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Sample records for incipient wetness impregnation

  1. Differences and commonalities impregnation of dry and wet sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maujuda МUZAFFAROVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research new methods of physic-chemical methods of preventing deflation to protect railways and highways from such phenomena as exogenous sand drifts. In particular, first studied the possibility of using binders in sand wet state. Results can significantly extend the scope of the method, and identified with particular impregnation maintaining stability requirements protective cover reduces both the concentration previously recommended binders, and their costs, thereby securing implementation in practice of shifting sands resource-saving technology.

  2. Field emission characteristics of SnO2/CNT composite prepared by microwave assisted wet impregnation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SnO2/CNT composites were prepared by microwave assisted wet impregnation at 60 °C. The process was optimized by varying the microwave power and reaction time. Raman analysis showed the typical features of the rutile phase of as-synthesized SnO2...

  3. A Binder Viscosity Effect on the Wet-Wounded Composite Porosity in the Impregnating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Komkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to define experimentally an impregnation rate of VM-1 glass fibers and CBM aramid bundles with the epoxy binder EDB-10 using wet method of winding. During the impregnation process of the fibrous fillers by the liquid binder, air is displaced from the interfiber space of fiber and bundle. With the composite product winding a fiber impregnation process is short. That is why gas inclusions or pores are formed in the polymer-fiber compositeThe impregnation rate or porosity of wound material will depend directly on the binder viscosity. To reduce an epoxy binder viscosity temporarily is possible by two ways. The first is to heat a liquid epoxy composition EDB-10 to the maximum possible temperature during the winding process of the product. The second method is to dilute the binder by a solvent, such as acetone or alcohol. However, the solvent reduces its strength.The paper presents experimental data to show the volumetric content of pores in the wound composite affected only by the viscosity of the epoxy binder. Heating a binder allowed us to regulate a changing conditional viscosity of the binder in the impregnating bath for the normal conditions of impregnation. Other impacts on the impregnation and filament-winding processes, such as filler kinks, squeeze, vacuuming binder, highly tensioned winding, and others were not used.Experimentally obtained dependences of the porosity value of wound composite on the conditional viscosity of binder are nonlinear and can be used to design heaters for impregnating devices of winders. The research technique and results can be used in development of technological processes to manufacture composite structures by winding from the other reinforcing fibrous fillers and thermo-active binders.The results show that the volumetric content of pores can significantly vary within 8 - 14 % of material volume. Therefore, to reduce the number of pores in the wound composite to 1-2 %, auxiliary

  4. Conventional wet impregnation versus microwave-assisted synthesis of SnO2/CNT composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motshekga, S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available to the one prepared by conventional procedure due to homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles. Keywords: Wet impregnation?Microwave synthesis?SnO2 nanoparticles?CNTs? Nanomaterials http://www.springerlink.com/content/7830n2261823l1tm/ ... stream_source_info Motshekga_2011_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1266 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Motshekga_2011_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1...

  5. Leaching and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles loaded onto natural zeolite clinoptilolite by ion exchange and wet impregnation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Missengue, RNM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the leaching and antimicrobial properties of silver that was loaded onto the natural zeolite clinoptilolite by ion exchange and wet impregnation. Silver ions were reduced using sodium borohydride (NaBH(sub4...

  6. Magnetic behavior of iron-modified MCM-41 correlated with clustering processes from the wet impregnation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Natalia I.; Elías, Verónica R. [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina); Winkler, Elin [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica – CONICET, Avenue Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Pozo-López, Gabriela; Oliva, Marcos I. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba – IFEG, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Eimer, Griselda A., E-mail: geimer@frc.utn.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina)

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic MCM-41 type mesoporous silica materials were synthetized and modified with different iron loadings by the wet impregnation method. The evolution of iron speciation, depending on the metal loading and associated with a particular magnetic behavior was investigated by M vs. H curves, FC–ZFC curves, EPR spectroscopy and other complementary techniques such as SEM, TEM, and chemisorption of pyridine followed by FT-IR studies. A superparamagnetic contribution was larger for the lower loadings suggesting the high dispersion of very small sized iron nanospecies. However, this contribution decreased with increasing metal loading due to the growth of magnetically blocked nanoparticles (hematite) on the outer surface. Finally, a bimodal size distribution for the superparamagnetic nanospecies could be inferred; then the anisotropy constant for this phase and the corresponding nanospecies sizes were estimated. - Highlights: • All samples showed a main superparamagnetic contribution. • The oxide particles grow at expense of superparamagnetic nanospecies. • Bimodal distribution of nanospecies in superparamagnetic regime was determined. • The anisotropy constant for superparamagnetic nanospecies was calculated.

  7. Wet impregnation of silver oxide on Lampung natural zeolite as an adsorbent to produce oxygen-enriched air using PSA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianty Adenia Gita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High purity oxygen can be used for various things. Oxygen purification method to be applied on this research is the Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA technique. The adsorbent that would be used is a natural zeolite, namely ZAL (Zeolite Alam Lampung. Natural zeolite has non-polar properties, so it will adsorb gas with high quadruple moment, which is nitrogen. The varied variable is the size of adsorbent and the concentration of H2SO4. The sizes are 18-35 mesh, 35-60 mesh, and 60-100 mesh. While the H2SO4 concentration are 1M, 2M and 3M. Size of ZAL, and the concentration of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 were varied to get the optimum value. The adsorbent will be activated in aqua demine, H2SO4, NaOH, and through a calcination process. The purpose of this pre-treatment was to remove the impurities and to increase the specific surface area of zeolite. Moreover, ZAL will also be modified by wet impregnation technique using AgNO3 solution with 1%-wt loading nominal. The morphology, composition, and crystal phase were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The result of the adsorption process was analyzed by using GC (Gas Chromatograph. ZAL 35-60 mesh 1M showed the best performance on adsorbing nitrogen, with its lowest peak at 60356 μV. The result of this research suggested that ZAL itself has the main role on adsorbing nitrogen, while AgxO did not give any significant effect

  8. Activity of Cu-activated carbon fiber catalyst in wet oxidation of ammonia solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang-Mao

    2009-07-30

    Aqueous solutions of 200-1000 mg/L of ammonia were oxidized in a trickle-bed reactor using Cu-activated carbon fiber (ACF) catalysts, which were prepared by incipient wet impregnation with aqueous solutions of copper nitrate that was deposited on ACF substrates. The results reveal that the conversion of ammonia by wet oxidation in the presence of Cu-ACF catalysts was a function of the metal loading weight ratio of the catalyst. The total conversion efficiency of ammonia was 95% during wet oxidation over the catalyst at 463 K at an oxygen partial pressure of 3.0 MPa. Moreover, the effect of the initial concentration of ammonia and the reaction temperature on the removal of ammonia from the effluent streams was also studied at a liquid space velocity of less than 3.0 h(-1).

  9. Activity of Cu-activated carbon fiber catalyst in wet oxidation of ammonia solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chang-Mao, E-mail: hungcm1031@gmail.com [Department of Industry Engineering and Management, Yung-Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce, 316 Chung-shan Road, Linlo, Pingtung 909, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-30

    Aqueous solutions of 200-1000 mg/L of ammonia were oxidized in a trickle-bed reactor using Cu-activated carbon fiber (ACF) catalysts, which were prepared by incipient wet impregnation with aqueous solutions of copper nitrate that was deposited on ACF substrates. The results reveal that the conversion of ammonia by wet oxidation in the presence of Cu-ACF catalysts was a function of the metal loading weight ratio of the catalyst. The total conversion efficiency of ammonia was 95% during wet oxidation over the catalyst at 463 K at an oxygen partial pressure of 3.0 MPa. Moreover, the effect of the initial concentration of ammonia and the reaction temperature on the removal of ammonia from the effluent streams was also studied at a liquid space velocity of less than 3.0 h{sup -1}.

  10. Activity of Cu-activated carbon fiber catalyst in wet oxidation of ammonia solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chang-Mao

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of 200-1000 mg/L of ammonia were oxidized in a trickle-bed reactor using Cu-activated carbon fiber (ACF) catalysts, which were prepared by incipient wet impregnation with aqueous solutions of copper nitrate that was deposited on ACF substrates. The results reveal that the conversion of ammonia by wet oxidation in the presence of Cu-ACF catalysts was a function of the metal loading weight ratio of the catalyst. The total conversion efficiency of ammonia was 95% during wet oxidation over the catalyst at 463 K at an oxygen partial pressure of 3.0 MPa. Moreover, the effect of the initial concentration of ammonia and the reaction temperature on the removal of ammonia from the effluent streams was also studied at a liquid space velocity of less than 3.0 h -1 .

  11. Impregnation transition in a powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raux, Pascal; Cockenpot, Heloise; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    When an initially dry pile of micrometrical grains comes into contact with a liquid, one can observe different behaviors, function of the wetting properties. If the contact angle with the solid is low, the liquid will invade the pile (impregnation), while for higher contact angles, the grains will stay dry. We present an experimental study of this phenomenon: a dry pile of glass beads is deposed on the liquid surface, and we vary the contact angle of the liquid on the grains. We report a critical contact angle below which impregnation always occurs, and develop a model to explain its value. Different parameters modifying this critical contact angle are also investigated. Collaboration with Marco Ramaioli, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.

  12. Structural Modification of Cobalt Catalysts: Effect of Wetting Studied by X-Ray and Infrared Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodakov A.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wetting on the structure and localisation of cobalt species on various supports (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, HZSM-5 zeolite was studied using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with CO as a molecular probe, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. Aqueous impregnation to incipient wetness of reduced and passivated cobalt catalysts results, even in the absence of any promoter, in a considerable decrease in the concentration of Co crystalline phases and modifies the surface sites. The decrease in the concentration of Co3O4 crystallites was especially pronounced on silica supported catalysts prepared via impregnation of cobalt and on a mixture of Co3O4 and HZSM-5 zeolite. Saturation with water of the passivated Co/SiO2 sample results in an amorphous solid with a local structure close to that of Co2SiO4. For Co/Al2O3 and Co/TiO2 catalysts, the effect of wetting on the concentration of Co3O4 crystalline phase was considerably smaller.

  13. Catalytic wet air oxidation of chlorophenols over supported ruthenium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ning; Descorme, Claude; Besson, Michele

    2007-01-01

    A series of noble metal (Pt, Pd, Ru) loaded zirconia catalysts were evaluated in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of mono-chlorophenols (2-CP, 3-CP, 4-CP) under relatively mild reaction conditions. Among the investigated noble metals, Ru appeared to be the best to promote the CWAO of CPs as far as incipient-wetness impregnation was used to prepare all the catalysts. The position of the chlorine substitution on the aromatic ring was also shown to have a significant effect on the CP reactivity in the CWAO over 3 wt.% Ru/ZrO 2 . 2-CP was relatively easier to degradate compared to 3-CP and 4-CP. One reason could be the higher adsorption of 2-CP on the catalyst surface. Further investigations suggested that 3 wt.% Ru/ZrO 2 is a very efficient catalyst in the CWAO of 2-CP as far as high 2-CP conversion and TOC abatement could still be reached at even lower temperature (393 K) and lower total pressure (3 MPa). Additionally, the conversion of 2-CP was demonstrated to increase with the initial pH of the 2-CP solution. The dechlorination reaction is promoted at higher pH. In all cases, the adsorption of the reactants and the reaction intermediates was shown to play a major role. All parameters that would control the molecule speciation in solution or the catalyst surface properties would have a key effect

  14. Conservation of mining and metallurgic arachaeologic wooden objects by impregnation and radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.; Eibner, C.

    1983-05-01

    The conservation of mining and metallurgic archaeologic wooden objects of different grade of destruction by impregnation with radiation-curable impregnating agents followed by in-situ-curing with gamma rays is described. Dry objects have been consolidated after cautious cleaning, whereas wet findings had to be freezedried first. The results are discussed. (Author) [de

  15. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, ... the particle size distribution curve following the relationship by Christensen .... where f = friction factor, ρ = mass density of fluid, and V = mean velocity of flow. .... for the incipient motion of gravel and coal beds have been represented by simple empirical.

  16. Incipient nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh; Zimmerman, M Bridget

    2007-09-01

    To describe the clinical entity of incipient nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Cohort study. Fifty-four patients (60 eyes) seen in our clinic from 1973 through 2000. At their first visit to our clinic, all patients gave a detailed ophthalmic and medical history and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, color fundus photography, and fluorescein fundus angiography. At each follow-up visit (of 49 patients [55 eyes]), the same ophthalmic evaluation was performed, except for fluorescein fundus angiography. Clinical features of incipient NAION. Mean age (+/- standard deviation) of the patients was 58.7+/-15.9 years. Median follow-up time was 6.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.1-8.5). At initial visit, all had optic disc edema (ODE) without any visual loss attributable to NAION. In 55%, the fellow eye had classic NAION; in 25%, incipient progressed to classic NAION (after a median time of 5.8 weeks [IQR, 3.2-10.1]); and in 20%, classic NAION developed after resolution of the first episode of incipient NAION. Patients with incipient, compared with classic, NAION had a greater prevalence of diabetes mellitus (Pheart disease (P = 0.046). Patients who progressed to classic NAION versus those who did not were significantly younger (P = 0.025), and their visual acuity worsened in 31% and 0%, respectively, and remained stable in 62% and 98%, respectively; in the eyes with progression, central (in 31%) and peripheral (in 77%) visual fields worsened compared with only 1 eye and 2 eyes, respectively, that did not (P = 0.01 and Pversus 9.6 weeks (IQR, 6.0-17.7) in those who did not progress. The results show that incipient NAION is a distinct clinical entity, with asymptomatic ODE and no visual loss attributable to NAION. When a patient seeks treatment with asymptomatic ODE, incipient NAION must be borne in mind as a strong possibility in those who have had classic NAION in the fellow eye, in diabetics of all ages, and in those with high risk

  17. Preparation of Palladium-Impregnated Ceria by Metal Complex Decomposition for Methane Steam Reforming Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawat Wattanathana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-impregnated ceria materials were successfully prepared via an integrated procedure between a metal complex decomposition method and a microwave-assisted wetness impregnation. Firstly, ceria (CeO2 powders were synthesized by thermal decomposition of cerium(III complexes prepared by using cerium(III nitrate or cerium(III chloride as a metal source to form a metal complex precursor with triethanolamine or benzoxazine dimer as an organic ligand. Palladium(II nitrate was consequently introduced to the preformed ceria materials using wetness impregnation while applying microwave irradiation to assist dispersion of the dopant. The palladium-impregnated ceria materials were obtained by calcination under reduced atmosphere of 10% H2 in He stream at 700°C for 2 h. Characterization of the palladium-impregnated ceria materials reveals the influences of the metal complex precursors on the properties of the obtained materials. Interestingly, the palladium-impregnated ceria prepared from the cerium(III-benzoxazine dimer complex revealed significantly higher BET specific surface area and higher content of the more active Pdδ+ (δ > 2 species than the materials prepared from cerium(III-triethanolamine complexes. Consequently, it exhibited the most efficient catalytic activity in the methane steam reforming reaction. By optimization of the metal complex precursors, characteristics of the obtained palladium-impregnated ceria catalysts can be modified and hence influence the catalytic activity.

  18. The link between Movability Number and Incipient Motion in river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This allowed for a firmer definition of Incipient Motion as well as a new bedload transportation equation. Additional laboratory experimentation for Particle Reynolds number over the range 0.12-486 facilitated the improved prediction of Incipient Motion from a plot of the critical Movability Number vs. Particle Reynolds number ...

  19. Methods for the characterization of impregnating pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compin, S.; Ben Aim, R.; Couderc, P.; Saint-Romain, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses modification of the impregnation performance of various pitches. The filtration ability, which expresses the impregnation performance, was studied using gel permeation chromatography and scanning electron microscopy. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Platinum incorporation in the Na Y zeolite through impregnation method, and characterization by XRD, FTIR and nitrogen adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.S.; Sousa, B.V.; Andrade, A.C.C.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Rangel, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Supported metal catalysts are widely used in petroleum refining, chemical and petroleum industries. These catalysts are important in ammonia synthesis, conversion of hydrocarbons with water vapor to synthesis gas, reforming, hydrocracking, ... Platinum has long been used in cracking, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. The aim of this project is the Na Y zeolitic sample preparation through impregnation for incipient humidity, with 0,5% concentration of platinum, aiming its use as a catalyst in the steam reforming reaction. The characterization techniques used were: X Rays Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nitrogen Adsorption (BET Method). From the obtained results through the techniques mentioned previously it is possible to evidence that the platinum impregnation process did not change the Na Y zeolite structure. Through the superficial specific area (BET) it was possible to observe that the platinum impregnation process caused a decrease in the specific area due to the reduction to the accessibility to the micropores of the zeolitic structure. (author)

  1. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Glaucio B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Mota, Claudio J.A., E-mail: cmota@iq.ufrj.br [INCT Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  2. Advanced Examination Techniques Applied to the Assessment of Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) of ITER Correction Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Samain, Valerie; Libeyre, Paul; Cecillon, Alexandre; Dawid, J

    2014-01-01

    The ITER Magnet System includes a set of 18 superconducting correction coils (CC) which are used to compensate the error field modes arising from geometrical deviations caused by manufacturing and assembly tolerances. The turn and ground insulation are electrically insulated with a multi-layer fiberglass polyimide interleaved composite, impregnated with epoxy resin using vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI). Adequate high voltage insulation (5 kV), mechanical strength and rigidity of the winding pack should be achieved after impregnation and curing of the insulation system. VPI is an effective process to avoid defects such dry spots and incomplete wet out. This insulation technology has also been developed since several years for application to large superconducting coils and more recently to ITER CC. It allows the coils to be impregnated without impacting on their functional characteristics. One of the critical challenges associated with the construction of the CC is the qualification of the VPI insulation. Se...

  3. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  4. Conservation of a medieval climbing stem by freeze-drying and resin impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.; Eibner, C.

    1985-12-01

    The conservation of a climbing stem originating from a medieval mining adit is described. The fragile wet object was preserved by a combined process consisting of freeze-drying after a polyethylene glycol bath and consecutive resin impregnation with curing by gamma irradiation. The whole conservation process took 1 year. The result is discussed. (Author)

  5. DTDGA impregnated XAD-16 beads for separation and recovery of palladium from acidic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Krishan Kant; Kanagare, Anant B.; Bairwa, K.K.; Manmohan Kumar; Bajaj, Parma N.; Ruhela, Ritesh; Singh, Ajoy K.; Hubli, Rajendra C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study DTDGA extractant impregnated XAD16 polymeric beads (DTDGA- XAD16) were synthesized by wet chemical method and the beads were characterized by various techniques viz. FT-IR, Optical microscopy, SEM and TGA. The DTDGA-XAD 16 beads were evaluated for separation and recovery of palladium from high level waste solutions (HLW)

  6. Physicochemical properties of vanadium impregnated Al-PILCs: Effect of vanadium source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Suna, E-mail: sunabalci@gazi.edu.tr; Tecimer, Aylin

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Vanadium was incorporated into Al-PILC using NaVO{sub 3} or VOSO{sub 4}·3H{sub 2}O precursors by wet impregnation, washing after wet impregnation and impregnation from solution methods. • The layered structure of the supports was retained after the vanadium incorporation. • Incorporation took place both by settling and ion exchange mechanism with the treatment VOSO{sub 4}·3H{sub 2}O precursor while settling was dominant in the use of NaVO{sub 3} precursor. • Treatment with VOSO{sub 4}·3H{sub 2}O which was acidic in solution resulted in more structural deformation. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and VO{sub 2} were found as the major oxide forms on the impregnated samples. Loading of vanadyl sulfate hydrate (VOSO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) resulted in higher V/Si ratio. Most of the vanadium was bonded in +5 oxide form. • Changes in the FTIR signals after vanadium incorporation caused by Brønsted and Lewis sites, silanol, water and vanadium vibrations were occured. • Dehydroxylation of the structure took place around 300 °C. Samples obtained by impregnation and washing after wet impregnation methods resulted in similar mass losses and the wet impregnated sample showed the highest mass loss among the impregnated samples. - Summary: Clay from the Middle Anatolian previously pillared by Al{sub 13}-Keggin ions and then calcined at 300 °C (Al-PILC) was impregnated with aqueous solutions of vanadium precursors by impregnation from solution (I), wet impregnation (WI) and washing after wet impregnation (WWI) methods. The crystal and textural properties were evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Vanadium incorporation into the Al-PILC resulted decreases in the basal spacing from 1.75 nm to 1.35 nm with the preserved typical layered structure. The use of sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}) as the source and the impregnation from solution as the incorporation method

  7. Oil-Impregnated Polyethylene Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ranit; Habibi, Mohammad; Rashed, Ziad; Berbert, Otacilio; Shi, Shawn; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) minimize the contact angle hysteresis of a wide range of liquids and aqueous food products. Although hydrophobic polymers are often used as the porous substrate for SLIPS, the choice of polymer has been limited to silicone-based or fluorine-based materials. Hydrocarbon-based polymers, such as polyethylene, are cost effective and widely used in food packaging applications where SLIPS would be highly desirable. However, to date there have been no reports on using polyethylene as a SLIPS substrate, as it is considered highly impermeable. Here, we show that thin films of low-density polyethylene can be stably impregnated with carbon-based oils without requiring any surface modification. Wicking tests reveal that oils with sufficient chemical compatibility follow Washburn's equation. The nanometric effective pore size of the polyethylene does result in a very low wicking speed, but by using micro-thin films and a drawdown coater, impregnation can still be completed in under one second. The oil-impregnated polyethylene films promoted ultra-slippery behavior for water, ketchup, and yogurt while remaining durable even after being submerged in ketchup for over one month. This work was supported by Bemis North America (AT-23981).

