0 mag in the SDSS r filter. Most of candidate diameters were estimated to be smaller than 1 km. We found a scarcity of sub-km MBAs with high inclination. Cumulative size distributions (CSDs) were constructed using Subaru data and published asteroid catalogs. The power-law indexes of the CSDs were 2.17 +/- 0.02 for low-inclination ( 15 deg) MBAs in the 0.7-50 km diameter range. The high-inclination MBAs had a shallower CSD. We also found that the CSD of S-like MBAs had a small slope with high inclination, whereas the slope did not vary with inclinatio...

  14. The Geometry Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.

  15. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  16. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  17. Revolutions of Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull

  18. Euclidean geometry and transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Clayton W

    1972-01-01

    This introduction to Euclidean geometry emphasizes transformations, particularly isometries and similarities. Suitable for undergraduate courses, it includes numerous examples, many with detailed answers. 1972 edition.

  19. Introduction to finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Kárteszi, F

    1976-01-01

    North-Holland Texts in Advanced Mathematics: Introduction to Finite Geometries focuses on the advancements in finite geometries, including mapping and combinatorics. The manuscript first offers information on the basic concepts on finite geometries and Galois geometries. Discussions focus on linear mapping of a given quadrangle onto another given quadrangle; point configurations of order 2 on a Galois plane of even order; canonical equation of curves of the second order on the Galois planes of even order; and set of collineations mapping a Galois plane onto itself. The text then ponders on geo

  20. Computational parametric study of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jacob A; Greenough, Jeffrey A; Ranjan, Devesh

    2011-08-01

    A computational study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface is presented. The study covers experiments to be performed in the Texas A&M University inclined shock tube facility. Incident shock wave Mach numbers from 1.2 to 2.5, inclination angles from 30° to 60°, and gas pair Atwood numbers of ∼0.67 and ∼0.95 are used in this parametric study containing 15 unique combinations of these parameters. Qualitative results are examined through a time series of density plots for multiple combinations of these parameters, and the qualitative effects of each of the parameters are discussed. Pressure, density, and vorticity fields are presented in animations available online to supplement the discussion of the qualitative results. These density plots show the evolution of two main regions in the flow field: a mixing region containing driver and test gas that is dominated by large vortical structures, and a more homogeneous region of unmixed fluid which can separate away from the mixing region in some cases. The interface mixing width is determined for various combinations of the parameters listed at the beginning of the Abstract. A scaling method for the mixing width is proposed using the interface geometry and wave velocities calculated using one-dimensional gas dynamic equations. This model uses the transmitted wave velocity for the characteristic velocity and an initial offset time based on the travel time of strong reflected waves. It is compared to an adapted Richtmyer impulsive model scaling and shown to scale the initial mixing width growth rate more effectively for fixed Atwood number.

  1. Computational parametric study of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jacob A.; Greenough, Jeffrey A.; Ranjan, Devesh

    2011-08-01

    A computational study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for an inclined interface is presented. The study covers experiments to be performed in the Texas A&M University inclined shock tube facility. Incident shock wave Mach numbers from 1.2 to 2.5, inclination angles from 30° to 60°, and gas pair Atwood numbers of ˜0.67 and ˜0.95 are used in this parametric study containing 15 unique combinations of these parameters. Qualitative results are examined through a time series of density plots for multiple combinations of these parameters, and the qualitative effects of each of the parameters are discussed. Pressure, density, and vorticity fields are presented in animations available online to supplement the discussion of the qualitative results. These density plots show the evolution of two main regions in the flow field: a mixing region containing driver and test gas that is dominated by large vortical structures, and a more homogeneous region of unmixed fluid which can separate away from the mixing region in some cases. The interface mixing width is determined for various combinations of the parameters listed at the beginning of the Abstract. A scaling method for the mixing width is proposed using the interface geometry and wave velocities calculated using one-dimensional gas dynamic equations. This model uses the transmitted wave velocity for the characteristic velocity and an initial offset time based on the travel time of strong reflected waves. It is compared to an adapted Richtmyer impulsive model scaling and shown to scale the initial mixing width growth rate more effectively for fixed Atwood number.

  2. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Condensation of Refrigerant-11 on the outside of horizontal and inclined enhanced tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, N.

    1982-12-01

    Heat transfer condensation tests with Refrigerant-11 were performed on the outside of a smooth tube and a variety of enhanced tubes oriented horizontally and at various tube inclinations. One smooth tube and seven enhanced (externally fluted, roped, spiraled, and externally finned) tubes of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.17-m (4-ft) length were tested. Several of the tested tubes featured internal enhanced geometries, which were caused by the heat transfer enhancing geometry on the tube's external surface. Condensing heat transfer coefficients are reported as composite coefficients, which combine the resistance of the condensing film and the tube wall, and are based on total tube outside surface area. Results show that in the horizontal condensing mode, the rank order (best to worst) of the tube geometries tested was spiral-shaped tubes, rope-shaped tubes, smooth tube, externally finned tube, and externally fluted tube. For a spiral-shaped tube, horizontal composite coefficients were up to 2.0 times the corresponding horizontal smooth tube values. For tilt angles greater than or equal to 60/sup 0/ from the horizontal, the condensing performance of the externally fluted tube was best of all the tubes tested.

  4. DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsu, Joel; Zhou, Zongyan; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM) is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i) flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii) force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii) wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.

  5. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  6. Supersymmetric Sigma Model Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Lindström

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of how sigma models formulated in Superspace have become important tools for understanding geometry. Topics included are: The (hyper)k\\"ahler reduction; projective superspace; the generalized Legendre construction; generalized K\\"ahler geometry and constructions of hyperk\\"ahler metrics on Hermitean symmetric spaces.

  7. Geometry of multihadron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.

  8. Supersymmetric Sigma Model geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of how sigma models formulated in Superspace have become important tools for understanding geometry. Topics included are: The (hyper)k\\"ahler reduction; projective superspace; the generalized Legendre construction; generalized K\\"ahler geometry and constructions of hyperk\\"ahler metrics on Hermitean symmetric spaces.

  9. Designs and finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  10. Foundations of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, A

    1946-01-01

    This classic is one of the cornerstones of modern algebraic geometry. At the same time, it is entirely self-contained, assuming no knowledge whatsoever of algebraic geometry, and no knowledge of modern algebra beyond the simplest facts about abstract fields and their extensions, and the bare rudiments of the theory of ideals.

  11. Dual doubled geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.

    2011-01-01

    We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam

  12. In-plane Auto-Parametric Vibration of Inclined Cables under Random Transverse Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; ZHANG Hai-long; XU Feng; GUO Cui-cui

    2008-01-01

    In-plane auto-parametric stochastic vibration of inclined cables subjected to Gaussian white noise in transverse bridge orientation is investigated. Based on Newton's laws of motion and Galerkin's modal truncation principle, the influences of geometry nonlinearity induced by sag and large displacement of cables and the initial equilibrium state are taken into account. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional non-linear differential equations of inclined cables for coupling vibration are deduced, equivalent stochastic linearization method is applied to derive the 1A-dimensional first-order nonlinear differential equations of state vectors, and the Runge-Kutta integration method is utilized to obtain the root mean square (RMS) response. Results show that when the transverse random excitation imposed on the stayed cable exceeds a critical value, the in-plane transverse vibration of the cable are excited due to the auto-parametric nonlinear coupling, and the critical value of random excitation increases with the damping ratio. In this motion, the cable response possesses non-stationary characteristics, even though the loading keeps stationary.

  13. Effect of magnetic polaritons on the radiative properties of inclined plate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Haider, Ahmad; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the spectral radiative properties of inclined parallel-plate arrays with emphasis on the effect of magnetic polaritons. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) is employed and the geometry of parallel-plate arrays is reproduced by considering the structure as a multilayered grating with lateral shift. Enhanced absorption at specific wavelengths with angular independence due to the excitation of magnetic resonances is demonstrated with the numerical calculation. The magnetic resonance condition can be simply predicted by a modified capacitor-inductor (LC) model, and electromagnetic field distributions are presented to illustrate the unique behavior of magnetic polaritons such as field localization and induced currents. The agreement between the RCWA and LC model on the resonance conditions confirms the excitation of magnetic polaritons. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the geometric effects on the radiative properties. It is shown that the resonance wavelengths of magnetic polaritons can be tuned by changing the plate length, thickness, period, or inclination angle. The understanding gained from this study may benefit the design of energy harvesting devices.

  14. Incorporating electrokinetic effects in the porochemoelastic inclined wellbore formulation and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh X; Abousleiman, Youname N

    2010-03-01

    The porochemoelectroelastic analytical models and solutions have been used to describe the response of chemically active and electrically charged saturated porous media such as clays, shales, and biological tissues. However, these attempts have been restricted to one-dimensional consolidation problems, which are very limited in practice and not general enough to serve as benchmark solutions for numerical validation. This work summarizes the general linear porochemoelectroelastic formulation and presents the solution of an inclined wellbore drilled in a fluid-saturated chemically active and ionized formation, such as shale, and subjected to a three-dimensional in-situ state of stress. The analytical solution to this geometry incorporates the coupled solid deformation and simultaneous fluid/ion flows induced by the combined influences of pore pressure, chemical potential, and electrical potential gradients under isothermal conditions. The formation pore fluid is modeled as an electrolyte solution comprised of a solvent and one type of dissolved cation and anion. The analytical approach also integrates into the solution the quantitative use of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) commonly obtained from laboratory measurements on shale samples. The results for stresses and pore pressure distributions due to the coupled electrochemical effects are illustrated and plotted in the vicinity of the inclined wellbore and compared with the classical porochemoelastic and poroelastic solutions.

  15. A Lorentzian quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotz, Andreas

    2011-10-07

    In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.

  16. Approaching the brachistochrone using inclined planes—striving for shortest or equal travelling times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmann, Florian

    2017-01-01

    The classical brachistochrone problem asks for the path on which a mobile point M just driven by its own gravity will travel in the shortest possible time between two given points A and B. The resulting curve, the cycloid, will also be the tautochrone curve, i.e. the travelling time of the mobile point will not depend on its starting position. We discuss three similar problems of increasing complexity that restrict the motion to inclined planes. Without using calculus we derive the respective optimal geometry and compare the theoretical values to measured travelling times. The observed discrepancies are quantitatively modelled by including angular motion and friction. We also investigate the correspondence between the original problem and our setups. The topic provides a conceptually simple yet non-trivial problem setting inviting for problem based learning and complex learning activities such as planing suitable experiments or modelling the relevant kinematics.

  17. Deriving stellar inclination of slow rotators using stellar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Dumusque, X

    2014-01-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclinationt for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than $\\sim2$-2.5 \\kms. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 that can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit observations of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. For HD189733, we estimate the stellar inclination to be $i=84^{+6}_{-20}$ degrees, which implies a star-planet obliquity of $\\psi=4^{+18}_{-4}$ considering previous measurements of the spin-orbit angle. For $\\alpha$ Cen B, we derive an inclination of $i=45^{+9}_{-19}$, which implies that the rotational spin of the star is not aligned with the orbital spin of the $\\alpha$ Cen binary system. In addition, assuming that $\\alpha$ Cen Bb is aligned with its host star, no transit would occur. The inclination of $\\alpha$ Cen B can be measured using 40...

  18. Flow visualisation of the external flow from a converging slot-hole film-cooling geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, J. E.; Oldfield, M. L. G.; Guo, S. M.; Lock, G. D.; Rawlinson, A. J.

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents flow visualisation experiments for a novel film-cooling hole, the converging slot-hole or console for short. Previously published experimental results have demonstrated that the console improved both the heat transfer and the aerodynamic performance of turbine vane and rotor blade cooling systems. Flow visualisation data for a row of consoles were compared with that of cylindrical and fan-shaped holes and a slot at the same inclination angle of 35° to the surface, on a large-scale, flat-plate model at engine-representative Reynolds numbers in a low speed tunnel with ambient temperature mainstream flow. In the first set of experiments, the flow was visualised by using a fine nylon mesh covered with thermochromic liquid crystals, allowing the measurement of gas temperature contours in planes perpendicular to the flow. This data demonstrated that the console film was similar to a slot film, and remained thin and attached to the surface for the coolant-to-mainstream momentum flux ratios of 1.1 to 40 and for a case with no crossflow (infinite momentum flux ratio). A second set of flow visualisation experiments using water/dry-ice fog have confirmed these results and have shown that the flow through all coolant geometries is unsteady.

  19. Riemann-Finsler Geometry with Applications to Information Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information geometry is a new branch in mathematics, originated from the applications of differential geometry to statistics. In this paper we briefly introduce RiemannFinsler geometry, by which we establish Information Geometry on a much broader base,so that the potential applications of Information Geometry will be beyond statistics.

  20. Shell side numerical analysis of a shell and tube heat exchanger considering the effects of baffle inclination angle on fluid flow using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Karuppa Thundil R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, attempts were made to investigate the impacts of various baffle inclination angles on fluid flow and the heat transfer characteristics of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger for three different baffle inclination angles namely 0°,10° and 20°. The simulation results for various shell and tube heat exchangers, one with segmental baffles perpendicular to fluid flow and two with segmental baffles inclined to the direction of fluid flow are compared for their performance. The shell side design has been investigated numerically by modeling a small shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The study is concerned with a single shell and single side pass parallel flow heat exchanger. The flow and temperature fields inside the shell are studied using non-commercial CFD software tool ANSYS CFX 12.1. For a given baffle cut of 36 %, the heat exchanger performance is investigated by varying mass flow rate and baffle inclination angle. From the CFD simulation results, the shell side outlet temperature, pressure drop, recirculation near the baffles, optimal mass flow rate and the optimum baffle inclination angle for the given heat exchanger geometry are determined.

  1. Drop motion due to oscillations of an inclined substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2014-11-01

    A sessile drop on a stationary inclined substrate remains pinned unless the angle of inclination is greater than some critical value. Alternatively, when shaken at even small angles of inclination, the drop undergoes shape deflections which may lead to drop translation. Translation occurs when large contact angle fluctuations, favored by oscillations at resonance, overcome contact angle hysteresis. In this study, resonance is triggered by substrate-normal oscillations. The drop translation is typically observed to be of constant speed for a given set of parameters. The speed is measured experimentally as a function of resonance mode, driving amplitude and drop volume. This technique of activating the motion of drops having a particular volume can be utilized for applications of droplet selection and transport.

  2. On the inclination and habitability of the HD 10180 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Gelino, Dawn M., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    There are numerous multi-planet systems that have now been detected via a variety of techniques. These systems exhibit a range of both planetary properties and orbital configurations. For those systems without detected planetary transits, a significant unknown factor is the orbital inclination. This produces an uncertainty in the mass of the planets and their related properties, such as atmospheric scale height. Here we investigate the HD 10180 system, which was discovered using the radial velocity technique. We provide a new orbital solution for the system which allows for eccentric orbits for all planets. We show how the inclination of the system affects the mass/radius properties of the planets and how the detection of phase signatures may resolve the inclination ambiguity. We finally evaluate the Habitable Zone properties of the system and show that the g planet spends 100% of an eccentric orbit within the Habitable Zone.

  3. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras K.

    2016-10-15

    We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.

  4. Laminar film boiling on inclined isothermal flat plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    Laminar film boiling from an inclined flat plate has been investigated analytically. Using the singular perturbation scheme, the complete set of Navier-Stokes equations is solved. The zeroth-order perturbation coinciding with the boundary-layer equations for vertical flat plates governs the problem. The higher-order perturbations become important near the leading edge and for large values of the inclination angle from the vertical. The assumption of zero interfacial velocity shows that, except for fluids having large (rho x mu) ratios, the results can be predicted using the vertical flat plate results by defining a modified Grashof parameter containing a cos phi term. When the interfacial shear is considered, the solutions indicate that for fluids having large (rho x mu) ratios, the heat transfer rates will be larger (approximately 15% maximum) than those predicted by the simplified model using zero interfacial velocity. In general, the inclination decreases the rate of heat transfer as well as the rate of evaporation.

  5. Inclinations and black hole masses of Seyfert 1 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X B; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2001-01-01

    A tight correlation of black hole mass and central velocity dispersion has been found recently for both active and quiescent galaxies. By applying this correlation, we develop a simple method to derive the inclination angles for a sample of 11 Seyfert 1 galaxies that have both measured central velocity dispersions and black hole masses estimated by reverberation mapping. These angles, with a mean value of 36 degree that agrees well with the result obtained by fitting the iron K$\\alpha$ lines of Seyfert 1s observed with ASCA, provide further support to the orientation-dependent unification scheme of AGN. A positive correlation of the inclinations with observed FWHMs of H$\\beta$ line and a possible anti-correlation with the nuclear radio-loudness have been found. We conclude that more accurate knowledge on inclinations and broad line region dynamics is needed to improve the black hole mass determination of AGN with the reverberation mapping technique.

  6. Spatio-temporal Patterns in Inclined Layer Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Priya; Brausch, Oliver; Daniels, Karen E; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Schneider, Tobias M

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a theoretical analysis of the rich variety of spatio-temporal patterns observed recently in inclined layer convection at medium Prandtl number when varying the inclination angle {\\gamma} and the Rayleigh number R. The patterns are shown to originate from a complicated competition of buoyancy-driven and shear-flow driven pattern forming mechanisms. The former is expressed as longitudinal convection rolls with their axes oriented parallel to the incline, the latter as perpendicular transverse rolls. Our investigation is based on the standard Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations. Besides conventional methods to study roll patterns and their stability, we employ in particular, direct numerical simulations in large spatial domains comparable with experimental ones. As a result we arrive at a phase diagram of the characteristic complex 3D convection patterns in the {\\gamma}-R- plane, which compares very well to the experiments. In particular it is demonstrated that interactions of specific Fourier mo...

  7. Statistical discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Kosasih, Jusak Sali; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy Permana

    2016-01-01

    Following our earlier work, we construct statistical discrete geometry by applying statistical mechanics to discrete (Regge) gravity. We propose a coarse-graining method for discrete geometry under the assumptions of atomism and background independence. To maintain these assumptions, restrictions are given to the theory by introducing cut-offs, both in ultraviolet and infrared regime. Having a well-defined statistical picture of discrete Regge geometry, we take the infinite degrees of freedom (large n) limit. We argue that the correct limit consistent with the restrictions and the background independence concept is not the continuum limit of statistical mechanics, but the thermodynamical limit.

  8. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bonola, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This is an excellent historical and mathematical view by a renowned Italian geometer of the geometries that have risen from a rejection of Euclid's parallel postulate. Students, teachers and mathematicians will find here a ready reference source and guide to a field that has now become overwhelmingly important.Non-Euclidean Geometry first examines the various attempts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate-by the Greeks, Arabs, and mathematicians of the Renaissance. Then, ranging through the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it considers the forerunners and founders of non-Euclidean geometry, such

  9. ALICE Geometry Database

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, J

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE Geometry Database project consists of the development of a set of data structures to store the geometrical information of the ALICE Detector. This Database will be used in Simulation, Reconstruction and Visualisation and will interface with existing CAD systems and Geometrical Modellers.At the present time, we are able to read a complete GEANT3 geometry, to store it in our database and to visualise it. On disk, we store different geometry files in hierarchical fashion, and all the nodes, materials, shapes, configurations and transformations distributed in this tree structure. The present status of the prototype and its future evolution will be presented.

  10. Discrete and computational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Devadoss, Satyan L

    2011-01-01

    Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well a

  11. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kulczycki, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff

  12. Excitation of the orbital inclination of Iapetus during planetary encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J., E-mail: davidn@boulder.swri.edu [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Saturn's moon, Iapetus, has an orbit in a transition region where the Laplace surface is bending from the equator to the orbital plane of Saturn. The orbital inclination of Iapetus to the local Laplace plane is ≅ 8°, which is unexpected because the inclination should be ≅ 0 if Iapetus formed from a circumplanetary disk on the Laplace surface. It thus appears that some process has pumped up Iapetus's inclination while leaving its eccentricity near zero (e ≅ 0.03 at present). Here, we examined the possibility that Iapetus's inclination was excited during the early solar system instability when encounters between Saturn and ice giants occurred. We found that the dynamical effects of planetary encounters on Iapetus's orbit sensitively depend on the distance of the few closest encounters. In 4 out of 10 instability cases studied here, the orbital perturbations were too large to be plausible. In one case, Iapetus's orbit was practically unaffected. In the remaining five cases, the perturbations of Iapetus's inclination were adequate to explain its present value. In three of these cases, however, Iapetus's eccentricity was excited to >0.1-0.25, and it is not clear whether it could have been damped to its present value (≅ 0.03) by a subsequent process (e.g., tides and dynamical friction from captured irregular satellites do not seem to be strong enough). Our results therefore imply that only 2 out of 10 instability cases (∼20%) can excite Iapetus's inclination to its current value (∼30% of trials lead to >5°) while leaving its orbital eccentricity low.

  13. Kozai effect on planetesimal accretion in highly inclined binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou J.-L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Planet formation in highly inclined binaries is a complex issue. The Kozai mechanism plays an important role in this situation, since it will lead to high eccentricity and high relative impact velocity of planetesimals, thus hinder the planetesimal accretion. However, as we will show here, the presence of gas disk in some circumstance will suppress the Kozai effect by increasing the apsidal precession rate of the planetesimals, which increases the critical inclination. A criterion of the disk mass above which Kozai effect will not occur is given.

  14. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  15. Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Dil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.

  16. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.

  17. Elementary differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pressley, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Curves and surfaces are objects that everyone can see, and many of the questions that can be asked about them are natural and easily understood Differential geometry is concerned with the precise mathematical formulation of some of these questions, and with trying to answer them using calculus techniques It is a subject that contains some of the most beautiful and profound results in mathematics yet many of these are accessible to higher-level undergraduates Elementary Differential Geometry presents the main results in the differential geometry of curves and surfaces while keeping the prerequisites to an absolute minimum Nothing more than first courses in linear algebra and multivariate calculus are required, and the most direct and straightforward approach is used at all times Numerous diagrams illustrate both the ideas in the text and the examples of curves and surfaces discussed there The book will provide an invaluable resource to all those taking a first course in differential geometry, for their lecture...

  18. What Is Geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Shiing-Shen

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the major historical developments of geometry. Euclid, Descartes, Klein's Erlanger Program, Gaus and Riemann, globalization, topology, Elie Cartan, and an application to molecular biology are included as topics. (KR)

  19. An expedition to geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kumaresan, S

    2005-01-01

    Including Affine and projective classification of Conics, 2 point homogeneity's of the planes, essential isometrics, non euclidean plan geometrics, in this book, the treatment of Geometry goes beyond the Kleinian views.

  20. Lectures on Symplectic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Ana Cannas

    2001-01-01

    The goal of these notes is to provide a fast introduction to symplectic geometry for graduate students with some knowledge of differential geometry, de Rham theory and classical Lie groups. This text addresses symplectomorphisms, local forms, contact manifolds, compatible almost complex structures, Kaehler manifolds, hamiltonian mechanics, moment maps, symplectic reduction and symplectic toric manifolds. It contains guided problems, called homework, designed to complement the exposition or extend the reader's understanding. There are by now excellent references on symplectic geometry, a subset of which is in the bibliography of this book. However, the most efficient introduction to a subject is often a short elementary treatment, and these notes attempt to serve that purpose. This text provides a taste of areas of current research and will prepare the reader to explore recent papers and extensive books on symplectic geometry where the pace is much faster. For this reprint numerous corrections and cl...

  1. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  2. Geometry of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Khovanskiĭ, A; Vassiliev, V

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains articles written by V. I. Arnold's colleagues on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The articles are mostly devoted to various aspects of geometry of differential equations and relations to global analysis and Hamiltonian mechanics.

  3. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  4. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  5. Invitation to geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Melzak, Z A

    2008-01-01

    Intended for students of many different backgrounds with only a modest knowledge of mathematics, this text features self-contained chapters that can be adapted to several types of geometry courses. 1983 edition.

  6. Complex algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, János

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.

  7. Derived logarithmic geometry I

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Sagave; Timo, Schurg; Gabriele, Vezzosi

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop the foundations of logarithmic derived geometry, we introduce a model category of logarithmic simplicial rings and a notion of derived log \\'etale maps and use this to define derived log stacks.

  8. The geometry of geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to qualitative problems in intrinsic differential geometry, this text examines Desarguesian spaces, perpendiculars and parallels, covering spaces, the influence of the sign of the curvature on geodesics, more. 1955 edition. Includes 66 figures.

  9. Geometry and Combinatorics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D.-thesis is somewhere in between continuous and discrete geometry. Chapter 2 treats the geometry of finite point sets in semi-Riemannian hyperquadrics,using a matrix whose entries are a trigonometric function of relative distances in a given point set. The distance...... to the geometry of a simplex in a semi-Riemannian hyperquadric. In chapter 3 we study which finite metric spaces that are realizable in a hyperbolic space in the limit where curvature goes to -∞. We show that such spaces are the so called leaf spaces, the set of degree 1 vertices of weighted trees. We also...... establish results on the limiting geometry of such an isometrically realized leaf space simplex in hyperbolic space, when curvature goes to -∞. Chapter 4 discusses negative type of metric spaces. We give a measure theoretic treatment of this concept and related invariants. The theory developed...

  10. Observer dependent geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Hohmann, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    From general relativity we have learned the principles of general covariance and local Lorentz invariance, which follow from the fact that we consider observables as tensors on a spacetime manifold whose geometry is modeled by a Lorentzian metric. Approaches to quantum gravity, however, hint towards a breaking of these symmetries and the possible existence of more general, non-tensorial geometric structures. Possible implications of these approaches are non-tensorial transformation laws between different observers and an observer-dependent notion of geometry. In this work we review two different frameworks for observer dependent geometries, which may provide hints towards a quantization of gravity and possible explanations for so far unexplained phenomena: Finsler spacetimes and Cartan geometry on observer space. We discuss their definitions, properties and applications to observers, field theories and gravity.

  11. Some Conditions for Matrices over an Incline To Be Invertible and General Linear Group on an Incline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Chol HAN; Hong Xing LI

    2005-01-01

    Inclines are the additively idempotent semirings in which products are less than or equal to either factor. In this paper, some necessary and sufficient conditions for a matrix over L to be invertible are given, where L is an incline with 0 and 1. Also it is proved that L is an integral incline if and only if GLn(L) = PLn(L) for any n (n ≥ 2), in which GLn(L) is the group of all n × n invertible matrices over L and PLn (L) is the group of all n × n permutation matrices over L. These results should be regarded as the generalizations and developments of the previous results on the invertible matrices over a distributive lattice.

  12. Implosions and hypertoric geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dancer, A.; Kirwan, F.; Swann, A.

    2013-01-01

    The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion.......The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion....

  13. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  14. Higher prequantum geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Urs

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of motivations, constructions and applications of higher prequantum geometry. In section 1 we highlight the open problem of prequantizing local field theory in a local and gauge invariant way, and we survey how a solution to this problem exists in higher differential geometry. In section 2 we survey examples and problems of interest. In section 3 we survey the abstract cohesive homotopy theory that serves to make all this precise and tractable.

  15. Brans-Dicke geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R

    2008-01-01

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying omega-->0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking constrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  16. Brans-Dicke geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Raffaele [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: raffaele.punzi@desy.de; Schuller, Frederic P. [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail: fps@aei.mpg.de; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.de

    2008-12-11

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying {omega}{yields}0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking contrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  17. SOC and Fractal Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, R. T. J.

    2013-06-01

    When Mandelbrot, the father of modern fractal geometry, made this seemingly obvious statement he was trying to show that we should move out of our comfortable Euclidean space and adopt a fractal approach to geometry. The concepts and mathematical tools of fractal geometry provides insight into natural physical systems that Euclidean tools cannot do. The benet from applying fractal geometry to studies of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) are even greater. SOC and fractal geometry share concepts of dynamic n-body interactions, apparent non-predictability, self-similarity, and an approach to global statistics in space and time that make these two areas into naturally paired research techniques. Further, the iterative generation techniques used in both SOC models and in fractals mean they share common features and common problems. This chapter explores the strong historical connections between fractal geometry and SOC from both a mathematical and conceptual understanding, explores modern day interactions between these two topics, and discusses how this is likely to evolve into an even stronger link in the near future.

  18. Ground motions around a semi-circular valley partially filled with an inclined alluvial layer under SH-polarized excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kao-Hao; Tsaur, Deng-How; Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2014-12-01

    A simplified mathematical model, composed of a semi-circular valley partially filled with an inclined alluvial layer under plane SH-wave incidence, is presented. To evaluate the site response theoretically, a rigorous series solution is derived via the region-matching technique. For angular wavefunctions constrained by an inclined free surface, the original form of Graf's addition formula is recast to arbitrarily shift the local coordinate system. The valley geometry, filling material, angle of incidence, and wave frequency are taken as significant parameters in exploring the site effect on ground motions. Also included are the frequency- and time-domain computations. Two canonical cases, the semi-circular vacant canyon and the fully filled semi-circular alluvial valley, with exact analytical solutions, and the partly horizontally filled case previously studied, are taken to be particular cases of the proposed general model. Steady-state results show that the peak amplitudes of motion may increase at low frequencies when the filling layer inclines to the illuminated region. At low-grazing incidence, the phenomenon of wave focusing becomes evident on the shadow side of the filling layer. Transient-state simulations elucidate how a sequence of surface waves travel on the topmost alluvium along opposite directions and interfere with multiple reflected waves within the filling layer.

  19. Transit Timing Variations for Eccentric and Inclined Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David

    2009-08-01

    The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) method relies on monitoring changes in timing of transits of known exoplanets. Nontransiting planets in the system can be inferred from TTVs by their gravitational interactions with the transiting planet. The TTV method is sensitive to low-mass planets that cannot be detected by other means. Inferring the orbital elements and mass of the nontransiting planets from TTVs, however, is more challenging than for other planet detection schemes. It is a difficult inverse problem. Here, we extended the new inversion method proposed by Nesvorný & Morbidelli to eccentric transiting planets and inclined orbits. We found that the TTV signal can be significantly amplified for hierarchical planetary systems with substantial orbital inclinations and/or for an eccentric transiting planet with anti-aligned orbit of the planetary companion. Thus, a fortuitous orbital setup of an exoplanetary system may significantly enhance our chances of TTV detection. We also showed that the detailed shape of the TTV signal is sensitive to the orbital inclination of the nontransiting planetary companion. The TTV detection method may thus provide important constraints on the orbital inclination of exoplanets and be used to test theories of planetary formation and evolution.

  20. Laminar hydromagnetic flows in an inclined heated layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Falsaperla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate, analytically, stationary laminar flow solutions of an inclined layer filled with a hydromagnetic fluid heated from below and subject to the gravity field. In particular we describe in a systematic way the many basic solutions associated to the system. This extensive work is the basis to linear instability and nonlinear stability analysis of such motions.

  1. Experimental free convection heat transfer from inclined square cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Natural convection from axisymmetric objects such as vertical or horizontal cylinders and spheres are two dimensional. However, for inclined circular or noncircular cylinders the flow and heat transfer is three dimensional and hence more complex and needs more attention. This study investigates the steady state mechanism of natural convection from inclined square cylinders in air. Five different cylinders of 1 m length, 8 × 8, 7 × 7, 6 × 6, 4 × 4 and 2.5 × 2.5 cm2 cross sections are used. The cylinders are heated using inserted heating element of 6 mm in diameter. Self-adhesive thermocouples are used at the upper, bottom and at one side of the cylinders for temperature measurement. Three inclination angles to the horizontal 30, 45 and 60o are used for each cylinder with uniform heat flux boundary conditions. For each cylinder, about ten heat fluxes are used to generate the heat transfer data. Local and average heat transfer coefficient is determined for each cylinder at each inclination angle for each uniform heat flux. Laminar and transition to turbulent regimes are obtained and characterized. Local critical axial distance where heat transfer coefficient changes the mode is obtained for each heat flux. Local and averaged Nusselt numbers are correlated with the modified Rayleigh numbers for all angles.

  2. Ethical Inclinations of Tomorrow's Managers: One More Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, George E.

    1985-01-01

    This article reports comparison of the results of the ethical inclinations of present and future managers. Three hundred and six undergraduate business majors completed the survey. Results and implications are presented, along with a discussion of the ethics of future executives. (CT)

  3. Asymmetric bursting of Taylor bubble in inclined tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Basanta Kumar; Das, Arup Kumar; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, experiments have been reported to explain the phenomenon of approach and collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble at free surface inside an inclined tube. Four different tube inclinations with horizontal (30°, 45°, 60° and 75°) and two different fluids (water and silicon oil) are considered for the experiment. Using high speed imaging, we have investigated the approach, puncture, and subsequent liquid drainage for re-establishment of the free surface. The present study covers all the aspects in the collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble through the generation of two films, i.e., a cap film which lies on top of the bubble and an asymmetric annular film along the tube wall. Retraction of the cap film is studied in detail and its velocity has been predicted successfully for different inclinations and fluids. Film drainage formulation considering azimuthal variation is proposed which also describes the experimental observations well. In addition, extrapolation of drainage velocity pattern beyond the experimental observation limit provides insight into the total collapse time of bubbles at different inclinations and fluids.

  4. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  5. Are inclined screw blades for vertical grain augers advantageous?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademacher, F.J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Due to modern technology, screw blades are often manufactured by rolling them out of one single strip of steel. When simultaneously some blade inclination is applied, less residual stresses and/or larger possible ratios between outer and shaft diameter are claimed by some manufacturers, which seems

  6. Investigations of the radio signal of inclined showers with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saftoiu, A., E-mail: allixme@gmail.com [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Apel, W.D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell& #x27; Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Universitaet Siegen, Fachbereich Physik (Germany); Buitink, S. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell& #x27; Universita Torino (Italy); INAF Torino, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell& #x27; Universita Torino (Italy); and others

    2012-01-11

    We report in this paper on an analysis of 20 months of data taken with LOPES. LOPES is radio antenna array set-up in coincidence with the Grande array, both located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany. The data used in this analysis were taken with an antenna configuration composed of 30 inverted V-shape dipole antennas. We have restricted the analysis to a special selection of inclined showers - with zenith angle {theta}>40{sup Ring-Operator }. These inclined showers are of particular interest because they are the events with the largest geomagnetic angles and are therefore suitable to test emission models based on geomagnetic effects.The reconstruction procedure of the emitted radio signal in EAS uses as one ingredient the frequency-dependent antenna gain pattern which is obtained from simulations. Effects of the applied antenna model in the calibration procedure of LOPES are studied. In particular, we have focused on one component of the antenna, a metal pedestal, which generates a resonance effect, a peak in the amplification pattern where it is the most affecting high zenith angles, i.e. inclined showers. In addition, polarization characteristics of inclined showers were studied in detail and compared with the features of more vertical showers for the two cases of antenna models, with and without the pedestal.

  7. Analysis of Aerodynamic Noise Generated from Inclined Circular Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YasutakeHaramoto; ShoujiYasuda; 等

    2000-01-01

    Making clear the generation mechanism of fluid dynamic noise is essential to reduce noise deriving from turbomachinery.The analysis of the aerodynamic noise generated from circular cylinder is carried out numerically and experimentally in a low noise wind tunnel.in this study,aerodynamic sound radiated from a circular cylinder in uniform flow is predicted numericaslly by the following two step method,First,the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved using the high order accurate upwind scheme.Next.the sound pressure level at the observed point is calculated from the fluctuating surface pressure on the cylinder.based on modified Lighthill-Curl's equation.It is worth to note that the noise generated from the model is reduced rapidly when it is inclined against the mean flow.In other works,the Peak level of the radiated noise decreases apidly with inclination of the circular cylinder.The simulated SPL for the inclined circular cylinder is compared with the measured value .and good agreement is obtained for the peak spectrum fequency of the sound pressue level and tendency of noise reduction,So we expect that the change of flow structures makes reduction of the aerodynamic noise from the inclined models.

  8. Analysis of aerodynamic noise generated from inclined circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Yasutake; Yasuda, Shouji; Matsuzaki, Kazuyoshi; Munekata, Mizue; Ohba, Hideki

    2000-06-01

    Making clear the generation mechanism of fluid dynamic noise is essential to reduce noise deriving from turbomachinery. The analysis of the aerodynamic noise generated from circular cylinder is carried out numerically and experimentally in a low noise wind tunnel. In this study, aerodynamic sound radiated from a circular cylinder in uniform flow is predicted numerically by the following two step method. First, the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved using the high order accurate upwind scheme. Next, the sound pressure level at the observed point is calculated from the fluctuating surface pressure on the cylinder, based on modified Lighthill-Curl’s equation. It is worth to note that the noise generated from the model is reduced rapidly when it is inclined against the mean flow. In other words, the peak level of the radiated noise decreases rapidly with inclination of the circular cylinder. The simulated SPL for the inclined circular cylinder is compared with the measured value, and good agreement is obtained for the peak spectrum frequency of the sound pressure level and tendency of noise reduction. So we expect that the change of flow structures makes reduction of the aerodynamic noise from the inclined models.

  9. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  10. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  11. Experimental study of two phase flow in inclined channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Sang Won [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Local two-phase flow parameters were measured to investigate the internal flow structures of steam-water boiling flow in an inclined channel. The vapor phase local flow parameters, such as void fraction, bubble frequency, vapor velocity, interfacial area concentration and chord length, were measured, using two conductivity probe method, and local liquid phase velocity was measured by pitot tube. In order to investigate the effects of channel inclination on two phase flow structure, the experiments were conducted for three angles of inclination; 0 degree(vertical), 30 degree and 60 degree. The experimental flow conditions were confined to the liquid superficial velocities less than 1.4 m/sec and nearly atmospheric pressure, and the flow regime was limited to the subcooled boiling. Using the measured distributions of the local phasic parameters, correlations for the drift-flux parameters such as distribution parameter and drift velocity were proposed. Those correlations were compared with the available correlation applicable to the inclined channel by the calculation of average void fraction using the present data. 44 refs., 4 tabs., 88 figs. (author)

  12. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  13. Stability of stratified two-phase flows in inclined channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmak, I.; Gelfgat, A. Yu.; Ullmann, A.; Brauner, N.

    2016-08-01

    Linear stability of the stratified gas-liquid and liquid-liquid plane-parallel flows in the inclined channels is studied with respect to all wavenumber perturbations. The main objective is to predict the parameter regions in which the stable stratified configuration in inclined channels exists. Up to three distinct base states with different holdups exist in the inclined flows, so that the stability analysis has to be carried out for each branch separately. Special attention is paid to the multiple solution regions to reveal the feasibility of the non-unique stable stratified configurations in inclined channels. The stability boundaries of each branch of the steady state solutions are presented on the flow pattern map and are accompanied by the critical wavenumbers and the spatial profiles of the most unstable perturbations. Instabilities of different nature are visualized by the streamlines of the neutrally stable perturbed flows, consisting of the critical perturbation superimposed on the base flow. The present analysis confirms the existence of two stable stratified flow configurations in a region of low flow rates in the countercurrent liquid-liquid flows. These configurations become unstable with respect to the shear mode of instability. It was revealed that in slightly upward inclined flows the lower and middle solutions for the holdup are stable in the part of the triple solution region, while the upper solution is always unstable. In the case of downward flows, in the triple solution region, none of the solutions are stable with respect to the short-wave perturbations. These flows are stable only in the single solution region at low flow rates of the heavy phase, and the long-wave perturbations are the most unstable ones.

  14. Pulsar Emission Geometry and Accelerating Field Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesar, Megan E.; Harding, Alice K.; Miller, M. Coleman; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Parent, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The high-quality Fermi LAT observations of gamma-ray pulsars have opened a new window to understanding the generation mechanisms of high-energy emission from these systems, The high statistics allow for careful modeling of the light curve features as well as for phase resolved spectral modeling. We modeled the LAT light curves of the Vela and CTA I pulsars with simulated high-energy light curves generated from geometrical representations of the outer gap and slot gap emission models. within the vacuum retarded dipole and force-free fields. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood method was used to explore the phase space of the magnetic inclination angle, viewing angle. maximum emission radius, and gap width. We also used the measured spectral cutoff energies to estimate the accelerating parallel electric field dependence on radius. under the assumptions that the high-energy emission is dominated by curvature radiation and the geometry (radius of emission and minimum radius of curvature of the magnetic field lines) is determined by the best fitting light curves for each model. We find that light curves from the vacuum field more closely match the observed light curves and multiwavelength constraints, and that the calculated parallel electric field can place additional constraints on the emission geometry

  15. Sources of hyperbolic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stillwell, John

    1996-01-01

    This book presents, for the first time in English, the papers of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincaré that brought hyperbolic geometry into the mainstream of mathematics. A recognition of Beltrami comparable to that given the pioneering works of Bolyai and Lobachevsky seems long overdue-not only because Beltrami rescued hyperbolic geometry from oblivion by proving it to be logically consistent, but because he gave it a concrete meaning (a model) that made hyperbolic geometry part of ordinary mathematics. The models subsequently discovered by Klein and Poincaré brought hyperbolic geometry even further down to earth and paved the way for the current explosion of activity in low-dimensional geometry and topology. By placing the works of these three mathematicians side by side and providing commentaries, this book gives the student, historian, or professional geometer a bird's-eye view of one of the great episodes in mathematics. The unified setting and historical context reveal the insights of Beltrami, Klein, and Po...

  16. Low-Angle Grain Boundaries in Sublimation Grown 6H-SiC Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) was used to assess the quality of 6H-SiC crystals grown by sublimation method. The results show the occurrence of low-angle grain boundaries (LB) is close relative to the inclination of the crystal interface. At the central faceted region with 0° inclination the crystal is of high structural perfection. However, at the region close to the facet with less than 5° inclination LB occurs slightly and at the region close to the peripheral polytype ring with more than 5° inclination LB defect occurs heavily. The density of LB can be drastically reduced by decreasing radial temperature gradient that determines the shape of the crystal growth interface.

  17. Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…

  18. Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…

  19. The Role of Slope Geometry on Flowslide Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Deangeli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a study aimed to the prediction of susceptibility to flowslide of granular soil slopes as a consequence of the in situ state of stress. In particular, the slope geometry has been investigated as a factor influencing the initial state of stress. For this purpose the results of numerical models, performed by a finite different approach (FLAC, allowed the complete definition, in any point of the slope, of the stress conditions by changing slope height and inclination. By relating this state of stress to parameters used to describe potential for liquefaction of loose granular soils a chart of instability has been set up.

  20. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  1. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  2. Supersymmetry and noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Beenakker, Wim; Suijlekom, Walter D van

    2016-01-01

    In this work the question whether noncommutative geometry allows for supersymmetric theories is addressed. Noncommutative geometry has seen remarkable applications in high energy physics, viz. the geometrical interpretation of the Standard Model, however such a question has not been answered in a conclusive way so far. The book starts with a systematic analysis of the possibilities for so-called almost-commutative geometries on a 4-dimensional, flat background to exhibit not only a particle content that is eligible for supersymmetry, but also have a supersymmetric action. An approach is proposed in which the basic `building blocks' of potentially supersymmetric theories and the demands for their action to be supersymmetric are identified. It is then described how a novel kind of soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian arises naturally from the spectral action. Finally, the above formalism is applied to explore the existence of a noncommutative version of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. This book is ...

  3. Universality of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wetterich, C

    2012-01-01

    In models of emergent gravity the metric arises as the expectation value of some collective field. Usually, many different collective fields with appropriate tensor properties are candidates for a metric. Which collective field describes the "physical geometry"? We resolve this "metric ambiguity" by an investigation of the most general form of the quantum effective action for several metrics. In the long-distance limit the physical metric is universal and accounts for a massless graviton. Other degrees of freedom contained in the various metric candidates describe very massive scalars and symmetric second rank tensors. They only play a role at microscopic distances, typically around the Planck length. The universality of geometry at long distances extends to the vierbein and the connection. On the other hand, for distances and time intervals of Planck size geometry looses its universal meaning. Time is born with the big bang.

  4. Geometry of hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cecil, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    This exposition provides the state-of-the art on the differential geometry of hypersurfaces in real, complex, and quaternionic space forms. Special emphasis is placed on isoparametric and Dupin hypersurfaces in real space forms as well as Hopf hypersurfaces in complex space forms. The book is accessible to a reader who has completed a one-year graduate course in differential geometry. The text, including open problems and an extensive list of references, is an excellent resource for researchers in this area. Geometry of Hypersurfaces begins with the basic theory of submanifolds in real space forms. Topics include shape operators, principal curvatures and foliations, tubes and parallel hypersurfaces, curvature spheres and focal submanifolds. The focus then turns to the theory of isoparametric hypersurfaces in spheres. Important examples and classification results are given, including the construction of isoparametric hypersurfaces based on representations of Clifford algebras. An in-depth treatment of Dupin hy...

  5. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  6. Integral Geometry and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-01-01

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we...

  7. Lectures on discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  8. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  9. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  10. A programmer's geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Adrian

    1983-01-01

    A Programmer's Geometry provides a guide in programming geometric shapes. The book presents formulas and examples of computer representation and coding of geometry. Each of the nine chapters of the text deals with the representation and solution of a specific geometrical problem, such as areas, vectors, and volumes. The last chapter provides a brief discussion on generating image through a computer. The codes presented in the book are written in FORTRAN 77. The text will be of great use to programmers who are working on projects that involve geometric calculations.

  11. Geometry and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi

  12. Non-Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhart, L P

    1927-01-01

    The use of the differential geometry of a Riemannian space in the mathematical formulation of physical theories led to important developments in the geometry of such spaces. The concept of parallelism of vectors, as introduced by Levi-Civita, gave rise to a theory of the affine properties of a Riemannian space. Covariant differentiation, as developed by Christoffel and Ricci, is a fundamental process in this theory. Various writers, notably Eddington, Einstein and Weyl, in their efforts to formulate a combined theory of gravitation and electromagnetism, proposed a simultaneous generalization o

  13. Pulsar lensing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Siqi; Macquart, J-P; Brisken, Walter; Deller, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of archival VLBI data of PSR 0834+06 revealed that its scintillation properties can be precisely modelled using the inclined sheet model (Pen & Levin 2014), resulting in two distinct lens planes. These data strongly favour the grazing sheet model over turbulence as the primary source of pulsar scattering. This model can reproduce the parameters of the observed diffractive scintillation with an accuracy at the percent level. Comparison with new VLBI proper motion results in a direct measure of the ionized ISM screen transverse velocity. The results are consistent with ISM velocities local to the PSR 0834+06 sight-line (through the Galaxy). The simple 1D structure of the lenses opens up the possibility of using interstellar lenses as precision probes for pulsar lens mapping, precision transverse motions in the ISM, and new opportunities for removing scattering to improve pulsar timing. We describe the parameters and observables of this double screen system. While relative screen distances can i...

  14. Magnetic inclination from Brazilian bricks and application to Archeomagnetic dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, G. S.; Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.

    2013-05-01

    The Earth's magnetic field (EMF) is recorded in archeological baked materials carrying a stable remanent magnetization. This magnetic record can be used for indirectly date the archeological material by comparison with "reference curves" of the EMF. In this work we present magnetic inclination data from two different sites in southeastern Brazil, an ancient and a modern one: (a) a sampling at the ancient sugarcane mill Engenho Central de Piracicaba (ECP, 1881-1974 AD), and (b) a controlled survey at the modern brickyard Olaria Schiavolin (OS). Both of them are located in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Magnetic measurements included stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and low-field magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature. In OS, we collected 40 oriented bricks from 5 sampling points inside the brickyard oven in order to test the stability and reliability of their remanent magnetizations by comparing them with the local field (measured directly with a fluxgate magnetometer). We observed differences of +/- 3° between the local field and the IGRF. When magnetic inclinations are reported relative to the flat planes of the brick (the situation we face for real ancient bricks), the differences due to inclination of the burning plane and magnetic anomalies inside the oven never exceed 6°. These differences are averaged out by using a minimum of 6 bricks (~24 specimens) per sampling point to compute the inclination. In the ancient site ECP we collected 140 non-oriented bricks from 14 different walls; three of them were previously dated using historical records. Inclinations were defined using at least 6 bricks per wall, showing consistent average values within the same walls. When compared to the IGRF and GUFM1 models, the inclinations obtained for the dated walls agreed within the experimental error. We have then applied the same procedure to estimate the age of the remaining walls. Using

  15. Ribbon crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bohr

    Full Text Available A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet-Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long-range order.

  16. Geometry and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyah, Michael; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hitchin, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    We review the remarkably fruitful interactions between mathematics and quantum physics in the past decades, pointing out some general trends and highlighting several examples, such as the counting of curves in algebraic geometry, invariants of knots and four-dimensional topology. PMID:20123740

  17. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  18. Diophantine geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hindry, Marc

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.