  8. Detection of the incipient oxidation of coal by petrographic techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruszewska, KJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Two petrographic methods, namely long-wave fluorescence intensity measurements and a vitrinite elasticity index were developed and used to detect incipient oxidation in coals subjected to simulated weathering conditions. The two methods are based...

  9. [Wet work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  10. The Frequency of Incipient Fires at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Fire is a significant hazard in most industrial and nuclear facilities. As such it is important that adequate safeguards be provided to ensure a responsible level of safety. In determining this level of safety it is necessary to know three key parameters. These are the frequency of the incipient fire, the probability that a fire will grow from the incipient stage to cause the potential consequence, and the potential consequences (i.e., losses) from an unwanted fire. Consequence predictions have been modeled and evaluated extensively and can be readily confirmed by comparison with historic loss records. These loss records can also provide significant insight into the probability that given a fire it grows to create a defined consequence. The other key parameter, frequency, is the focus of this report. this report determines an alternative method for estimating Savannah River Site (SRS) building fire frequencies as a function of floor area to the linear method previously used. The frequency of an incipient fire is not easily derived from existing fire loss records. This occurs because the fire loss records do not make reference to the sample population. To derive an initiating frequency both the number of events (incipient fires) and the population (number of buildings and years in service) must be known. this report documents an evaluation that estimates the frequency of incipient fires in industrial and nuclear facilities. these estimates were developed from the unique historical record that has been maintained at the Savannah River Site

  11. Developing countries and incipient industrialization: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana's small and large towns offer good examples of incipient industrialization and enterprise clustering in a developing economy. Using data from Lobatse, a small industrial centre in Botswana, this brief paper shows that clustering in developing countries does not necessarily induce high inter-firm relationships as is ...

  12. The link between Movability Number and Incipient Motion in river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-05

    Jun 5, 2009 ... d. Median sediment diameter (mm or m). D. Hydraulic mean depth (m) d/Y. Relative ... Motion as well as a new bedload transportation equation. Additional ... Incipient Motion, in the context of sediment transport in rivers, ...... Eng. Part 2 59 827-835. ... Report of the Environmental Research Center, University.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of incipient decay in hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Crystal Pilon; Brian K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    Decay can cause significant damage to high-value hardwood timber. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are urgently needed to effectively detect incipient decay in hardwood timber at the earliest possible stage. Currently, the primary means of inspecting timber relies on visual assessment criteria. When visual inspections are used exclusively, they provide...

  14. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  15. Software System for Finding the Incipient Faults in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Petkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new software system for finding of incipient faultsis presented.An experiment is made with real measurement of partial discharge(PD that appeared in power transformer. The software system usesacquisition data to define the real state of this transformer. One of the most important criteria for the power transformer’s state is the presence of partial discharges. The wave propagation caused by partial discharge depends on scheme of the winding and construction of the power equipment. In all cases, the PD source had a specific position so the wave measured from the PD –coupling device had a specific waveform. The waveform is different when PDcoupling device is put on a specific place. The waveform and the time of propagation are criteria for the localization of the source of incipient faults in the volume of power transformer.

  16. Prediction of incipient flow boiling from a uniformly heated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.T.; Abdelmessih, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of liquid superheat during incipient boiling in a uniformly heated forced convection channel. Experimental data were obtained using Freon 11 as the test medium. Based on existing theories, an analytical method was developed for predicting the point of termination of nucleate boiling, observed during a decreasing heat flux process with a nucleation activated surface. The method may also be used to predict the point of boiling incipience, observed during an increasing heat flux process with a non-activated surface; this point does not appear to have been treated analytically in previous work. It can be shown that some of the existing models are special cases of the present formulation

  17. The Bacterial Flora of Incipient Occlusal Lesions in Naval Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    fissures while providing an improved method of studying the microbiota of this aspect of the tooth, creates an artificial environment for bacterial...independent examiner. An oral examination and a radiographic review were performed on all subjects prior to fissure removal to verify the suitability...classification of a lesion as incipient. Teeth requiring cavity preparations deeper than 0.5 mm beyond the DEJ or not requiring penetration of the dentin

  18. Incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy in African Americans with NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmahapatra, A; Bale, A; Raghuwanshi, M P; Reddi, A; Byrne, W; Suarez, S; Nash, F; Varagiannis, E; Skurnick, J H

    1994-04-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of incipient and overt nephropathy in African-American subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) attending a hospital clinic. Contributory factors, such as blood pressure (BP), duration and age at onset of diabetes, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index (BMI) also were evaluated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--We recruited 116 African-American subjects with NIDDM for this cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study. BP, BMI, 24-h urine albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, lipids, and GHb levels were measured. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was calculated, and subjects were divided into three groups: no nephropathy (AER 200 micrograms/min). Frequency of hypertension and nephropathy was analyzed by chi 2 testing, group means were compared using analysis of variance, and linear correlations were performed between AER and other variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of these variables while controlling for the effects of other variables. RESULTS--Increased AER was present in 50% of our subjects; 31% had incipient and 19% had overt nephropathy. Hypertension was present in 72.4%; nephropathy, particularly overt nephropathy, was significantly more prevalent in the hypertensive group. Mean BP and diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were higher in the groups with incipient and overt nephropathy, and systolic blood pressure (sBP) was increased in overt nephropathy. Men with either form of nephropathy had higher sBP, dBP, and mean BP, whereas only women with overt nephropathy had increased sBP and mean BP. Subjects with incipient or overt nephropathy had a longer duration of diabetes, and those with overt nephropathy had a younger age at onset of diabetes. By multiple regression analysis, AER correlated with younger age at diabetes onset, but not with diabetes duration. No correlation with age, lipid levels, or GHb was noted. BMI correlated with AER

  19. Impregnation of leather during "freeze-drying"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Mikkel; Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Hovmand, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a recognized method for the preservation of waterlogged objects. Naturally, freeze-drying has also been used for waterlogged archaeological leather often after treatment with Na2.EDTA and impregnation with PEG; but the treated leather sometimes suffers from “excessive drying......” becoming too stiff and brittle. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a conventional freeze-drying method against an alternative freeze-drying method that preserves the natural moisture content of the leather. Both new and archaeological waterlogged leather were included in the study...... suggest that the process which takes place within the leather during the freeze-drying in not actual freeze-drying, but rather a sophisticated way of distributing the impregnating agent. The pure ice phase freezes out, but the impregnating agent remains liquid as the temperature does not become low enough...

  20. Drug smuggling using clothing impregnated with cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Seán D; Power, John D

    2005-11-01

    A case study is presented where a woman travelling from South America to the Republic of Ireland was detained at Dublin Airport and articles of clothing she had in her luggage were found to be impregnated with cocaine. The study shows that the amount of powder recovered from the garments was approximately 14% of the total weight of the garments. The cocaine was in the form of cocaine hydrochloride and the purity was approximately 80%. An examination of the garments under filtered light highlighted the areas exposed to cocaine and indicated that the method of impregnation was by pouring liquid containing cocaine onto the clothing.

  1. Incipient fault detection and power system protection for spaceborne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. Don; Hackler, Irene M.

    1987-01-01

    A program was initiated to study the feasibility of using advanced terrestrial power system protection techniques for spacecraft power systems. It was designed to enhance and automate spacecraft power distribution systems in the areas of safety, reliability and maintenance. The proposed power management/distribution system is described as well as security assessment and control, incipient and low current fault detection, and the proposed spaceborne protection system. It is noted that the intelligent remote power controller permits the implementation of digital relaying algorithms with both adaptive and programmable characteristics.

  2. Titanium impregnated borosilicate zeolites for epoxidation catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přech, Jan; Vitvarová, Dana; Lupínková, Lenka; Kubů, Martin; Čejka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, AUG 2015 (2015), s. 28-34 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/11/0819 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : borosilicate * titanium impregnation * epoxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2015

  3. Flammability studies of impregnated paper sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Simkovic; Anne Fuller; Robert White

    2011-01-01

    Paper sheets impregnated with flame retardants made from agricultural residues and other additives were studied with the cone calorimeter. The use of sugar beet ethanol eluent (SBE), CaCl2, and ZnCl2 lowered the peak rate of heat release (PRHR) the most in comparison to water treated material. The average effective heat of...

  4. Combustion properties of wood impregnated with commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine some combustion properties of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood specimens impregnated with aqueous solutions of commercial fertilizers. Ammonium sulphate (AS) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as commercial fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate and ...

  5. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1985-01-01

    of urinary albumin excretion before and during 2.6 years +/- 1.0 (SD) of treatment. The blood pressure was depressed by the treatment (systolic blood pressure from 135 mm Hg +/- 8.6 to 124 mm Hg +/- 6.2, NS; mean blood pressure from 107 mm Hg +/- 7.6 to 97 mm Hg +/- 3.4, 2p less than 0.05; diastolic blood......The aim of the study was to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment with a selective beta blocker would have an effect on the progression rate of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six male patients with juvenile-onset diabetes with incipient nephropathy (urinary...... albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 hr) were treated with metoprolol (200 mg daily). At the start of the antihypertensive treatment the mean age was 32 years +/- 4.2 (SD). The patients were followed a mean 5.4 years +/- 3.1 (SD) with repeated measurements...

  6. Incipient cognition solves the spatial reciprocity conundrum of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeromos Vukov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From the simplest living organisms to human societies, cooperation among individuals emerges as a paradox difficult to explain and describe mathematically, although very often observed in reality. Evolutionary game theory offers an excellent toolbar to investigate this issue. Spatial structure has been one of the first mechanisms promoting cooperation; however, alone it only opens a narrow window of viability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we equip individuals with incipient cognitive abilities, and investigate the evolution of cooperation in a spatial world where retaliation, forgiveness, treason and mutualism may coexist, as individuals engage in Prisoner's Dilemma games. In the model, individuals are able to distinguish their partners and act towards them based on previous interactions. We show how the simplest level of cognition, alone, can lead to the emergence of cooperation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the incipient nature of the individuals' cognitive abilities, cooperation emerges for unprecedented values of the temptation to cheat, being also robust to invasion by cheaters, errors in decision making and inaccuracy of imitation, features akin to many species, including humans.

  7. Recycling of impregnated wood and impregnating agents - combustion plant technology; Kyllaestetyn puutavaran ja kyllaestysaineiden kierraetys - polttolaitostekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrjaenen, T.; Kangas, E. [Kestopuu Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    It has been estimated that in the 20th century it is possible to recycle about 70 000 m{sup 3} of impregnated wood, corresponding to about 48 % of the total amount of annually demolished impregnated wood. The amount is estimated to grow up to 130 000 m{sup 3} in 2015 (about 65% of demolished impregnated wood). In the beginning half of the recyclable impregnated wood is poles, but the share of sawn timber will increase as the time goes by. The poles and pieces of them are demolished and transported to an intermediate storage e.g. on the yard of an electricity supply company, from which they can be fetched in larger quantities. Even wood impregnation plant can act as intermediate storage sites. Collection points for impregnated construction timber can be established on timer sales companies, but most of it will be collected at waste processing sites. The economy of impregnated wood recycling chain depends on the sales income of generated energy. Calculations show that collection, transportation and processing costs can be covered with the sales of impregnated wood for energy generation and with recycling fees. The recycling fee for sawn timber would be 20 FIM/m{sup 3} and that for poles 64 FIM/m{sup 3}. In 2001 recycling fees were set for impregnated wood, the fees being 11 FIM/m{sup 3} for sawn timber and 42 FIM/m{sup 3} for poles. Collected impregnated wood can be crushed with either fixed or movable crushers used for crushing of waste wood. The impurities of wood (bolts, nails, stones, etc.), large dimensions of wood, in- homogenous material and dust require special features for the crushing equipment. Crushing device can be equipped with feeding crane and saw for processing of large-dimension wood, and metal detectors and magnetic separators if needed, but the large metal scrap has to be removed before crushing. At present in Finland there is not a combustion plant capable for combustion of impregnated wood without any modification. Improvements of flue gas

  8. Uticaj oksidacije aktivnog uglja sumpornom kiselinom i impregnacije bakar-sulfatom na sorpcionu sposobnost gasnog filtra za zaštitu od dejstva amonijaka / Study of the effects of activated carbon oxidation with sulphuric acid and impregnation with copper sulphate on the protection capacity of gas filters against ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretko Ilić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu je istraživana mogućnost poboljšanja kvaliteta aktivnog uglja (AU za upotrebu u sredstvima za ličnu zaštitu respiratornih organa od dejstva amonijaka. Uzorci komercijalnih AU oksidovani su različitim količinama rastvora sumporne kiseline, masenih koncentracija 10% i 15%. Na uzorke AU tretirane kiselinom deponovan je zatim bakar-sulfat, metodom dvostruke impregnacije rastvorom bakar-sulfata do početne vlažnosti uzorka. Impregnisani AU ispitanje u sloju u gasnom filtru prečnika 105 mm, čije su visine imale vrednosti od 29 mm do 41 mm, a uslovi su bill: ulazna koncentracija amonijaka -3,5 mg/dm3 (zapreminska koncentracija 0,5%, protok gasne smeše vazduh-amonijak - 30 dm3/min, relativna vlažnost 70% i ambijentna temperatura. Proboj je detektovan kvalitativno, pomoću indikatorskog papirića safenolftaleinom. AU impregnisan novim postupkom obezbedio je u sloju visine 29 mm vreme proboja 108 min, a 160 min u sloju visine 41 mm. / The objective of this paper has been the study of the possibility to enhance the properties of activated carbon (AC for using it in respiratory protective devices for ammonia removal from the air. The commercial AC samples were oxidized with different amounts of 10% and 15% sulphuric acid solutions. The acid treated AC samples were the loaded with copper sulphate with twofold impregnation by the incipient wetness method. The impregnated AC was tested in a packed bed in the gas filter with a diameter of 105 mm and a bed depth ranging from 29 mm to 41 mm under the following test conditions inlet concentration of ammonia was 3,5 mg/dm3, flow rate of 30 dm3/min at 70% relative humidity and ambient temperature. The breakthrough was detected qualitatively by the phenolphtalein indicator paper. The new impregnated AC reached the breaktrough time of 108 min for a 29 mm bed depth, and 160 min for a bed depth of 41 mm.

  9. Relative roughness controls on incipient sediment motion in steep channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Fuller, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    For over eight decades, researchers have noted an appreciable increase in the nondimensional shear stress (Shields number) at initiation of fluvial bedload transport with increasing bed slope. The precise cause of the trend, however, is obscured by the covariance of several factors with increased slope: a greater downstream component of the gravity acting on the grains and fluid, changes in bed morphology, increased grainsize relative to the channel width that may lead to grain bridging, and increased grainsize relative to flow depth (relative roughness) that may change flow hydraulics and particle buoyancy. Here, we report on ongoing laboratory experiments spanning a wide range of bed slopes (2% to 67%) designed to isolate these variables and determine the true cause of heightened critical Shields numbers on steep slopes. First, we eliminated bed morphology as a factor by using only planar beds. To investigate the effect of grain bridging, we used two different channel widths, representing width-to-grainsize ratios of 23:1 and 9:1. Finally, to separate the effects of slope from relative roughness, we compared incipient motion conditions for acrylic particles (submerged specific gravity of 0.15) to natural siliciclastic gravel (submerged specific gravity of 1.65). Different particle densities allowed us to explore incipient motion as a function of relative roughness, independent of channel slope, because lighter particles move at shallower flow depths than heavier ones of the same size. Results show that both materials exhibit a positive trend between bed slope and critical Shields number despite the existence of planar beds for all slopes. Furthermore, changing the grainsize-to-width ratio had a negligible effect on this trend. For all slopes, the critical Shields number for bedload transport was higher for the acrylic particles than for gravel, indicating that relative roughness has a strong control on incipient sediment motion independent of channel slope. These

  10. Obtaining and characterization catalyst Ki/Al_2O_3 by physical dispersion process via wet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.C. da; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Costa, N.C.O.; Freitas, N.L. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the Obtention and characterization of catalysts being supported alumina impregnated with KI by physical dispersion in wet via attritor mill in periods of 30 and 60 minutes. Before and after impregnation the catalysts were characterized by XRD, X ray fluorescence, particle size distribution, textural analysis (BET). The results show the presence of the stable crystalline phase Al_2O_3 in all samples after impregnation and the second phase formed from KI and K_2O. There was a decrease in the agglomerates incorporated with the potassium due to the milling process. It was observed that the highest specific surface area was obtained by the impregnated sample into a 60 min. (author)

  11. Kinetic roughening and pinning of coupled precursor and impregnation fronts in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Garcia Paredes, Rafael; Marquez Gonsalez, Jesus; Susarrey Huerta, Orlando; Morales Matamoros, Daniel; Castrejon Vacio, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    In the paper wetting experiments at low evaporation rate, after a short Washburn regime the film flow of filtered water overtakes the main impregnation front. Accordingly, we study the kinetic roughening dynamics and pinning of two strongly coupled fronts moving in different papers. We find that the kinetic roughening dynamics of precursor and main fronts belongs to different universality classes, nevertheless, at the final stage the distance between the fronts decrease until both fronts are pinned in the same configuration z P (x,y), the scaling properties of which are determined by the long-range correlations in the pore network

  12. A measurement-based technique for incipient anomaly detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Fault detection is essential for safe operation of various engineering systems. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used in monitoring highly correlated process variables. Conventional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often fail to detect small or incipient faults. In this paper, we develop new PCA-based monitoring charts, combining PCA with multivariate memory control charts, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes. The multivariate control charts with memory are sensitive to small and moderate faults in the process mean, which significantly improves the performance of PCA methods and widen their applicability in practice. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that the proposed PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control charts are more effective in detecting small shifts in the mean of the multivariate process variables, and outperform the conventional PCA-based monitoring charts. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. A measurement-based technique for incipient anomaly detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    Fault detection is essential for safe operation of various engineering systems. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used in monitoring highly correlated process variables. Conventional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often fail to detect small or incipient faults. In this paper, we develop new PCA-based monitoring charts, combining PCA with multivariate memory control charts, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes. The multivariate control charts with memory are sensitive to small and moderate faults in the process mean, which significantly improves the performance of PCA methods and widen their applicability in practice. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that the proposed PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control charts are more effective in detecting small shifts in the mean of the multivariate process variables, and outperform the conventional PCA-based monitoring charts. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. Bed diameter effects and incipient slugging in gas fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    The coalescence and growth of bubble swarms formed at the distributor of a fluidized bed gives rise to lateral as well as vertical distributions of bubble properties. However, existing models employ average bubble properties obtained largely from semi-empirical considerations. In a recent Paper, the author developed a bubble growth model based on a population balance approach. Analytical expressions were derived for the bubble characteristic distributions and averages. However, the model, developed for unconstrained growth, did not take into account the effect of the bed diameter and the possibility of slugging. In this Paper, the model is extended to take these aspects into account. A slugging criterion is also developed which is expected to be valid for the regime where incipient slugging depends on the bed height as well as the region where bed height does not significantly affect minimum slugging conditions

  15. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  16. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indekeu, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  17. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The sensation of wetness is well-known but barely investigated. There are no specific wetness receptors in the skin, but the sensation is mediated by temperature and pressure perception. In our study, we have measured discrimination thresholds for the haptic perception of wetness of three di erent

  18. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Dolfine Kosters, N.; Daanen, h.a.m.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the me-chanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic dis-crimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  19. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the mechanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic discrimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  20. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Tetraethylenepentamine Impregnated PMMA Sorbents with Different Pore Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Park, Cheonggi; Jung, Hyunchul; Kim, Sung Hyun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) supports and amine additives were investigated to adsorb CO{sub 2}. PMMA supports were fabricated by using different ratio of pore forming agents (porogen) to control the BET specific surface area, pore volume and distribution. Toluene and xylene are used for porogens. Supported amine sorbents were prepared by wet impregnation of tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) on PMMA supports. So we could identify the effect of the pore structure of supports and the quantity of impregnated TEPA on the adsorption capacity. The increased amount of toluene as pore foaming agent resulted in the decreased average pore diameter and the increased BET surface area. Polymer supports with huge different pore distribution could be fabricated by controlling the ratio of porogen. After impregnation, the support with micropore structure is supposed the pore blocking and filling effect so that it has low CO{sub 2} capacity and kinetics due to the difficulty of diffusing. Macropore structure indicates fast adsorption capacity and low influence of amine loading. In case of support with mesopore, it has high performance of adsorption capacity and kinetics. So high surface area and meso-/macro- pore structure is suitable for CO{sub 2} capture.

  1. Wet chemical synthesis of nickel supported on alumina catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Ranny Rodrigues; Costa, Talita Kenya Oliveira; Morais, Ana Carla da Fonseca Ferreira; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo; Freitas, Normanda Lino de

    2016-01-01

    Heterogenic catalysts are those found to be in a different phase on the reaction when compared to the reactants and products. Preferred when compared to homogeneous catalysts due to the easiness on which the separation is processed. The objective of this study is to obtain and characterize Alumina based catalysts impregnated with Nickel (Al_2O_3), by wet impregnation. The alumina was synthesized by combustion reaction. Before and after the impregnation the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), granulometric analysis, the textural analysis will be held by nitrogen adsorption (BET), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show a presence of a stable crystalline phase of Al2O3 in all the studied samples and after the impregnation the second phase formed was of NiO and NiAl_2O_4. The Al_2O_3 e Ni/Al_2O_3 catalysts resulted in clusters with a medium diameter of 18.9 and 14.2 μm, respectively. The catalysts show a medium-pore characteristic (medium pore diameter between 2 and 50 nm), the superficial area to Al_2O_3 and Ni/Al_2O_3 catalysts were 8.69 m"2/g and 5.56 m"2/g, respectively. (author)

  2. Experimental Study of Impregnation Birch and Aspen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vladislavovich Grigorev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of wood impregnation was implemented by applying centrifugal methods. The impregnants were a 10% aqueous solution of potassium chloride and a 2% aqueous solution of borax. Birch (Betula pendula and aspen (Populus tremula wood samples in different moisture content were tested. The impregnation time in the centrifugal device were 30 seconds repeated 21 times, and the samples were measured after every 30 seconds. The experimental results were fitted to a nonlinear filtration law, which indicated that the centrifugal wood impregnation was dependent on wood species, wood moisture, rotational speed, and radius. Determination of rotational speed and centrifuge radius for impregnating aspen and birch at varying lengths and humidity under conditions of the nonlinear impregnant filtration law can be done using the example charts that were developed and presented in this study.

  3. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    Capillary phenomena associated with fluids wetting other condensed matter phases have drawn great scientific interest for hundreds of years; consider the recent bicentennial celebration of Thomas Young's paper on equilibrium contact angles, describing the geometric shape assumed near a three phase contact line in terms of the relevant surface energies of the constituent phases [1]. Indeed, nearly a century has passed since the seminal papers of Lucas and Washburn, describing dynamics of capillary imbibition [2, 3]. While it is generally appreciated that dynamics of fluid wetting processes are determined by the degree to which a system is out of capillary equilibrium, myriad complications exist that challenge the fundamental understanding of dynamic capillary phenomena. The topic has gathered much interest from recent Nobel laureate Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who provided a seminal review of relevant dissipation mechanisms for fluid droplets spreading on solid surfaces [4] Although much about the dynamics of wetting has been revealed, much remains to be learned and intrinsic technological and fundamental interest in the topic drives continuing high levels of research activity. This is enabled partly by improved experimental capabilities for resolving wetting processes at increasingly finer temporal, spatial, and chemical resolution. Additionally, dynamic wetting research advances via higher fidelity computational modeling capabilities, which drive more highly refined theory development. The significance of this topic both fundamentally and technologically has resulted in a number of reviews of research activity in wetting dynamics. One recent example addresses the evaluation of existing wetting dynamics theories from an experimentalist's perspective [5]. A Current Opinion issue was recently dedicated to high temperature capillarity, including dynamics of high temperature spreading [6]. New educational tools have recently emerged for providing instruction in wetting

  4. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  5. METHOD OF IMPREGNATING A POROUS MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.N.

    1960-06-01

    A method of impregnating a porous body with an inorganic uranium- containing salt is outlined and comprises dissolving a water-soluble uranium- containing salt in water; saturating the intercommunicating pores of the porous body with the salt solution; infusing ammonia gas into the intercommunicating pores of the body, the ammonia gas in water chemically reacting with the water- soluble uranium-containing salt in the water solvent to form a nonwater-soluble uranium-containing precipitant; and evaporating the volatile unprecipitated products from the intercommunicating pores whereby the uranium-containing precipitate is uniformly distributed in the intercommunicating peres of the porous body.

  6. Comparison of the compressive strength of impregnated and nonimpregnated eucalyptus subjected to two different pressures and impregnation times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemir Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The durability of wood is affected by several factors. For this reason, much research has been done on a variety of chemical compounds for impregnating wood, aimed at preserving it while simultaneously improving its properties. Recent studies of the properties of impregnated wood have demonstrated the possibility of substantially improving its mechanical characteristics. Thus, the purpose of this work was to compare the strength to parallel compression of wooden fibers (Eucalyptus grandis, both nonimpregnated and impregnated with a monocomponent resin, from the standpoint of pressure and impregnation time, aiming at its structural utilization. The results demonstrate that the compressive strength of impregnated test specimens is greater than that of nonimpregnated ones, indicating that monocomponent polyurethane resin can be considered suitable for impregnating wood, since it increases the compressive strength of eucalyptus.

  7. Genomics of Rapid Incipient Speciation in Sympatric Threespine Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Marques

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation is the process by which reproductively isolated populations emerge as a consequence of divergent natural or ecologically-mediated sexual selection. Most genomic studies of ecological speciation have investigated allopatric populations, making it difficult to infer reproductive isolation. The few studies on sympatric ecotypes have focused on advanced stages of the speciation process after thousands of generations of divergence. As a consequence, we still do not know what genomic signatures of the early onset of ecological speciation look like. Here, we examined genomic differentiation among migratory lake and resident stream ecotypes of threespine stickleback reproducing in sympatry in one stream, and in parapatry in another stream. Importantly, these ecotypes started diverging less than 150 years ago. We obtained 34,756 SNPs with restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and identified genomic islands of differentiation using a Hidden Markov Model approach. Consistent with incipient ecological speciation, we found significant genomic differentiation between ecotypes both in sympatry and parapatry. Of 19 islands of differentiation resisting gene flow in sympatry, all were also differentiated in parapatry and were thus likely driven by divergent selection among habitats. These islands clustered in quantitative trait loci controlling divergent traits among the ecotypes, many of them concentrated in one region with low to intermediate recombination. Our findings suggest that adaptive genomic differentiation at many genetic loci can arise and persist in sympatry at the very early stage of ecotype divergence, and that the genomic architecture of adaptation may facilitate this.

  8. Wet Gas Airfoil Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tarjei Thorrud

    2011-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression renders new possibilities for cost savings and enhanced gas recovery on existing gas wells. Technology like this opens to make traditional offshore processing plants redundant. With new technology, follows new challenges. Multiphase flows is regarded as a complex field of study, and increased knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regarding wet gas flow is of paramount importance to the efficiency and stability of the wet gas compressor. The scope of this work was ...

  9. Robust Fault Diagnosis Design for Linear Multiagent Systems with Incipient Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingping Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a robust fault estimation observer is studied for linear multiagent systems subject to incipient faults. By considering the fact that incipient faults are in low-frequency domain, the fault estimation of such faults is proposed for discrete-time multiagent systems based on finite-frequency technique. Moreover, using the decomposition design, an equivalent conclusion is given. Simulation results of a numerical example are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  10. In-situ degradation of sulphur mustard using (1R)-(-)-(camphorylsulphonyl) oxaziridine impregnated adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Abha, E-mail: abha_052002@yahoo.co.in [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatam Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, UP (India); Saxena, Amit; Singh, Beer [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India)

    2009-12-30

    Bis-2-chloroethyl sulphide (sulphur mustard or HD) is an extremely toxic and persistent chemical warfare agent. For in-situ degradation of HD and its analogues (simulants), i.e., dibutyl sulphide (DBS) and ethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide (HEES), different adsorbents systems loaded with (1R)-(-)-(camphorylsulphonyl) oxaziridine were prepared. Solution of sulphur mustard and its simulants was prepared in carbon tetrachloride and taken for uniform adsorption on the impregnated systems using incipient volume. Degradation kinetics monitored by GC/FID were found to be first-order. The half-life of degradation reactions for simulants was obtained in less than 30 and for HD in 120 min. From the studied kinetics it was observed that reaction was very rapid with simulants and decreased rate was found for HD. The order of reactivity of MgO/Oxa system for HD and simulants was found to be DBS > HEES > HD. Reaction products of the oxidation reaction of simulants and HD on adsorbents were extracted in dichloromethane and analysed by GC-MS. The products were found to be non-toxic sulphoxide. The objective of the study is to develop a reactive adsorbent for in-situ degradation of sulphur mustard which could be used in nuclear biological and chemical (NBC) filtration systems.

  11. Evidence of Incipient Forest Transition in Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990–2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000–2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  12. Incipient speciation driven by hypertrophied lips in Midas cichlid fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Kautt, Andreas F; Torres-Dowdall, Julian; Baumgarten, Lukas; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Sympatric speciation has been debated in evolutionary biology for decades. Although it has gained in acceptance recently, still only a handful of empirical examples are seen as valid (e.g. crater lake cichlids). In this study, we disentangle the role of hypertrophied lips in the repeated adaptive radiations of Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish. We assessed the role of disruptive selection and assortative mating during the early stages of divergence and found a functional trade-off in feeding behaviour between thick- and thin-lipped ecotypes, suggesting that this trait is a target of disruptive selection. Thick-lipped fish perform better on nonevasive prey at the cost of a poorer performance on evasive prey. Using enclosures in the wild, we found that thick-lipped fish perform significantly better in rocky than in sandy habitats. We found almost no mixed pairs during two breeding seasons and hence significant assortative mating. Genetic differentiation between ecotypes seems to be related to the time since colonization, being subtle in L. Masaya (1600 generations ago) and absent in the younger L. Apoyeque (<600 generations ago). Genome-wide differentiation between ecotypes was higher in the old source lakes than in the young crater lakes. Our results suggest that hypertrophied lips might be promoting incipient sympatric speciation through divergent selection (ecological divergence in feeding performance) and nonrandom mating (assortative mating) in the young Nicaraguan crater lakes. Nonetheless, further manipulative experiments are needed in order to confirm the role of hypertrophied lips as the main cue for assortative mating. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  14. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Abel Vaca

    Full Text Available Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC. This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001 overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through

  15. Iron impregnated carbon materials with improved physicochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Irfan; Adnan, Rohana; Wan Ngah, Wan Saime; Mohamed, Norita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The morphology of raw AC was altered upon Fe impregnation and surface oxidation. • Surface modification had increased the pores diameter and surface functionalities. • Development of iron oxides have been expected on Fe impregnated carbon materials. • The M1, M2 and M3 have revealed magnetic susceptibility in applied magnetic field. • Dyes removal efficiency of M3 was notably higher (90–99%) than the raw AC (60–85%). - Abstract: This paper highlights the effect of iron impregnation and surface oxidation on the physicochemical characteristics of iron impregnated carbon materials. These materials were characterized by various techniques like surface area, pore size distribution, SEM/EDX, CHN, XRD, FTIR, TG/DT, VSM and XPS analyses. The increase in the surface functionalities and pores diameter (3.51–5.49 nm) of the iron-impregnated carbon materials was observed with the increase in iron contents and surface oxidation. The saturated magnetization values (0.029–0.034 emu/g) for the iron-impregnated carbon materials reflected the magnetic tendency due to the development of small size iron oxides on their surfaces. The XPS spectra revealed the existence of different oxidation states of the corresponding metals on the iron impregnated carbon materials. The percentage removal of model dyes (Methylene Blue and Methyl Orange) by iron-impregnated carbon materials was enhanced (>90%) with the increase in iron contents and pores diameters.

  16. Effects of impregnation with boron compounds on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liebl.) which met the requirements of ASTM D 358 were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413 with boric acid (Ba) and borax (Bx) by vacuum technique. After impregnation, surfaces were coated with cellulosic, synthetic, polyurathane, water-based, acrylic and acid hardening varnishes in accordance with ASTM D 3023 ...

  17. Impact of impregnation with boron compounds on combustion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impacts of varnishing after impregnation with boron compounds on combustion properties of oriental beech. The test samples prepared from oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) wood were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413–76–99 with boric acid (Ba) or borax (Bx) using a vacuum ...

  18. Studies of properties of rubber wood with impregnation of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impregnation of rubber wood has been carried out under different conditions by using styrene as grafting monomer and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as crosslinker. Properties such as dimensional stability, water absorption, hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, etc of the impregnated wood have been checked and ...

  19. Impregnation of Ibuprofen into Polycaprolactone using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoganathan, Roshan; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil R, E-mail: n.foster@unsw.edu.a [Supercritical Fluids Research Group, School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-03-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved biodegradable polyester used in tissue engineering applications. Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug which has good solubility in supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}). The solubility of CO{sub 2} in PCL allows for the impregnation of CO{sub 2}-soluble therapeutic agents into the polymer via a supercritical fluid (SCF) process. Polymers impregnated with bio-active compounds are highly desired for medical implants and controlled drug delivery. In this study, the use of CO{sub 2} to impregnate PCL with ibuprofen was investigated. The effect of operating conditions on the impregnation of ibuprofen into PCL was investigated over two pressure and two temperature levels, 150bar and 200bar, 35{sup 0}C and 40 {sup 0}C, respectively. Polycaprolactone with drug-loadings as high as 27% w/w were obtained. Impregnated samples exhibited controlled drug release profiles over several days.

  20. Impregnation of Ibuprofen into Polycaprolactone using supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoganathan, Roshan; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil R

    2010-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved biodegradable polyester used in tissue engineering applications. Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug which has good solubility in supercritical CO 2 (SCCO 2 ). The solubility of CO 2 in PCL allows for the impregnation of CO 2 -soluble therapeutic agents into the polymer via a supercritical fluid (SCF) process. Polymers impregnated with bio-active compounds are highly desired for medical implants and controlled drug delivery. In this study, the use of CO 2 to impregnate PCL with ibuprofen was investigated. The effect of operating conditions on the impregnation of ibuprofen into PCL was investigated over two pressure and two temperature levels, 150bar and 200bar, 35 0 C and 40 0 C, respectively. Polycaprolactone with drug-loadings as high as 27% w/w were obtained. Impregnated samples exhibited controlled drug release profiles over several days.

  1. Particle-assisted wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Yan Feng; Tierno, Pietro; Marczewski, Dawid; Goedel, Werner A

    2005-01-01

    Wetting of a solid surface by a liquid is dramatically impeded if either the solid or the liquid is decorated by particles. Here it is shown that in the case of contact between two liquids the opposite effect may occur; mixtures of a hydrophobic liquid and suitable particles form wetting layers on a water surface though the liquid alone is non-wetting. In these wetting layers, the particles adsorb to, and partially penetrate through, the liquid/air and/or the liquid/water interface. This formation of wetting layers can be explained by the reduction in total interfacial energy due to the replacement of part of the fluid/fluid interfaces by the particles. It is most prominent if the contact angles at the fluid/fluid/particle contact lines are close to 90 0

  2. Some properties of castor oil affecting its performance as a capacitor impregnant and their significance to future impregnant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    For a considerable time castor oil and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been the principal impregnants used in energy-storage capacitors. Castor oil has proven to be better than PCB for pulsed applications. PCB's have come under attack as an environmental hazard, while castor oil is a vegetable product and its supply and quality are subject to fluctuation. These two facts make the development of new impregnants desirable. The properties of PCB as a capacitor impregnant are well known. This paper first compares a number of properties of castor oil and PCB's. A comparison is made between the lives of castor oil capacitors and comparable PCB energy-storage capacitors. Some of the physical and chemical properties of castor oil which make it a good pulse capacitor impregnant are examined. These properties can be used as a guide for future research on new pulse capacitor impregnants

  3. Effect of ultrasound on the structural and textural properties of copper-impregnated cerium-modified zirconium-pillared bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomul, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis of zirconium-pillared bentonite modified with cerium was performed via two different methods by the application of conventional and ultrasonic treatments during the intercalation stage. To synthesise copper-impregnated pillared clays by wet impregnation, cerium-modified zirconium-pillared clays were used as supportive materials after being calcined at 300 °C. Ultrasonic treatment significantly decreased the required processing time compared with the conventional treatment of the synthesised pillared bentonites. Chemical analysis confirmed the incorporation of Zr 4+ , Ce 4+ and Cu 2+ species into the pillared bentonites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of zirconium- and cerium/zirconium-pillared bentonites prepared by conventional treatment show that one large d-spacing above 3.5 nm corresponds to the mesoporous delaminated part, and another small d-spacing above 1.7 nm is indicative of the microporous pillared part. Zirconium- and cerium/zirconium-pillared bentonites prepared via ultrasonic treatment exhibited similar results, with the same high d-spacing but with a second low-intensity d-spacing above 1.9 nm. The delaminated structures of the pillared bentonites synthesised by both methods were conserved after copper impregnation. Nitrogen-adsorption isotherm analysis showed that the textural characteristics of products synthesised by ultrasonic treatment were comparable to those of products synthesised by conventional treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses showed the presence of Brønsted- and Lewis-acid sites, and zirconium-pillared clays synthesised by conventional treatment exhibited increased numbers of Brønsted- and Lewis-acid sites after cerium addition and copper impregnation. However, the products synthesised by ultrasonic treatment exhibited an increased number of Brønsted- and Lewis-acid sites after cerium addition, but a decreased number of acid sites after copper impregnation.