  19. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  20. Advanced geometries and regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S. [Univeristy of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46-I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague, Czech Republic and Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague (Czech Republic); Antici, P. [Dipartimento di Energetica ed INFM, Università di Roma, La Sapienza, 00165 Roma (Italy); Margarone, D.; Korn, G. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-26

    We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project.

  1. Emergent Hyperbolic Network Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    A large variety of interacting complex systems are characterized by interactions occurring between more than two nodes. These systems are described by simplicial complexes. Simplicial complexes are formed by simplices (nodes, links, triangles, tetrahedra etc.) that have a natural geometric interpretation. As such simplicial complexes are widely used in quantum gravity approaches that involve a discretization of spacetime. Here, by extending our knowledge of growing complex networks to growing simplicial complexes we investigate the nature of the emergent geometry of complex networks and explore whether this geometry is hyperbolic. Specifically we show that an hyperbolic network geometry emerges spontaneously from models of growing simplicial complexes that are purely combinatorial. The statistical and geometrical properties of the growing simplicial complexes strongly depend on their dimensionality and display the major universal properties of real complex networks (scale-free degree distribution, small-world and communities) at the same time. Interestingly, when the network dynamics includes an heterogeneous fitness of the faces, the growing simplicial complex can undergo phase transitions that are reflected by relevant changes in the network geometry.

  2. Spacetime and Euclidean Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, D R; Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the "spacetime Pythagoras theorem".

  3. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  4. Towards a Nano Geometry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies I.M. Gelfand's distinction between adequate and non-adequate use of mathematical language in different contexts to the newly opened window of model-based measurements of intracellular dynamics. The specifics of geometry and dynamics on the mesoscale of cell physiology are elabo...

  5. Origami, Geometry and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…

  6. Geometry Euclid and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hartshorne, Robin

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, I have been teaching a junior-senior-level course on the classi­ cal geometries. This book has grown out of that teaching experience. I assume only high-school geometry and some abstract algebra. The course begins in Chapter 1 with a critical examination of Euclid's Elements. Students are expected to read concurrently Books I-IV of Euclid's text, which must be obtained sepa­ rately. The remainder of the book is an exploration of questions that arise natu­ rally from this reading, together with their modern answers. To shore up the foundations we use Hilbert's axioms. The Cartesian plane over a field provides an analytic model of the theory, and conversely, we see that one can introduce coordinates into an abstract geometry. The theory of area is analyzed by cutting figures into triangles. The algebra of field extensions provides a method for deciding which geometrical constructions are possible. The investigation of the parallel postulate leads to the various non-Euclidean geometries. And ...

  7. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  8. Origami, Geometry and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…

  9. Parametric Study of Mixed Convective RadiativeHeat Transfer in an Inclined Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed G. Saihood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady state laminar mixed convection and radiation through inclined rectangular duct with an interior circular tube is investigated numerically for a thermally and hydrodynamicaly fully developed flow. The two heat transfer mechanisms of convection and radiation are treated independently and simultaneously. The governing equations which used are continuity, momentum and energy equations. These equations are normalized and solved using the Vorticity-Stream function and the Body Fitted Coordinates (B.F.C methods. The finite difference approach with the Line Successive Over-Relaxation (LSOR method is used to obtain all the computational results. The (B.F.C method is used to generate the grid of the problem. A computer program (Fortran 90 is built to calculate the steady state Nusselt number (Nu for Aspect Ratio AR (0.55-1 and Geometry Ratio GR (0.1-0.9. The fluid Prandtl number is 0.7, Rayleigh number Ra = 400, Reynolds number Re = 100, Optical Thickness (0 ≤ t ≤ 10, Conduction- Radiation parameter (0 ≤ N ≤ 100 and Inclination angle λ = 45. For the range of parameters considered, results show that radiation enhance heat transfer. It is also indicated in the results that heat transfer from the surface of the circle exceeds that of the rectangular duct. Generally, Nu is increased with increasing GR, t and N but it decreased with AR increase. When the radiation effect added to the heat transfer mechanism, the heat transfer rate increased. This effect increased with increasing in GR and decreasing with AR. The increasing in radiation properties lead to increase the radiation effect. Tecplot 7 program was used to plot the curves which cleared these relations and isotherms and streamlines which illustrate the behavior of air through the channel and its variation with other parameters. A correlation equation is concluded to describe the radiation effect. Comparison of the results with the previous work shows a good agreement.

  10. Dragline control system with jib head block inclination indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverev, A.I.

    1984-06-01

    A system is described which was devised to prevent excess inclination of blocks on dragline jibs caused by various circumstances, e.g. when the jib suddenly stops rotating and the bucket is simultaneously unloaded. Such inclination has several unfavorable effects, including possible jumping of the rope from the block groove, with damage to the protective guard and other adjacent equipment and damage to the rope. The proposed system, for use on EhSh-10/60 and EhSh-10/70 draglines, is based on end sensors linked via intermediate relays to the raising and turning control systems. The drive speeds are automatically altered when the jib crosspiece approaches a stop plate, and the operator is alerted by the audible clicks of the relays in the control panel. A wiring diagram for the system is given.

  11. Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: orbital inclination, not eccentricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R A; MacDonald, G J

    1997-08-05

    Spectral analysis of climate data shows a strong narrow peak with period approximately 100 kyr, attributed by the Milankovitch theory to changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. The narrowness of the peak does suggest an astronomical origin; however the shape of the peak is incompatible with both linear and nonlinear models that attribute the cycle to eccentricity or (equivalently) to the envelope of the precession. In contrast, the orbital inclination parameter gives a good match to both the spectrum and bispectrum of the climate data. Extraterrestrial accretion from meteoroids or interplanetary dust is proposed as a mechanism that could link inclination to climate, and experimental tests are described that could prove or disprove this hypothesis.

  12. Microstrip Phased Array Antennas Printed on Inclined Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papiernik

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the electromagnetic field radiated by micro-strip patch antennas printed on inclined surfaces. The theoretical approach allows to apply spatial rotations to each source. The computer simulation developed permits us to experiment different antenna structures and two original realisations are proposed: a 2-element array printed on two inclined planes and a 4-element array laid out on a pyramidal surface. In addition, it enables the choice of the phase applied to each radiator to produce a beam deflection function. A good accuracy is obtained between theoretical and experimental results. The aim of this study is to optimise the parameters of such antennas to achieve the desired radiation patterns, from printed phased arrays on conformal surfaces. We also present the theoretical behaviour of a octagonal pyramid.

  13. Inclination not force is sensed by plants during shoot gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Hugo; Pouliquen, Olivier; Forterre, Yoël; Legué, Valérie; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Gravity perception plays a key role in how plants develop and adapt to environmental changes. However, more than a century after the pioneering work of Darwin, little is known on the sensing mechanism. Using a centrifugal device combined with growth kinematics imaging, we show that shoot gravitropic responses to steady levels of gravity in four representative angiosperm species is independent of gravity intensity. All gravitropic responses tested are dependent only on the angle of inclination from the direction of gravity. We thus demonstrate that shoot gravitropism is stimulated by sensing inclination not gravitational force or acceleration as previously believed. This contrasts with the otolith system in the internal ear of vertebrates and explains the robustness of the control of growth direction by plants despite perturbations like wind shaking. Our results will help retarget the search for the molecular mechanism linking shifting statoliths to signal transduction. PMID:27739470

  14. Inclination not force is sensed by plants during shoot gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Hugo; Pouliquen, Olivier; Forterre, Yoël; Legué, Valérie; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Gravity perception plays a key role in how plants develop and adapt to environmental changes. However, more than a century after the pioneering work of Darwin, little is known on the sensing mechanism. Using a centrifugal device combined with growth kinematics imaging, we show that shoot gravitropic responses to steady levels of gravity in four representative angiosperm species is independent of gravity intensity. All gravitropic responses tested are dependent only on the angle of inclination from the direction of gravity. We thus demonstrate that shoot gravitropism is stimulated by sensing inclination not gravitational force or acceleration as previously believed. This contrasts with the otolith system in the internal ear of vertebrates and explains the robustness of the control of growth direction by plants despite perturbations like wind shaking. Our results will help retarget the search for the molecular mechanism linking shifting statoliths to signal transduction.

  15. Boiling heat transfer in horizontal and inclined rectangular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, S.M.; Mobarak, A.; Hilal, M.; Mohareb, M.R. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt))

    1987-05-01

    The present experimental investigation is concerned with boiling heat transfer of water inside both horizontal and inclined rectangular channels under a relatively low heat flux. These configurations simulate the absorber channel of line-focus solar concentrations under boiling conditions. The experimental facility includes electrically heated aluminum rectangular channels with aspect ratios of 2.67 and 0.37. The experimental results of the two-phase Nusselt number for the two aspect ratios and for the inclination angles 0, 15, 30, and 45 deg were correlated in terms of a ratio of the two-phase to the liquid-phase Reynolds number for the forced-convection vaporization region. The proposed correlations agree well with previous investigations. In the present work, classifications of the various flow patterns were made by direct observation through a glass window at the end of the test section.

  16. An introduction to Minkowski geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental ideas of Minkowski geometries are presented. Learning about Minkowski geometries can sharpen our students' understanding of concepts such as distance measurement. Many of its ideas are important and accessible to undergraduate students. Following a brief overview, distance and orthogonality in Minkowski geometries are thoroughly discussed and many illustrative examples and applications are supplied. Suggestions for further study of these geometries are given. Indeed, Minkowski geometries are an excellent source of topics for undergraduate research and independent study.

  17. Heliospheric current sheet inclinations at Venus and Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ma

    Full Text Available We investigate the inclinations of heliospheric current sheet at two sites in interplanetary space, which are generated from the same solar source. From the data of solar wind magnetic fields observed at Venus (0.72 AU and Earth (1 AU during December 1978-May 1982 including the solar maximum of 1981, 54 pairs of candidate sector boundary crossings are picked out, of which 16 pairs are identified as sector boundaries. Of the remainder, 12 pairs are transient structures both at Venus and Earth, and 14 pairs are sector boundaries at one site and have transient structures at the other site. It implies that transient structures were often ejected from the coronal streamer belt around the solar maximum. For the 16 pairs of selected sector boundaries, we determine their normals by using minimum variance analysis. It is found that most of the normal azimuthal angles are distributed between the radial direction and the direction perpendicular to the spiral direction both at Venus and Earth. The normal elevations tend to be smaller than ~ 45° with respect to the solar equatorial plane, indicating high inclinations of the heliospheric current sheet, in particular at Earth. The larger scatter in the azimuth and elevation of normals at Venus than at Earth suggests stronger effects of the small-scale structures on the current sheet at 0.72 AU than at 1 AU. When the longitude difference between Venus and Earth is small (<40° longitudinally, similar or the same inclinations are generally observed, especially for the sector boundaries without small-scale structures. This implies that the heliospheric current sheet inclination tends to be maintained during propagation of the solar wind from 0.72 AU to 1 AU. Detailed case studies reveal that the dynamic nature of helmet streamers causes variations of the sector boundary structure.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields; sources of solar wind

  18. Trunk muscle activity with different sitting postures and pelvic inclination

    OpenAIRE

    WATANABE, MASAHIRO; Kaneoka, Koji; Wada, Yusuke; Matsui, Yasushi; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sitting posture may often place large burden on trunk muscles, while trunk muscle activities in the sitting posture have not been well clarified. In this study, a difference in trunk muscle activity between two kinds of sitting postures was evaluated, focusing on low back pain induced by posture holding.MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experiment was conducted on the subjects sitting on a stable-seat and on an unstable-seat, with the pelvis inclined forward, backward, rightw...

  19. EIGENFREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF CABLE STRUCTURES WITH INCLINED CABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Paulsen; Greg Slayton

    2006-01-01

    The approximate eigenfrequencies for the in-plane vibrations of a cable structure consisting of inclined cables, together with point masses at various points were computed. It was discovered that the classical transfer matrix method was inadequate for this task, and hence the larger exterior matrices were used to determine the eigenfrequency equation. Then predictions of the dynamics of the general cable structure based on the asymptotic estimates of the exterior matrices were made.

  20. Forces Acting on Sessile Droplet on Inclined Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Annapragada, S. Ravi; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2009-01-01

    Although many analytical, experimental and numerical studies have focused on droplet motion, the mechanics of the droplet while still in its static state, and just before motion starts, are not well understood. A study of static droplets would shed light on the threshold voltage (or critical inclination) for initiating electrically (or gravitationally) induced droplet motion. Before the droplet starts to move, the droplet shape changes such that the forces acting at the triple contact line ba...

  1. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied.

  2. Geometry of guanidinium groups in arginines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The restraints in common usage today have been obtained based on small molecule X-ray crystal structures available 25 years ago and recent reports have shown that the values of bond lengths and valence angles can be, in fact, significantly different from those stored in libraries, for example for the peptide bond or the histidine ring geometry. We showed that almost 50% of outliers found in protein validation reports released in the Protein Data Bank on 23 March 2016 come from geometry of guanidine groups in arginines. Therefore, structures of small molecules and atomic resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive new target values for the geometry of this group. The most significant difference was found for NE-CZ-NH1 and NE-CZ-NH2 angles, showing that the guanidinium group is not symmetric. The NE-CZ-NH1 angle is larger, 121.5(10)˚, than NE-CZ-NH2, 119.2(10)˚, due to the repulsive interaction between NH1 and CD1 atom.

  3. On the highly inclined $v_W$ leptokurtic asteroid families

    CERN Document Server

    Carruba, V; Aljbaae, S; Huaman, M

    2016-01-01

    $v_W$ leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field $v_W$ is characterized by a positive value of the ${\\gamma}_2$ Pearson kurtosis, i.e., they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have ${\\gamma}_2(v_W) > 0.25$. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the $s-s_V$ resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of ${\\gamma}_2(v_W)$ for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the ...

  4. Comparison of Estimated and Measured Muscle Activity During Inclined Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nathalie; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    While inclined walking is a frequent daily activity, muscle forces during this activity have rarely been examined. Musculoskeletal models are commonly used to estimate internal forces in healthy populations, but these require a priori validation. The aim of this study was to compare estimated muscle activity using a musculoskeletal model with measured EMG data during inclined walking. Ten healthy male participants walked at different inclinations of 0°, ± 6°, ± 12°, and ± 18° on a ramp equipped with 2 force plates. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the musculus (m.) biceps femoris, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior, and m. gastrocnemius lateralis were recorded. Agreement between estimated and measured muscle activity was determined via correlation coefficients, mean absolute errors, and trend analysis. Correlation coefficients between estimated and measured muscle activity for approximately 69% of the conditions were above 0.7. Mean absolute errors were rather high with only approximately 38% being ≤ 30%. Trend analysis revealed similar estimated and measured muscle activities for all muscles and tasks (uphill and downhill walking), except m. tibialis anterior during uphill walking. This model can be used for further analysis in similar groups of participants.

  5. Measurements of Stellar Inclinations for Kepler Planet Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Takeda, Yoichi; Narita, Norio; Winn, Joshua N; Taruya, Atsushi; Suto, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We present an investigation of spin-orbit angles for planetary system candidates reported by Kepler. By combining the rotational period $P_s$ inferred from the flux variation due to starspots and the projected rotational velocity $V\\sin I_s$ and stellar radius obtained by a high resolution spectroscopy, we attempt to estimate the inclination $I_s$ of the stellar spin axis with respect to the line-of-sight. For transiting planetary systems, in which planetary orbits are edge-on seen from us, the stellar inclination $I_s$ can be a useful indicator of a spin-orbit alignment/misalignment. We newly conducted spectroscopic observations with Subaru/HDS for 15 KOI systems, whose lightcurves show periodic flux variations. After detailed analyses of their lightcurves and spectra, it turned out that some of them are binaries, or the flux variations are too coherent to be caused by starspots, probably representing ellipsoidal variations, and consequently we could constrain stellar inclinations $I_s$ for eight systems. Am...

  6. On the Orbital Inclination of Proxima Centauri b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Turnbull, Margaret C.

    2017-02-01

    The field of exoplanetary science has seen discovery rates increase dramatically over recent years, due largely to the data from the Kepler mission. Even so, individual discoveries of planets orbiting nearby stars are very important for studies of characterization and near-term follow-up prospects. The recent discovery of a terrestrial planet candidate orbiting Proxima Centauri presents numerous opportunities for studying a super-Earth within our own stellar backyard. One of the remaining ambiguities of the discovery is the true mass of the planet since the discovery signature was obtained via radial velocities. Here, we describe the effect of orbital inclination on the Proxima Centauri planet, in terms of mass, radius, atmosphere, and albedo. We calculate the astrometric, angular separation, and reflected light properties of the planet including the effects of orbital eccentricity. We further provide dynamical simulations that show how the presence of additional terrestrial planets within the Habitable Zone varies as a function of inclination. Finally, we discuss these effects in the context of future space-based photometry and imaging missions that could potentially detect the planetary signature and resolve the inclination and mass ambiguity of the planet.

  7. Analysis of sagittal condyl inclination in subjects with temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Disturbances of mandibular border movements is considered to be one of the major signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible association between disturbances of mandibular border movements and the presence of symptoms of TMD in the young. Methods. This study included two groups of volunteers between 18 and 26 years of age. The study group included 30 examineers with signs (symptoms of TMD, and the control group also included 30 persons without any signs (symptoms of TMD. The presence of TMD was confirmed according to the craniomandibular index (Helkimo. The functional analysis of mandibular movements was performed in each subject using the computer pantograph. Results. The results of this study did not confirm any significant differences between the values of the condylar variables/sagittal condylar inclination, length of the sagital condylar guidance, in the control and in the study group. Conclusion. The study did not confirm significant differences in the length and inclination of the protrusive condylar guidance, as well as in the values of the sagittal condylar inclination between the subjects with the signs and symptoms of TMD and the normal asymptomatic subjects.

  8. Geometry-Temperature Interplay in the Casimir Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We discuss Casimir phenomena which are dominated by long-range fluctuations. A prime example is given by "geothermal" Casimir phenomena where thermal fluctuations in open Casimir geometries can induce significantly enhanced thermal corrections. We illustrate the underlying mechanism with the aid of the inclined-plates configuration, giving rise to enhanced power-law temperature dependences compared to the parallel-plates case. In limiting cases, we find numerical evidence even for fractional power laws induced by long-range fluctuations. We demonstrate that thermal energy densities for open geometries are typically distributed over length scales of 1/T. As an important consequence, approximation methods for thermal corrections based on local energy-density estimates such as the proximity-force approximation are expected to become unreliable even at small surface separations.

  9. Developing radio beam geometry and luminosity models of pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Gonthier, P L; Giacherio, B M; Arevalo, R A; Harding, A K

    2006-01-01

    Our recent studies of pulsar population statistics suggest that improvements of radio and gamma-ray beam geometry and luminosity models require further refinement. The goal of this project is to constrain the viewing geometry for some radio pulsars, especially three-peaked pulse profiles, in order to limit the uncertainty of the magnetic inclination and impact angles. We perform fits of the pulse profile and position angle sweep of radio pulsars for the available frequencies. We assume a single core and conal beams described by Gaussians. We incorporate three different size cones with frequency dependence from the work of Mitra & Deshpande (1999). We obtain separate spectral indices for the core and cone beams and explore the trends of the ratio of core to cone peak fluxes. This ratio is observed to have some dependence with period. However, we cannot establish the suggested functional form of this ratio as indicated by the work of Arzoumanian, Chernoff & Cordes (2002).

  10. Geometry of Müntz spaces and related questions

    CERN Document Server

    Gurariy, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Starting point and motivation for this volume is the classical Muentz theorem which states that the space of all polynomials on the unit interval, whose exponents have too many gaps, is no longer dense in the space of all continuous functions. The resulting spaces of Muentz polynomials are largely unexplored as far as the Banach space geometry is concerned and deserve the attention that the authors arouse. They present the known theorems and prove new results concerning, for example, the isomorphic and isometric classification and the existence of bases in these spaces. Moreover they state many open problems. Although the viewpoint is that of the geometry of Banach spaces they only assume that the reader is familiar with basic functional analysis. In the first part of the book the Banach spaces notions are systematically introduced and are later on applied for Muentz spaces. They include the opening and inclination of subspaces, bases and bounded approximation properties and versions of universality.

  11. Inclination of magnetic fields and flows in sunspot penumbrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, K.; Scharmer, G. B.; Kiselman, D.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Berger, T. E.

    2005-06-01

    An observational study of the inclination of magnetic fields and flows in sunspot penumbrae at a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec is presented. The analysis is based on longitudinal magnetograms and Dopplergrams obtained with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope on La Palma using the Lockheed Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter birefringent filter. Data from two sunspots observed at several heliocentric angles between 12 ° and 39 ° were analyzed. We find that the magnetic field at the level of the formation of the Fe i-line wing (630.25 nm) is in the form of coherent structures that extend radially over nearly the entire penumbra giving the impression of vertical sheet-like structures. The inclination of the field varies up to 45 ° over azimuthal distances close to the resolution limit of the magnetograms. Dark penumbral cores, and their extensions into the outer penumbra, are prominent features associated with the more horizontal component of the magnetic field. The inclination of this dark penumbral component - designated B - increases outwards from approximately 40 ° in the inner penumbra such that the field lines are nearly horizontal or even return to the solar surface already in the middle penumbra. The bright component of filaments - designated A - is associated with the more vertical component of the magnetic field and has an inclination with respect to the normal of about 35 ° in the inner penumbra, increasing to about 60 ° towards the outer boundary. The magnetogram signal is lower in the dark component B regions than in the bright component A regions of the penumbral filaments. The measured rapid azimuthal variation of the magnetogram signal is interpreted as being caused by combined fluctuations of inclination and magnetic field strength. The Dopplergrams show that the velocity field associated with penumbral component B is roughly aligned with the magnetic field while component A flows are more horizontal than the magnetic field. The observations give

  12. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  13. Renyi Entropy and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeongseog; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2014-01-01

    Entanglement entropy in even dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) contains well-known universal terms arising from the conformal anomaly. Renyi entropies are natural generalizations of the entanglement entropy that are much less understood. Above two spacetime dimensions, the universal terms in the Renyi entropies are unknown for general entangling geometries. We conjecture a new structure in the dependence of the four-dimensional Renyi entropies on the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the entangling surface. We provide evidence for this conjecture by direct numerical computations in the free scalar and fermion field theories. The computation involves relating the four-dimensional free massless Renyi entropies across cylindrical entangling surfaces to corresponding three-dimensional massive Renyi entropies across circular entangling surfaces. Our numerical technique also allows us to directly probe other interesting aspects of three-dimensional Renyi entropy, including the massless renormalized Reny...

  14. Spectral Geometry and Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Kopf, T

    1996-01-01

    For a physical interpretation of a theory of quantum gravity, it is necessary to recover classical spacetime, at least approximately. However, quantum gravity may eventually provide classical spacetimes by giving spectral data similar to those appearing in noncommutative geometry, rather than by giving directly a spacetime manifold. It is shown that a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold can be given by spectral data. A new phenomenon in the context of spectral geometry is observed: causal relationships. The employment of the causal relationships of spectral data is shown to lead to a highly efficient description of Lorentzian manifolds, indicating the possible usefulness of this approach. Connections to free quantum field theory are discussed for both motivation and physical interpretation. It is conjectured that the necessary spectral data can be generically obtained from an effective field theory having the fundamental structures of generalized quantum mechanics: a decoherence functional and a choice of...

  15. Multivariate calculus and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dineen, Seán

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate calculus can be understood best by combining geometric insight, intuitive arguments, detailed explanations and mathematical reasoning. This textbook has successfully followed this programme. It additionally provides a solid description of the basic concepts, via familiar examples, which are then tested in technically demanding situations. In this new edition the introductory chapter and two of the chapters on the geometry of surfaces have been revised. Some exercises have been replaced and others provided with expanded solutions. Familiarity with partial derivatives and a course in linear algebra are essential prerequisites for readers of this book. Multivariate Calculus and Geometry is aimed primarily at higher level undergraduates in the mathematical sciences. The inclusion of many practical examples involving problems of several variables will appeal to mathematics, science and engineering students.

  16. Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tschinkel, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    The two volumes of "Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry: In Honor of Y.I. Manin" are composed of invited expository articles and extensions detailing Manin's contributions to the subjects, and are in celebration of his 70th birthday. The well-respected and distinguished contributors include: Behrend, Berkovich, Bost, Bressler, Calaque, Carlson, Chambert-Loir, Colombo, Connes, Consani, Dabrowski, Deninger, Dolgachev, Donaldson, Ekedahl, Elsenhans, Enriques, Etingof, Fock, Friedlander, Geemen, Getzler, Goncharov, Harris, Iskovskikh, Jahnel, Kaledin, Kapranov, Katz, Kaufmann, Kollar, Kont

  17. Geometry of Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2007-12-01

    Preface; 1. Convexity, colours and statistics; 2. Geometry of probability distributions; 3. Much ado about spheres; 4. Complex projective spaces; 5. Outline of quantum mechanics; 6. Coherent states and group actions; 7. The stellar representation; 8. The space of density matrices; 9. Purification of mixed quantum states; 10. Quantum operations; 11. Duality: maps versus states; 12. Density matrices and entropies; 13. Distinguishability measures; 14. Monotone metrics and measures; 15. Quantum entanglement; Epilogue; Appendices; References; Index.

  18. Differential geometry and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, H

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present the first steps of a new approach to the study of thermodynamics in the context of differential geometry. We introduce a fundamental differential 1-form and a metric on a pseudo-Euclidean manifold coordinatized by means of the extensive thermodynamic variables. The study of the connection and the curvature of these objects is initialized in this work by using Cartan structure equations. (Author)

  19. Geometry and Destiny

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, L M; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition that the cosmological constant may be non-zero forces us to re-evaluate standard notions about the connection between geometry and the fate of our Universe. An open Universe can recollapse, and a closed Universe can expand forever. As a corollary, we point out that there is no set of cosmological observations we can perform that will unambiguously allow us to determine what the ultimate destiny of the Universe will be.

  20. Inflation from quantum geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2002-12-23

    Quantum geometry predicts that a universe evolves through an inflationary phase at small volume before exiting gracefully into a standard Friedmann phase. This does not require the introduction of additional matter fields with ad hoc potentials; rather, it occurs because of a quantum gravity modification of the kinetic part of ordinary matter Hamiltonians. An application of the same mechanism can explain why the present day cosmological acceleration is so tiny.

  1. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  2. Integral geometry and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-10-01

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts — points, distances and angles — are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.

  3. Hilbert, completeness and geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Venturi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show how the mathematical content of Hilbert's Axiom of Completeness consists in an attempt to solve the more general problem of the relationship between intuition and formalization. Hilbert found the accordance between these two sides of mathematical knowledge at a logical level, clarifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for a good formalization of geometry. We will tackle the problem of what is, for Hilbert, the definition of geometry. The solution of this problem will bring out how Hilbert's conception of mathematics is not as innovative as his conception of the axiomatic method. The role that the demonstrative tools play in Hilbert's foundational reflections will also drive us to deal with the problem of the purity of methods, explicitly addressed by Hilbert. In this respect Hilbert's position is very innovative and deeply linked to his modern conception of the axiomatic method. In the end we will show that the role played by the Axiom of Completeness for geometry is the same as the Axiom of Induction for arithmetic and of Church-Turing thesis for computability theory. We end this paper arguing that set theory is the right context in which applying the axiomatic method to mathematics and we postpone to a sequel of this work the attempt to offer a solution similar to Hilbert's for the completeness of set theory.

  4. Integral geometry and valuations

    CERN Document Server

    Solanes, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Valuations are finitely additive functionals on the space of convex bodies. Their study has become a central subject in convexity theory, with fundamental applications to integral geometry. In the last years there has been significant progress in the theory of valuations, which in turn has led to important achievements in integral geometry. This book originated from two courses delivered by the authors at the CRM and provides a self-contained introduction to these topics, covering most of the recent advances. The first part, by Semyon Alesker, is devoted to the theory of convex valuations, with emphasis on the latest developments. A special focus is put on the new fundamental structures of the space of valuations discovered after Alesker's irreducibility theorem. Moreover, the author describes the newly developed theory of valuations on manifolds. In the second part, Joseph H. G. Fu gives a modern introduction to integral geometry in the sense of Blaschke and Santaló, based on the notions and tools presented...

  5. Generalised Geometry and Flux Vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Larfors, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    This note discusses the connection between generalised geometry and flux compactifications of string theory. Firstly, we explain in a pedestrian manner how the supersymmetry constraints of type II ${\\mathcal{N}}=1$ flux compactifications can be restated as integrability constraints on certain generalised complex structures. This reformulation uses generalised complex geometry, a mathematical framework that geometrizes the B-field. Secondly, we discuss how exceptional generalised geometry may provide a similar geometrization of the RR fields. Thirdly, we examine the connection between generalised geometry and non-geometry, and finally we present recent developments where generalised geometry is used to construct explicit examples of flux compactifications to flat space.

  6. Inclined layer convection in a colloidal suspension with negative Soret coefficient at large solutal Rayleigh numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Matteo; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Scheffold, Frank; Vailati, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Convection in an inclined layer of fluid is affected by the presence of a component of the acceleration of gravity perpendicular to the density gradient that drives the convective motion. In this work we investigate the solutal convection of a colloidal suspension characterized by a negative Soret coefficient. Convection is induced by heating the suspension from above, and at large solutal Rayleigh numbers (of the order of 10(7)-10(8)) convective spoke patterns form. We show that in the presence of a marginal inclination of the cell as small as 19 mrad the isotropy of the spoke pattern is broken and the convective patterns tend to align in the direction of the inclination. At intermediate inclinations of the order of 33 mrad ordered square patterns are obtained, while at inclination of the order of 67 mrad the strong shear flow determined by the inclination gives rise to ascending and descending sheets of fluid aligned parallel to the direction of inclination.

  7. Introductory non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Henry Parker

    1963-01-01

    This fine and versatile introduction begins with the theorems common to Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry, and then it addresses the specific differences that constitute elliptic and hyperbolic geometry. 1901 edition.

  8. Geometry for the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalem, D.

    1977-01-01

    A sequential but non-axiomatic high school geometry course which includes Euclidean, transformation, and analytic geometry and vectors and matrices, and emphasizes the invariance property of transformations, is outlined. Sample problems, solutions, and comments are included. (MN)

  9. Linear connections on matrix geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Madore, J; Mourad, J; Madore, John; Masson, Thierry; Mourad, Jihad

    1994-01-01

    A general definition of a linear connection in noncommutative geometry has been recently proposed. Two examples are given of linear connections in noncommutative geometries which are based on matrix algebras. They both possess a unique metric connection.

  10. Three-dimensional benchmark for variable-density flow and transport simulation: matching semi-analytic stability modes for steady unstable convection in an inclined porous box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Simmons, Craig T.; Robinson, Neville I.

    2010-01-01

    This benchmark for three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulators of variable-density groundwater flow and solute or energy transport consists of matching simulation results with the semi-analytical solution for the transition from one steady-state convective mode to another in a porous box. Previous experimental and analytical studies of natural convective flow in an inclined porous layer have shown that there are a variety of convective modes possible depending on system parameters, geometry and inclination. In particular, there is a well-defined transition from the helicoidal mode consisting of downslope longitudinal rolls superimposed upon an upslope unicellular roll to a mode consisting of purely an upslope unicellular roll. Three-dimensional benchmarks for variable-density simulators are currently (2009) lacking and comparison of simulation results with this transition locus provides an unambiguous means to test the ability of such simulators to represent steady-state unstable 3D variable-density physics.

  11. Geometry success in 20 mins

    CERN Document Server

    Editors, LearningExpress

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're new to geometry or just looking for a refresher, this completely revised and updated third edition of Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day offers a 20-step lesson plan that provides quick and thorough instruction in practical, critical skills. Stripped of unnecessary math jargon but bursting with geometry essentials, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day is an invaluable resource for both students and adults.

  12. MEASUREMENTS OF STELLAR INCLINATIONS FOR KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Taruya, Atsushi; Suto, Yasushi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Takeda, Yoichi; Narita, Norio, E-mail: hirano@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    We present an investigation of spin-orbit angles for planetary system candidates reported by Kepler. By combining the rotational period P{sub s} inferred from the flux variation due to starspots and the projected rotational velocity Vsin I{sub s} and stellar radius obtained by a high-resolution spectroscopy, we attempt to estimate the inclination I{sub s} of the stellar spin axis with respect to the line of sight. For transiting planetary systems, in which planetary orbits are edge-on seen from us, the stellar inclination I{sub s} can be a useful indicator of a spin-orbit alignment/misalignment. We newly conducted spectroscopic observations with Subaru/HDS for 15 Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) systems, whose light curves show periodic flux variations. Detailed analyses of their light curves and spectra revealed that some of them are binaries, or the flux variations are too coherent to be caused by starspots, and consequently we could constrain stellar inclinations I{sub s} for eight systems. Among them, KOI-262 and 280 are in good agreement with I{sub s} 90 Degree-Sign suggesting a spin-orbit alignment, while at least one system, KOI-261, shows a possible spin-orbit misalignment. We also obtain a small I{sub s} for KOI-1463, but the transiting companion seems to be a star rather than a planet. The results for KOI-257, 269, 367, and 974 are ambiguous and can be explained with either misalignments or moderate differential rotation. Since our method can be applied to any system having starspots regardless of the planet size, future observations will allow for the expansion of the parameter space in which the spin-orbit relations are investigated.

  13. On the highly inclined vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M.

    2016-11-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field vW is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, i.e. they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the s - sV resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, and to obtain independent constraints on the family ages. While secular resonances with massive bodies in the main belt do not significantly affect the dynamical evolution of the Barcelona family, they significantly increase the γ2(vW) values of the simulated Hansa and Gallia families. Current values of the γ2(vW) for the Gallia family are reached over the estimated family age only if secular resonances with Vesta are accounted for.

  14. Critical Heat Flux in Inclined Rectangular Narrow Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong J. Kim; Yong H. Kim; Seong J. Kim; Sang W. Noh; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-06-01

    In light of the TMI-2 accident, in which the reactor vessel lower head survived the attack by molten core material, the in-vessel retention strategy was suggested to benefit from cooling the debris through a gap between the lower head and the core material. The GAMMA 1D (Gap Apparatus Mitigating Melt Attack One Dimensional) tests were conducted to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) in narrow gaps with varying surface orientations. The CHF in an inclined gap, especially in case of the downward-facing narrow gap, is dictated by bubble behavior because the departing bubbles are squeezed. The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape of the bubbles from the narrow gap. The test parameters include gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm and the open periphery, and the orientation angles range from the fully downward-facing (180o) to the vertical (90o) position. The 15 ×35 mm copper test section was electrically heated by the thin film resistor on the back. The heater assembly was installed to the tip of the rotating arm in the heated water pool at the atmospheric pressure. The bubble behavior was photographed utilizing a high-speed camera through the Pyrex glass spacer. It was observed that the CHF decreased as the surface inclination angle increased and as the gap size decreased in most of the cases. However, the opposing results were obtained at certain surface orientations and gap sizes. Transition angles, at which the CHF changed in a rapid slope, were also detected, which is consistent with the existing literature. A semi-empirical CHF correlation was developed for the inclined narrow rectangular channels through dimensional analysis. The correlation provides with best-estimate CHF values for realistically assessing the thermal margin to failure of the lower head during a severe accident involving relocation of the core material.

  15. S-DARS broadcast from inclined, elliptical orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskman, Robert D.; Prevaux, Robert J.

    2004-04-01

    The first Sirius spacecraft was launched on July 1, 2000. Exactly 5 months later, on December 1, the third spacecraft was launched, completing the three satellite S-DARS (Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service) constellation. The three satellites are deployed in inclined, elliptical, geosynchronous orbits, which allow seamless broadcast coverage to mobile users in the contiguous US. Terrestrial broadcast repeaters provide service in urban cores. The system is in operation, providing the first ever S-DARS service. The constellation design results in satellite ground tracks over North America with two satellites always above the equator. High elevation look angles from the mobile ground terminals to the satellites minimize performance degradation due to blockage, foliage attenuation and multi-path. The spacecraft were built by Space Systems/Loral using the 1300 bus modified for operation in high inclination orbits. Each spacecraft was launched using a dedicated Russian Proton booster. The satellite payload is a bent pipe repeater using 7.1 GHz for the uplink and 2.3 GHz for the broadcast transmission. The repeater high-power amplification stage consists of 32 Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers phase combined to yield a total radio frequency output power of nearly 4 kW at saturated operation. The satellite antennas are mechanically steered to maintain the transmit beam centered on the Contiguous United States and the receive beam centered on the uplink earth station located in Vernon Valley, New Jersey. The satellite payload design and performance are described. The principal spacecraft bus systems are described with emphasis on improvements made for operation in the inclined, elliptical geosynchronous orbits.

  16. How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L. E. A.; Norton, A.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Kretzschmar, M.; Schmidt, G. A.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2012-08-01

    The variability in solar irradiance, the main external energy source of the Earth's system, must be critically studied in order to place the effects of human-driven climate change into perspective and allow plausible predictions of the evolution of climate. Accurate measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) variability by instruments onboard space platforms during the last three solar cycles indicate changes of approximately 0.1% over the sunspot cycle. Physics-based models also suggest variations of the same magnitude on centennial to millennia time-scales. Additionally, long-term changes in Earth's orbit modulate the solar irradiance reaching the top of the atmosphere. Variations of orbital inclination in relation to the Sun's equator could potentially impact incoming solar irradiance as a result of the anisotropy of the distribution of active regions. Due to a lack of quantitative estimates, this effect has never been assessed. Here, we show that although observers with different orbital inclinations experience various levels of irradiance, modulations in TSI are not sufficient to drive observed 100 kyr climate variations. Based on our model we find that, due to orbital inclination alone, the maximum change in the average TSI over timescales of kyrs is ˜0.003 Wm-2, much smaller than the ˜1.5 Wm-2 annually integrated change related to orbital eccentricity variations, or the 1-8 Wm-2 variability due to solar magnetic activity. Here, we stress that out-of-ecliptic measurements are needed in order to constrain models for the long-term evolution of TSI and its impact on climate.

  17. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  18. Inclinations of Egyptian pyramids and finding of the divine essence

    OpenAIRE

    GRIGORIEV STANISLAV ARKADIEVICH

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is discovery of astronomical reasons in orientation of slopes of Egyptian pyramids used as tombs for pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. The article contains results of statistical analysis of change in inclination of slopes of the pyramids (3rd 2nd millennia BC) depending on time of their building. The first year of the corresponding pharaoh’s reign has been accepted, as usually it is considered that building of pyramids ones started during either the first or second year of ...

  19. The static response of a bowed inclined hot wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The directional sensitivity of a bowed, inclined hot wire is investigated using a simple model for the convective heat transfer. The static response is analyzed for subsonic and supersonic flows. It is shown that the effects of both end conduction and wire bowing are greater in supersonic flow. Regardless of the Mach number, however, these two phenomena have distinctly different effects; end conduction appears to be responsible for reducing the nonlinearity of the response, whereas bowing increases the directional sensitivity. Comparison with the available data suggests that the analysis is useful for interpreting the experimental results.

  20. Granular flow over inclined channels with linear contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tunuguntla, D R; Thornton, A R; Bokhove, O

    2015-01-01

    We consider dry granular flow down an inclined chute with a localised contraction theoretically and numerically. The flow regimes are predicted through a novel extended one-dimensional hydraulic theory. A discrete particle method validated empirical constitutive law is used to close this one-dimensional asymptotic model. The one-dimensional model is verified by solving the two-dimensional shallow granular equations through discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM). For supercritical flows, the one-dimensional asymptotic theory surprisingly holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel.

  1. Two-phase slug flow in vertical and inclined tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Gas-liquid slug flow is investigated experimentally in vertical and inclined tubes.The non-invasive measuremnts of the gas-liquid slug flow are taken by using the EKTAPRO 1000 High Speed Motion Analyzer.The information on the velocity of the Talyor bubble,the size distribution of the dispersed bubbles in the liquid slugs and some characteristics of the liquid film around the Taylor bubble are obtained.The experimental results are in good agreement with the available data.

  2. Stress distribution and surface instability of an inclined granular layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng He-Peng; Jiang Yi-Min; Peng Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Static granular materials may avalanche suddenly under continuous quasi-static drives.This phenomenon,which is important in many engineering applications,can be explained by analyzing the stability of the elastic solutions.We show this for a granular layer driven by its inclination angle in gravity,where the elastic problem can be solved generally and analytically.It is found that a loss of stability may occur only at the free surface of the layer.This result is considered to be relevant for understanding surface avalanches and the flows observed experimentally.

  3. Numerical simulation of inclination vibration in magnetic induction micromachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J-Y; Zhou, J-B; Zhang, W-M; Meng, G [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: jerrycc@sjtu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    This paper studies the inclination vibration of an axial-flux magnetic induction micromachine which is supported by hydrostatic thrust bearings. A mechanical model for the rotor and the corresponding fluid-film bearing is combined with an electromagnetic force model to study the linear and nonlinear rotordynamics of the system. Results obtained for the stability show that magnetic induction micromachine would encounter severe instability problem at high speed operations. The model developed here could serve as a useful reference for design optimization and operation scheme.

  4. Numerical simulation of inclination vibration in magnetic induction micromachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.-Y.; Zhou, J.-B.; Zhang, W.-M.; Meng, G.

    2008-02-01

    This paper studies the inclination vibration of an axial-flux magnetic induction micromachine which is supported by hydrostatic thrust bearings. A mechanical model for the rotor and the corresponding fluid-film bearing is combined with an electromagnetic force model to study the linear and nonlinear rotordynamics of the system. Results obtained for the stability show that magnetic induction micromachine would encounter severe instability problem at high speed operations. The model developed here could serve as a useful reference for design optimization and operation scheme.

  5. Teaching of Geometry in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, Kiril

    2013-01-01

    Geometry plays an important role in the school mathematics curriculum all around the world. Teaching of geometry varies a lot (Hoyls, Foxman, & Kuchemann, 2001). Many countries revise the objectives, the content, and the approaches to the geometry in school. Studies of the processes show that there are not common trends of these changes…

  6. Elementary algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kendig, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th

  7. Geometry and trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This stimulating volume offers a broad collection of the principles of geometry and trigonometry and contains colorful diagrams to bring mathematical principles to life. Subjects are enriched by references to famous mathematicians and their ideas, and the stories are presented in a very comprehensible way. Readers investigate the relationships of points, lines, surfaces, and solids. They study construction methods for drawing figures, a wealth of facts about these figures, and above all, methods to prove the facts. They learn about triangle measure for circular motion, sine and cosine, tangent

  8. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  9. Kinematic geometry of gearing

    CERN Document Server

    Dooner, David B

    2012-01-01

    Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat

  10. From geometry to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, H Graham

    2001-01-01

    This excellent introduction to topology eases first-year math students and general readers into the subject by surveying its concepts in a descriptive and intuitive way, attempting to build a bridge from the familiar concepts of geometry to the formalized study of topology. The first three chapters focus on congruence classes defined by transformations in real Euclidean space. As the number of permitted transformations increases, these classes become larger, and their common topological properties become intuitively clear. Chapters 4-12 give a largely intuitive presentation of selected topics.

  11. Geometry of conics

    CERN Document Server

    Akopyan, A V

    2007-01-01

    The book is devoted to the properties of conics (plane curves of second degree) that can be formulated and proved using only elementary geometry. Starting with the well-known optical properties of conics, the authors move to less trivial results, both classical and contemporary. In particular, the chapter on projective properties of conics contains a detailed analysis of the polar correspondence, pencils of conics, and the Poncelet theorem. In the chapter on metric properties of conics the authors discuss, in particular, inscribed conics, normals to conics, and the Poncelet theorem for confoca

  12. Geometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Geometry I includes methods of proof, points, lines, planes, angles, congruent angles and line segments, triangles, parallelism, quadrilaterals, geometric inequalities, and geometric

  13. Roles of starting geometries in quantum mechanics studies of cellobiose

    Science.gov (United States)

    A relaxed HF/6 31G(d) energy surface was constructed for the fraction of phi,psi space that contains most geometries from crystals of molecules similar to cellobiose. Two regions around other minima were examined with unconstrained B3LYP/6 31+G(d) minimizations, as were two sub regions covered by th...

  14. Discrete transfer method with the concept of blocked-off region for irregular geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Prabal [Institute of Fluid Mechanics (LSTM), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)]. E-mail: prabal_iitg@yahoo.com

    2006-03-15

    The discrete transfer method (DTM) is applied to irregular geometries with a concept of blocked-off region previously applied in the problems of computational fluid dynamics. This gives a new alternative to the DTM for its implementation to irregular structures. The Cartesian coordinate-based ray-tracing algorithm can be applied to the geometries with inclined or curved boundaries. Some test problems are considered and results are validated with the available results in the literature. Both radiative and non-radiative equilibrium situations are considered. The medium is assumed to be both participating and non-participating. Results are found to be accurate for all kinds of situations.

  15. CFD Analysis of Plate Fin Tube Heat Exchanger for Various Fin Inclinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Bahirat,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ANSYS Fluent software is used for three dimensional CFD simulations to investigate heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of six different fin angles with plain fin tube heat exchangers. The numerical simulation of the fin tube heat exchanger was performed by using a three dimensional numerical computation technique. Geometry of model is created and meshed by using ANSYS Workbench software. To solve the equation for the fluid flow and heat transfer analysis ANSYS FLUENT was used in the fin-tube heat exchanger. The fluid flow and heat transfer are simulated and result compared for both laminar and turbulent flow models k-epsilon and SST k-omega, with steady state solvers to calculate heat transfer, flow velocity and temperature fields of variable inclined fin angles (Ɵ = 00 ,100 , 200 , 300 , 400 ,500 . Model is validate by comparing the simulated value of velocity, temperature and colburn factor with experimental and numerical results investigated by WANG [1] and GHORI KIRAR [10]. Reasonable agreement is found between the simulations and other results, and the ANSYS Fluent software is sufficient for simulating the flow fields in tube fin heat exchanger.

  16. Photonic Crystal Laser Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Benjamin M

    2003-05-21

    Photonic crystals have great potential for use as laser-driven accelerator structures. A photonic crystal is a dielectric structure arranged in a periodic geometry. Like a crystalline solid with its electronic band structure, the modes of a photonic crystal lie in a set of allowed photonic bands. Similarly, it is possible for a photonic crystal to exhibit one or more photonic band gaps, with frequencies in the gap unable to propagate in the crystal. Thus photonic crystals can confine an optical mode in an all-dielectric structure, eliminating the need for metals and their characteristic losses at optical frequencies. We discuss several geometries of photonic crystal accelerator structures. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are optical fibers which can confine a speed-of-light optical mode in vacuum. Planar structures, both two- and three-dimensional, can also confine such a mode, and have the additional advantage that they can be manufactured using common microfabrication techniques such as those used for integrated circuits. This allows for a variety of possible materials, so that dielectrics with desirable optical and radiation-hardness properties can be chosen. We discuss examples of simulated photonic crystal structures to demonstrate the scaling laws and trade-offs involved, and touch on potential fabrication processes.

  17. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination

    CERN Document Server

    Pahlevan, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Modeling of the impact process predicts that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value, a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The excited lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 ME eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with constraints and models of late accretion. Whi...

  18. Whole-body angular momentum in incline and decline walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Anne K; Wilken, Jason M; Sinitski, Emily H; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-04-01

    Angular momentum is highly regulated over the gait cycle and is important for maintaining dynamic stability and control of movement. However, little is known regarding how angular momentum is regulated on irregular surfaces, such as slopes, when the risk of falling is higher. This study examined the three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum patterns of 30 healthy subjects walking over a range of incline and decline angles. The range of angular momentum was either similar or reduced on decline surfaces and increased on incline surfaces relative to level ground, with the greatest differences occurring in the frontal and sagittal planes. These results suggest that angular momentum is more tightly controlled during decline walking when the risk of falling is greater. In the frontal plane, the range of angular momentum was strongly correlated with the peak hip and knee abduction moments in early stance. In the transverse plane, the strongest correlation occurred with the knee external rotation peak in late stance. In the sagittal plane, all external moment peaks were correlated with the range of angular momentum. The peak ankle plantarflexion, knee flexion and hip extension moments were also strongly correlated with the sagittal-plane angular momentum. These results highlight how able-bodied subjects control angular momentum differently on sloped surfaces relative to level walking and provide a baseline for comparison with pathological populations that are more susceptible to falling.