  4. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Zirconia-Impregnated Halloysite Nanotubes with Different Loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhyun; Kim, Moon Il; Shon, Minyoung; Seo, Bongkuk; Lim, Choongsun

    2018-09-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used in various industrial fields due to their low cost, good workability, heat resistance, and good mechanical strength. However, they suffer from brittleness, an issue that must be addressed for further applications. To solve this problem, additional fillers are needed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of the resins; zirconia is one such filler. However, it has been reported that aggregation may occur in the epoxy composites as the amount of zirconia increases, preventing enhancement of the mechanical strength of the epoxy composites. Herein, to reduce the aggregation, zirconia was well dispersed on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which have high thermal and mechanical strength, by a conventional wet impregnation method. The HNTs were impregnated with zirconia at different loadings using zirconyl chloride octahydrate as a precursor. The mechanical and thermal strengths of the epoxy composites with these fillers were investigated. The zirconia-impregnated HNTs (Zr/HNT) were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). The hardening conditions of the epoxy composites were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal strength of the epoxy composites was studied by thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and micro-calorimetry and the mechanical strength of the epoxy composites (flexural strength and tensile strength) was studied by using a universal testing machine (UTM). The mechanical and thermal strengths of the epoxy composites with Zr/HNT were improved compared to those of the epoxy composite with HNT, and also increased as the zirconia loading on HNT increased.

  5. ABB wet flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niijhawan, P.

    1994-12-31

    The wet limestone process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is outlined. The following topics are discussed: wet flue gas desulfurization, wet FGD characteristics, wet scrubbers, ABB wet FGD experience, wet FGD forced oxidation, advanced limestone FGD systems, key design elements, open spray tower design, spray tower vs. packed tower, important performance parameters, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, influence by L/G, limestone utilization, wet FGD commercial database, particulate removal efficiencies, materials of construction, nozzle layout, spray nozzles, recycle pumps, mist elimination, horizontal flow demister, mist eliminator washing, reagent preparation system, spray tower FGDS power consumption, flue gas reheat options, byproduct conditioning system, and wet limestone system.

  6. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh, Sneha E.; Ramanathan, Anand; Begum, K.M. Meera S.; Narayanan, Anantharaman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • KBr impregnated CaO has been used as heterogeneous catalyst. • Efficient use of waste cooking oil as feedstock. • Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize process parameters. - Abstract: This research paper deals with the synthesis of a heterogeneous catalyst (KBr/CaO) from commercial calcium oxide and potassium bromide by wet impregnation method. This solid catalyst was tested for transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO). The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. Transesterification reaction parameters were varied to obtain the maximum yield of biodiesel. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to study the effect of the process variables like methanol to oil ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time. The optimum conditions obtained using regression models were found to be 12:1 methanol: oil ratio, 3 wt% catalyst loading and 1.8 h reaction time. The composition of FAME was determined using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). The performance and emission characteristics for various blends of biodiesel (B10, B20, B50 and B100) were investigated in a four stroke direct injection diesel engine. The results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency, particulate matter, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide emissions reduced with increased concentration of biodiesel in the fuel blends, whereas the specific fuel consumption, NO x emissions and exhaust gas temperature increased

  7. Magnetite impregnation effects on the sorbent properties of activated carbons and biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhantao; Sani, Badruddeen; Mrozik, Wojciech; Obst, Martin; Beckingham, Barbara; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Werner, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the sorbent properties of magnetic activated carbons and biochars produced by wet impregnation with iron oxides. The sorbents had magnetic susceptibilities consistent with theoretical predictions for carbon-magnetite composites. The high BET surface areas of the activated carbons were preserved in the synthesis, and enhanced for one low surface area biochar by dissolving carbonates. Magnetization decreased the point of zero charge. Organic compound sorption correlated strongly with BET surface areas for the pristine and magnetized materials, while metal cation sorption did not show such a correlation. Strong sorption of the hydrophobic organic contaminant phenanthrene to the activated carbon or biochar surfaces was maintained following magnetite impregnation, while phenol sorption was diminished, probably due to enhanced carbon oxidation. Copper, zinc and lead sorption to the activated carbons and biochars was unchanged or slightly enhanced by the magnetization, and iron oxides also contributed to the composite metal sorption capacity. While a magnetic biochar with 219 ± 3.7 m(2)/g surface area nearly reached the very strong organic pollutant binding capacity of the two magnetic activated carbons, a magnetic biochar with 68 ± 2.8 m(2)/g surface area was the best metal sorbent. Magnetic biochars thus hold promise as more sustainable alternatives to coal-derived magnetic activated carbons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impregnation of soft biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagens, G

    1979-06-01

    A new method for impregnation of biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers is described. The method has the advantage that the original relief of the surface is retained. The impregnation is carried out by utilizing the difference between the high vapor tension of the intermedium (e.g., methylene chloride) and the low vapor tension of the solution to be polymerized. After impregnation, the specimen is subject to polymerization conditions without surrounding embedding material. The optical and mechanical properties can be selected by proper choice from various kinds of resins and different procedures, for example, by complete or incomplete impregnation. Acrylic resins, polyester resins, epoxy resins, polyurethanes and silicone rubber have been found suitable for the method. Excellent results have been obtained using transparent silicone rubber since after treatment the specimens are still flexible and resilient, and have retained their natural appearance.

  9. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G K; Singh, Beer

    2004-12-31

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m2/gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(VI) as CrO3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 degrees C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO3/C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO3/EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO3)2/C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl3/C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard.

  10. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Singh, Beer

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m 2 /gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(Vi) as CrO 3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 deg. C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO 3 /C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO 3 /EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO 3 ) 2 /C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl 3 /C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard

  11. Fracture in Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Pham, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel technique to understand the failure mechanisms inside thermal protection materials. The focus of this research is on the class of materials known as phenolic impregnated carbon ablators. It has successfully flown on the Stardust spacecraft and is the thermal protection system material chosen for the Mars Science Laboratory and SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Although it has good thermal properties, structurally, it is a weak material. To understand failure mechanisms in carbon ablators, fracture tests were performed on FiberForm(Registered TradeMark) (precursor), virgin, and charred ablator materials. Several samples of these materials were tested to investigate failure mechanisms at a microstructural scale. Stress-strain data were obtained simultaneously to estimate the tensile strength and toughness. It was observed that cracks initiated and grew in the FiberForm when a critical stress limit was reached such that the carbon fibers separated from the binder. However, both for virgin and charred carbon ablators, crack initiation and growth occurred in the matrix (phenolic) phase. Both virgin and charred carbon ablators showed greater strength values compared with FiberForm samples, confirming that the presence of the porous matrix helps in absorbing the fracture energy.

  12. Birefringence and incipient plastic deformation in elastically overdriven [100] CaF2 under shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Cai, Y.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    [100] CaF2 single crystals are shock-compressed via symmetric planar impact, and the flyer plate-target interface velocity histories are measured with a laser displacement interferometry. The shock loading is slightly above the Hugoniot elastic limit to investigate incipient plasticity and its kinetics, and its effects on optical properties and deformation inhomogeneity. Fringe patterns demonstrate different features in modulation of fringe amplitude, including birefringence and complicated modulations. The birefringence is attributed to local lattice rotation accompanying incipient plasticity. Spatially resolved measurements show inhomogeneity in deformation, birefringence, and fringe pattern evolutions, most likely caused by the inhomogeneity associated with lattice rotation and dislocation slip. Transiently overdriven elastic states are observed, and the incubation time for incipient plasticity decreases inversely with increasing overdrive by the elastic shock.

  13. Fault prediction for nonlinear stochastic system with incipient faults based on particle filter and nonlinear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Fang, Huajing

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the fault prediction for the nonlinear stochastic system with incipient faults. Based on the particle filter and the reasonable assumption about the incipient faults, the modified fault estimation algorithm is proposed, and the system state is estimated simultaneously. According to the modified fault estimation, an intuitive fault detection strategy is introduced. Once each of the incipient fault is detected, the parameters of which are identified by a nonlinear regression method. Then, based on the estimated parameters, the future fault signal can be predicted. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the simulations of the Three-tank system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A kinetic study of pyrolysis in pitch impregnated electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocaefe, D.; Charette, A.; Ferland, J.; Couderc, P.; Saint-Romain, J.L. (Universite du Quebec a Chicoutini, Chicoutini, PQ (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    A study was conducted on carbon electrodes which were impregnated with three different pitches. The focus of the study was to investigate the pyrolysis of pitch impregnated electrodes. For the purposes of the research an experimental technique and calculation procedure were developed. A kinetic model was used to interpret the data, comparison of model predictions and experimental data showed good agreement. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  16. Boiling hysteresis of impinging circular submerged jets with highly wetting liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.W.; Ma, C.F.; Yu, J.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to characterize the boiling hysteresis of impinging circular submerged jets with highly wetting liquids. The effects of noncondensable gases and surface aging on boiling curves were considered. The present study focused on the effects of jet parameters (jet exit velocity, radial distance from the stagnation point and nozzle diameter) and fluid subcooling on incipient boiling superheat and superheat excursion, as well as the physical mechanism of boiling hysteresis. Results show that the incipient boiling superheat decreases only with fluid subcooling regardless of jet parameters, and that the superheat excursion increases with nozzle diameter and radial distance from the stagnation point and decreasing jet exit velocity and fluid subcooling. Boiling hysteresis occurs due to deactivation of vapor embryos within larger cavities. Three anomalous phenomena at boiling inception are recorded and discussed in terms of irregular activation of vapor embryos

  17. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  18. PROTECTIVE TREATMENT OF WOOD IMPREGNATING COMPOSITION OF PETROCHEMICAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Maslakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at expanding the applications of the copolymers on the basis of the waste styrene production. One of the areas is used as impregnating compositions of wood materials, selection of optimal conditions modification on samples of the most widely used in the industry of wood, such as birch, aspen and other. Studies were conducted to obtain and use an impregnating compositions based on copolymers synthesized from waste products of styrene and the cubic remainder rectification of ethylbenzene (CRRE for the protective treatment of birch wood. Identified physic-chemical characteristics of physical mixtures of copolymers «CORS», «STAM», CRRE at different ratios. Studied the process of modification birch using the method of experiment planning greco-latin square of the fourth order, and the influence of such factors as the temperature of the impregnating composition, the duration of the impregnation, the temperature and duration of thermal treatment on the performance moisture resistance of wood. Were established optimal conditions modification birch wood treated impregnating compositions on the basis of physical mixtures of copolymer «CORS» with CRRE and copolymer «STAM» with CRRE is the mixing ratio 2:1, the duration and temperature of the impregnation 7 h and 95 0C, time and temperature of heat treatment 7 h and 170 0C, respectively. A sealing composition containing CRRE with copolymer «STAM» 1:2 is more preferable, as in the structure of the copolymer «STAM» contains carboxyl and anhydrite group. Thus was justified use for the modification of natural wood impregnating compositions on the basis of physical mixtures of CRRE with copolymers «CORS» and «STAM», which improve the properties of wood, increase moisture and weather resistance more than twice.

  19. Wetting of real surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward Yu

    2013-01-01

    The problem of wetting and drop dynamics on various surfaces is very interesting from both the scientificas well as thepractical viewpoint, and subject of intense research.The results are scattered across papers in journals, sothis workwill meet the need for a unifying, comprehensive work.

  20. Wet oxidation of quinoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Kilen, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of oxygen pressure (0.4 and 2 MPa). reaction time (30 and 60 min) and temperature (260 and 280 degrees C) on the wet oxidation of quinoline has been studied. The dominant parameters for the decomposition of quinoline were oxygen pressure and reaction temperature. whereas the reactio...

  1. Incipient ferroelectric properties of NaTaO.sub.3./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Goian, Veronica; Bovtun, Viktor; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Kempa, Martin; Spreitzer, M.; König, J.; Suvorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 426, SI (2012), s. 206-214 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : incipient ferroelectricity * infrared and THz spectroscopy * phonons * microwave ceramics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2012

  2. Incipient merger of Cls 11 and 5 in Xhosa? | Gowlett | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Xhosa, there appears to be an incipient merger between Noun Classes 5 and 11, as revealed by frequent mismatches between Cl. 11 nouns and various concordial elements, and even the replacement of the Cl. 11 noun prefix by that of Cl. 5. In this article we explore possible reasons for this putative merger, and present ...

  3. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlee Azil Illias

    Full Text Available It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN and particle swarm optimisation (PSO techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  4. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, Hazlee Azil; Chai, Xin Rui; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim; Mokhlis, Hazlie

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  5. Incipient ovarian failure and premature ovarian failure show the same immunological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, YM; von Blomberg, M; Hoek, A; de Koning, C; Lambalk, N; van Montfrans, J; Kuik, J

    PROBLEM: Incipient ovarian failure (IOF) is characterized by regular menstrual cycles, infertility and a raised early-follicular FSH in women under 40. IOF might be a precursor or a mitigated form of premature ovarian failure (POF). Disturbances in the immune system may play a role in ovarian

  6. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works. PMID:26103634

  7. Incipient failure detection of space shuttle main engine turbopump bearings using vibration envelope detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an analysis performed on seven successive Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) static test firings, utilizing envelope detection of external accelerometer data are discussed. The results clearly show the great potential for using envelope detection techniques in SSME incipient failure detection.

  8. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...

  9. Incipient Fault Detection for Rolling Element Bearings under Varying Speed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Xue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Varying speed conditions bring a huge challenge to incipient fault detection of rolling element bearings because both the change of speed and faults could lead to the amplitude fluctuation of vibration signals. Effective detection methods need to be developed to eliminate the influence of speed variation. This paper proposes an incipient fault detection method for bearings under varying speed conditions. Firstly, relative residual (RR features are extracted, which are insensitive to the varying speed conditions and are able to reflect the degradation trend of bearings. Then, a health indicator named selected negative log-likelihood probability (SNLLP is constructed to fuse a feature set including RR features and non-dimensional features. Finally, based on the constructed SNLLP health indicator, a novel alarm trigger mechanism is designed to detect the incipient fault. The proposed method is demonstrated using vibration signals from bearing tests and industrial wind turbines. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method for incipient fault detection of rolling element bearings under varying speed conditions.

  10. Incipient Fault Detection for Rolling Element Bearings under Varying Speed Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lang; Li, Naipeng; Lei, Yaguo; Li, Ningbo

    2017-06-20

    Varying speed conditions bring a huge challenge to incipient fault detection of rolling element bearings because both the change of speed and faults could lead to the amplitude fluctuation of vibration signals. Effective detection methods need to be developed to eliminate the influence of speed variation. This paper proposes an incipient fault detection method for bearings under varying speed conditions. Firstly, relative residual (RR) features are extracted, which are insensitive to the varying speed conditions and are able to reflect the degradation trend of bearings. Then, a health indicator named selected negative log-likelihood probability (SNLLP) is constructed to fuse a feature set including RR features and non-dimensional features. Finally, based on the constructed SNLLP health indicator, a novel alarm trigger mechanism is designed to detect the incipient fault. The proposed method is demonstrated using vibration signals from bearing tests and industrial wind turbines. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method for incipient fault detection of rolling element bearings under varying speed conditions.

  11. Durability of Gamma Irradiated Polymer Impregnated Blended Cement Pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.M.; Abdel-Rahman, H.A.; Younes, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study is focusing on durability and performance of the neat blended cement paste as well as those of the polymer-impregnated paste towards seawater and various concentrations of magnesium sulfate solutions up to 6 months of curing. The neat blended cement paste is prepared by a partial substitution of ordinary Portland cement with 5% of active rice husk ash (RHA). These samples were cured under tap water for 7 days. Similar samples were impregnated with unsaturated polyester resin (UPE) and subjected to various doses of gamma rays ranging from 10 to 50 kGy. The results showed that the irradiated impregnated specimens gave higher values of compressive strength than the neat blended cement paste specimens. On immersing the neat blended cement specimens and polymer impregnated specimens especially that irradiated at 30 kGy in seawater and different concentrations of magnesium sulfate solutions up to 6 months of curing, the results showed that the polymer impregnated blended cement (OPC-RHA-UPE) paste have a good resistance towards aggressive media as compared to the neat blended cement (OPC-RHA) paste. The results also indicated that the sea water has a greater corrosive effect than the magnesium sulfate solutions. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP)

  12. Determination and microscopic study of incipient defects in irradiated power reactor fuel rods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasupathi, V.; Perrin, J.S.; Roberts, E.

    1978-05-01

    This report presents the results of nondestructive and destructive examinations carried out on the Point Beach-1 (PWR) and Dresden-3 (BWR) candidate fuel rods selected for the study of pellet-clad interaction (PCI) induced incipient defects. In addition, the report includes results of examination of sections from Oskarshamn-1 (BWR) fuel rods. Eddy current examination of Point Beach-1 rods showed indications of possible incipient defects in the fuel rods. The profilometry and the gamma scan data also indicated that the source of the eddy current indications may be incipient defects. No failed rods or rods with incipient failure were found in the sample from Point Beach-1. Despite the lack of success in finding incipient defects and filed rods, the mechanism for fuel rod failures in Point Beach-1 is postulated to be PCI-related, with high startup rates and fuel handling being the key elements. Nine out of the 10 candidate fuel rods from Dresden-3 (BWR) were failed, and all the failed rods had leaked water so that the initial mechanism was observed. Examination of clad inner surfaces of the specimens from failed and unfailed rods showed fuel deposits of widely varying appearance. The deposits were found to contain uranium, cesium, and tellurium. Transmission electron microscopy of clad specimens showed evidence of microscopic strain. Metallographic examination of fuel pellets from the peak transient power location showed extensive grain boundary separation and axial movement of the fuel indicative of rapid release of fission products. Examination of Oskarshamn clad specimens did not show any stress corrosion crack (SCC) type defects. The defects found in the examinations appear to be related to secondary hydriding. The clad inner surface of the Oskarshamn specimens also showed uranium-rich deposits of varying features

  13. Impregnated Fibrous Materials. Report of a Study Group on Impregnated Fibrous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-10-15

    There has recently been renewed interest in the use of radiation from radioisotopes or particle accelerators to initiate and sustain chemical reactions. Particular attention is being paid to the production of wood-plastic composites, a process which is now a commercial reality with radiation competing against chemical methods to enhance the properties of wood. It has been reported that water repellancy, hardness, weathering, insect and chemical resistance, compressive, bending and shear strength can be significantly improved by the process, but so far there has been a limited commercial outlet for the product. Papers on this subject were presented at the International Atomic Energy Agency's Symposium on Industrial Uses of Large Radiation Sources, Salzburg, May 1963, and since then the Agency has been aware of the interest of developing countries in conducting research on wood and other fibrous materials as a means of further exploiting natural resources. It was felt that some attempt should be made to co-ordinate, on a regional basis, the work being done in this field and at the same time review the world status, including the associated technology in such areas as monomer-polymer chemistry and impregnation techniques where they are directly related to this work. Because of the wide range of fibrous materials being studied there, Asia and the Far East was chosen as the most representative area and 39 participants from 13 countries, and from international organizations, met in Bangkok from 20 to 24 November 1967 to assess the potential of impregnated fibrous materials. This report is a record of the meeting and is based not only on work performed both inside and outside the region but also on details of the resources and industries in the area.

  14. Starch-modified magnetite nanoparticles for impregnation into cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soshnikova, Yulia M., E-mail: yuliasoshnikova@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute on Laser and Information Technologies (Russian Federation); Roman, Svetlana G.; Chebotareva, Natalia A. [A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Baum, Olga I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute on Laser and Information Technologies (Russian Federation); Obrezkova, Mariya V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Gillis, Richard B.; Harding, Stephen E. [University of Nottingham, National Centre for Macromolecular Hydrodynamics (United Kingdom); Sobol, Emil N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute on Laser and Information Technologies (Russian Federation); Lunin, Valeriy V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents preparation and characterization of starch-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous dispersion after impregnation into healthy and damaged types of cartilage. We show that starch-modified dispersion has a narrower size distribution than a non‐stabilized one. The average hydrodynamic radius of magnetite NPs in a dispersion used for impregnation into cartilage is (48 ± 1) nm with the width of the distribution from 5 to 200 nm. We investigate stability of aqueous magnetite NPs dispersions during storage and with increase in temperature (up to 70 °C). We find that polydisperse magnetite NPs can penetrate into cartilage and the size and concentration of impregnated particles depend on the organization of the tissue structure. The results confirm the possibility of application of magnetite NPs in diagnostics and laser treatment of degenerative cartilage deceases.