  19. Intermediate Inclinations of Type 2 Coronal-Line Forest AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Marvin; Crenshaw, Michael; Glidden, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Coronal-Line Forest Active Galactic Nuclei (CLiF AGN) are remarkable in the sense that they have a rich spectrum of dozens of coronal emission lines (e.g. [FeVII], [FeX] and [NeV]) in their spectra. Rose, Elvis & Tadhunter (2015) suggest that the inner obscuring torus wall is the most likely location of the coronal line region in CLiF AGN, and the unusual strength of the forbidden high ionization lines is due to a specific AGN-torus inclination angle. Here we test this suggestion using mid-IR colours (4.6$\\mu$m-22$\\mu$m) from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for the CLiF AGN. We use the Fischer et al. (2014) result that showed that as the AGN-torus inclination becomes more face on, the Spitzer 5.5$\\mu$m to 30$\\mu$m colours become bluer. We show that the [W2-W4] colours for the CLiF AGN ($\\langle$[W2-W4]$\\rangle$ = 5.92$\\pm$0.12) are intermediate between SDSS type 1 ($\\langle$[W2-W4]$\\rangle$ = 5.22$\\pm$0.01) and type 2 AGN ($\\langle$[W2-W4]$\\rangle$ = 6.35$\\pm$0.03). This implies that the AG...

  20. Experimental study of collisional granular flows down an inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Emmanuel; Chevoir, François; Moucheront, Pascal

    1999-12-01

    The collisional flow of a slightly inelastic granular material down a rough inclined plane is usually described by kinetic theories. We present an experimental study aimed at analysing the assumptions and the quantitative predictions of such theories. A two-dimensional channel coupled to a model granular material and image analysis allow detailed and complete measurement of the kinematics and structure of the flows. We determine the range of inclination and particle flux for which the flow is stationary and uniform. The characteristic profiles of solid fraction, mean velocity and granular temperature are systematically measured. Both the true collisional and the dilute kinetic regimes are examined. We show that a quasi-hydrodynamic description of these regimes seems relevant, and that the pressure and the viscosity terms are in good qualitative agreement with the prediction of the kinetic theory. The profiles are well described by the kinetic theory near the top of the flow, at low solid fraction. Conversely there are large discrepancies near the rough plane, where the material is structured in layers.

  1. Online measurement system for the surface inclination of metal workpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian

    2013-12-01

    The online measurement of the metal surfaces' parameters plays an important role in many industrial fields. Because the surfaces of the machined metal pieces have the characteristics of strong reflection and high possibilities of scattered disturbing irradiation points, this paper designs an online measurement system based on the measurement principles of linear structured light to detect whether the parameters of the machined metal surfaces' height difference and inclination fulfill the compliance requirements, in which the grayscale gravity algorithm is applied to extract the sub-pixel coordinates of the center of laser, the least squares method is employed to fit the data and the Pauta criterion is utilized to remove the spurious points. The repeat accuracy of this system has been tested. The experimental results prove that the precision of inclination is 0.046° RMS under the speed of 40mm/sec, and the precision of height difference is 0.072mm RMS, which meets the design expectations. Hence, this system can be applied to online industrial detection of high speed and high precision.

  2. Dissipative descent: rocking and rolling down an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, N. J.; Bush, J. W. M.; Vener, D.; Young, W. R.

    We consider the dynamics of a hollow cylindrical shell that is filled with viscous fluid and another, nested solid cylinder, and allowed to roll down an inclined plane. A mathematical model is compared to simple experiments. Two types of behaviour are observed experimentally: on steeper slopes, the device accelerates; on shallower inclines, the cylinders rock and roll unsteadily downhill, with a speed that is constant on average. The theory also predicts runaway and unsteady rolling motions. For the rolling solutions, however, the inner cylinder cannot be suspended in the fluid by the motion of the outer cylinder, and instead falls inexorably toward the outer cylinder. Whilst only occurs after an infinite time, the system slows progressively as the gap between the cylinders narrows, owing to heightened viscous dissipation. Such a deceleration is not observed in the experiments, suggesting that some mechanism limits the approach to contact. Coating the surface of the inner cylinder with sandpaper of different grades changes the rolling speed, consistent with the notion that surface roughness is responsible for limiting the acceleration.

  3. Eulerian simulation of sedimentation flows in vertical and inclined vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chun-Liang; Zhan Jie-Min

    2005-01-01

    Sedimentation of particles in inclined and vertical vessels in numerically simulated using a finite volume method where the Eulerian multiphase model is applied. The particulate phase as well as the fluid phase is regarded as a continuum while the viscosity and solid stress of the particulate phase are modelled by the kinetic theory of granular flows. The numerical results show an interesting phenomenon of the emergence of two circulation vortices of the sedimentation flow in a vertical vessel but only one in the inclined vessel. Several sensitivity tests are simulated to understand the factors that influence the dual-vortex flow structure in vertical sedimentation. Result show that a larger fluid viscosity makes the two vortex centres much closer to each other and the boundary layer effect at lateral walls is the key factor to induce this phenomenon. In the fluid boundary layer particles settle down more rapidly and drag the local carrier fluid to flow downward near the lateral walls and thus form the dual-vortex flow pattern.

  4. An Experimental Investigation on Inclined Negatively Buoyant Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Bashitialshaaer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior of inclined negatively buoyant jets. Such jets arise when brine is discharged from desalination plants. A turbulent jet with a specific salinity was discharged through a circular nozzle at an angle to the horizontal into a tank with fresh water and the spatial evolution of the jet was recorded. Four different initial jet parameters were changed, namely the nozzle diameter, the initial jet inclination, the jet density and the flow rate. Five geometric quantities describing the jet trajectory that are useful in the design of brine discharge systems were determined. Dimensional analysis demonstrated that the geometric jet quantities studied, if normalized with the jet exit diameter, could be related to the densimetric Froude number. Analysis of the collected data showed that this was the case for a Froude number less than 100, whereas for larger values of the Froude number the scatter in the data increased significantly. As has been observed in some previous investigations, the slope of the best-fit straight line through the data points was a function of the initial jet angle (θ, where the slope increased with θ for the maximum levels (Ym studied, but had a more complex behavior for horizontal distances.

  5. Mathematical support for automated geometry analysis of lathe machining of oblique peakless round–nose tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu; Podgornyh, O. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Filippova, E. O.

    2017-01-01

    Automatization of engineering processes requires developing relevant mathematical support and a computer software. Analysis of metal cutting kinematics and tool geometry is a necessary key task at the preproduction stage. This paper is focused on developing a procedure for determining the geometry of oblique peakless round-nose tool lathe machining with the use of vector/matrix transformations. Such an approach allows integration into modern mathematical software packages in distinction to the traditional analytic description. Such an advantage is very promising for developing automated control of the preproduction process. A kinematic criterion for the applicable tool geometry has been developed from the results of this study. The effect of tool blade inclination and curvature on the geometry-dependent process parameters was evaluated.

  6. Detailed flowfield and surface properties for high Knudsen number planar jet impingement at an inclined flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunpei; He, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents two sets of analytical exact solutions for collisionless gas flows from a planar exit, impinging at an inclined flat plate. These analytical results are obtained by using gaskinetic theories. The first set of solutions are for a diffuse reflective plate surface, and the other set of solutions are for a specular reflective plate surface. A virtual nozzle exit is adopted to aid analyzing the specular reflective plate scenario. New formulas for plate surface properties, including velocity slips, pressure, shear stress, and heat flux distributions, are provided. For both problems, the flowfield exact solutions are investigated as well. Numerical simulations with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method are performed to validate these new analytical results, and good agreement is obtained for flows with high Knudsen numbers. The results consider effects from many factors, such as the plate inclination angle, geometry ratios, and exit gas and plate properties (such as exit gas bulk density, gas speed ratio, and exit gas and plate temperatures). Compared with past work, these new solutions are more comprehensive and practical. The results also illustrate that if the plate is quite close to the nozzle exit, it is improper to adopt the traditional treatments of a point source and a simple cosine function.

  7. Numerical study of jumps formed in free-surface flows down an incline : influence of the fluid rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaim, Mohamed; Faug, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    The discontinuities in height and velocity, namely jumps, formed in free-surface flows are important processes in geophysics, for instance when they are formed during the interaction of avalanche-flows with protection structures. The present study investigates steady state jumps formed in free-surface flows with the help of numerical simulations based on depth-averaged equations. A control constant mass discharge is supplied to an incline. By imposing a difference in basal friction between a upper part of the chute bottom and a lower part of the chute bottom, a supercritical flow is produced upstream while a subcritical flow appears downstream. The transition between both gives birth to a jump located at the transition between the two portions of the chute with different basal friction. Different constitutive equations are tested (laminar, turbulent, local granular rheology, Voellmy, Herschel Bulkley), thus allowing us to quantify the influence of the fluid rheology on the jump properties : position, geometry and size.

  8. Linear geometry thyratron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, S.

    1985-03-01

    The low pressure gas-filled thyratron is scalable in the long dimension. Internally the tube is formed as a tetrode, with an auxiliary grid placed between the cathode and the control grid. A dc or pulsed power source drives the auxiliary grid both to insure uniform cathode emission and to provide a grid-cathode plasma prior to commutation. The high voltage holdoff structure consists of the anode, the control grid and its electrostatic shielding baffles, and a main quartz insulator. A small gas flow supply and exhaust system is used that eliminates the need for a hydrogen reservoir and permits other gases, such as helium, to be used. The thyratron provides a low inductance, high current, long lifetime switch configuration: useful for switch-on applications involving large scale lasers and other similar loads that are distributed in a linear geometry.

  9. Critique of information geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skilling, John, E-mail: skilling@eircom.net [Maximum Entropy Data Consultants Ltd, Kenmare (Ireland)

    2014-12-05

    As applied to probability, information geometry fails because probability distributions do not form a metric space. Probability theory rests on a compelling foundation of elementary symmetries, which also support information (aka minus entropy, Kullback-Leibler) H(p;q) as the unique measure of divergence from source probability distribution q to destination p. Because the only compatible connective H is from≠to asymmetric, H(p;q)≠H(q;p), there can be no compatible geometrical distance (which would necessarily be from=to symmetric). Hence there is no distance relationship compatible with the structure of probability theory. Metrics g and densities sqrt(det(g)) interpreted as prior probabilities follow from the definition of distance, and must fail likewise. Various metrics and corresponding priors have been proposed, Fisher's being the most popular, but all must behave unacceptably. This is illustrated with simple counter-examples.

  10. Real algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bochnak, Jacek; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1998-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of real algebraic geometry, a subject that has strong interrelation with other areas of mathematics: singularity theory, differential topology, quadratic forms, commutative algebra, model theory, complexity theory etc. The careful and clearly written account covers both basic concepts and up-to-date research topics. It may be used as text for a graduate course. The present edition is a substantially revised and expanded English version of the book "Géometrie algébrique réelle" originally published in French, in 1987, as Volume 12 of ERGEBNISSE. Since the publication of the French version the theory has made advances in several directions. Many of these are included in this English version. Thus the English book may be regarded as a completely new treatment of the subject.

  11. Covariant Macroscopic Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, Craig J

    2012-01-01

    A covariant noncommutative algebra of position operators is presented, and interpreted as the macroscopic limit of a geometry that describes a collective quantum behavior of the positions of massive bodies in a flat emergent space-time. The commutator defines a quantum-geometrical relationship between world lines that depends on their separation and relative velocity, but on no other property of the bodies, and leads to a transverse uncertainty of the geometrical wave function that increases with separation. The number of geometrical degrees of freedom in a space-time volume scales holographically, as the surface area in Planck units. Ongoing branching of the wave function causes fluctuations in transverse position, shared coherently among bodies with similar trajectories. The theory can be tested using appropriately configured Michelson interferometers.

  12. Advanced geometries and regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Turchetti, G.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Stockem, A.; Fiuza, F.; Silva, L. O.; Antici, P.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.

    2013-08-01

    We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project. At the request of the Proceedings Editors and Dr. Stepan Bulanov, University of California, Berkeley, the above article has been updated to include three additional authors: A. Stockem, F. Fiuza, and L. O. Silva. All additional authors have consented to their name being added to the paper. Furthermore, the updated article PDF contains amendments to a number of references as detailed within the pages attached to the end of the updated article PDF file. The updated article was re-published on 8 August 2013.

  13. Additive manufacturing of micrometric crystallization vessels and single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Oded; Jiang, Hui; Kloc, Christian; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    We present an all-additive manufacturing method that is performed at mild conditions, for the formation of organic single crystals at specific locations, without any photolithography prefabrication process. The method is composed of two steps; inkjet printing of a confinement frame, composed of a water soluble electrolyte. Then, an organic semiconductor solution is printed within the confinement to form a nucleus at a specific location, followed by additional printing, which led to the growth of a single crystal. The specific geometry of the confinement enables control of the specific locations of the single crystals, while separating the nucleation and crystal growth processes. By this method, we printed single crystals of perylene, which are suitable for the formation of OFETs. Moreover, since this method is based on a simple and controllable wet deposition process, it enables formation of arrays of single crystals at specific locations, which is a prerequisite for mass production of active organic elements on flexible substrates.

  14. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  15. Klein geometries, parabolic geometries and differential equations of finite type

    CERN Document Server

    Abadoglu, Ender

    2009-01-01

    We define the infinitesimal and geometric orders of an effective Klein geometry G/H. Using these concepts, we prove i) For any integer m>1, there exists an effective Klein geometry G/H of infinitesimal order m such that G/H is a projective variety (Corollary 9). ii) An effective Klein geometry G/H of geometric order M defines a differential equation of order M+1 on G/H whose global solution space is G (Proposition 18).

  16. Effect of Inclined Water Jets on Tensile Strength of Bicomponent Hydroentangled Nonwoven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mbwana Suleiman Ndaro; JIN Xiang-yu; CHEN Ting; YU Chong-wen

    2007-01-01

    The effects of inclined water jets on bicomponent hydroentangled fabrics were investigated. The PET/COPET and PA6/PET hydroentangled fabrics were made by using designed inclined water jet apparatus. Effects of basis weight, water ts inclination angle and water jet pressure were discussed. The comparison was made on the average tensile strength of fabrics made by perpendicular water jets (0° inclination angle) and inclined water jets of 20° with pressure levels of 3 bars and 7 bars. It was found that increases of water jet pressure, the fabrics tensile strength were increased. Furthermore, increases of water jets inclination angle, fabric tensile strength of 60 g/m2 fabrics decreased while for 100 g/m2 fabrics tensile strength increased.

  17. Long-Term Dynamics and the Orbital Inclinations of the Classical Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, M J; Holman, M; Kuchner, Marc J.; Brown, Michael E.; Holman, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    We numerically integrated the orbits of 1458 particles in the region of the classical Kuiper Belt (41 AU < a < 47 AU) to explore the role of dynamical instabilities in sculpting the inclination distribution of the classical Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). We find that the selective removal of low-inclination objects by overlapping secular resonances (nu_17 and nu_18) acts to raise the mean inclination of the surviving population of particles over 4 billion years of interactions with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, though these long-term dynamical effects do not themselves appear to explain the discovery of KBOs with inclinations near 30 degrees. Our integrations also imply that after 3 billion years of interaction with the massive planets, high inclination KBOs more efficiently supply Neptune-encountering objects, the likely progenitors of short-period comets, Centaurs, and scattered KBOs. The secular resonances at low inclinations may indirectly cause this effect by weeding out objects unprotected by ...

  18. The Effects of Various Running Inclines on Three-Segment Foot Mechanics and Plantar Fascia Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There has yet to be a combined analysis of three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain in running gait at various degrees of inclination. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the above during treadmill running at different inclines (0°, 5°, 10° and 15°. Methods. Twelve male participants ran at 4.0 m · s-1 in the four different inclinations. Three-dimensional kinematics of the foot segments and plantar fascia strain were quantified for each incline and contrasted using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results and conclusions. The results showed that plantar fascia strain increased significantly as a function of running incline. Given the projected association between plantar fascia strain and the aetiology of injury, inclined running may be associated with a greater incidence of injury to the plantar fascia.

  19. Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Frederick S

    2005-01-01

    For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study

  20. "Anion clamp" allows flexible protein to impose coordination geometry on metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minji; Lai, Tsz Pui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Hongmin; Yang, Nan; Sadler, Peter J; Sun, Hongzhe

    2015-05-01

    X-ray crystal structures of human serum transferrin (77 kDa) with Yb(III) or Fe(III) bound to the C-lobe and malonate as the synergistic anion show that the large Yb(III) ion causes the expansion of the metal binding pocket while octahedral metal coordination geometry is preserved, an unusual geometry for a lanthanide ion.

  1. Improvement in greenhouse solar drying using inclined north wall reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India); Arora, Sadhna [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India)

    2009-09-15

    A conventional greenhouse solar dryer of 6 m{sup 2} x 4 m{sup 2} floor area (east-west orientation) was improved for faster drying using inclined north wall reflection (INWR) under natural as well as forced convection mode. To increase the solar radiation availability onto the product (to be dried) during extreme summer months, a temporary inclined wall covered with aluminized reflector sheet (of 50 {mu}m thickness and reflectance 0.93) was raised inside the greenhouse just in front of the vertical transparent north wall. By doing so, product fully received the reflected beam radiation (which otherwise leaves through the north wall) in addition to the direct total solar radiation available on the horizontal surface during different hours of drying. The increment in total solar radiation input enhanced the drying rate of the product by increasing the inside air and crop temperature of the dryer. Inclination angle of the reflective north wall with vertical ({beta}) was optimized for various selective widths of the tray W (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m) and for different realistic heights of existing vertical north wall (h) at 25 N, 30 N and 35 N latitudes (hot climatic zones). Experimental performance of the improved dryer was tested during the month of May 2008 at Ludhiana (30.56 N) climatic conditions, India by drying bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn) slices. Results showed that by using INWR under natural convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-6.7 C and 1-4 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 13.13% of the total drying time. By using INWR under forced convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-4.5 C and 1-3 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 16.67% of the total drying time. (author)

  2. The Relationship between the Friction Coefficient and the Asperities Original Inclination Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Guan Cheng-yao; Qi Jia-fu; Qiu Nan-sheng; Zhao Guo-chun; Zhang Hou-he; Yang Qiao; Bai Xiang-dong; Wang Chao

    2013-01-01

    Because of the contact deformation, the inclination angle of the contact face is decreased gradually when contact and deformation. Base on the change of inclination angle of the contact surface, the concept “friction repose angle” set out. The tangent of the initial inclination angle of two asperities is three time of the tangent of the “friction repose angle”. The relationship set up a bridge between the initial surface geometric configuration (can be detect) and the configuration which afte...

  3. Inclination and relativistic effects in the outburst evolution of black hole transients

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Plant, D S; Ponti, G; Fender, R P; Dunn, R J H

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically studied the effect of the orbital inclination in the outburst evolution of black hole transients. We have included all the systems observed by the Rossi X-ray timing explorer in which the thermal, accretion disc component becomes strongly dominant at some point of the outburst. Inclination is found to modify the shape of the tracks that these systems display in the colour/luminosity diagrams traditionally used for their study. Black hole transients seen at low inclination reach softer spectra and their accretion discs look cooler than those observed closer to edge-on. This difference can be naturally explained by considering inclination dependent relativistic effects on accretion discs.

  4. Effects of lumbar extensor fatigue and surface inclination on postural control during quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dingding; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2012-11-01

    A number of work environments require workers to perform tasks on inclined surfaces. Such tasks, along with muscle fatigue, can impair postural control and increase falling risks. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of surface inclination angle, standing direction, and lumbar extensor fatigue on postural control during quiet standing. A group of 16 young, healthy participants were tested while standing on inclined surfaces before and after lumbar extensor fatigue (induced by repetitive isotonic exercise). Three inclination angles (0°, 18° and 26°) and three standing directions (uphill, downhill, and lateral facing) were examined. Postural control was assessed using several measures derived from center-of-pressure time series and subjectively perceived stability. Significant main and interactive effects of inclination angle and standing direction were found for all dependent measures. The adverse effects of standing on inclined surfaces were found to differ between the three standing directions. In general, dose-response relationships with inclination angle were evident, particularly in the lateral-facing direction. Fatigue-related effects differed between conditions, suggesting that the adverse effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural control depend on inclination angle and standing direction. These findings may facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions for work involving inclined surfaces.

  5. Evolution of eccentricity and inclination of hot protoplanets embedded in radiative discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Henrik; Masset, Frédéric S.

    2017-07-01

    We study the evolution of the eccentricity and inclination of protoplanetary embryos and low-mass protoplanets (from a fraction of an Earth mass to a few Earth masses) embedded in a protoplanetary disc, by means of three-dimensional hydrodynamics calculations with radiative transfer in the diffusion limit. When the protoplanets radiate in the surrounding disc the energy released by the accretion of solids, their eccentricity and inclination experience a growth towards values that depend on the luminosity-to-mass ratio of the planet, which are comparable to the disc's aspect ratio and which are reached over time-scales of a few thousand years. This growth is triggered by the appearance of a hot, underdense region in the vicinity of the planet. The growth rate of the eccentricity is typically three times larger than that of the inclination. In long-term calculations, we find that the excitation of eccentricity and the excitation of inclination are not independent. In the particular case in which a planet has initially a very small eccentricity and inclination, the eccentricity largely overruns the inclination. When the eccentricity reaches its asymptotic value, the growth of inclination is quenched, yielding an eccentric orbit with a very low inclination. As a side result, we find that the eccentricity and inclination of non-luminous planets are damped more vigorously in radiative discs than in isothermal discs.

  6. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...

  7. Impact of Droplets on Inclined Flowing Liquid Films

    CERN Document Server

    Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar K

    2015-01-01

    The impact of droplets on an inclined falling liquid film is studied experimentally using high-speed imaging. The falling film is created on a flat substrate with controllable thicknesses and flow rates. Droplets with different sizes and speeds are used to study the impact process under various Ohnesorge and Weber numbers, and film Reynolds numbers. A number of phenomena associated with droplet impact are identified and analysed, such as bouncing, partial coalescence, total coalescence, and splashing. The effects of droplet size, speed, as well the film flow rate are studied culminating in the generation of an impact regime map. The analysis of the lubrication force acted on the droplet via the gas layer shows that a higher flow rate in the liquid film produces a larger lubrication force, slows down the drainage process, and increases the probability of droplet bouncing. Our results demonstrate that the flowing film has a profound effect on the droplet impact process and associated phenomena, which are marked...

  8. Drops transformed from a continuous flow on a superhydrophobic incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katariya, Mayur; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2013-08-01

    Biochemical analysis with discrete drops on superhydrophobic surfaces will benefit from low loss, low contamination and open access features, but is challenged by the ability to generate them. A simple approach for delivering the drops from a continuous flow through an inclined superhydrophobic surface here showed the rear pinning contact line to be strongly influential in retention, providing potential for volume control, yet without any lossy daughter droplet formation. At a high flowrate regime prior to jetting, the liquid body was found to develop a grown out section that was able to flip up and down to be airborne, depending on the gravitational effect. While the section was airborne, the drop was able to increase its volume without the action of the three-phase mechanics dictating detachment.

  9. Shape Optimization of Inclined Ribs as Heat Transfer Augmentation Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang-Yong Kim; Hong-Min Kim

    2006-01-01

    This work presents numerical optimization techniques for the design of a rectangular channel with inclined ribs to enhance turbulent heat transfer.The response surface method with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis is used for optimization.Shear stress transport turbulence model is used as a turbulence closure.Computational results for local heat transfer rate show a reasonable agreement with the experimental data.Width-to-rib height ratio and attack angle of the rib are chosen as design variables.The objective function is defined as a linear combination of heat-transfer and friction-loss related terms with the weighting factor.Full-factorial experimental design method is used to determine the data points.Optimum shapes of the channel have been obtained in a range of the weighting factor.

  10. Warped extra dimension and inclined events at Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The generalized solution for the warp factor of the Randall-Sundrum metric is presented which is symmetric with respect to both branes and explicitly periodic in extra variable. Given that the curvature of the 5-dimensional space-time is small, the expected rate of neutrino-induced inclined events at the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is calculated. Both the "downward-going" (DG) and "Earth-skimming" (ES) neutrinos are considered. By comparing the expected event rate with the recent Auger data on searching for neutrino candidates, the lower bound on the fundamental gravity scale M_5 is obtained. The ratio of the number of the ES air showers to the number of the DG showers is estimated as a function of M_5.

  11. Codimension 2 reversible heteroclinic bifurcations with inclination flips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU YanCong; ZHU DeMing; DENG GuiFeng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the heteroclinic bifurcation problem with real eigenvalues and two inclination-flips is investigated in a four-dimensional reversible system.We perform a detailed study of this case by using the method originally established in the papers "Problems in Homoclinic Bifurcation with Higher Dimensions" and "Bifurcation of Heteroclinic Loops," and obtain fruitful results,such as the existence and coexistence of R-symmetric homoclinic orbit and R-symmetric heteroclinic loops,R-symmetric homoclinic orbit and R-symmetric periodic orbit.The double R-symmetric homoclinic bifurcation (i.e.,two-fold R-symmetric homoclinic bifurcation) for reversible heteroclinic loops is found,and the existence of infinitely many R-symmetric periodic orbits accumulating onto a homoclinic orbit is demonstrated.The relevant bifurcation surfaces and the existence regions are also located.

  12. Numerical modeling of incline plate LiBr absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Shahram; Farhanieh, Bijan

    2011-03-01

    Among major components of LiBr-H2O absorption chillers is the absorber, which has a direct effect on the chillier size and whose characteristics have significant effects on the overall efficiency of absorption machines. In this article, heat and mass transfer process in absorption of refrigerant vapor into a lithium bromide solution of water-cooled incline plate absorber in the Reynolds number range of 5 absorption. An analysis for linear distribution of wall temperature condition carries out to investigate the reliability of the present numerical method through comparing with previous investigation. The effect of plate angle on heat and mass transfer parameters is investigated and the results show that absorption mass flux and heat and mass transfer coefficient increase as the angle of the plate increase. The main parameters of absorber design, namely Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, are correlated as a function of Reynolds Number and the plate angle.

  13. Apparatus for metering the angle of inclination of construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaripov, M.F.; Kovshov, G.N.; Lavrov, B.V.

    1980-08-30

    A design is submitted for an apparatus to be used in metering the inclination angle of construction projects such as wells. This apparatus consists of a hinged universal joint, both internal and external frames, a pendulum with a ferromagnetic probe mounted on the internal frame, two sources for the formation of a controlled magnetic field, magnetic posts which are in-line with the frame axis, and a conversion-metering circuit. A two-phase current generator is mounted on the external frame and a ferromagnetic probe is placed at a 45-degree angle to the rotation axis for the internal frame, perpendicular to the vertical posts. Such a configuration serves to improve the metering accuracy by removing error and instability in the magnetic field source current.

  14. Convective flows of colloidal suspension in an inclined closed cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorodin, Boris; Cherepanov, Ivan; Ishutov, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    The nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution of convective flows is numerically investigated in the case of colloidal suspension filling an inclined closed cell heated from below. The bifurcation diagram (the dependency of the Nusselt number on the Rayleigh number) is obtained. The characteristics of the wave and steady patterns are investigated depending on heat intensity. The travelling wave changing travel direction and the non-regular oscillatory flow are found to be stable solutions within a certain interval of the Rayleigh number. Temporal Fourier decomposition is used together with other diagnostic tools to analyse the complex bifurcation and spatiotemporal properties caused by the interplay of the gravity-induced gradient of concentration and convective mixing of the fluid. It is shown that a more complex flow structure exists at a lower heating intensity (Rayleigh number).

  15. Ecoulements denses de grains secs sur plan incliné

    OpenAIRE

    DA CRUZ, F; PROCHNOW, M; AZANZA, E; ROGNON, P; RAGOUILLIAUX, A; TOCQUER, L; MOUCHERONT, P; ROUX, JN; Coussot, P.; CHEVOIR, F

    2003-01-01

    La compréhension des écoulements denses de grains secs a fait de récents progrès grâce aux expériences sur matériaux modèles et aux simulations numériques discrètes. Nous illustrons ces progrès sur l'exemple des écoulements sur plan incliné rugueux. Ils se caractérisent par un seuil d'écoulement dépendant non seulement de l'inclinaison mais aussi de l'épaisseur, et par un régime d'écoulement stationnaire au-dessius du seuil, dont la vitesse s'exprime précisément en fonction de l'épaisseur d'a...

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure, insecticidal activity and DFT study on the geometry and vibration of O-( E)-1-{1-[(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl]-5-methyl-1 H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl}ethyleneamino- O-ethyl- O-phenylphosphorothioate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, De-Qing; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Song, Yuan-Zhi

    2008-12-01

    The title compound, O-( E)-1-{1-[(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl]-5-methyl-1 H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl}ethyleneamino- O-ethyl- O-phenylphosphorothioate, has been synthesized via the condensation reaction of 1-{1-[(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl]-5-methyl-1 H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl}ethanone oxime and O-ethyl- O-phenylphosphorochloridothioate in the presence of NaOH powder in refluxing EtOH. Its structure was characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, Raman, elemental analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The results of preliminary bioassays indicated that the title compound displays good insecticidal activity. Density functional (DFT) calculations have been carried out for the title compound by using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr's three-parameter hybrid functional (B3LYP) method at 6-31G** and 6-31G* basis sets. The calculated results show that the predicted geometry can well reproduce the structural parameters. The vibrational wave numbers of the title compound were calculated at same level. Predicted vibrational frequencies have been assigned and compared with experimental IR and Raman spectra and they are supported each other.

  17. Guide to Computational Geometry Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François;

    be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...

  18. Linear algebra and projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text establishes that projective geometry and linear algebra are essentially identical. The supporting evidence consists of theorems offering an algebraic demonstration of certain geometric concepts. These focus on the representation of projective geometries by linear manifolds, of projectivities by semilinear transformations, of collineations by linear transformations, and of dualities by semilinear forms. These theorems lead to a reconstruction of the geometry that constituted the discussion's starting point, within algebra

  19. Finding Proofs in Tarskian Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, Michael; Wos, Larry

    2016-01-01

    We report on a project to use a theorem prover to find proofs of the theorems in Tarskian geometry. These theorems start with fundamental properties of betweenness, proceed through the derivations of several famous theorems due to Gupta and end with the derivation from Tarski's axioms of Hilbert's 1899 axioms for geometry. They include the four challenge problems left unsolved by Quaife, who two decades ago found some \\Otter proofs in Tarskian geometry (solving challenges issued in Wos's 1998...

  20. Phase structures in fuzzy geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R; Gupta, K S; Martin, X

    2012-01-01

    We study phase structures of quantum field theories in fuzzy geometries. Several examples of fuzzy geometries as well as QFT's on such geometries are considered. They are fuzzy spheres and beyond as well as noncommutative deformations of BTZ blackholes. Analysis is done analytically and through simulations. Several features like novel stripe phases as well as spontaneous symmetry breaking avoiding Colemen, Mermin, Wagner theorem are brought out. Also we establish that these phases are stable due to topological obstructions.

  1. Thermodynamics of Asymptotically Conical Geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Gibbons, Gary W; Saleem, Zain H

    2015-06-12

    We study the thermodynamical properties of a class of asymptotically conical geometries known as "subtracted geometries." We derive the mass and angular momentum from the regulated Komar integral and the Hawking-Horowitz prescription and show that they are equivalent. By deriving the asymptotic charges, we show that the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics hold. We also propose an analog of Christodulou-Ruffini inequality. The analysis can be generalized to other asymptotically conical geometries.

  2. An ultrasonically enhanced inclined settler for microalgae harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié Gómez, Esteban; Marchese, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have vast potential as a sustainable and scalable source of biofuels and bioproducts. However, algae dewatering is a critical challenge that must be addressed. Ultrasonic settling has already been exploited for concentrating various biological cells at relatively small batch volumes and/or low throughput. Typically, these designs are operated in batch or semicontinuous mode, wherein the flow is interrupted and the cells are subsequently harvested. These batch techniques are not well suited for scaleup to the throughput levels required for harvesting microalgae from the large-scale cultivation operations necessary for a viable algal biofuel industry. This article introduces a novel device for the acoustic harvesting of microalgae. The design is based on the coupling of the acoustophoretic force, acoustic transparent materials, and inclined settling. A filtration efficiency of 70 ± 5% and a concentration factor of 11.6 ± 2.2 were achieved at a flow rate of 25 mL·min(-1) and an energy consumption of 3.6 ± 0.9 kWh·m(-3) . The effects of the applied power, flow rate, inlet cell concentration, and inclination were explored. It was found that the filtration efficiency of the device is proportional to the power applied. However, the filtration efficiency experienced a plateau at 100 W L(-1) of power density applied. The filtration efficiency also increased with increasing inlet cell concentration and was inversely proportional to the flow rate. It was also found that the optimum settling angle for maximum concentration factor occurred at an angle of 50 ± 5°. At these optimum conditions, the device had higher filtration efficiency in comparison to other similar devices reported in the previous literature.

  3. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  4. Digital geometry in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2013-01-01

    Exploring theories and applications developed during the last 30 years, Digital Geometry in Image Processing presents a mathematical treatment of the properties of digital metric spaces and their relevance in analyzing shapes in two and three dimensions. Unlike similar books, this one connects the two areas of image processing and digital geometry, highlighting important results of digital geometry that are currently used in image analysis and processing. The book discusses different digital geometries in multi-dimensional integral coordinate spaces. It also describes interesting properties of

  5. Initiation to global Finslerian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar-Zadeh, Hassan

    2006-01-01

    After a brief description of the evolution of thinking on Finslerian geometry starting from Riemann, Finsler, Berwald and Elie Cartan, the book gives a clear and precise treatment of this geometry. The first three chapters develop the basic notions and methods, introduced by the author, to reach the global problems in Finslerian Geometry. The next five chapters are independent of each other, and deal with among others the geometry of generalized Einstein manifolds, the classification of Finslerian manifolds of constant sectional curvatures. They also give a treatment of isometric, affine, p

  6. Null twisted geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Speziale, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We define and investigate a quantisation of null hypersurfaces in the context of loop quantum gravity on a fixed graph. The main tool we use is the parametrisation of the theory in terms of twistors, which has already proved useful in discussing the interpretation of spin networks as the quantization of twisted geometries. The classical formalism can be extended in a natural way to null hypersurfaces, with the Euclidean polyhedra replaced by null polyhedra with space-like faces, and SU(2) by the little group ISO(2). The main difference is that the simplicity constraints present in the formalims are all first class, and the symplectic reduction selects only the helicity subgroup of the little group. As a consequence, information on the shapes of the polyhedra is lost, and the result is a much simpler, abelian geometric picture. It can be described by an Euclidean singular structure on the 2-dimensional space-like surface defined by a foliation of space-time by null hypersurfaces. This geometric structure is na...

  7. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  8. Functional integration over geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Mottola, E

    1995-01-01

    The geometric construction of the functional integral over coset spaces {\\cal M}/{\\cal G} is reviewed. The inner product on the cotangent space of infinitesimal deformations of \\cal M defines an invariant distance and volume form, or functional integration measure on the full configuration space. Then, by a simple change of coordinates parameterizing the gauge fiber \\cal G, the functional measure on the coset space {\\cal M}/{\\cal G} is deduced. This change of integration variables leads to a Jacobian which is entirely equivalent to the Faddeev-Popov determinant of the more traditional gauge fixed approach in non-abelian gauge theory. If the general construction is applied to the case where \\cal G is the group of coordinate reparametrizations of spacetime, the continuum functional integral over geometries, {\\it i.e.} metrics modulo coordinate reparameterizations may be defined. The invariant functional integration measure is used to derive the trace anomaly and effective action for the conformal part of the me...

  9. Coframe geometry and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Itin, Yakov

    2007-01-01

    The possible extensions of GR for description of fermions on a curved space, for supergravity and for loop quantum gravity require a richer set of 16 independent variables. These variables can be assembled in a coframe field, i.e., a local set of four linearly independent 1-forms. In the ordinary formulation, the coframe gravity does not have any connection to a specific geometry even being constructed from the geometrical meaningful objects. A geometrization of the coframe gravity is an aim of this paper. We construct a complete class of the coframe connections which are linear in the first order derivatives of the coframe field on an $n$ dimensional manifolds with and without a metric. The subclasses of the torsion-free, metric-compatible and flat connections are derived. We also study the behavior of the geometrical structures under local transformations of the coframe. The remarkable fact is an existence of a subclass of connections which are invariant when the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the Ma...

  10. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  11. Geometries from field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya; Kikuchi, Kengo; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    We propose a method to define a d+1-dimensional geometry from a d-dimensional quantum field theory in the 1/N expansion. We first construct a d+1-dimensional field theory from the d-dimensional one via the gradient-flow equation, whose flow time t represents the energy scale of the system such that trArr 0 corresponds to the ultraviolet and trArr infty to the infrared. We then define the induced metric from d+1-dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large-N limit, in the sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as 1/N due to the large-N factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) nonlinear σ model in two dimensions. We calculate the 3D induced metric, which is shown to describe an anti-de Sitter space in the massless limit. Finally, we discuss several open issues for future studies.

  12. Optimum Stirling engine geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senft, J.R. [University of Wisconsin, River Walls, WI (United States). Mathematics Dept.

    2002-07-01

    This paper combines the author's work on mechanical efficiency of reciprocating engines with the classic Schmidt thermodynamic model for Stirling engines and revisits the problem of identifying optimal engine geometry. All previous optimizations using the Schmidt theory focused on obtaining a maximal specific indicated cyclic work. This does not necessarily produce the highest shaft output. Indeed, some optima based upon indicated work would yield engines that cannot run at all due to excessive intrinsic mechanical losses. The analysis presented in this paper shows how to optimize for shaft or brake work output. Specifically, it presents solutions to the problem of finding the piston-to-displacer swept volume ratio and phase angle which will give the maximum brake output for a given total swept volume, given temperature extremes, a given mean operating pressure, and a given engine mechanism effectiveness. The paper covers the split-cylinder or gamma-type Stirling in detail, serving as a model for similar analysis of the other Stirling engine configurations. (author)

  13. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  14. Interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Alexej

    2010-06-23

    In this thesis, we investigate the interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect for the inclined-plates, sphere-plate and cylinder-plate configurations. We use the worldline approach, which combines the string-inspired quantum field theoretical formalism with Monte Carlo techniques. The approach allows the precise computation of Casimir energies in arbitrary geometries. We analyze the dependence of the Casimir energy, force and torque on the separation parameter and temperature T, and find Casimir phenomena which are dominated by long-range fluctuations. We demonstrate that for open geometries, thermal energy densities are typically distributed on scales of thermal wavelengths. As an important consequence, approximation methods for thermal corrections based on local energy-density estimates, such as the proximity-force approximation, are found to become unreliable even at small surface-separations. Whereas the hightemperature behavior is always found to be linear in T, richer power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. In particular, thermal forces can develop a non-monotonic behavior. Many novel numerical as well as analytical results are presented. (orig.)

  15. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas; Holzwarth, Natalie;

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used.......A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used....

  16. Analytic Geometry, A Tentative Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, G. Alfred; And Others

    This teacher's guide for a semester course in analytic geometry is based on the text "Analytic Geometry" by W. K. Morrill. Included is a daily schedule of suggested topics and homework assignments. Specific teaching hints are also given. The content of the course includes point and plane vectors, straight lines, point and space vectors, planes,…

  17. Multicolor photonic crystal laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2015-04-28

    A multicolor photonic crystal laser array comprises pixels of monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. As an example, two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers comprising broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well axial heterostructures were fabricated using a novel top-down nanowire fabrication method. Single-mode lasing was obtained in the blue-violet spectral region with 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal center wavelength) that was determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum.

  18. Basic algebraic geometry, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich

    1994-01-01

    Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...

  19. Index Theorems on Torsional Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji

    2007-01-01

    We study various topological invariants on a differential geometry in the presence of a totally anti-symmetric torsion H under the closed condition dH=0. By using the identification between the Clifford algebra on a geometry and the canonical quantization condition of fermion in the quantum mechanics, we construct the N=1 quantum mechanical sigma model in the Hamiltonian formalism and extend this model to N=2 system, equipped with the totally anti-symmetric tensor associated with the torsion on the target space geometry. Next we construct transition elements in the Lagrangian path integral formalism and apply them to the analyses of the Witten indices in supersymmetric systems. We improve the formulation of the Dirac index on the torsional geometry which has already been studied. We also formulate the Euler characteristic and the Hirzebruch signature on the torsional geometry.

  20. Raman Tensor Formalism for Optically Anisotropic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranert, Christian; Sturm, Chris; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-03-25

    We present a formalism for calculating the Raman scattering intensity dependent on the polarization configuration for optically anisotropic crystals. It can be applied to crystals of arbitrary orientation and crystal symmetry measured in normal incidence backscattering geometry. The classical Raman tensor formalism cannot be used for optically anisotropic materials due to birefringence causing the polarization within the crystal to be depth dependent. We show that in the limit of averaging over a sufficiently large scattering depth, the observed Raman intensities converge and can be described by an effective Raman tensor given here. Full agreement with experimental results for uniaxial and biaxial crystals is demonstrated.

  1. Cognitive self-affirmation inclination : An individual difference in dealing with self-threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    2012-01-01

    The current research shows that people differ in their inclination to use positive self-images when their self is threatened (i.e., cognitive self-affirmation inclination, CSAI). Just as self-affirmation manipulations do, the use of positive self-images induces open mindedness towards threatening me

  2. Improving the accuracy of GRACE Earth's gravitational field using the combination of different inclinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zheng; Chenggang Shao; Jun Luo; Houze Xu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the GRACE Earth's gravitational field complete up to degree and order 120 is recovered based on the combination of different inclinations using the energy conservation principle.The results show that because different inclinations of satellite are sensitive to the geopotential coefficients with different degrees/and orders m.the design of GRACE exploiting 89° inclination can effectively improve the accuracy of geopotential zonal harmonic coefficients.However,it is less sensitive to the geopotential tesseral harmonic coefficients.Accordingly.the second group of GRACE exploiting lower inclination is required to determine high-accurately the geopotential tesseral harmonic coefficients and cover the shortage of the single group of GRACE exploiting 89° inclination.Two groups of GRACE individually exploiting 89°+(82°-84°)inclinations are the optimal combination of the Earth'S gravitational field recovery complete up to degree and order 120.In the degree 120,the joint accuracy of cumulative geoid height based on two groups of GRACE individually exploiting 89° and 83° inclinations is averagely two times higher than the accuracy of a group of GRACE exploiting 89° inclination.

  3. Cognitive self-affirmation inclination : An individual difference in dealing with self-threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    2012-01-01

    The current research shows that people differ in their inclination to use positive self-images when their self is threatened (i.e., cognitive self-affirmation inclination, CSAI). Just as self-affirmation manipulations do, the use of positive self-images induces open mindedness towards threatening me

  4. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  5. Cognitive self-affirmation inclination : An individual difference in dealing with self-threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    The current research shows that people differ in their inclination to use positive self-images when their self is threatened (i.e., cognitive self-affirmation inclination, CSAI). Just as self-affirmation manipulations do, the use of positive self-images induces open mindedness towards threatening

  6. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m(3)/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s.

  7. Triple Bragg diffraction in paratellurite crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. M.; Averin, S. V.; Voronko, A. I.; Kotov, E. V.; Tikhomirov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Triple Bragg diffraction in a paratellurite crystal has been considered for the case when the plane of diffraction is oblique to the optical axis of the crystal. It has been shown that effective photoelastic constants for isotropic and anisotropic diffraction depend on the inclination of the plane of diffraction insignificantly. Triple Bragg diffraction of 0.63-μm coherent radiation in paratellurite at a 47.3-MHz slow acoustic wave has been experimentally demonstrated. For an optical power of 0.69 W delivered to a piezoconverter, the relative intensities of diffraction orders equal 0.4, 0.4, 0.1, and 0.1, respectively.

  8. Morphology of the very inclined debris disk around HD 32297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletti, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Milli, J.; Baudoz, P.; Mawet, D.; Mouillet, D.; Lebreton, J.; Maire, A.-L.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Direct imaging of circumstellar disks at high angular resolution is mandatory to provide morphological information that constrains their properties, in particular the spatial distribution of dust. For a long time, this challenging objective was, in most cases, only within the realm of space telescopes from the visible to the infrared. New techniques combining observing strategy and data processing now allow very high-contrast imaging with 8-m class ground-based telescopes (10-4 to 10-5 at ~1'') and complement space telescopes while improving angular resolution at near infrared wavelengths. Aims: We present the results of a program carried out at the VLT with NACO to image known debris disks with higher angular resolution in the near-infrared than ever before in order to study morphological properties and ultimately detect the signpost of planets. Methods: The observing method makes use of advanced techniques of adaptive optics, coronagraphy, and differential imaging, a combination designed to directly image exoplanets with the upcoming generation of "planet finders" such as GPI (Gemini Planet Imager) and SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High contrast Exoplanet REsearch). Applied to extended objects such as circumstellar disks, the method is still successful but produces significant biases in terms of photometry and morphology. We developed a new model-matching procedure to correct for these biases and hence provide constraints on the morphology of debris disks. Results: From our program, we present new images of the disk around the star HD 32297 obtained in the H (1.6 μm) and Ks (2.2 μm) bands with an unprecedented angular resolution (~65 mas). The images show an inclined thin disk detected at separations larger than 0.5-0.6″. The modeling stage confirms a very high inclination (i = 88°) and the presence of an inner cavity inside r0 ≈ 110 AU. We also find that the spine (line of maximum intensity along the midplane) of the disk is curved, which we

  9. Mixing In Jet-Stirred Reactors With Different Geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Ayass, Wassim W.

    2013-12-01

    This work offers a well-developed understanding of the mixing process inside Jet- Stirred Reactors (JSR’s) with different geometries. Due to the difficulty of manufacturing these JSR’s made in quartz, existing JSR configurations were assessed with certain modifications and optimal operating conditions were suggested for each reactor. The effect of changing the reactor volume, the nozzle diameter and shape on mixing were both studied. Two nozzle geometries were examined in this study, a crossed shape nozzle and an inclined shape nozzle. Overall, six reactor configurations were assessed by conducting tracer experiments - using the state-of-art technologies of high-speed cameras and laser absorption spectroscopy- and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The high-speed camera tracer experiment gives unique qualitative information – not present in the literature – about the actual flow field. On the other hand, when using the laser technique, a more quantitative analysis emerges with determining the experimental residence time distribution (RTD) curves of each reactor. Comparing these RTD curves with the ideal curve helped in eliminating two cases. Finally, the CFD simulations predict the RTD curves as well as the mixing levels of the JSR’s operated at different residence times. All of these performed studies suggested the use of an inclined nozzle configuration with a reactor diameter D of 40mm and a nozzle diameter d of 1mm as the optimal choice for low residence time operation. However, for higher residence times, the crossed configuration reactor with D=56mm and d=0.3mm gave a nearly perfect behavior.

  10. Generalized Hill-Stability Criteria for Hierarchical Three-Body Systems at Arbitrary Inclinations

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, Evgeni; Zenati, Yossef; Michaely, Erez

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of the three-body problem is the stability of triple systems. Most stability studies have focused on the co-planar three-body problem, deriving analytic criteria for the dynamical stability of such pro/retrograde systems. Numerical studies of inclined systems phenomenologically mapped their stability regions, but neither explain their physical origin, nor provided satisfactory fit for the dependence of stability on the inclination. Here we present a novel approach to study the stability of hierarchical three-body systems at arbitrary inclinations. This approach accounts not only for the instantaneous stability of such systems, but also for the secular stability and evolution through Lidov-Kozai cycles and evection. Thereby we are able to generalize the Hill-stability criteria to arbitrarily inclined triple systems, and explain the existence of quasi-stable regimes and characterize the inclination dependence of their stability. We complement the analytic treatment with an extensive numeric...

  11. Inclinations of small quiet-Sun magnetic features based on a new geometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarzadeh, S; Lagg, A; Rubio, L R Bellot; van Noort, M; Feller, A; Danilovic, S

    2014-01-01

    High levels of horizontal magnetic flux have been reported in the quiet-Sun internetwork, often based on Stokes profile inversions. Here we introduce a new method for deducing the inclination of magnetic elements and use it to test magnetic field inclinations from inversions. We determine accurate positions of a set of small, bright magnetic elements in high spatial resolution images sampling different photospheric heights obtained by the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. Together with estimates of the formation heights of the employed spectral bands, these provide us with the inclinations of the magnetic features. We also compute the magnetic inclination angle of the same magnetic features from the inversion of simultaneously recorded Stokes parameters. Our new, geometric method returns nearly vertical fields (average inclination of around 14 deg with a relatively narrow distribution having a standard deviation of 6 deg). In strong contrast to this, the traditionally used inversions give almost horizo...