  15. Physical and chemical durability of cement impregnated epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro

    1997-01-01

    Immobilization of simulation radioactive waste contains Cs and Sr with cement impregnated epoxy resin has been done. Low level liquid waste in 30% weight mixed cement homogeneously and then set in its curing time about 28 days. Waste from was impregnated with epoxy resin (Bisphenol-A-diglycidylether) and use Triethylenteramin as catalyst. the sample of cement impregnated epoxy resin 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm in diameter and length was tested by Paul Weber. The compressive strength was obtained of 4.08 kN.cm - 2. The sochxlet apparatus was run on flow rate of 300 ml/hour at 100 o C and during 24 hours. The leaching rate of Cs was round on 5.5 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 and Sr was 6.1 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 (author)

  16. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  17. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of polyethylene components for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamse Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modem hip and knee endoprosthesis are produced in titanium and to reduce the friction at the contact area polymer parts, mainly ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE, are installed. The polyethylene is impregnated with a-tocopherol (vitamin E before processing for remarkable decrease of oxidative degradation. Cross linked UHMW-PE offers much higher stability, but a-tocopherol cannot be added before processing, because a-tocopherol hinders the cross linking process accompanied by a heavy degradation of the vitamin. The impregnation of UHMW-PE with a-tocopherol has to be performed after the cross linking process and an accurate concentration has to be achieved over the cross section of the whole material. In the first tests UHMW-PE-cubes were stored in pure a-tocopherol under inert atmosphere at temperatures from 100 to 150 °C resulting in a high mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the edge zones and no constant concentration over the cross section. For better distribution and for regulating the mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the cross linked UHMW-PE material supercritical CO2 impregnation tests were investigated. Again UHMW-PE-cubes were impregnated in an autoclave with a-tocopherol dissolved in supercritical CO2 at different pressures and temperatures with variable impregnation times and vitamin E concentrations. Based on the excellent results of supercritical CO2 impregnation standard hip and knee cups were stabilized nearly homogeneously with varying mass fraction of a-tocopherol.

  18. On the effect of cross sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of sediments in fixed bed channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Mir-Jafar-Sadegh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of incipient motion and deposition are of the essential issues for the study of sediment transport. This phenomenon is of great importance to hydraulic engineers for designing sewers, drainage, as well as other rigid boundary channels. This is a study carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of cross-sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of particles in rigid boundary channels. In this research work, the experimental data given by Loveless (1992 and Mohammadi (2005 are used. On the basis of the critical velocity approach, a new incipient motion equation for a V-shaped bottom channel and incipient deposition of sediment particles equations for rigid boundary channels having circular, rectangular, and U-shaped cross sections are obtained. New equations were compared to the other incipient motion equations. The result shows that the cross-sectional shape is an important factor for defining the minimum velocity for no-deposit particles. This study also distinguishes incipient motion of particles from incipient deposition for particles. The results may be useful for designing fixed bed channels with a limited deposition condition.

  19. Study of formation mechanism of incipient melting in thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kang, E-mail: du126kang@126.com; Zhu, Qiang, E-mail: zhu.qiang@grinm.com; Li, Daquan, E-mail: lidaquan@grinm.com; Zhang, Fan, E-mail: sk_zf@163.com

    2015-08-15

    Mechanical properties of thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys can be enhanced by T61 heat treatment. Copper and magnesium atoms in aluminum matrix can form homogeneously distributed precipitations after solution and aging treatment which harden the alloys. However, microsegregation of these alloying elements could form numerous tiny multi-compound phases during solidification. These phases could cause incipient melting defects in subsequent heat treatment process and degrade the macro-mechanical properties of productions. This study is to present heterogeneous distribution of Cu, Si, and Mg elements and formation of incipient melting defects (pores). In this study, incipient melting pores that occurred during solution treatment at various temperatures, even lower than common melting points of various intermetallic phases, were identified, in terms of a method of investigating the same surface area in the samples before and after solution treatment in a vacuum environment. The results also show that the incipient melting mostly originates at the clusters with fine intermetallic particles while also some at the edge of block-like Al{sub 2}Cu. The fine particles were determined being Al{sub 2}Cu, Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 2}Mg{sub 8}Si{sub 6} and Al{sub 8}Mg{sub 3}FeSi{sub 2}. Tendency of the incipient melting decreases with decreases of the width of the clusters. The formation mechanism of incipient melting pores in solution treatment process was discussed using both the Fick law and the LSW theory. Finally, a criterion of solution treatment to avoid incipient melting pores for the thixo-cast alloys is proposed. - Highlights: • In-situ comparison technique was used to analysis the change of eutectic phases. • The ralationship between eutectic phase size and incipient melting was studied. • Teat treatment criterion for higher incipient melting resistance was proposed.

  20. Study of formation mechanism of incipient melting in thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Kang; Zhu, Qiang; Li, Daquan; Zhang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical properties of thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys can be enhanced by T61 heat treatment. Copper and magnesium atoms in aluminum matrix can form homogeneously distributed precipitations after solution and aging treatment which harden the alloys. However, microsegregation of these alloying elements could form numerous tiny multi-compound phases during solidification. These phases could cause incipient melting defects in subsequent heat treatment process and degrade the macro-mechanical properties of productions. This study is to present heterogeneous distribution of Cu, Si, and Mg elements and formation of incipient melting defects (pores). In this study, incipient melting pores that occurred during solution treatment at various temperatures, even lower than common melting points of various intermetallic phases, were identified, in terms of a method of investigating the same surface area in the samples before and after solution treatment in a vacuum environment. The results also show that the incipient melting mostly originates at the clusters with fine intermetallic particles while also some at the edge of block-like Al 2 Cu. The fine particles were determined being Al 2 Cu, Al 5 Cu 2 Mg 8 Si 6 and Al 8 Mg 3 FeSi 2 . Tendency of the incipient melting decreases with decreases of the width of the clusters. The formation mechanism of incipient melting pores in solution treatment process was discussed using both the Fick law and the LSW theory. Finally, a criterion of solution treatment to avoid incipient melting pores for the thixo-cast alloys is proposed. - Highlights: • In-situ comparison technique was used to analysis the change of eutectic phases. • The ralationship between eutectic phase size and incipient melting was studied. • Teat treatment criterion for higher incipient melting resistance was proposed

  1. Method and system for early detection of incipient faults in electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G; Kim, Kyusung

    2003-07-08

    A method and system for early detection of incipient faults in an electric motor are disclosed. First, current and voltage values for one or more phases of the electric motor are measured during motor operations. A set of current predictions is then determined via a neural network-based current predictor based on the measured voltage values and an estimate of motor speed values of the electric motor. Next, a set of residuals is generated by combining the set of current predictions with the measured current values. A set of fault indicators is subsequently computed from the set of residuals and the measured current values. Finally, a determination is made as to whether or not there is an incipient electrical, mechanical, and/or electromechanical fault occurring based on the comparison result of the set of fault indicators and a set of predetermined baseline values.

  2. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  3. Early detection of incipient faults in power plants using accelerated neural network learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Jayakumar, M.; Atiya, A.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of power plant automation is the development of computer systems able to detect and isolate incipient (slowly developing) faults at the earliest possible stages of their occurrence. In this paper, the development and testing of such a fault detection scheme is presented based on recognition of sensor signatures during various failure modes. An accelerated learning algorithm, namely adaptive backpropagation (ABP), has been developed that allows the training of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) network to a high degree of accuracy, with an order of magnitude improvement in convergence speed. An artificial neural network (ANN) has been successfully trained using the ABP algorithm, and it has been extensively tested with simulated data to detect and classify incipient faults of various types and severity and in the presence of varying sensor noise levels

  4. The determination of superheated layer thickness for boiling incipience in a vertical thermosiphon reboiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzoha, M.; Kamil, M.; Alam, S.S.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of the incipient boiling for vertical thermosiphon reboiler were examined in detail. At the onset of boiling, liquid film adjacent to the heating surface, the super-heated layers thickness δ * , must attain a threshold value so that the critical bubble nuclei with radius r c can further grow to the point of detachment. Thus, the value of δ * /r c is of primary importance for the superheat calculation. In the present study a semi-empirical equation was proposed for the incipient point of boiling including the effect of submergence. The results predicted from theoretical analysis are consistent with the experimental data available in the literature. All the data for fluids namely, distilled water, toluene and ethylene glycol having different thermophysical properties were correlated with a unified correlation having mean absolute deviation 12.73%. (author)

  5. Chiral separation of amino-alcohols using extractant impregnated resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babic, K.; Driessen, G.H.M.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of extractant impregnated resin (EIR) technology for chiral separation of amino-alcohols has been investigated. Phenylglycinol was selected as an archetype model enantiomer and azophenolic crown ether was used as a versatile enantioselective extractant. 1-Phenyloctane was selected as

  6. Properties of carbonisation products obtained from impregnated coal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plevová, Eva; Šugárková, Věra; Kaloč, M.; Vaculíková, Lenka

    -, - (2008), s. 52-61. ISBN 978-80-248-1939-6 Grant - others:GA CŘ(CZ) GA105/00/1698 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : chlorides * impregnation * coal Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Arsenic removal using silver-impregnated Prosopis spicigera L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic removal using silver-impregnated Prosopis spicigera L. wood (PSLW) activated carbon: batch and column studies. ... Arsenic uptake has no regular trend with increasing pH; contains two adsorption maxima, the first adsorption maximum at pH 4.0 and a second adsorption maximum at pH 10.0. The extent of As (III) ...

  8. Impregnation of LSM Based Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Jonathan; Søgaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Composites cathodes consisting of strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) and yttria stabilized zirconia have been impregnated with the nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions: La0.75Sr0.25Mn1.05O3 +/-delta (LSM25), Ce0.8Sm0.2O2 (SDC) and a combination of both (dual). The latter...

  9. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  10. Fabrication of HTR fuel elements by a gaseous impregnation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, J.C.; Berthier, J.; Devillard, J.

    1976-01-01

    The results obtained with the gaseous impregnation process are described. The successive steps of the fabrication in their present state of realization are given together with the results obtained after irradiation. A comparison between this process and a classical method is presented

  11. Textile impregnation with thermoplastic resin - models and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, Richard; Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Lamers, E.A.D.; Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Kelly, P.A.; Bickerton, S.; Lescher, P.; Govignon, Q.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key issues of the development of cost-effective thermoplastic composites for the aerospace industry is the process quality control. A complete, void free impregnation of the textile reinforcement by the thermoplastic resin is an important measure of the quality of composites. The

  12. Determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide by sampling with impregnated filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiano, J.A.; Palomares, F.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of filters impregnated with triethanolamine for the collection and subsequent determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide is studied taking into account the influence of several parameters: storage of filters, reagents, elapsed time, sampling efficiency, etc. The results obtained for sampling times of 24 hours are satisfactory. (author) [es

  13. Forecasting the condition of petroleum impregnated load bearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum products (PP) used in industrial processes systematically fall on the load-bearing CRC structures and gradually impregnate therein. Currently, available guidelines for the assessment of technical condition and reliability of load-bearing CRC structures do not fully take into account the effect of viscosity of PP that ...

  14. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A. [IBA Industrial, Inc., Edgewood, NY (United States); Berejka, Anthony J. [Ionicorp, Huntington, NY 11743 (United States)], E-mail: berejka@msn.com; Montoney, Daniel [Strathmore Products, Syracuse, NY (United States); Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L. [State University of New York, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2009-07-15

    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  15. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Berejka, Anthony J.; Montoney, Daniel; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L.

    2009-01-01

    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  16. Monomer-Polymer Chemistry and the Impregnation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannett, V. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1968-10-15

    A brief outline of early polymerization techniques is followed by a description of polymerization process chemistry, impregnation and polymerization methods and criteria for the choice of monomer. General considerations, including the effects of polymerization inhibitors, swelling agents, radiation dose rate and sample thickness, are enumerated. (author)

  17. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of water evaporation dynamics for early detection of incipient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-10-01

    Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Survey of the current state of knowledge of incipient boiling superheat in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, B.

    1979-01-01

    Superheat data obtained by various investigators indicate that many parameters affect this phenomenon. Controlling parameters appear to be inert gas concentration, oxide concentration, system pressure, pressure-temperature history, rate of temperature rise, heat flux, flow rate, operating time on the system, surface conditions, and radiation. Of these, the two believed most influential in controlling incipient boiling superheat are the inert gas concentration and oxide concentration. Experimental results for the heat flux and rate of temperature rise appear to be the most inconsistent

  19. Effect angiotensin II receptor blockers on glomerular filtration rate in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, T.; Ajdinovic, B.; Endocrinology Clinic

    2004-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy with an aim to evaluate the effect of angiotensin receptor blockator valsartan on GFR stabilisation to physiological levels. Investigation was done as a prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study, on 20 patients with diabetes mellitus, type I (age 25 years, disease lasting 14 years). In all patients was detected incipient diabetic nephropathy with daily urinary albumin excretion in range from 30 mg to 300 mg. Patients were randomised in two groups: 10 patients were treated with 80 mg /day valsartan, during 6 months, second group (10 patients) were on placebo at the same period. GFR, as a clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, was calculated at the start and at the end of the study. In the first patients group during investigation period, GFR was decreased from 150, 1 ml/min/1.73m 2 to physiological level of 127 ml/min/1,73m 2 (p 2 at the start, 139,9 ml/min/l.73m 2 at the end of the study).On the basis of these results it was concluded that 80 mg/day in 6 month valsartan therapy decreased GFR to physiological levels in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  20. A Novel Event-Based Incipient Slip Detection Using Dynamic Active-Pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigi, Amin; Baghaei Naeini, Fariborz; Makris, Dimitrios; Zweiri, Yahya

    2018-01-24

    In this paper, a novel approach to detect incipient slip based on the contact area between a transparent silicone medium and different objects using a neuromorphic event-based vision sensor (DAVIS) is proposed. Event-based algorithms are developed to detect incipient slip, slip, stress distribution and object vibration. Thirty-seven experiments were performed on five objects with different sizes, shapes, materials and weights to compare precision and response time of the proposed approach. The proposed approach is validated by using a high speed constitutional camera (1000 FPS). The results indicate that the sensor can detect incipient slippage with an average of 44.1 ms latency in unstructured environment for various objects. It is worth mentioning that the experiments were conducted in an uncontrolled experimental environment, therefore adding high noise levels that affected results significantly. However, eleven of the experiments had a detection latency below 10 ms which shows the capability of this method. The results are very promising and show a high potential of the sensor being used for manipulation applications especially in dynamic environments.

  1. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters

  2. Incipient multiple fault diagnosis in real time with applications to large-scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.Y.; Bien, Z.; Park, J.H.; Seon, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    By using a modified signed directed graph (SDG) together with the distributed artificial neutral networks and a knowledge-based system, a method of incipient multi-fault diagnosis is presented for large-scale physical systems with complex pipes and instrumentations such as valves, actuators, sensors, and controllers. The proposed method is designed so as to (1) make a real-time incipient fault diagnosis possible for large-scale systems, (2) perform the fault diagnosis not only in the steady-state case but also in the transient case as well by using a concept of fault propagation time, which is newly adopted in the SDG model, (3) provide with highly reliable diagnosis results and explanation capability of faults diagnosed as in an expert system, and (4) diagnose the pipe damage such as leaking, break, or throttling. This method is applied for diagnosis of a pressurizer in the Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) unit 2 in Korea under a transient condition, and its result is reported to show satisfactory performance of the method for the incipient multi-fault diagnosis of such a large-scale system in a real-time manner

  3. Multiple incipient sensor faults diagnosis with application to high-speed railway traction devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunkai; Jiang, Bin; Lu, Ningyun; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Yang

    2017-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of incipient fault diagnosis for a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems with sensor biases and explores further results of total measurable fault information residual (ToMFIR). Firstly, state and output transformations are introduced to transform the original system into two subsystems. The first subsystem is subject to system disturbances and free from sensor faults, while the second subsystem contains sensor faults but without any system disturbances. Sensor faults in the second subsystem are then formed as actuator faults by using a pseudo-actuator based approach. Since the effects of system disturbances on the residual are completely decoupled, multiple incipient sensor faults can be detected by constructing ToMFIR, and the fault detectability condition is then derived for discriminating the detectable incipient sensor faults. Further, a sliding-mode observers (SMOs) based fault isolation scheme is designed to guarantee accurate isolation of multiple sensor faults. Finally, simulation results conducted on a CRH2 high-speed railway traction device are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Incipient in Journal Bearings - Part I : Detectability and measurement for bearing damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dong Jin; Kwon, Oh Yang; Chung, Min Hwa; Kim, Kyung Woong

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to the machinery using rolling element bearings, systems with journal bearings generally operate in large scale and under severe loading condition such as steam generator turbines and internal combustion engines. Failure of the bearings in these machinery can result in the system breakdown. To avoid the time consuming repair and considerable economic loss, the detection of incipient failure in journal bearings becomes very important. In this experimental approach, acoustic emission monitoring is applied to the detection of incipient failure caused by several types of abnormal operating condition most probable in the journal bearing systems. It has been known that the intervention of foreign materials, insufficient lubrication and misassembly etc. are principal factors to cause bearing failure and distress. The experiment was conducted under such designed conditions as hard particles in the lubrication layer, insufficient lubrication, and metallic contact in the simulated journal bearing system. The results showed that acoustic emission could be an effective tool to detect the incipient failure in journal bearings

  5. The edible cocktail: the effect of sugar and alcohol impregnation on the crunchiness of fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Peters, M.M.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is seen as a valuable technique for flavor pairing in the catering industry. One of the applications of this technique is the creation of edible cocktails by impregnating of fruits with liquors, leading to an interplay of different flavors. However, the effect of the impregnation

  6. Radiation hardenable impregnating agents for the consolidating conservation of wooden objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation hardenable impregnating agents offer some advantages over the conventional agents. At the author's institution objects up to 110 cm length can be impregnated for conservation. More than 200 monomers and resins have been investigated. The procedure of impregnation is outlined and some kinds of wooden objects conserved in this way listed. (G.W.)

  7. Impact of small-scale geometric roughness on wetting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vaibhaw; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-24

    We examine the extent to which small-scale geometric substrate roughness influences the wetting behavior of fluids at solid surfaces. Molecular simulation is used to construct roughness wetting diagrams wherein the progression of the contact angle is traced from the Cassie to Wenzel to impregnation regime with increasing substrate strength for a collection of systems with rectangularly shaped grooves. We focus on the evolution of these diagrams as the length scale of the substrate features approaches the size of a fluid molecule. When considering a series of wetting diagrams for substrates with fixed shape and variable feature periodicity, we find that the diagrams progressively shift away from a common curve as the substrate features become smaller than approximately 10 fluid diameters. It is at this length scale that the macroscopic models of Cassie and Wenzel become unreliable. Deviations from the macroscopic models are attributed to the manner in which the effective substrate-fluid interaction strength evolves with periodicity and the important role that confinement effects play for substrates with small periodicities.

  8. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number

  9. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  10. Wetting of alkanes on water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, E.; Bonn, D.; Meunier, J.; Shahidzadeh, N. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231, Cedex 05 Paris (France); Broseta, D.; Ragil, K. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1-4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Dobbs, H.; Indekeu, J.O. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    The wetting behavior of oil on water (or brine) has important consequences for the transport properties of oil in water-containing porous reservoirs, and consequently for oil recovery. The equilibrium wetting behavior of model oils composed of pure alkanes or alkane mixtures on brine is reviewed in this paper. Intermediate between the partial wetting state, in which oil lenses coexist on water with a thin film of adsorbed alkane molecules, and the complete wetting state, in which a macroscopically thick oil layer covers the water, these systems display a third, novel wetting state, in which oil lenses coexist with a mesoscopic (a few-nanometers-thick) oil film. The nature and location of the transitions between these wetting regimes depend on oil and brine compositions, temperature and pressure.

  11. Wetting of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuno M; Figueirinhas Pereira, Maria Carolina; Bernardino, Nelson R; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2016-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the wetting properties of cholesteric liquid crystals at a planar substrate. If the properties of substrate and of the interface are such that the cholesteric layers are not distorted, the wetting properties are similar to those of a nematic liquid crystal. If, on the other hand, the anchoring conditions force the distortion of the liquid crystal layers the wetting properties are altered, the free cholesteric-isotropic interface is non-planar and there is a layer of topological defects close to the substrate. These deformations can either promote or hinder the wetting of the substrate by a cholesteric, depending on the properties of the cholesteric liquid crystal.

  12. Evaluation of optimal silver amount for the removal of methyl iodide on silver-impregnated adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G.I.; Cho, I.H.; Kim, J.H.; Oh, W.Z.

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of methyl iodide generated from the simulated off-gas stream on various adsorbents such as silver-impregnated zeolite (AgX), zeocarbon and activated carbon were investigated. An extensive evaluation was made on the optimal silver impregnation amount for the removal of methyl iodide at temperatures up to 300 deg. C. The degree of adsorption efficiency of methyl iodide on silver-impregnated adsorbent is strongly dependent on impregnation amount and process temperature. A quantitative comparison of adsorption efficiencies on three adsorbents in a fixed bed was investigated. The influence of temperature, methyl iodide concentration and silver impregnation amount on the adsorption efficiency is closely related to the pore characteristics of adsorbents. It shows that the effective impregnation ratio was about 10wt%, based on the degree of silver utilization for the removal of methyl iodide. The practical applicability of silver-impregnated zeolite for the removal of radioiodine generated from the DUPIC process was consequently proposed. (author)

  13. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Ricaud, J.L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  14. Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2008-09-01

    Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group of polypyrrole. The introduced polypyrrole layer could provide the surface modification to be applied for heavy metal ion adsorbents. Especially, polymer-impregnated porous carbon has an enhanced heavy metal ion uptake, which is 20 times higher than that of adsorbents with amine functional groups. Furthermore, the relationship between the coated polymer amount and surface area was also investigated in regard to adsorption capacity.

  15. Performance of Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator in Aerothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Kao, David; Skokova, Kristina; Chavez-Garcia, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICA's performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  16. Rhodamine 6G impregnated porous silica: A photoluminescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anedda, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari and INMF UdR Cagliari, SP no8, Km 0700, 09042, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Carbonaro, C.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari and INMF UdR Cagliari, SP no8, Km 0700, 09042, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy)]. E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it; Clemente, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari and INMF UdR Cagliari, SP no8, Km 0700, 09042, Monserrato (Ca) (Italy); Corpino, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari and INMF UdR Cagliari, SP no8, Km 0700, 09042, Monserrato (Ca) (Italy); Ricci, P.C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari and INMF UdR Cagliari, SP no8, Km 0700, 09042, Monserrato (Ca) (Italy); Rossini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari and INMF UdR Cagliari, SP no8, Km 0700, 09042, Monserrato (Ca) (Italy)

    2005-12-15

    The optical properties of rhodamine 6G dye confined in porous silica are reported. Photoluminescence properties of embedded chromophores in mesoporous hosts can be affected by the surrounding matrices: shifts in emission spectra and variations of photoluminescence quantum yield are found as compared to dye solutions. Host-guest interactions are studied here by varying both SiO{sub 2} xerogels porosity and the dye concentration. Comparing samples obtained by impregnating matrices with 5.4 and 18.2 nm pores with solutions having concentrations in the rhodamine 6G high laser gain, matrices with 5.4 nm pores impregnated with a dye concentration of 5 x 10{sup -4} M are found to be the most stable and efficient in the examined range.

  17. Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting from instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fractures such as those at Yucca Mountain are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport

  18. Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting front instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fracture are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport

  19. Silver impregnation in situ: an aid to radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.; Rantanen, N.W.

    1984-01-01

    In evaluating radiographs of the limb joints and head, students encounter difficulty where superimposition occurs. By replacing calcium with silver salts in the bone, enhanced radiopacity can be produced. In this study, silver impregnation was used to increase the radiopacity of individual carpal and tarsal bones, selected bones of the skull and the sinuses, and guttural pouch of the horse. This provides an interpretation aid for teaching radiographic anatomy of these regions

  20. Surrogate nits impregnated with white piedra--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, A

    2004-07-01

    White piedral spores packed inside empty pedicular nits were accidentally found on microscopic examination in a 42-year-old Indian woman who presented with hair loss. The diagnosis of piedra was confirmed on culture. She responded to topical 2% miconazole nitrate solution and manual removal of the nits. This is the first case report of pedicular nits found to be impregnated with spores of white piedra.

  1. Effect of processing parameters on Cu-Co-Fe-based diamond impregnated metal matrix composite for stone cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawani, K.; Shahid, M.; Arshad, S.N.; Hasaini, M.H.; Khan, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    Diamond Impregnated Metal Matrix Composites (DIMMC), manufactured by powder metallurgy route, playa major role in stone cutting tool industry. Unfortunately, these diamond tools are not manufactured locally. Our industry relies heavily on the import of these diamond tools to meet the local demand. This study was undertaken as a first step towards indigenous development of these diamond tools. Most of the diamond tools exist in the form of a composite structure with diamond grits embedded in a metallic matrix. This paper investigates the effect of various processing variables on the properties of DIMMC. Effect of pressure on the compaction behavior, sintering time and temperature has been investigated. Relatively better homogeneity has been observed with dry mixing of individual powders using zinc stearate as lubricant compared to wet mixing. A linear increase in green density has been found by increasing compaction pressure up to 400 MPa. (author)

  2. Estimation of tribological anticorrosion properties of impregnated nitriding layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanow, J.; Senatorski, J.; Tacikowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper is described aim, experimental and test result of tribological anticorrosion properties of thin nitriding layer (12.5 μm) obtained on 45 steel grade in controlled gas-nitriding process (570 o C, 4 h) impregnated with oil-based formulations, containing corrosion inhibitor BS-43, modified with tribological additives based on ashen organometallic compounds as well as ash-free organic compounds. It was stated, that tribological additives does not influence, in fact, on behaviour of corrosion resistance of nitriding layers impregnated with oil-base formulations mainly connected with inhibitor BS-43. Synergy of tribological additive and corrosion inhibitor is however more visible in modelling of wear resistance of nitriding layer. The influence nature of tribological additives in combination with corrosion inhibitor BS-43 is dependent on their kind and as result improves or worsens the wear resistance by friction. Hence in choice of impregnated formulation, which is enable to accomplish of tribological anticorrosion requirements, determined, above all, tribological additive. (author)

  3. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  4. Development of a custom-made "smart-sphere" to assess incipient entrainment by rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Alexakis, Athanasios; Trinder, Jon

    2017-04-01

    The most widely applied criterion for sediment incipient motion in engineering applications is the time- and space-averaged approach of critical Shields shear stress. Nonetheless, in the recent years published research has highlighted the importance of turbulence fluctuations in sediment incipient motion and its stochastic character. The present experimental study investigates statistically the link of the response of a "smart-pebble" to hydrodynamics in near-critical flow conditions and discusses how such a device can be utilized in engineering design. A set of specifically designed fluvial experiments monitoring the entrainment conditions for a "smart-pebble", were carried out in a tilting, recirculating flume in turbulent flow conditions while three-dimensional flow measurements were obtained with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The "smart-pebble" employed herein is a custom-made instrumented sphere with 7 cm diameter, which has a number of sensors embedded within its waterproof 3D-printed plastic shell. Specifically, the "smart-pebble" is equipped with miniaturized, off the shelf, low-cost, three-dimensional acceleration, orientation and angular displacement sensors. A 3D-printed local micro topography of known geometry was installed in the flume's test section and the "smart-pebble" was placed there in order to facilitate the analysis. Every time the "smart-sphere" is displaced by the flow a downstream located pin blocks its full entrainment. This allows for continuous recording of the entrainment events due to the passage of energetic events, after which the "smart-pebble" returns to its resting pocket. The "smart-pebble" device under such a configuration allows the recording of normally indiscernible (with the naked eye) vibrations, twitching motions, and full entrainments for the studied particle, allowing its analysis from a Langrangian framework. During the incipient motion experiments the retrieved data are stored in an internal memory unit or

  5. Numbers and meanings. Ideality in the incipient Husserl’s phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Chillón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The reflection on numbers and meanings are a good example of how the incipient phenomenology is in the realm of pure logic. The paper states that, due to ambiguities in these early works and in order to draw a reflection that does not tear the philosophical personality of Husserl, the thesis of the ideality be read from the perspective of later works. This paper reconstructs, from initial analysis of the numbers and meanings, the thesis of the ideality Husserl which, in our view, detect the fundamental aspects of phenomenology despite the subsequent abandonment of the eidetic realism.

  6. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  7. Replacement of hazardous chromium impregnating agent from silver/copper/chromium-impregnated active carbon using triethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide, trichloromethane, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2009-03-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used as an effective adsorbent in many applications, including industrial-scale air purification systems and air filter systems in gas masks. In general, ACs without chemical impregnation are good adsorbents of organic vapors but poor adsorbents of low-molecular-weight or polar gases such as chlorine, sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, and ammonia (NH3). Impregnated ACs modified with metallic impregnating agents (ASC-carbons; e.g., copper, chromium, and silver) enhance the adsorbing properties of the ACs for simultaneously removing specific poisonous gases, but disposal of the chromium metal salt used to impregnate the ACs has the potential to result in situations that are toxic to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for replaceable organic impregnating agents that represent a much lower risk. The aim of this study was to assess the gas removal efficiency of an AC in which the organic impregnating agent triethylenediamine (TEDA) largely replaced the metallic impregnating agent chromium. We assessed batch and continuous adsorption capacities in situ for removing simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), trichloromethane (CHCl3), NH3, and SO2 gases. Brunauer-Emmet-Teller measurements and scanning electron microscopy analyses identified the removal mechanism by which TEDA-impregnated AS-carbon (dechromium ASC-carbon) adsorbs gases and determined the removal capacity for H2S, CHCl3, NH3, and SO2 to be 311, 258, 272, and 223 mg/g-C, respectively. These results demonstrate that TEDA-impregnated AS-carbon is significantly more efficient than ASC-carbon in adsorbing these four gases. Organic TEDA-impregnating agents have also been proven to be a reliable and environmental friendly agent and therefore a safe replacement of the hazardous chromium found in conventional ASC-carbon used in removing toxic gases from the airstream.

  8. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Ge, Xue-Jun; Chen, Charles; Wu, Tai-Han; Chou, Chang-Hung; Huang, Hao-Jen; Gojobori, Takashi; Osada, Naoki; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  9. Jodï horticultural belief, knowledge and practice: incipient or integral cultivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford Zent

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Jodï horticultural system, including belief, knowledge and practice aspects. The horticultural practices of the Jodï were previously characterized as 'incipient cultivation' but such practices were poorly described and documented. The antiquity of cultivation among this group is suggested by the prominence and significance of horticultural products and techniques in myth and ritual. Our field observations uncovered a fairly sophisticated system of plant management in swiddens, house gardens, trail gardens and natural forest gaps. An inventory of 67 cultivated plant species was documented, of which 36 are utilized for food, 20 for magical or medicinal purposes, and 11 for technology. The Jodï prolong the productive phase of their gardens for five years or more through successive planting-harvesting-replanting operations. Jodï swiddens display an elaborate polycultivated appearance and they possess at least five principal crops: plantain/banana, maize, yams, sweet potato, and sweet manioc. Another distinctive feature is the extensive use of natural gaps in the forest canopy as cultivation zones. The results of this study suggest that while Jodï horticultural practice is well integrated with a nomadic, foraging-dependent lifestyle, nevertheless this system does not deserve to be labeled as 'incipient' and instead is more integral than was recognized previously.

  10. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2014-11-11

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  11. Incipient fault detection and identification in process systems using accelerating neural network learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Muthusami, J.; Atiya, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the development and numerical testing of a robust fault detection and identification (FDI) system using artificial neural networks (ANNs), for incipient (slowly developing) faults occurring in process systems. The challenge in using ANNs in FDI systems arises because of one's desire to detect faults of varying severity, faults from noisy sensors, and multiple simultaneous faults. To address these issues, it becomes essential to have a learning algorithm that ensures quick convergence to a high level of accuracy. A recently developed accelerated learning algorithm, namely a form of an adaptive back propagation (ABP) algorithm, is used for this purpose. The ABP algorithm is used for the development of an FDI system for a process composed of a direct current motor, a centrifugal pump, and the associated piping system. Simulation studies indicate that the FDI system has significantly high sensitivity to incipient fault severity, while exhibiting insensitivity to sensor noise. For multiple simultaneous faults, the FDI system detects the fault with the predominant signature. The major limitation of the developed FDI system is encountered when it is subjected to simultaneous faults with similar signatures. During such faults, the inherent limitation of pattern-recognition-based FDI methods becomes apparent. Thus, alternate, more sophisticated FDI methods become necessary to address such problems. Even though the effectiveness of pattern-recognition-based FDI methods using ANNs has been demonstrated, further testing using real-world data is necessary

  12. Velocity-based analysis of sediment incipient deposition in rigid boundary open channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hafzullah; Safari, Mir Jafar Sadegh; Unal, Necati Erdem; Mohammadi, Mirali

    2017-11-01

    Drainage systems must be designed in a way to minimize undesired problems such as decrease in hydraulic capacity of the channel, blockage and transport of pollutants due to deposition of sediment. Channel design considering self-cleansing criteria are used to solve the sedimentation problem. Incipient deposition is one of the non-deposition self-cleansing design criteria that can be used as a conservative method for channel design. Experimental studies have been carried out in five different cross-section channels, namely trapezoidal, rectangular, circular, U-shape and V-bottom. Experiments were performed in a tilting flume using four different sizes of sands as sediment in nine different channel bed slopes. Two well-known methods, namely the Novak & Nalluri and Yang methods are considered for the analysis of sediment motion. Equations developed using experimental data are found to be in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that the design velocity depends on the shape of the channel cross-section. Rectangular and V-bottom channels need lower and higher incipient deposition velocities, respectively, in comparison with other channels.

  13. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  14. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S Caram; Natalie Foster

    1998-01-01

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and may require accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained

  15. Evaluation and control of poisoning of impregnated carbons used for organic iodide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.; Rankovic, L.

    1979-01-01

    By the evaluation of the chemical reactions which have taken place on impregnated activated carbon surfaces exposed to nuclear reactor atmospheric environments, the role of various impregnants has been studied. The evaluation shows several different paths for the aging and posioning to take place. The four major causes were found to be: organic solvent contamination; inorganic acid gas contamination; formation of organic acids on carbon surface; and, formation of SO 2 from carbon sulfur content. Prevention of poisoning by the first two paths can be accomplished only by procedural changes within the facility. However the last three poisoning paths can be controlled to some extent by the selection of carbon pretreatment techniques and the type of impregnant used. Results were generated by evaluating used carbons from 14 nuclear power plants and by artificial poisoning of laboratory impregnated carbons. Impregnants which have antioxidant properties, besides reaction with organic iodides, can increase the life of the impregnated activated carbons

  16. Acute and long-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced albuminuria in incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1986-01-01

    . In the acute study, using placebo/metoprolol 10 mg i.v. in patients with normal UAE, the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min was reduced by 17 mmHg +/- 10 (SD) (2p less than 1.0%) and the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min in the patients with incipient nephropathy was reduced by 15 mmHg +/- 11 (SD) (2p less than 1.......0%). However, no difference was observed in UAE, in patients with normal UAE or those with incipient nephropathy. Five of the patients with incipient nephropathy were followed with repeated exercise tests before and during 2.6 years of antihypertensive treatment, using metoprolol 200 mg/24 h and subsequently...

  17. Accelerated Drying of Wet Boots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyck, Walter

    2002-01-01

    .... One such material is sodium polyacrylate. Because recent field trials with Canadian Forces soldiers have reconfirmed that donning wet combat boots is very uncomfortable, a study was done to assess the efficacy of using sodium polyacrylate...

  18. Optical study of planar waveguides based on oxidized porous silicon impregnated with laser dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouket, A. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanar 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT-6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Elhouichet, H. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanar 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)], E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn; Oueslati, M. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanar 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    Oxidized porous silicon optical planar waveguides were elaborated and impregnated with rhodamine B and rhodamine 6G. The waveguiding, absorption, and photoluminescence properties of these impregnated waveguides were studied. Successful impregnation of the structure with laser dyes is shown from photoluminescence and reflectivity measurements. Furthermore, the reflectivity spectra prove the homogenous incorporation of both dye molecules inside the pores of the matrices. The refractive indices of waveguide layers were determined before and after dye impregnation to indicate the conservation of guiding conditions. The optical losses in the visible wavelengths are studied as a function of dye concentration. The dye absorption is the main reason for these losses.

  19. The effect of type and mixture of resin on the properties of impregnated paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein Kermanian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of different types of resins and also their mixtures on the impregnated paper properties. In this regard, pure urea resin (100%, mixture of melamine and urea resins with various combinations (60/40 and 70/30 and 50/50, mixture of nano-fiber cellulose ratios of 1, 2 and 3 percent with urea resin and pure PVA (100% were used to impregnate of newsprint basic paper of Mazandaran wood and paper industries. Immersion of samples in the impregnation step were done in two time of 5 and 10 seconds. Next, melamine resin was used for surface coating and then absorption of resin in the impregnation and coating process measured. Results showed that in the impregnation step with pure urea (100%, in the respect of absorption rate and surface properties of melamine paper, the best time of impregnation was obtained 10 seconds. In the combined treatment, adding up to 30% melamine to urea resin, as impregnation step resin, offers better properties in terms of stain resistance, cigarette resistance, resistance to cracking and resistance to hot water steam for impregnatedmade paper. By adding nanocellulose up to 1% in impregnation resin, better properties is obtained for melamine paper. Also, PVA as impregnation resin, can be offer similar quality to pure urea in the resulting melamine papers.

  20. Porous solid backbone impregnation for electrochemical energy conversion systems

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir

    2013-09-19

    An apparatus and method for impregnating a porous solid backbone. The apparatus may include a platform for holding a porous solid backbone, an ink jet nozzle configured to dispense a liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone, a positioning mechanism configured to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to a plurality of locations of the porous solid backbone, and a control unit configured to control the positioning mechanism to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to the plurality of locations and cause the ink jet nozzle to dispense the liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone.

  1. Porous solid backbone impregnation for electrochemical energy conversion systems

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir; Jabbour, Ghassan

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and method for impregnating a porous solid backbone. The apparatus may include a platform for holding a porous solid backbone, an ink jet nozzle configured to dispense a liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone, a positioning mechanism configured to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to a plurality of locations of the porous solid backbone, and a control unit configured to control the positioning mechanism to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to the plurality of locations and cause the ink jet nozzle to dispense the liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone.

  2. Mass impregnation plant speeds high voltage cable production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-07

    A mass impregnation and continuous sheath extrusion plant that will eliminate the long period of vacuum treatment usually required for high voltage oil-filled cables is among the latest techniques included in the new factory at Pirelli General's Eastleigh works. The new factory is said to be the first in Europe designed solely for the manufacture of the full range of oil-filled cables. Possible future increases of system voltages to about 750-kV ac or 1000-kV dc have been taken into account in the design of the works, so that only a small amount of modification and new plant will be involved.

  3. Evaluation of level of impregnation monomers in hydrotalcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Danieli M. do; Machado, Jacson S.C.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.L.; Oliveira, Marcia G.; Soares, Bluma G.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impregnation degree of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol monomers in hydrotalcite clays it was prepared dispersions with mixing ratio 1:100 (clay/monomer), using the Ultraturrax and Ultrasound. Subsequently the samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Swelling tests and Tyndall effect were used to illustrate the different dispersions. The results indicated a strong interaction between the hydrotalcite with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, favoring the formation of intercalated structures. (author)

  4. Review of candidate methods for detecting incipient defects due to aging of installed cables in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martzloff, F.D.