  12. Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Finned Surfaces with Cross-inclined Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical research and analyses air-side hydraulic performance of tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The numerical simulation of the fin-tube heat exchanger was performed using the Comsol Femlab software. The results of modeling show the influence of fin inclination angle and tube pitch on hydraulic characteristics of finned surfaces. A series of numerical tests were carried out for tube bundles with different inclination angles (γ =900, 850, 650, 60, the fin pitch u=4 mm. The results indicate that tube bundles with cross inclined fins can significantly enhance the average integral value of the air flow rate in channel between fins in comparison with conventional straight fins. Aerodynamic processes on both sides of modificated channel between inclined fins were analyzed. The verification procedures for received results of numerical modeling with experimental data were performed.

  13. The Geometry Description Markup Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RadovanChytracek

    2001-01-01

    Currently,a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors.A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier.A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment.However,no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files,source code (C/C++/FORTRAN),to XML and database solutions.The XML(Extensible Markup Language)has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries,with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing.Therefore,interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present.This article introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions.Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data.Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML.

  14. Arithmetic geometry over global function fields

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Ignazio; Trihan, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects the texts of five courses given in the Arithmetic Geometry Research Programme 2009–2010 at the CRM Barcelona. All of them deal with characteristic p global fields; the common theme around which they are centered is the arithmetic of L-functions (and other special functions), investigated in various aspects. Three courses examine some of the most important recent ideas in the positive characteristic theory discovered by Goss (a field in tumultuous development, which is seeing a number of spectacular advances): they cover respectively crystals over function fields (with a number of applications to L-functions of t-motives), gamma and zeta functions in characteristic p, and the binomial theorem. The other two are focused on topics closer to the classical theory of abelian varieties over number fields: they give respectively a thorough introduction to the arithmetic of Jacobians over function fields (including the current status of the BSD conjecture and its geometric analogues, and the con...

  15. Hamilton geometry: Phase space geometry from modified dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Barcaroli, Leonardo; Gubitosi, Giulia; Loret, Niccoló; Pfeifer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Hamilton geometry of the phase space of particles whose motion is characterised by general dispersion relations. In this framework spacetime and momentum space are naturally curved and intertwined, allowing for a simultaneous description of both spacetime curvature and non-trivial momentum space geometry. We consider as explicit examples two models for Planck-scale modified dispersion relations, inspired from the $q$-de Sitter and $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e quantum groups. In the first case we find the expressions for the momentum and position dependent curvature of spacetime and momentum space, while for the second case the manifold is flat and only the momentum space possesses a nonzero, momentum dependent curvature. In contrast, for a dispersion relation that is induced by a spacetime metric, as in General Relativity, the Hamilton geometry yields a flat momentum space and the usual curved spacetime geometry with only position dependent geometric objects.

  16. Fabrication of Pneumatic Microvalve for Tall Microchannel Using Inclined Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Kaminaga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used inclined lithography to fabricate a pneumatic microvalve for tall microchannels such as those used to convey large cells. The pneumatic microvalve consists of three layers. The upper layer is the actual liquid microchannel, which has a parallelogram-shaped cross section of width 500 μm, height 100 μm, and an acute angle of 53.6°. The lower layer is a pneumatic microchannel that functions as an actuator, and the middle layer is a thin polydimethylsiloxane membrane between the upper and lower layers. The operation of the pneumatic microchannel actuator causes the thin membrane to bend, resulting in the bending of the liquid microchannel and its closure. It was confirmed that the closure of the liquid microchannel completely stopped the flow of the HeLa cell suspension that was used to demonstrate the operation of the microvalve. The HeLa cells that passed through the microchannel were also observed to retain their proliferation and morphological properties.

  17. Measuring Inclinations and Attitudes of University Teachers towards Sports Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaimaa Abed Mutar A1-Tamimi

    2015-01-01

    The researcher wants to know the inclinations of the teachers in A1-Mustansiriyah University into participation in sports activities and the obstacles. The aims are to build measure of trends and tendencies toward university teachers about exercise and sporting activities and identify the reasons that prevent teachers from exercise. This measure contained on 25 open questions directed by the researcher toward the university teachers, and the distribution of the questions was on three areas: cognitive domain, behavioral domain and emotional domain. These areas have a relationship between tendencies and attitudes of teachers towards sports activities, in addition to the knowledge of the problems and obstacles that prevent this group from participating in sports activities. There is a lack of correlation between the desire to practice physical activity and the presence of a sports hall at the university in terms of statistics. The difficulties in the practice of sports activities, including economic, social and other factors, insecurity and instability exist. There is a good correlation between the previous practice of physical activity and the current desire to practice in terms of statistical activities.

  18. Sagging of evaporating droplets of colloidal suspensions on inclined substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Leonardo; Kumar, Satish

    2014-10-14

    A droplet of a colloidal suspension placed on an inclined substrate may sag under the action of gravity. Solvent evaporation raises the concentration of the colloidal particles, and the resulting viscosity changes may influence the sag of the droplet. To investigate this phenomenon, we have developed a mathematical model for perfectly wetting droplets based on lubrication theory and the rapid-vertical-diffusion approximation. Precursor films are assumed to be present, the colloidal particles are taken to be hard spheres, and particle and liquid dynamics are coupled through a concentration-dependent viscosity and diffusivity. Evaporation is assumed to be limited by how rapidly solvent molecules can transfer from the liquid to the vapor phase. The resulting one-dimensional system of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the evolution of the droplet height and particle concentration is solved numerically for a range of initial particle concentrations and substrate temperatures. The solutions reveal that the interaction between evaporation and non-Newtonian suspension rheology gives rise to several distinct regimes of droplet shapes and particle concentration distributions. The results provide insight into how evaporation and suspension rheology can be tuned to minimize sagging as well as the well-known coffee-ring effect, an outcome which is important for industrial coating processes.

  19. A conservation law model for bidensity suspensions on an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeffrey T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.

    2016-09-01

    We study bidensity suspensions of a viscous fluid on an incline. The particles migrate within the fluid due to a combination of gravity-induced settling and shear induced migration. We propose an extension of a recent model (Murisic et al., 2013) for monodisperse suspensions to two species of particles, resulting in a hyperbolic system of three conservation laws for the height and particle concentrations. We analyze the Riemann problem and show that the system exhibits three-shock solutions representing distinct fronts of particles and liquid traveling at different speeds as well as singular shock solutions for sufficiently large concentrations, for which the mechanism is essentially the same as the single-species case. We also consider initial conditions describing a fixed volume of fluid, where solutions are rarefaction-shock pairs, and present a comparison to recent experimental results. The long-time behavior of solutions is identified for settled mono- and bidisperse suspensions and some leading-order asymptotics are derived in the single-species case for moderate concentrations.

  20. Droplet impact patterns on inclined surfaces with variable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Michael; Neitzel, G. Paul; Smith, Marc K.

    2014-11-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis is used in the investigation of a crime scene to infer the impact velocity and size of an impacting droplet and, from these, the droplet's point and cause of origin. The final pattern is the result of complex fluid mechanical processes involved in the impact and spreading of a blood drop on a surface coupled with the wetting properties of the surface itself. Experiments have been designed to study these processes and the resulting patterns for the case of a single Newtonian water droplet impacting a planar, inclined surface with variable roughness and wetting properties. Results for Reynolds numbers in the range of (9,000 - 27,000) and Weber numbers in the range of (300 - 2,600) will be presented. Transient video images and final impact patterns will be analyzed and compared with results from traditional bloodstain pattern-analysis techniques used by the forensics community. In addition, preliminary work with a new Newtonian blood simulant designed to match the viscosity and surface tension of blood will be presented. Supported by the National Institute of Justice.

  1. Droplet Impact on Inclined Surfaces for Forensic Bloodstain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marc; Lockard, Michael; Neitzel, G. Paul

    2015-11-01

    During a crime scene investigation, bloodstains are used to infer the size, impact angle, and velocity of the blood droplet that produced the stain. This droplet impact process was explored using experiments and numerical simulations of droplets impacting planar, inclined surfaces with different roughness and wetting properties over a range of Reynolds numbers (1,000 - 5,500) and Weber numbers (200 - 2,000) typical of some forensics applications. Results will be presented showing how the size and shape of the final elliptical bloodstain varies with impact angle and surface roughness. The common forensics practice to predict the impact angle is fairly accurate for near-normal impacts, but it under-predicts the angle for oblique impacts less than about 40° and this effect worsens for rougher surfaces. The spreading of the droplet normal to the impact plane is shown to follow that of a droplet under normal impact as the impact velocity increases. This effect is also lessened by increased surface roughness. The reasons for these effects will be explored using a new GPU-based wavelet-adaptive flow simulation, which can resolve the flows near the solid surface and near the moving contact line of these droplets for the large Reynolds and Weber numbers of these experiments. Supported by the National Institute of Justice.

  2. Geometry and W-Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    The higher-spin geometries of $W_\\infty$-gravity and $W_N$-gravity are analysed and used to derive the complete non-linear structure of the coupling to matter and its symmetries. The symmetry group is a subgroup of the symplectic diffeomorphisms of the cotangent bundle of the world-sheet, and the $W_N$ geometry is obtained from a non-linear truncation of the $W_\\infty$ geometry. Quantum W-gravity is briefly discussed. (Talk given at {\\it Pathways to Fundamental Interactions}, the 16th John Ho...

  3. Linear algebra, geometry and transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Vectors, Mappings and Linearity Numeric Vectors Functions Mappings and Transformations Linearity The Matrix of a Linear Transformation Solving Linear Systems The Linear SystemThe Augmented Matrix and RRE Form Homogeneous Systems in RRE Form Inhomogeneous Systems in RRE Form The Gauss-Jordan Algorithm Two Mapping Answers Linear Geometry Geometric Vectors Geometric/Numeric Duality Dot-Product Geometry Lines, Planes, and Hyperplanes System Geometry and Row/Column Duality The Algebra of Matrices Matrix Operations Special Matrices Matrix Inversion A Logical Digression The Logic of the Inversion Alg

  4. A first course in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    This introductory text is designed to help undergraduate students develop a solid foundation in geometry. Early chapters progress slowly, cultivating the necessary understanding and self-confidence for the more rapid development that follows. The extensive treatment can be easily adapted to accommodate shorter courses. Starting with the language of mathematics as expressed in the algebra of logic and sets, the text covers geometric sets of points, separation and angles, triangles, parallel lines, similarity, polygons and area, circles, space geometry, and coordinate geometry. Each chapter incl

  5. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  6. A new look at geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Irving

    1967-01-01

    This richly detailed overview surveys the development and evolution of geometrical ideas and concepts from ancient times to the present. In addition to the relationship between physical and mathematical spaces, it examines the interactions of geometry, algebra, and calculus. The text proves many significant theorems and employs several important techniques. Chapters on non- Euclidean geometry and projective geometry form brief, self-contained treatments.More than 100 exercises with answers and 200 diagrams illuminate the text. Teachers, students (particularly those majoring in mathematics educa

  7. CATIA-GDML geometry builder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belogurov, S.; Berchun, Yu; Chernogorov, A.; Malzacher, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Semennikov, A.

    2011-12-01

    Due to conceptual difference between geometry descriptions in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems and particle transport Monte Carlo (MC) codes direct conversion of detector geometry in either direction is not feasible. An original set of tools has been developed for building a GEANT4/ROOT compatible geometry in the CATIA CAD system and exchanging it with mentioned MC packages using GDML file format. A Special structure of a CATIA product tree, a wide range of primitives, different types of multiple volume instantiation, and supporting macros have been implemented.

  8. Quantum Consequences of Parameterizing Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    The marriage between geometrization and quantization is not successful, so far. It is well known that quantization of gravity , using known quantization schemes, is not satisfactory. It may be of interest to look for another approach to this problem. Recently, it is shown that geometries with torsion admit quantum paths. Such geometries should be parameterizied in order to preserve the quantum properties appeared in the paths. The present work explores the consequences of parameterizing such geometry. It is shown that quantum properties, appeared in the path equations, are transferred to other geometric entities.

  9. Geometry and W-Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, C M

    1993-01-01

    The higher-spin geometries of $W_\\infty$-gravity and $W_N$-gravity are analysed and used to derive the complete non-linear structure of the coupling to matter and its symmetries. The symmetry group is a subgroup of the symplectic diffeomorphisms of the cotangent bundle of the world-sheet, and the $W_N$ geometry is obtained from a non-linear truncation of the $W_\\infty$ geometry. Quantum W-gravity is briefly discussed. (Talk given at {\\it Pathways to Fundamental Interactions}, the 16th John Hopkins Workshop on Current Problems in Particle Theory, Gothenborg, 1992.)

  10. Thermal Phase in Bubbling Geometries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    We use matrix model to study thermal phase in bubbling half-BPS type IIB geometries with SO(4)×SO(4) symmetry.Near the horizon limit,we find that thermal vacua of bubbling geometries have disjoint parts,and each part is one kind of phase of the thermal system.We connect the thermal dynamics of bubbling geometries with one-dimensional fermions thermal system.Finally,we try to give a new possible way to resolve information loss puzzle.

  11. An improved combinatorial geometry model for arbitrary geometry in DSMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargaran, H.; Minuchehr, A.; Zolfaghari, A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on a new direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code based on combinatorial geometry (CG) for simulation of any rarefied gas flow. The developed code, called DgSMC-A, has been supplied with an improved CG modeling able to significantly optimize the particle-tracking process, resulting in a highly reduced runtime compared to the conventional codes. The improved algorithm inserts a grid over the geometry and saves those grid elements containing some part of the geometry border. Since only a small part of a grid is engaged with the geometry border, significant time can be saved using the proposed algorithm. Embedding the modified algorithm in the DgSMC-A resulted in a fast, robust and self-governing code needless to any mesh generator. The code completely handles complex geometries created with first-and second-order surfaces. In addition, we developed a new surface area calculator in the CG methodology for complex geometries based on the Monte Carlo method with acceptable accuracy. Several well-known test cases are examined to indicate the code ability to deal with a wide range of realistic problems. Results are also found to be in good agreement with references and experimental data.

  12. Distinct coordination geometries in bis[N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyldithiocarbamato-κ2S,S′]diphenyltin(IV and bis[N-(2-methoxyethyl-N-methyldithiocarbamato-κ2S,S′]diphenyltin(IV: crystal structures and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapidah Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structures of two diphenyltin bis(dithiocarbamates, [Sn(C6H52(C5H10NOS22], (I, and [Sn(C6H52(C7H14NO2S22], (II, are described. In (I, in which the metal atom lies on a twofold rotation axis, the dithiocarbamate ligand coordinates with approximately equal Sn—S bond lengths and the ipso-C atoms of the Sn-bound phenyl groups occupy cis-positions in the resulting octahedral C2S4 donor set. A quite distinct coordination geometry is noted in (II, arising as a result of quite disparate Sn—S bond lengths. Here, the four S-donors define a trapezoidal plane with the ipso-C atoms lying over the weaker of the Sn—S bonds so that the C2S4 donor set defines a skewed trapezoidal bipyramid. The packing of (I features supramolecular layers in the ab plane sustained by methylene-C—H...π(Sn–aryl interactions; these stack along the c-axis direction with no specific interactions between them. In (II, supramolecular chains along the b-axis direction are formed by methylene-C—O(ether interactions; these pack with no directional interactions between them. A Hirshfeld surface analysis was conducted on both (I and (II and revealed the dominance of H...H interactions contributing to the respective surfaces, i.e. >60% in each case, and other features consistent with the description of the molecular packing above.

  13. ICMS Workshop on Differential Geometry and Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Grinfeld, Michael; Knops, R

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the exciting interface between differential geometry and continuum mechanics, now recognised as being of increasing technological significance. Topics discussed include isometric embeddings in differential geometry and the relation with microstructure in nonlinear elasticity, the use of manifolds in the description of microstructure in continuum mechanics, experimental measurement of microstructure, defects, dislocations, surface energies, and nematic liquid crystals. Compensated compactness in partial differential equations is also treated. The volume is intended for specialists and non-specialists in pure and applied geometry, continuum mechanics, theoretical physics, materials and engineering sciences, and partial differential equations. It will also be of interest to postdoctoral scientists and advanced postgraduate research students. These proceedings include revised written versions of the majority of papers presented by leading experts at the ICMS Edinburgh Workshop on Differential G...

  14. Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Complex Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate new geometries of hyperbolic metamaterialssuch as highly corrugated structures, nanoparticle monolayer assemblies, super-structured or vertically arranged multilayersand nanopillars. All structures retain basic propertiesof hyperbolic metamaterials, but have functionality improved...

  15. Instability of supersymmetric microstate geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Eperon, Felicity C; Santos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the classical stability of supersymmetric, asymptotically flat, microstate geometries with five non-compact dimensions. Such geometries admit an "evanescent ergosurface": a timelike hypersurface of infinite redshift. On such a surface, there are null geodesics with zero energy relative to infinity. These geodesics are stably trapped in the potential well near the ergosurface. We present a heuristic argument indicating that this feature is likely to lead to a nonlinear instability of these solutions. We argue that the precursor of such an instability can be seen in the behaviour of linear perturbations: nonlinear stability would require that all linear perturbations decay sufficiently rapidly but the stable trapping implies that some linear perturbation decay very slowly. We study this in detail for the most symmetric microstate geometries. By constructing quasinormal modes of these geometries we show that generic linear perturbations decay slower than any inverse power of time.

  16. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  17. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  18. An introduction to differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Willmore, T J

    2012-01-01

    This text employs vector methods to explore the classical theory of curves and surfaces. Topics include basic theory of tensor algebra, tensor calculus, calculus of differential forms, and elements of Riemannian geometry. 1959 edition.

  19. Instability of supersymmetric microstate geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eperon, Felicity C.; Reall, Harvey S.; Santos, Jorge E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-07

    We investigate the classical stability of supersymmetric, asymptotically flat, microstate geometries with five non-compact dimensions. Such geometries admit an “evanescent ergosurface”: a timelike hypersurface of infinite redshift. On such a surface, there are null geodesics with zero energy relative to infinity. These geodesics are stably trapped in the potential well near the ergosurface. We present a heuristic argument indicating that this feature is likely to lead to a nonlinear instability of these solutions. We argue that the precursor of such an instability can be seen in the behaviour of linear perturbations: nonlinear stability would require that all linear perturbations decay sufficiently rapidly but the stable trapping implies that some linear perturbation decay very slowly. We study this in detail for the most symmetric microstate geometries. By constructing quasinormal modes of these geometries we show that generic linear perturbations decay slower than any inverse power of time.

  20. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  1. Guide to Computational Geometry Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François

    be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction......Optical scanning is rapidly becoming ubiquitous. From industrial laser scanners to medical CT, MR and 3D ultrasound scanners, numerous organizations now have easy access to optical acquisition devices that provide huge volumes of image data. However, the raw geometry data acquired must first......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...

  2. Advances in discrete differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

  3. Paper Interfaces for Learning Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnard, Quentin; Verma, Himanshu; Kaplan, Frédéric; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Paper interfaces offer tremendous possibilities for geometry education in primary schools. Existing computer interfaces designed to learn geometry do not consider the integration of conventional school tools, which form the part of the curriculum. Moreover, most of computer tools are designed specifically for individual learning, some propose group activities, but most disregard classroom-level learning, thus impeding their adoption. We present an augmented reality based tabletop system with ...

  4. Courant Algebroids in Parabolic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    To a smooth manifold $M$, a parabolic geometry associates a principal bundle, which has a parabolic subgroup of a semisimple Lie group as its structure group, and a Cartan connection. We show that the adjoint tractor bundle of a regular normal parabolic geometry can be endowed with the structure of a Courant algebroid. This gives a class of examples of transitive Courant algebroids that are not exact.

  5. Topology and geometry for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Differential geometry and topology are essential tools for many theoretical physicists, particularly in the study of condensed matter physics, gravity, and particle physics. Written by physicists for physics students, this text introduces geometrical and topological methods in theoretical physics and applied mathematics. It assumes no detailed background in topology or geometry, and it emphasizes physical motivations, enabling students to apply the techniques to their physics formulas and research. ""Thoroughly recommended"" by The Physics Bulletin, this volume's physics applications range fr

  6. Higgs mass in noncommutative geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devastato, A.; Martinetti, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Lizzi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Departament de Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti y Franques, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-09-11

    In the noncommutative geometry approach to the standard model, an extra scalar field σ - initially suggested by particle physicist to stabilize the electroweak vacuum - makes the computation of the Higgs mass compatible with the 126 GeV experimental value. We give a brief account on how to generate this field from the Majorana mass of the neutrino, following the principles of noncommutative geometry. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Evaluation of buccolingual inclination of posterior teeth in different facial patterns using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomo Mitra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Buccolingual inclination of teeth is an essential factor in establishing good occlusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the buccolingual inclination of molar teeth in different vertical skeletal patterns by using computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: Coronal section of the jaws obtained from computed tomograms were used to measure the buccolingual inclination of the long axis of the molars relative to their skeletal base. Forty male adult individuals with class I dental occlusion were selected. They were classified as short (Group 1, average (Group II, and long faced (Group III as per their skeletal patterns measured by GoGn-SN, FH-MP, Y-axis and facial height index in cephalograms. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were applied to calculate if there were any significant differences in the mean molar inclination between the groups. Pearson′s coefficients of correlation were calculated between the facial parameters and tooth inclination. Results: The differences in the mean molar inclination between the short, average, and long faced groups is significant for mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars and maxillary 2 nd molars. Conclusion: Variations in mean molar inclination values are observed between short, average, and long faced groups.

  8. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  9. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray{sup TM} (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 {+-} 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 {+-} 4.7 .deg. C (p<0.05, r=0.96) at the 1st molar area and 76.4 {+-} 1.7 .deg. C and 82.7 {+-} 1.7 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 {+-} 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 {+-} 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 {+-} 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 {+-} 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  10. Sagittal osteotomy inclination in medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lim, Hong-Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jae Gyoon; Yun, Se-Hyeok; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Yoon, Jung-Ro

    2017-03-01

    Unlike postoperative changes in posterior tibial slope after medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy, sagittal osteotomy inclination has not been examined. It has been recommended that the osteotomy line in the sagittal plane be parallel to the medial posterior tibial slope. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of parallel osteotomy in medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. To determine the sagittal osteotomy inclination, the angle between the medial joint line and the osteotomy line was measured in the lateral radiograph. A positive angle value indicates that the osteotomy is anteriorly inclined relative to the medial posterior tibial slope. Correlation between the sagittal osteotomy inclination and posterior tibial slope was also evaluated. The mean sagittal osteotomy inclination was 15.1 ± 7.5°. The majority 87.1 % of knees showed an anterior-inclined osteotomy. There was a significantly positive correlation between the postoperative posterior tibial slope and the sagittal osteotomy inclination (r, 0.33; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.46; P osteotomy inclination (r, 0.35; 95 % CI 0.21-0.47; P osteotomy in the sagittal plane relative to the medial joint line was planned, only 12.9 % of cases achieved osteotomy parallel to the medial posterior tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Because of high rate of the anterior-inclined osteotomy and their correlations with posterior tibial slope, surgeons should make all efforts to perform parallel osteotomy relative to medial posterior tibial slope. IV.

  11. Reidar Løvlie and Plate Tectonic consequences of sedimentary inclination shallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsvik, Trond H.

    2014-05-01

    Reidar Løvlie was my mentor and supervisor in the early 1980s and he thought me all about laboratory experiments and palaeomagnetic methods, but also various aspects of science philosophy. My first fieldworks were together with him and I enjoyed memorable trips to the Bear Island, Spitsbergen and Scotland. Acquisition of magnetism in sediments was always a favourite topic of Reidar and in the early 1980s he was particularly interested in sedimentary inclination shallowing. From one of our fieldtrips to Spitsbergen we sampled unconsolidated flood-plain deposits of hematite-bearing Devonian red sand/siltstone from Dicksonfjorden. These were used for redeposition experiments in a coil system that could simulate different latitudes (field inclinations) and in 1994 we published a paper entitled"Magnetic remanence and fabric properties of laboratory-deposited hematite-bearing red sandstone" that demonstrated the tangent relationship between inclinations of detrital remanent magnetization and the ambient magnetic field. Inclination (I) error in sediments is latitude dependent, antisymmetric and the bias closely mimics errors produced by octupole fields of the same sign as the dipole field. Inclination shallowing is commonly predicted from tan (Observed Inclination) = f * tan (Field Inclination) where f is the degree of inclination error. In our study we calculated a f value of 0.4 and this laboratory value (and many others) is significant lower than those estimated from the E/I or the magnetic fabric methods developed in the past decade (f typically around 0.6). There is now little doubt that inclination shallowing in detrital sediments is a serious problem that affects plate reconstructions and apparent polar wander paths. As an example, a f value of 0.6 amounts to a latitude error of 1600 km at around 50 degrees N or S (comparable to the effects of octupole contributions as high as 22%) and this have led to erroneous Pangea reconstructions.