    1988-01-01

    Several types of test methods have been proposed for detecting incipient defects due to aging in cable insulation systems, none offering certainty of detecting all possible types of defects. Some methods apply direct detection of a defect in the cable; other methods detect changes in electrical or non-electrical parameters from which inference can be drawn on the integrity of the cable. The paper summarizes the first year of a program conducted at the National Bureau of Standards to assess the potential of success for in situ detection of incipient defects by the most promising of these methods

  5. Wet-Bulb-Globe Temperature Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Hour Min Pressure Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT...Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT K2 WBGT GMT millibars deg F...Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT K2 WBGT GMT millibars deg F deg F deg

  6. Biogeochemical weathering of serpentinites: An examination of incipient dissolution affecting serpentine soil formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeister, Julie L.; Hausrath, Elisabeth M.; Olsen, Amanda A.; Tschauner, Oliver; Adcock, Christopher T.; Metcalf, Rodney V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dissolution of primary minerals is important to porosity generation in serpentinites. • Mineral weathering extent in serpentinites follows the order Fe > Mg > Al rich minerals. • Fe-oxidizing bacteria may mediate Fe-rich primary and serpentine mineral alteration. • Serpentinite weathering is strongly impacted by degree of serpentinization. - Abstract: Serpentinite rocks, high in Mg and trace elements including Ni, Cr, Cd, Co, Cu, and Mn and low in nutrients such as Ca, K, and P, form serpentine soils with similar chemical properties resulting in chemically extreme environments for the biota that grow upon them. The impact of parent material on soil characteristics is most important in young soils, and therefore the incipient weathering of serpentinite rock likely has a strong effect on the development of serpentine soils and ecosystems. Additionally, porosity generation is a crucial process in converting rock into a soil that can support vegetation. Here, the important factors affecting the incipient weathering of serpentinite rock are examined at two sites in the Klamath Mountains, California. Serpentinite-derived soils and serpentinite rock cores were collected in depth profiles from each sampling location. Mineral dissolution in weathered serpentinite samples, determined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, electron microprobe analyses, and synchrotron microXRD, is consistent with the order, from most weathered to least weathered: Fe-rich pyroxene > antigorite > Mg-rich lizardite > Al-rich lizardite. These results suggest that the initial porosity formation within serpentinite rock, impacting the formation of serpentine soil on which vegetation can exist, is strongly affected both by the presence of non-serpentine primary minerals as well as the composition of the serpentine minerals. In particular, the presence of ferrous Fe appears to contribute to greater dissolution, whereas the presence of Al within the

  7. Wet chemical synthesis of nickel supported on alumina catalysts; Sintese de catalisadores de niquel suportado em alumina por via umida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Ranny Rodrigues; Costa, Talita Kenya Oliveira; Morais, Ana Carla da Fonseca Ferreira; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo; Freitas, Normanda Lino de, E-mail: normanda@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Heterogenic catalysts are those found to be in a different phase on the reaction when compared to the reactants and products. Preferred when compared to homogeneous catalysts due to the easiness on which the separation is processed. The objective of this study is to obtain and characterize Alumina based catalysts impregnated with Nickel (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), by wet impregnation. The alumina was synthesized by combustion reaction. Before and after the impregnation the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), granulometric analysis, the textural analysis will be held by nitrogen adsorption (BET), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show a presence of a stable crystalline phase of Al2O3 in all the studied samples and after the impregnation the second phase formed was of NiO and NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} e Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts resulted in clusters with a medium diameter of 18.9 and 14.2 μm, respectively. The catalysts show a medium-pore characteristic (medium pore diameter between 2 and 50 nm), the superficial area to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were 8.69 m{sup 2}/g and 5.56 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. (author)

  8. Monomers and Monomer Mixtures Used in Impregnation of Fibrous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-10-15

    Some important properties of monomers and polymers in relation to their use for reinforcement of fibrous materials are listed. Some monomers and their properties important in impregnation of fibrous materials are also listed. In general it is not advantageous to use a pure monomer for impregnation but rather a mixture of monomers or a mixture of a monomer and a low molecular weight polymer such as unsaturated polyester. Some of these mixtures which have been well studied in connection with WPC are listed together with some of their properties when used in WPC. Other monomer mixtures may well come in question and other monomers can probably be used. For instance, it is reported from Japan that the cheap monomer ethyleneoxide, which cannot be polymerized by gamma radiation as such, can be polymerized (in bulk) as a mixture with methylmethacrylate. Good results with WPC have generally been obtained without swelling agents but more is grafted if some swelling agent is used, and it is possible that a swelling agent might be useful in the case of fibre-boards. Solvents, plasticizers, crosslinkable natural resins, aromatic chlorinated hydrocarbons, and retardants can be added, and with their use the properties of WPC can be widely modified. For example, a chlorinated wax can act as retardant, can reduce the total dose of radiation and can increase the flame resistance simultaneously.

  9. Investigations on Incipient Fault Diagnosis of Power Transformer Using Neural Networks and Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandkumar Wagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of power supply is of utmost importance to the consumers and is only possible by coordination and reliable operation of power system components. Power transformer is such a prime equipment of the transmission and distribution system and needs to be continuously monitored for its well-being. Since ratio methods cannot provide correct diagnosis due to the borderline problems and the probability of existence of multiple faults, artificial intelligence could be the best approach. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA interpretation may provide an insight into the developing incipient faults and is adopted as the preliminary diagnosis tool. In the proposed work, a comparison of the diagnosis ability of backpropagation (BP, radial basis function (RBF neural network, and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS has been investigated and the diagnosis results in terms of error measure, accuracy, network training time, and number of iterations are presented.

  10. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...... diastolic blood pressure was elevated [92.1 mm Hg +/- 6.0 (mean +/- SD)] compared to D2 (80.9 mm Hg +/- 4.8, 2P = 0.003%) and C (79.5 mm Hg +/- 12.4, 2P = 1.2%). Baseline systolic blood pressure was not significantly different in the three groups, but systolic blood pressure was more elevated at 600 kpm...... blood pressure and maximal exercise induced albumin excretion was demonstrable in D3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  11. Onset of a nucleate boiling and incipient point of net vapor generation in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, G.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study on onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and incipient point of net vapor generation (IPNVG) in narrow rectangular channel was presented. Flow direction in the channel was vertical upward. The experimental results indicate that the classical correlations of ONB for conventional channels were not suitable for the present narrow rectangular channel. The wall superheat needed to initiate boiling is found to be higher for the same given values of heat and mass flux. The experimental results of IPNVG indicate that the heat flux, triggering net vapor generation in narrow rectangular channel, is litter lower than that calculated by correlations for conventional channels. The relative prediction error of qIPNVG by Griffith model, Saha model and Sun model ranges from -17.9% to +9.6%. A new correlation was developed to predict the ONB in narrow rectangular channel. The proposed correlation predictions agreed well with the experimental data. (author)

  12. Rapid neo-sex chromosome evolution and incipient speciation in a major forest pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracewell, Ryan R; Bentz, Barbara J; Sullivan, Brian T; Good, Jeffrey M

    2017-11-17

    Genome evolution is predicted to be rapid following the establishment of new (neo) sex chromosomes, but it is not known if neo-sex chromosome evolution plays an important role in speciation. Here we combine extensive crossing experiments with population and functional genomic data to examine neo-XY chromosome evolution and incipient speciation in the mountain pine beetle. We find a broad continuum of intrinsic incompatibilities in hybrid males that increase in strength with geographic distance between reproductively isolated populations. This striking progression of reproductive isolation is coupled with extensive gene specialization, natural selection, and elevated genetic differentiation on both sex chromosomes. Closely related populations isolated by hybrid male sterility also show fixation of alternative neo-Y haplotypes that differ in structure and male-specific gene content. Our results suggest that neo-sex chromosome evolution can drive rapid functional divergence between closely related populations irrespective of ecological drivers of divergence.

  13. Predictors of treatment failure, incipient hypothyroidism, and weight gain following radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, F W; Zammitt, N N; Beckett, G J; Strachan, M W J

    2013-10-01

    Following radioiodine ((131)I) therapy, both late recognition of hypothyroidism and treatment failure may result in adverse outcomes. We sought to assess indicators of both incipient hypothyroidism and treatment failure following (131)I and determine factors predictive of weight gain. Retrospective study of 288 patients receiving (131)I for treatment of Graves' thyrotoxicosis. Primary outcome measures were thyroid status and weight change at 1 yr following (131)I. The treatment failure rate at 1 yr was 13.5%. Hypothyroidism developed in 80.9%, with 58.5% of patients having levels of free T4 (fT4) treatment failure (23.3%) than those with no thionamide exposure (6.3%, p=0.003), but also had more active Graves' disease. Following (131)I, development of a detectable TSH or low-normal fT4 levels was not associated with recurrent thyrotoxicosis. Median weight gain was 5.3 kg, although patients with nadir fT4 levels 6 pmol/l (p=0.05). The main predictor of weight gain was fT4 level immediately prior to treatment; those in the lowest tertile gained a median 3.1 kg whilst those in the highest tertile gained 7.4 kg (median difference 4.3 kg; 95% confidence interval: 2.5-6.2). Marked hypothyroidism following (131)I is common and often occurs early. Simple biochemical parameters may help identify incipient hypothyroidism and potentially limit excess weight gain. Treatment failure is common in patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and in such cases larger doses of (131)I may be warranted.

  14. Heterogeneous flow in multi-layer joint networks and its influence on incipient karst generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Jourde, H.

    2017-12-01

    Various dissolution types (e.g. pipe, stripe and sheet karstic features) have been observed in fractured layered limestones. Yet, due to a large range of structural and hydraulic parameters play a role in the karstification process, the dissolution mechanism, occurring either along fractures or bedding planes, is difficult to quantify. In this study, we use numerical models to investigate the influence of these parameters on the generation of different types of incipient karst. Specifically, we focus on two parameters: the fracture intensity contrast between adjacent layers and the aperture ratio between bedding planes and joints (abed/ajoint). The DFN models were generated using a pseudo-genetic code that considers the stress shadow zone. Flow simulations were performed using a combined finite-volume finite-element simulator under practical boundary conditions. The flow channeling within the fracture networks was characterized by applying a multi-fractal technique. The rock block equivalent permeability (keff) was also calculated to quantify the change in bulk hydraulic properties when changing the selected structural and hydraulic parameters. The flow simulation results show that the abed/ajoint ratio has a first-order control on the heterogeneous distribution of flow in the multi-layer system and on the magnitude of equivalent permeability. When abed/ajoint 0.1, the bedding plane has more control and flow becomes more pervasive and uniform, and the keff is accordingly high. A simple model, accounting for the calculation of the heterogeneous distributions of Damköhler number associated with different aperture ratios, is proposed to predict what type of incipient karst tends to develop under the studied flow conditions.

  15. Void fraction and incipient point of boiling during the subcooled nucleate flow boiling of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    Void fraction has been determined with high-speed photography for subcooled nucleate flow boiling of water. The data obtained and the data of various investigators for adiabatic flow of stream-water mixtures and saturated bulk boiling of water have yielded a correlation which covers the following conditions: geometry: vertically orientated circular tubes, rectangular channels and annuli; pressure: 2 to 15.9 MN/m 2 ; mass velocity: 388 to 3500 kg/m 2 s; void fraction: 0 to 99%; hydraulic diameter: 0.0047 to 0.0343 m; heat flux: adiabatic and 0.01 to 2.0 MW/m 2 . The accuracy of the correlation is estimated to be 12.5%. The value of the so-called distribution (or flow) parameter has been experimentally determined and found to be equal to 1 for a vertical small-diameter circular tube. The incipient point of boiling for subcooled nucleate flow boiling of water has been determined with high-speed photography. The data obtained and the data available in the literature have yielded a correlation which covers the following conditions: geometry: plate, circular tube and inner tube-heated, outer tube-heated and inner - and outer tube heated annulus; pressure: 0.15 to 15.9 MN/m 2 ; mass velocity: 470 to 17355 kg/m 2 s; hydraulic diameter: 0.00239 to 0.032 m; heat flux: 0.13 to 9.8 MW/m 2 ; subcooling: 2.6 to 108 K; material of heating surface: stainless steel and nickel. The accuracy of the correlation is estimated to be 27.5%. Maximum bubble diameters have been measured at the incipient point of boiling. These data and the data from literature have been correlated for the pressure range of 0.1 to 15.9 MN/m 2 . (author)

  16. Microbial community assembly patterns under incipient conditions in a basaltic soil system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Stegen, J.; Alves Meira Neto, A.; Wang, Y.; Chorover, J.; Troch, P. A. A.; Maier, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In sub-surface environments, the biotic components are critically linked to the abiotic processes. However, there is limited understanding of community establishment, functional associations, and community assembly processes of such microbes in sub-surface environments. This study presents the first analysis of microbial signatures in an incipient terrestrial basalt soil system conducted under controlled conditions. A sub-meter scale sampling of a soil mesocosm revealed the contrasting distribution patterns of simple soil parameters such as bulk density and electrical conductivity. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene indicated the presence of a total 40 bacterial and archaeal phyla, with high relative abundance of Actinobacteria on the surface and highest abundance of Proteobacteria throughout the system. Community diversity patterns were inferred to be dependent on depth profile and average water content in the system. Predicted functional gene analysis suggested mixotrophy lifestyles with both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms, likelihood of a unique salt tolerant methanogenic pathway with links to novel Euryarchea, signatures of an incomplete nitrogen cycle, and predicted enzymes of extracellular iron (II) to iron (III) conversion followed by intracellular uptake, transport and regulation. Null modeling revealed microbial community assembly was predominantly governed by variable selection, but the influence of the variable selection did not show systematic spatial structure. The presence of significant heterogeneity in predicted functions and ecologically deterministic shifts in community composition in a homogeneous incipient basalt highlights the complexity exhibited by microorganisms even in the simplest of environmental systems. This presents an opportunity to further develop our understanding of how microbial communities establish, evolve, impact, and respond in sub-surface environments.

  17. Wetting of Water on Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Mishra, Himanshu; Bonn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The wetting properties of graphene have proven controversial and difficult to assess. The presence of a graphene layer on top of a substrate does not significantly change the wetting properties of the solid substrate, suggesting that a single graphene layer does not affect the adhesion between the wetting phase and the substrate. However, wetting experiments of water on graphene show contact angles that imply a large amount of adhesion. Here, we investigate the wetting of graphene by measuring the mass of water vapor adsorbing to graphene flakes of different thickness at different relative humidities. Our experiments unambiguously show that the thinnest of graphene flakes do not adsorb water, from which it follows that the contact angle of water on these flakes is ~180o. Thicker flakes of graphene nanopowder, on the other hand, do adsorb water. A calculation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions that dominate the adsorption in this system confirms that the adhesive interactions between a single atomic layer of graphene and water are so weak that graphene is superhydrophobic. The observations are confirmed in an independent experiment on graphene-coated water droplets that shows that it is impossible to make liquid 'marbles' with molecularly thin graphene.

  18. Wetting of Water on Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Bijoyendra

    2016-11-28

    The wetting properties of graphene have proven controversial and difficult to assess. The presence of a graphene layer on top of a substrate does not significantly change the wetting properties of the solid substrate, suggesting that a single graphene layer does not affect the adhesion between the wetting phase and the substrate. However, wetting experiments of water on graphene show contact angles that imply a large amount of adhesion. Here, we investigate the wetting of graphene by measuring the mass of water vapor adsorbing to graphene flakes of different thickness at different relative humidities. Our experiments unambiguously show that the thinnest of graphene flakes do not adsorb water, from which it follows that the contact angle of water on these flakes is ~180o. Thicker flakes of graphene nanopowder, on the other hand, do adsorb water. A calculation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions that dominate the adsorption in this system confirms that the adhesive interactions between a single atomic layer of graphene and water are so weak that graphene is superhydrophobic. The observations are confirmed in an independent experiment on graphene-coated water droplets that shows that it is impossible to make liquid \\'marbles\\' with molecularly thin graphene.

  19. Failure of pheromone traps in detecting incipient populations of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Investigation of two potential contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress towards complete eradication of the boll weevil has been delayed in some areas of Texas due to the inconsistent performance of pheromone traps in detecting incipient weevil populations. In 2008 substantial infestations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were detected in several c...

  20. Application of the Billet Casting Method to Determine the Onset of Incipient Melting of 319 Al Alloy Engine Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A.; Ravindran, C.; MacKay, R.

    2015-06-01

    The increased use of Al for automotive applications has resulted from the need to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. Aluminum alloy engine blocks fulfil the need of lightweighting. However, there are many challenges associated with thermo-mechanical mismatch between Al and the gray cast iron cylinder liners, which result in large tensile residual stress along the cylinder bores. This requires improced mechanical properties in this region to prevent premature engine failure. In this study, replicating billet castings were used to simulate the engine block solution heat treatment process and determine the onset of incipient melting. Microstructural changes during heat treatment were assessed with SEM and EDX, while thermal analysis was carried out using differential scanning calorimetry. The results suggest that solution heat treatment at 500 °C was effective in dissolving secondary phase particles, while solutionizing at 515 or 530 °C caused incipient melting of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Cu2Si6. Incipient melting caused the formation ultra-fine eutectic clusters consisting of Al, Al2Cu, and Al5Mg8Cu2Si6 on quenching. In addition, DSC analysis found that incipient melting initiated at 507 °C for all billets, although the quantity of local melting reduced with microstructural refinement as evidenced by smaller endothermic peaks and energy absorption. The results from this study will assist in improving engine block casting integrity and process efficiency.

  1. Improved detection of incipient anomalies via multivariate memory monitoring charts: Application to an air flow heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-08-11

    Detecting anomalies is important for reliable operation of several engineering systems. Multivariate statistical monitoring charts are an efficient tool for checking the quality of a process by identifying abnormalities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was shown effective in monitoring processes with highly correlated data. Traditional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often are relatively inefficient at detecting incipient anomalies. Here, we propose a statistical approach that exploits the advantages of PCA and those of multivariate memory monitoring schemes, like the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes to better detect incipient anomalies. Memory monitoring charts are sensitive to incipient anomalies in process mean, which significantly improve the performance of PCA method and enlarge its profitability, and to utilize these improvements in various applications. The performance of PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control techniques are demonstrated and compared with traditional PCA-based monitoring methods. Using practical data gathered from a heating air-flow system, we demonstrate the greater sensitivity and efficiency of the developed method over the traditional PCA-based methods. Results indicate that the proposed techniques have potential for detecting incipient anomalies in multivariate data. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Incipient-signature identification of mechanical anomalies in a ship-borne satellite antenna system using an ensemble multiwavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Shuilong; Zi, Yanyang; Chen, Jinglong; Chen, Binqiang; He, Zhengjia; Zhao, Chenlu; Yuan, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The instrumented tracking and telemetry ship with a ship-borne satellite antenna (SSA) is the critical device to ensure high quality of space exploration work. To effectively detect mechanical anomalies that can lead to unexpected downtime of the SSA, an ensemble multiwavelet (EM) is presented for identifying the anomaly related incipient-signatures within the measured dynamic signals. Rather than using a predetermined basis as in a conventional multiwavelet, an EM optimizes the matching basis which satisfactorily adapts to the anomaly related incipient-signatures. The construction technique of an EM is based on the conjunction of a two-scale similarity transform (TST) and lifting scheme (LS). For the technique above, the TST improves the regularity by increasing the approximation order of multiscaling functions, while subsequently the LS enhances the smoothness and localizability via utilizing the vanishing moment of multiwavelet functions. Moreover, combining the Hilbert transform with EM decomposition, we identify the incipient-signatures induced by the mechanical anomalies from the measured dynamic signals. A numerical simulation and two successful applications of diagnosis cases (a planetary gearbox and a roller bearing) demonstrate that the proposed technique is capable of dealing with the challenging incipient-signature identification task even though spectral complexity, as well as the strong amplitude/frequency modulation effect, is present in the dynamic signals. (paper)

  3. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert sponge...

  4. Impacts of impregnation with boric acid and borax on the red colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of impregnation with boric acid and borax on the red colour tone of some hardwoods and varnishes. H Keskin, M Atar, A Ketizmen. Abstract. This study was performed to determine the impacts of impregnation with boric acid and borax on the red colour tone of some hardwoods and varnishes. For this purpose, the ...

  5. Apple snack enriched with L-arginine using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge; Echeverria, Julian; Silva, Andrea; Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Mella, Karla; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Modern life has created a high demand for functional food, and in this context, emerging technologies such as vacuum impregnation and ohmic heating have been applied to generate functional foods. The aim of this research was to enrich the content of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine in apple cubes using vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, and ohmic heating. Additionally, combined vacuum impregnation/conventional heating and vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatments were evaluated. The above treatments were applied at 30, 40 and 50  ℃ and combined with air-drying at 40 ℃ in order to obtain an apple snack rich in L-arginine. Both the impregnation kinetics of L-arginine and sample color were evaluated. The impregnated samples created using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating at 50 ℃ presented a high content of L-arginine, an effect attributed primarily to electropermeabilization. Overall, vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatment at 50 ℃, followed by drying at 40 ℃, was the best process for obtaining an apple snack rich in L-arginine.

  6. Impregnation of bio-oil from small diameter pine into wood for moisture resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Robinson; Brian K. Via; Oladiran Fasina; Sushil Adhikari; Emily Carter

    2011-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis oil consists of hundreds of complex compounds, many of which are phenolic-based and exhibit hydrophobic properties. Southern yellow pine was impregnated with a pyrolysis oil-based penetrant using both a high pressure and vacuum impregnation systems, with no significant differences in retention levels. Penetrant concentrations ranging from 5-50% pyrolysis...

  7. The sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1963-01-01

    A method is suggested for the sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper instead of bubblers. The best aqueous impregnating solution contained potassium hydroxide with glycerol or triethanolamine. The possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. High collection

  8. The sampling of hydrogen sulfide in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1964-01-01

    A method is proposed for the quantitative collection of hydrogen sulfide in air on impregnated filter paper. An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide, potassium zincate and glycerol is used as impregnating fluid. The stability of the collected sulfide and the efficiency of collection at different

  9. Conservation experiments applying radiation-curable impregnating agents to intact and artifically decayed wood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.

    1983-02-01

    Conservation experiments have been performed applying 10 selected impregnating agents to intact and chemically as well as biologically decayed wood samples. The quality of the radiation-curable impregnating agents could be valued by determination of the monomer uptake, the alteration of dimensions and volume and the deformation of the samples. The results are to be discussed. (Author) [de

  10. An in vitro Method for Predicting Inhalation Toxicity of Impregnation Spray Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid B.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Nørgaard, Asger Wisti

    2015-01-01

    Impregnation spray products are used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. The products are composed of one or more active film-forming components dissolved or suspended in an appropriate solvent mixture. Exposure to impregnation spray products may cause respiratory distress and new cases...

  11. Impregnation of mesoporous silica for catalyst preparation studied with differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenhuisen, T.M.; van Steenbergen, M.J.; Talsma, H.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous impregnation of mesoporous silica as a first step in catalyst preparation was studied to investigate the distribution of the metal-precursor solution over the support. The degree of pore-filling after impregnation was determined using the freezing point depression of confined liquids. A

  12. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by carbons impregnated with triethylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chang, Tsu-Hua; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) adsorption has long been considered to be a readily available technology for providing protection against exposure to acutely toxic gases. However, ACs without chemical impregnation have proven to be much less efficient than impregnated ACs in terms of gas removal. The impregnated ACs in current use are usually modified with metalloid impregnation agents (ASC-carbons; copper, chromium, or silver) to simultaneously enhance the chemical and physical properties of the ACs in removing specific poisonous gases. These metalloid agents, however, can cause acute poisoning to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for organic impregnation agents that present a much lower risk. The aim of the study reported here was to assess AC or ASC-carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA) in terms of its adsorption capability for simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gases. The investigation was undergone in a properly designed laboratory-scale and industrial fume hood evaluation. Using the system reported here, we obtained a significant adsorption: the removal capability for H2S and SO2 was 375 and 229 mg/g-C, respectively. BET measurements, element analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry identified the removal mechanism for TEDA-impregnated AC to be both chemical and physical adsorption. Chemical adsorption and oxidation were the primary means by which TEDA-impregnated ASC-carbons removed the simulated gases.

  13. Characteristics of scandate-impregnated cathodes with sub-micron scandia-doped matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Haiqing; Gu Xin; Pan Kexin; Wang Yiman; Liu Wei; Zhang Ke; Wang Jinshu; Zhou Meiling; Li Ji

    2005-01-01

    We describe in this paper scandate-impregnated cathodes with sub-micron scandia-doped tungsten matrices having an improved uniformity of the Sc distribution. The scandia-doped tungsten powders were made by both liquid-solid doping and liquid-liquid doping methods on the basis of previous research. By improving pressing, sintering and impregnating procedures, we have obtained scandate-impregnated cathodes with a good uniformity of the Sc 2 O 3 - distribution. The porosity of the sub-micron structure matrix and content of impregnants inside the matrix are similar to those of conventionally impregnated cathodes. Space charge limited current densities of more than 30 A/cm 2 at 850 deg. C b have been obtained in a reproducible way. The current density continuously increases during the first 2000 h life test at 950 deg. C b with a dc load of 2 A/cm 2 and are stable for at least 3000 h

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Impregnated Commercial Rice Husks Activated Carbon with Piperazine for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum Raman, S. N.; Ismail, N. A.; Jamari, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    Development of effective materials for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology is a fundamental importance to reduce CO2 emissions. This work establishes the addition of amine functional group on the surface of activated carbon to further improve the adsorption capacity of CO2. Rice husks activated carbon were modified using wet impregnation method by introducing piperazine onto the activated carbon surfaces at different concentrations and mixture ratios. These modified activated carbons were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The results from XRD analysis show the presence of polyethylene butane at diffraction angles of 21.8° and 36.2° for modified activated carbon with increasing intensity corresponding to increase in piperazine concentration. BET results found the surface area and pore volume of non-impregnated activated carbon to be 126.69 m2/g and 0.081 cm3/g respectively, while the modified activated carbons with 4M of piperazine have lower surface area and pore volume which is 6.77 m2/g and 0.015 cm3/g respectively. At 10M concentration, the surface area and pore volume are the lowest which is 4.48 m2/g and 0.0065 cm3/g respectively. These results indicate the piperazine being filled inside the activated carbon pores thus, lowering the surface area and pore volume of the activated carbon. From the FTIR analysis, the presence of peaks at 3312 cm-1 and 1636 cm-1 proved the existence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the activated carbon surfaces with piperazine. The surface morphology of activated carbon can be clearly seen through FESEM analysis. The modified activated carbon contains fewer pores than non-modified activated carbon as the pores have been covered with piperazine.

  15. A potential bioactive wound dressing based on carboxymethyl cellulose/ZnO impregnated MCM-41 nanocomposite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshaei, Rasul; Namazi, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Lack of antibacterial activity, deficient water vapor and oxygen permeability, and insufficient mechanical properties are disadvantages of existing wound dressings. Hydrogels could absorb wound exudates due to their strong swelling ratio and give a cooling sensation and a wet environment. To overcome these shortcomings, flexible nanocomposite hydrogel films was prepared through combination of zinc oxide impregnated mesoporous silica (ZnO-MCM-41) as a nano drug carrier with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel. Citric acid was used as cross linker to avoid the cytotoxicity of conventional cross linkers. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogel was characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential and UV-vis spectroscopy. Results of swelling and erosion tests showed CMC/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel disintegrated during the first hours of the test. Using MCM-41 as a substrate for ZnO nanoparticles solved this problem and the CMC/ZnO-MCM-41 showed a great improvement in tensile strength (12%), swelling (100%), erosion (53%) and gas permeability (500%) properties. Drug delivery and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel films studied using tetracycline (TC) as a broad spectrum antibiotic and showed a sustained TC release. This could efficiently decrease bandage exchange. Cytocompatibility of the nanocomposite hydrogel films has been analyzed in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and results showed cytocompatibility of CMC/ZnO-MCM-41. Based on these results the prepared CMC nanocomposite hydrogel containing ZnO impregnated MCM-41, could serve as a kind of promising wound dressing with sustained drug delivery properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A potential bioactive wound dressing based on carboxymethyl cellulose/ZnO impregnated MCM-41 nanocomposite hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhshaei, Rasul [Research Laboratory of Dendrimers and Nanopolymers, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, P.O. Box 51666, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Namazi, Hassan, E-mail: namazi@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Dendrimers and Nanopolymers, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, P.O. Box 51666, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Lack of antibacterial activity, deficient water vapor and oxygen permeability, and insufficient mechanical properties are disadvantages of existing wound dressings. Hydrogels could absorb wound exudates due to their strong swelling ratio and give a cooling sensation and a wet environment. To overcome these shortcomings, flexible nanocomposite hydrogel films was prepared through combination of zinc oxide impregnated mesoporous silica (ZnO-MCM-41) as a nano drug carrier with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel. Citric acid was used as cross linker to avoid the cytotoxicity of conventional cross linkers. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogel was characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential and UV–vis spectroscopy. Results of swelling and erosion tests showed CMC/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel disintegrated during the first hours of the test. Using MCM-41 as a substrate for ZnO nanoparticles solved this problem and the CMC/ZnO-MCM-41 showed a great improvement in tensile strength (12%), swelling (100%), erosion (53%) and gas permeability (500%) properties. Drug delivery and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel films studied using tetracycline (TC) as a broad spectrum antibiotic and showed a sustained TC release. This could efficiently decrease bandage exchange. Cytocompatibility of the nanocomposite hydrogel films has been analyzed in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and results showed cytocompatibility of CMC/ZnO-MCM-41. Based on these results the prepared CMC nanocomposite hydrogel containing ZnO impregnated MCM-41, could serve as a kind of promising wound dressing with sustained drug delivery properties. - Highlights: • CMC nanocomposite hydrogel incorporated with TC loaded ZnO-MCM-41 nanoparticles have been prepared as active wound dressing. • Citric acid was used as cross linker to avoid conventional toxic crosslinkers. • CMC/ZnO-MCM-41

  17. Antibiotic impregnated total femur spacers: a technical tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Canham, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous prosthetic joint infection of ipsilateral hip and knee arthroplasties is often accompanied by significant bone loss and presents a challenging reconstructive problem. Two-stage reconstruction is favored and requires the placement of a total femur spacer, which is not a commercially available device. We describe a surgical technique, reporting on 2 cases in which a customized total femur antibiotic impregnated spacer was created by combining an articulating knee spacer and an articulating hip spacer with a reinforced cement dowel construct connecting the 2 spacers. Custom total femoral spacers are useful in the management of infected femoral megaprostheses and cases with ipsilateral injected hip and knee arthroplasties and severe femoral bone loss. Keywords: total femur spacer, revision arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, prosthetic joint infection

  18. Preparation of Highly Conductive Yarns by an Optimized Impregnation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amba Sankar, K. N.; Mohanta, Kallol

    2018-03-01

    We report the development of the electrical conductivity in textile yarns through impregnation and post-treatment of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The conductive polymer is deposited on fibers, which fills the gap space within the hierarchical structure of the yarns. Organic nonpolar solvents act as reducing agent to increase the density of PEDOT moieties on the yarns, galvanizing increment in conductivity values. Post-treatment by ethylene glycol transforms the resonance configuration of the conductive moieties of conjugated polymer, which helps in further enhancement of electrical conductivity of the yarns. We have optimized the method in terms of loading and conformal change of the polymer to have a lesser resistance of the coated conductive yarns. The minimum resistance achieved has a value of 77 Ωcm-1. This technique of developing conductivity in conventional yarns enables retaining the flexibility of yarns and feeling of softness which would find suitable␣applications for wearable electronics.

  19. Does Surface Roughness Amplify Wetting?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 18 (2014), s. 184703 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : density functional theory * wetting * roughness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014

  20. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik; Choi, Hong Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability

  1. Preparation of iron-impregnated granular activated carbon for arsenic removal from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Qigang; Lin Wei; Ying Weichi

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) was impregnated with iron through a new multi-step procedure using ferrous chloride as the precursor for removing arsenic from drinking water. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrated that the impregnated iron was distributed evenly on the internal surface of the GAC. Impregnated iron formed nano-size particles, and existed in both crystalline (akaganeite) and amorphous iron forms. Iron-impregnated GACs (Fe-GACs) were treated with sodium hydroxide to stabilize iron in GAC and impregnated iron was found very stable at the common pH range in water treatments. Synthetic arsenate-contaminated drinking water was used in isotherm tests to evaluate arsenic adsorption capacities and iron use efficiencies of Fe-GACs with iron contents ranging from 1.64% to 12.13% (by weight). Nonlinear regression was used to obtain unbiased estimates of Langmuir model parameters. The arsenic adsorption capacity of Fe-GAC increased significantly with impregnated iron up to 4.22% and then decreased with more impregnated iron. Fe-GACs synthesized in this study exhibited higher affinity for arsenate as compared with references in literature and shows great potential for real implementations.

  2. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Yeol [CJ Cheiljedang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability.

  3. Jodï horticultural belief, knowledge and practice: incipient or integral cultivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford Zent

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Jodï horticultural system, including belief, knowledge and practice aspects. The horticulturalpractices of the Jodï were previously characterized as ‘incipient cultivation’ but such practices were poorly described anddocumented. The antiquity of cultivation among this group is suggested by the prominence and significance of horticulturalproducts and techniques in myth and ritual. Our field observations uncovered a fairly sophisticated system of plantmanagement in swiddens, house gardens, trail gardens and natural forest gaps. An inventory of 67 cultivated plant specieswas documented, of which 36 are utilized for food, 20 for magical or medicinal purposes, and 11 for technology. The Jodïprolong the productive phase of their gardens for five years or more through successive planting-harvesting-replantingoperations. Jodï swiddens display an elaborate polycultivated appearance and they possess at least five principal crops:plantain/banana, maize, yams, sweet potato, and sweet manioc. Another distinctive feature is the extensive use of naturalgaps in the forest canopy as cultivation zones. The results of this study suggest that while Jodï horticultural practice iswell integrated with a nomadic, foraging-dependent lifestyle, nevertheless this system does not deserve to be labeled as‘incipient’ and instead is more integral than was recognized previously.

  4. Threshold Criteria for Incipient Grain Motion with Turbulent Fluctuations on a Horizontal Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, M.W.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of turbulent fluctuations on the threshold criteria for incipient grain motion over a wide range of sediment size is investigated. In this work, attention is paid to the comparison of the critical Shields parameter θ_c profile obtained when the near-bed fluid forces induced sediment motion are oscillating-grid turbulence and a single idealised eddy of vortex ring. For experimental work, near-spherical monodisperse sediments were used throughout with relative densities of 1.2 and 2.5 and mean diameters d ranging between 80 and 1087 μm. The measured values of θ_c on a horizontal bed α = 0 (hence denoted as θ_c_0), were compared to the θ_c_0 profiles obtained by grid turbulence and vortex ring experiments. Although different in magnitude, the θ_c_0 profiles were comparable, that is the θ_c_0 were seen to increase monotonically for hydraulically smooth bed forms and to be approximately constant for hydraulically rough bed forms. However the limit of hydraulically smooth region was found to vary between the oscillating-grid turbulence experiments, where wider smooth region was found when the turbulent fluctuations used to calculate θ_c_0 is not the near-bed velocity. (author)

  5. Comparison of nano-hydroxyapatite and sodium fluoride mouthrinse for remineralization of incipient carious lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Haghgoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious disease that can be prevented in several ways. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sodium fluoride mouthrinse and nano- hydroxyapatite (nano-HA for the remineralization of incipient caries.After obtaining different concentrations of nano-HA (0-2-5-10%, 60 sound premolars fixed in acrylic blocks were coated with nail polish except for one surface. Ten teeth (control group were stored in distilled water and the remaining 50 samples were demineralized by immersion in 13 ml of 0.1 M lactic acid and 0.2% poly acrylic acid for 48 hours. Their microhardness was then measured and compared to that of the control group. Next, the 50 test teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of group1 (negative, group 2 (2% nano-HA, group 3 (5% nano-HA, group 4(10% nano-HA and group 5 (0.2 NAF mouthrinse. The microhardness of the teeth was measured after 12 hours of immersion in the above-mentioned solutions. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA.Microhardness of all samples decreased significantly after immersion in the demineralization solution and increased following immersion in nano-HA and NAF mouthrinses; however, this increase was not statistically significant (P=0.711.Nano-HA and NAF mouthrinses can greatly enhance remineralization and increase tooth microhardness.

  6. Incipient microphase separation in short chain perfluoropolyether-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Timachova, Ksenia; Olson, Kevin R; Banaszak, Michał; Thelen, Jacob L; Mecham, Sue J; DeSimone, Joseph M; Balsara, Nitash P

    2017-06-07

    Incipient microphase separation is observed by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) in short chain multiblock copolymers consisting of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. Two PFPE-PEO block copolymers were studied; one with dihydroxyl end groups and one with dimethyl carbonate end groups. Despite having a low degree of polymerization (N ∼ 10), these materials exhibited significant scattering intensity, due to disordered concentration fluctuations between their PFPE-rich and PEO-rich domains. The disordered scattering intensity was fit to a model based on a multicomponent random phase approximation to determine the value of the interaction parameter, χ, and the radius of gyration, R g . Over the temperature range 30-90 °C, the values of χ were determined to be very large (∼2-2.5), indicating a high degree of immiscibility between the PFPE and PEO blocks. In PFPE-PEO, due to the large electron density contrast between the fluorinated and non-fluorinated block and the high value of χ, disordered scattering was detected at intermediate scattering angles, (q ∼ 2 nm -1 ) for relatively small polymer chains. Our ability to detect concentration fluctuations was enabled by both a relatively large value of χ and significant scattering contrast.

  7. Incipient fault diagnosis of power transformers using optical spectro-photometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, K.; Karmakar, Subrata

    2015-06-01

    Power transformers are the vital equipment in the network of power generation, transmission and distribution. Mineral oil in oil-filled transformers plays very important role as far as electrical insulation for the winding and cooling of the transformer is concerned. As transformers are always under the influence of electrical and thermal stresses, incipient faults like partial discharge, sparking and arcing take place. As a result, mineral oil deteriorates there by premature failure of the transformer occurs causing huge losses in terms of revenue and assets. Therefore, the transformer health condition has to be monitored continuously. The Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is being extensively used for this purpose, but it has some drawbacks like it needs carrier gas, regular instrument calibration, etc. To overcome these drawbacks, Ultraviolet (UV) -Visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectro-photometric techniques are used as diagnostic tools for investigating the degraded transformer oil affected by electrical, mechanical and thermal stresses. The technique has several advantages over the conventional DGA technique.

  8. Incipient preoperative reorganization processes of verbal memory functions in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milian, Monika; Zeltner, Lena; Erb, Michael; Klose, Uwe; Wagner, Kathrin; Frings, Lars; Veil, Cornelia; Rona, Sabine; Lerche, Holger; Klamer, Silke

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported nonlinear correlations between verbal episodic memory performance and BOLD signal in memory fMRI in healthy subjects. The purpose of the present study was to examine this observation in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) who often experience memory decline and need reliable prediction tools before epilepsy surgery with hippocampectomy. Fifteen patients with left mTLE (18-57years, nine females) underwent a verbal memory fMRI paradigm. Correlations between BOLD activity and neuropsychological data were calculated for the i) hippocampus (HC) as well as ii) extrahippocampal mTL structures. Memory performance was systematically associated with activations within the right HC as well as with activations within the left extrahippocampal mTL regions (amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus). As hypothesized, the analyses revealed cubic relationships, with one peak in patients with marginal memory performance and another peak in patients with very good performance. The nonlinear correlations between memory performance and activations might reflect the compensatory recruitment of neural resources to maintain memory performance in patients with ongoing memory deterioration. The present data suggest an already incipient preoperative reorganization process of verbal memory in non-amnesic patients with left mTLE by simultaneously tapping the resources of the right HC and left extrahippocampal mTL regions. Thus, in the preoperative assessment, both neuropsychological performance and memory fMRI should be considered together. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of incipient diabetic nephropathy by