  12. Height Compensation Using Ground Inclination Estimation in Inertial Sensor-Based Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyeong Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In an inertial sensor-based pedestrian navigation system, the position is estimated by double integrating external acceleration. A new algorithm is proposed to reduce z axis position (height error. When a foot is on the ground, a foot angle is estimated using accelerometer output. Using a foot angle, the inclination angle of a road is estimated. Using this road inclination angle, height difference of one walking step is estimated and this estimation is used to reduce height error. Through walking experiments on roads with different inclination angles, the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified.

  13. An Analysis on Groundwater Recharge by Mathematical Model in Inclined Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shreekant P; Singh, Twinkle

    2014-01-01

    The present paper discusses the analysis of solution of groundwater flow in inclined porous media. The problem related to groundwater flow in inclined aquifers is usually common in geotechnical and hydrogeology engineering activities. The governing partial differential equation of one-dimensional groundwater recharge problem has been formed by Dupuit's assumption. Three cases have been discussed with suitable boundary conditions and different slopes of impervious incline boundary. The numerical as well as graphical interpretation has been given and its coding is done in MATLAB.

  14. Holomorphic Cartan geometries and rational curves

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Indranil

    2010-01-01

    We prove that any compact K\\"ahler manifold bearing a holomorphic Cartan geometry contains a rational curve just when the Cartan geometry is inherited from a holomorphic Cartan geometry on a lower dimensional compact K\\"ahler manifold.

  15. Imaging photonic crystals using Fourier plane imaging and Fourier ptychographic microscopy techniques implemented with a computer controlled hemispherical digital condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sanchari; Desai, Darshan B.; Alsubaie, Meznh H.; Zhelyeznyakov, Maksym V.; Molina, L.; Sarraf, Hamed Sari; Bernussi, Ayrton A.; Peralta, Luis Grave de

    2017-01-01

    Fourier plane imaging (FPIM) and Fourier ptychographic (FPM) microscopy techniques were used to image photonic crystals. A computer-controlled hemispherical digital condenser provided required sample illumination with variable inclination. Notable improvement in image resolution was obtained with both methods. However, it was determined that the FPM technique cannot surpass the Rayleigh resolution limit when imaging photonic crystals.

  16. The impact of galaxy geometry and mass evolution on the survival of star clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Martig, Marie [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Direct N-body simulations of globular clusters in a realistic Milky-Way-like potential are carried out using the code NBODY6 to determine the impact of the host galaxy disk mass and geometry on the survival of star clusters. A relation between disk mass and star-cluster dissolution timescale is derived. These N-body models show that doubling the mass of the disk from 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} to 10 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} halves the dissolution time of a satellite star cluster orbiting the host galaxy at 6 kpc from the galactic center. Different geometries in a disk of identical mass can determine either the survival or dissolution of a star cluster orbiting within the inner 6 kpc of the galactic center. Furthermore, disk geometry has measurable effects on the mass loss of star clusters up to 15 kpc from the galactic center. N-body simulations performed with a fine output time step show that at each disk crossing the outer layers of star clusters experiences an increase in velocity dispersion of ∼5% of the average velocity dispersion in the outer section of star clusters. This leads to an enhancement of mass loss—a clearly discernable effect of disk shocking. By running models with different inclinations, we determine that star clusters with an orbit that is perpendicular to the Galactic plane have larger mass loss rates than do clusters that evolve in the Galactic plane or in an inclined orbit.

  17. Simulation of Flow Pattern around Inclined Bridge Group Pier using FLOW-3D Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihesadat Jafari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bridges are certainly one of the most important structures but costly service elements in a transport system. The bridges are very required to access the damaged areas in emergency situations such as floods and earthquakes. Scour around the foundations of bridge piers exposed to the flowing water than can destroy the bridge itself is a subject of major concern. Flow pattern is known as responsible for all changes in stream bed. Any obstacle in the channel can form new flow patterns causing additional shear stress exerted on the bed than the equilibrium condition of the absence of the obstacle. Appropriate shaping of flow pattern and proper selecting of pier geometry and the location of bridge piers can be one of the proper methods in reduction of scour amount which is the main subject of the present study. Materials and Methods: Inclined bridge group pier is a type of bridges with modern geometry based on development in building technology of structures. Many of these bridges have been built all around the world and the 8th bridge built crossing the Karun River in Ahvaz is a sample of the Iranian ones considered in this research. Hydrodynamic behavior of flow is investigated around the inclined bridge group pier settled on foundation using the FLOW-3D numerical model. Inclined bridge group pier investigated in this study, includes two rectangular piers which are 2.5 cm long and 3.5 cm wide and set in an angle of 28 degree on rectangular foundation which is 16 cm long and 10 cm wide and installed in three different foundation levels namely at, above and below the bed levels. The physical model of prototype pier considered in this study was constructed to the scale of 1:190 of the Ahvaz 8th bridge. In order to verify the accuracy of the numerical model, velocity data obtained from image processing technique were used. Results and Discussion: Due to non- linearity and interactions between various phenomena involved, flow pattern

  18. Incorporating electrokinetic effects in the porochemoelastic inclined wellbore formulation and solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh X. Nguyen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The porochemoelectroelastic analytical models and solutions have been used to describe the response of chemically active and electrically charged saturated porous media such as clays, shales, and biological tissues. However, these attempts have been restricted to one-dimensional consolidation problems, which are very limited in practice and not general enough to serve as benchmark solutions for numerical validation. This work summarizes the general linear porochemoelectroelastic formulation and presents the solution of an inclined wellbore drilled in a fluid-saturated chemically active and ionized formation, such as shale, and subjected to a three-dimensional in-situ state of stress. The analytical solution to this geometry incorporates the coupled solid deformation and simultaneous fluid/ion flows induced by the combined influences of pore pressure, chemical potential, and electrical potential gradients under isothermal conditions. The formation pore fluid is modeled as an electrolyte solution comprised of a solvent and one type of dissolved cation and anion. The analytical approach also integrates into the solution the quantitative use of the cation exchange capacity (CEC commonly obtained from laboratory measurements on shale samples. The results for stresses and pore pressure distributions due to the coupled electrochemical effects are illustrated and plotted in the vicinity of the inclined wellbore and compared with the classical porochemoelastic and poroelastic solutions.Modelos analíticos poroelásticos incluindo acoplamento químico e elétrico e soluções têm sido utilizados paradescrever a resposta de meios porosos saturados ativos química e eletricamente tais como argilas, folhelhos e tecidos biológicos. Entretanto tais tentativas têm sido restritas a problemas de consolidação unidimensional os quais exibem limitações na prática não constituindo exemplos realistas para validação de soluções numéricas. Este trabalho

  19. A theory of static friction between homogeneous surfaces based on compressible elastic smooth microscopic inclines

    CERN Document Server

    Thun, Freeman Chee Siong; Chan, Kin Sung

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of static friction by modeling the homogeneous surfaces of contact as being composed of a regular array of compressible elastic smooth microscopic inclines. Static friction is thought of as the resistance due to having to push the load over these smooth microscopic inclines that share a common inclination angle. As the normal force between the surfaces increases, the microscopic inclines would be compressed elastically. Consequently, the coefficient of static friction does not remain constant but becomes smaller for a larger normal force, since the load would then only need to be pushed over smaller angles. However, a larger normal force would also increase the effective compressed area between the surfaces, as such the pressure is distributed over this larger effective compressed area. The relationship between the normal force and the common angle is therefore non-linear. Overall, static friction is shown to depend on the normal force, apparent contact area, Young's modulus, and the compr...

  20. Radio emission of highly inclined cosmic ray air showers measured with LOPES

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovic, Jelena; Asch, T; Badea, F; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blumer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Bruggemann, M; Buchholz, P; Buitink, S; Butcher, H; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K H; Kolotaev, Yu; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Lafebre, S; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Meurer, C; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Nehls, S; Nigl, A; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Sima, O; Singh, K; Stumpert, M; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Van Buren, J; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A; Zimmermann, D

    2006-01-01

    LOPES-10 (the first phase of LOPES, consisting of 10 antennas) detected a significant number of cosmic ray air showers with a zenith angle larger than 50$^{\\circ}$, and many of these have very high radio field strengths. The most inclined event that has been detected with LOPES-10 has a zenith angle of almost 80$^{\\circ}$. This is proof that the new technique is also applicable for cosmic ray air showers with high inclinations, which in the case that they are initiated close to the ground, can be a signature of neutrino events.Our results indicate that arrays of simple radio antennas can be used for the detection of highly inclined air showers, which might be triggered by neutrinos. In addition, we found that the radio pulse height (normalized with the muon number) for highly inclined events increases with the geomagnetic angle, which confirms the geomagnetic origin of radio emission in cosmic ray air showers.

  1. Detection method of inclination angle in image measurement based on improved triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jiye

    2015-02-01

    Image distortion seriously affects the accuracy in microscope image measurement. One source of such distortion is related to the tilting of the microscope stage during laser scanning, thereby resulting in various degrees of inclination angles. This paper describes a novel technique that improves the traditional laser triangulation method by using multiple parallel laser beams that can solve the inclination problem. Moreover, a multi-light-spot measurement device, based on the improved laser triangulation technique, is proposed that can accurately detect the degree and directions of the inclination angles in real time. Furthermore, experimental results generated from a prototype of this device show that the new measurement system can effectively detect small inclination angles at a precision up to ±0.5  μrad.

  2. Magnetic Field - Inclination Component for the Epoch 2010.0 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows isoclinic lines (lines of constant inclination of the Earth's magnetic field), derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF)...

  3. Magnetic Field - Secular Variation of the Inclination Component for the Epoch 2010.0 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows lines of equal annual change (secular variation) in the inclination of the Earth's magnetic field, derived from the International Geomagnetic...

  4. Effect of VDT keyboard height and inclination on musculoskeletal discomfort for wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of keyboard height and inclination on musculoskeletal discomfort for wheelchair users. Eight Taiwanese male wheelchair users (28.75 +/- 8.75 years) were recruited as participants to perform nine experimental combinations of data entry tasks. Three keyboard heights and three inclinations were evaluated. Musculoskeletal discomfort was estimated by Rating of Perceived Exertion and Subjective Preference Ranking. Each subject performed a data entry task for all nine experimental combinations in a random order. The seated posture of all participants during the data entry operation was the upright posture. The height of the screen's center was adjusted according to the eye level of each subject. Analysis showed the keyboard height and keyboard inclination significantly affected rating of musculoskeletal discomfort. It is suggested that the optimum keyboard height choice is elbow-level height or 5 cm below elbow level with the keyboard inclination horizontal to the seat of the wheelchair.

  5. The role of a posteriorly inclined condylar neck in condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S J; Haers, P E; Sailer, H F

    2000-04-01

    Recently, it has been reported that a posteriorly inclined condylar neck is associated with condylar resorption following orthognathic surgery, although its role in resorption remains unknown. By cephalometric screening of 240 patients with Angle Class II occlusion 2 years after orthognathic surgery, 11 patients with postoperative condylar resorption were identified. The preoperative posterior inclination of the condylar neck and the surgical risk factors mentioned in the literature, particularly surgically induced counterclockwise rotation of the mandibular proximal segment were evaluated. In all 11 cases, the condylar neck was clearly inclined posteriorly. Counterclockwise rotation of the proximal segment was also observed in all cases, and it amounted to 6.7 degrees (2.5-12 degrees) on average. The contributing role of a posteriorly inclined condylar neck in connection with surgical mandibular movement in postoperative condylar resorption is discussed.

  6. Growth of inclined fatigue cracks using the biaxial CJP model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Laboviciute

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The CJP model of crack tip stresses is a modified version of the Williams crack tip stress field which takes account of simplified stress distributions that arise from the presence of a zone of plastic deformation associated with the crack flanks and crack tip, and that act on the elastic field responsible for driving crack growth. The elastic stress field responsible for crack growth is therefore controlled by the applied loading and by the induced boundary stresses at the interface with the plastic zone. This meso-scale model of crack tip stresses leads to a modified set of crack tip stress intensity factors that include the resultant influence of plastic wake-induced crack tip shielding, and which therefore have the potential to help resolve some longstanding controversies associated with plasticity-induced closure. A full-field approach has now been developed for stress using photoelasticity and also for displacement using digital image correlation. This paper considers the characterisation of crack growth rate data with the biaxial CJP model, using compact tension specimens that contain inclined cracks at the notch tip with initial angles of 30°, 45° and 60° to the horizontal axis. Significant experimental difficulties are experienced in growing cracks in a biaxial field under uniaxial tensile loading, as the natural tendency of the crack is to turn so that it becomes perpendicular to the maximum principal stress direction. However, crack angle is not an issue in the CJP model which calculates the stress field parallel with, and perpendicular to, the crack plane. These stress components can be rotated into directions comparable with the usual KI and KII directions and used to calculate stress intensity parameters that should be directly comparable with the standard stress intensity formulations. Another difficulty arises, however, in finding published expressions for KI and KII for CT specimens with curved or kinked cracks. The CJP model

  7. Crystal packing effects on protein loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Chaya S; Pollack, Rena M

    2005-07-01

    The effects of crystal packing on protein loop structures are examined by (1) a comparison of loops in proteins that have been crystallized in alternate packing arrangements, and (2) theoretical prediction of loops both with and without the inclusion of the crystal environment. Results show that in a minority of cases, loop geometries are dependent on crystal packing effects. Explicit representation of the crystal environment in a loop prediction algorithm can be used to model these effects and to reconstruct the structures, and relative energies, of a loop in alternative packing environments. By comparing prediction results with and without the inclusion of the crystal environment, the loop prediction algorithm can further be used to identify cases in which a crystal structure does not represent the most stable state of a loop in solution. We anticipate that this capability has implications for structural biology.

  8. Experimental Assessment of the Two-Phase Flow in a Large Inclined Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Song, Ki Won; Revankar, Shripad T; Park, Hyun Sun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In order to assess the cooling performance of the core catcher system, a model facility has been constructed in POSTECH using scaling analysis. This facility consists of horizontal, inclined and vertical section. To investigate the flow parameters in each section, the instrumentation is developed to measure two-phase characteristics such as local void fraction, bubble velocity and bubble size. To date, there has been a considerable amount of research conducted on the internal structure of two-phase flow in pipe. However, the number of attempts made on the experiment regarding large inclined channels has been still limited. One of the reasons for this lack of data is the difficulty in constructing experimental facility. In this paper, the parameters of the flow in the inclined section are presented. The inclined channel is 10 degree from the horizontal with the rectangular cross section of 300 cm{sup 2}. The distributions of local parameters are evaluated through the data of double sensor conductivity probes installed at different locations along the inclined section. The data sets of the structure of two-phase flow in an inclined large channel was acquired. The air was injected through the metal foam installed on the top surface wall of the inclined section. Water level was kept below the top of the inclined section so the amount of water was fixed during the experiment. 9 probes set up at the different locations to get the data of local two-phase parameters. The measurement at each location was conducted in 5 minutes to determine the mean value of each parameter. The result of local void fraction profiles at different locations indicates that the void distribution primarily changes along the height of the inclined section. The slug flow occurs in the channel which results in most bubbles attached to the top surface wall. This fact explains the high local void fraction near the top wall and its rapid decline towards the bottom wall of the inclined section. The

  9. Highly inclined and eccentric massive planets. II. Planet-planet interactions during the disc phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadis, Sotiris; Libert, Anne-Sophie; Bitsch, Bertram; Crida, Aurélien

    2017-02-01

    Context. Observational evidence indicates that the orbits of extrasolar planets are more various than the circular and coplanar ones of the solar system. Planet-planet interactions during migration in the protoplanetary disc have been invoked to explain the formation of these eccentric and inclined orbits. However, our companion paper (Paper I) on the planet-disc interactions of highly inclined and eccentric massive planets has shown that the damping induced by the disc is significant for a massive planet, leading the planet back to the midplane with its eccentricity possibly increasing over time. Aims: We aim to investigate the influence of the eccentricity and inclination damping due to planet-disc interactions on the final configurations of the systems, generalizing previous studies on the combined action of the gas disc and planet-planet scattering during the disc phase. Methods: Instead of the simplistic K-prescription, our N-body simulations adopt the damping formulae for eccentricity and inclination provided by the hydrodynamical simulations of our companion paper. We follow the orbital evolution of 11 000 numerical experiments of three giant planets in the late stage of the gas disc, exploring different initial configurations, planetary mass ratios and disc masses. Results: The dynamical evolutions of the planetary systems are studied along the simulations, with a particular emphasis on the resonance captures and inclination-growth mechanisms. Most of the systems are found with small inclinations (≤ 10°) at the dispersal of the disc. Even though many systems enter an inclination-type resonance during the migration, the disc usually damps the inclinations on a short timescale. Although the majority of the multiple systems in our simulations are quasi-coplanar, 5% of them end up with high mutual inclinations (≥ 10°). Half of these highly mutually inclined systems result from two- or three-body mean-motion resonance captures, the other half being

  10. Relativistic and the first sectorial harmonics corrections in the critical inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoma, W. A.; Khattab, E. H.; Abd El-Salam, F. A.

    2014-05-01

    The problem of the critical inclination is treated in the Hamiltonian framework taking into consideration post-Newtonian corrections as well as the main correction term of sectorial harmonics for an earth-like planet. The Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of Delaunay canonical variables. A canonical transformation is applied to eliminate short period terms. A modified critical inclination is obtained due to relativistic and the first sectorial harmonics corrections.

  11. Evaluation of an in-clinic assay for the diagnosis of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, N; Desario, C; Billi, M; Lorusso, E; Colaianni, M L; Colao, V; Elia, G; Ventrella, G; Kusi, I; Bo, S; Buonavoglia, C

    2013-11-01

    The results of a study designed to evaluate the performance of an in-clinic test for the detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) are reported. A total of 150 faecal samples collected from dogs with acute diarrhoea were tested using the in-clinic test, a haemagglutination assay (HA) and a real-time PCR assay for CPV detection, quantification and characterisation. CPV was detected in 66, 73, and 101 faecal samples by in-clinic, HA and PCR testing, respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the in-clinic test were 86.3% and 96.1%, respectively, when the test was compared to HA, and 65.3% and 100%, respectively, when compared to real-time PCR. The sample distribution according to the virus type was CPV-2a, n=44; CPV-2b, n=11; CPV-2c, n=44, CPV-2, n=2, as determined by minor groove binder probe assays and/or sequence analysis. The percentage of positive in-clinic tests was 70.5% for CPV-2a, 72.7% for CPV-2b and 75.0% for CPV-2c (P>0.05). Using real-time PCR as the reference standard for CPV detection, the in-clinic test was more specific than HA and had comparable sensitivity to HA, demonstrating detection rates similar to those previously observed for other rapid in-clinic tests. The in-clinic test was also able to detect all CPV types at equivalent rates.

  12. Pattern Formation in a Vibrated Granular Layer on an Inclined Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Dong; MIAO Guo-Qing

    2008-01-01

    We carry out the simulations of pattern formation in a two-dimensional vibrated granular layer on an inclined base by molecular dynamics.It is found that the maximum amplitude of the pattern is greater at the lower part than at the higher part of the base,and is proportional to the thickness of the layer.Meanwhile,the wavelength varies non-monotonically as the inclined angle of the base is increased.

  13. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  14. General Construction of Tubular Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of locally describing tubular geometry around a submanifold embedded in a (pseudo)Riemannian manifold in its general form. Given the geometry of ambient space in an arbitrary coordinate system and equations determining the submanifold in the same system, we compute the tubular expansion coefficients in terms of this {\\it a priori data}. This is done by using an indirect method that crucially applies the tubular expansion theorem for vielbein previously derived. With an explicit construction involving the relevant coordinate and non-coordinate frames we verify consistency of the whole method up to quadratic order in vielbein expansion. Furthermore, we perform certain (long and tedious) higher order computation which verifies the first non-trivial spin connection term in the expansion for the first time. Earlier a similar method was used to compute tubular geometry in loop space. We explain this work in the light of our general construction.

  15. Quantum geometry and gravitational entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Czech, Bart Iomiej; Larjo, Klaus; Marolf, Donald; Simon, Joan

    2007-05-29

    Most quantum states have wavefunctions that are widely spread over the accessible Hilbert space and hence do not have a good description in terms of a single classical geometry. In order to understand when geometric descriptions are possible, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence in the half-BPS sector of asymptotically AdS_5 x S5 universes. In this sector we devise a"coarse-grained metric operator" whose eigenstates are well described by a single spacetime topology and geometry. We show that such half-BPS universes have a non-vanishing entropy if and only if the metric is singular, and that the entropy arises from coarse-graining the geometry. Finally, we use our entropy formula to find the most entropic spacetimes with fixed asymptotic moments beyond the global charges.

  16. Conventionalism and integrable Weyl geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheu, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Since the appearance of Einstein's general relativity, gravitation has been associated to the space-time curvature. This theory introduced a geometrodynamic language which became a convenient tool to predict matter behaviour. However, the properties of space-time itself cannot be measurable by experiments. Taking Poincaré idea that the geometry of space-time is merely a convention, we show that the general theory of relativity can be completely reformulated in a more general setting, a generalization of Riemannian geometry, namely, the Weyl integrable geometry. The choice of this new mathematical language implies, among other things, that the path of particles and light rays should now correspond to Weylian geodesies. Such modification in the dynamic of bodies brings a new perception of physical phenomena that we will explore.

  17. Wave propagation on microstate geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Keir, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetric microstate geometries were recently conjectured to be nonlinearly unstable due to numerical and heuristic evidence, based on the existence of very slowly decaying solutions to the linear wave equation on these backgrounds. In this paper, we give a thorough mathematical treatment of the linear wave equation on both two and three charge supersymmetric microstate geometries, finding a number of surprising results. In both cases we prove that solutions to the wave equation have uniformly bounded local energy, despite the fact that three charge microstates possess an ergoregion; these geometries therefore avoid Friedman's "ergosphere instability". In fact, in the three charge case we are able to construct solutions to the wave equation with local energy that neither grows nor decays, although this data must have nontrivial dependence on the Kaluza-Klein coordinate. In the two charge case we construct quasimodes and use these to bound the uniform decay rate, showing that the only possible uniform dec...

  18. Euclidean geometry and its subgeometries

    CERN Document Server

    Specht, Edward John; Calkins, Keith G; Rhoads, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present a modern development of Euclidean geometry from independent axioms, using up-to-date language and providing detailed proofs. The axioms for incidence, betweenness, and plane separation are close to those of Hilbert. This is the only axiomatic treatment of Euclidean geometry that uses axioms not involving metric notions and that explores congruence and isometries by means of reflection mappings. The authors present thirteen axioms in sequence, proving as many theorems as possible at each stage and, in the process, building up subgeometries, most notably the Pasch and neutral geometries. Standard topics such as the congruence theorems for triangles, embedding the real numbers in a line, and coordinatization of the plane are included, as well as theorems of Pythagoras, Desargues, Pappas, Menelaus, and Ceva. The final chapter covers consistency and independence of axioms, as well as independence of definition properties. There are over 300 exercises; solutions to many of the...

  19. Geometry of black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Lars; Blue, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    These notes, based on lectures given at the summer school on Asymptotic Analysis in General Relativity, collect material on the Einstein equations, the geometry of black hole spacetimes, and the analysis of fields on black hole backgrounds. The Kerr model of a rotating black hole in vacuum is expected to be unique and stable. The problem of proving these fundamental facts provides the background for the material presented in these notes. Among the many topics which are relevant for the uniqueness and stability problems are the theory of fields on black hole spacetimes, in particular for gravitational perturbations of the Kerr black hole, and more generally, the study of nonlinear field equations in the presence of trapping. The study of these questions requires tools from several different fields, including Lorentzian geometry, hyperbolic differential equations and spin geometry, which are all relevant to the black hole stability problem.

  20. Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Borovikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry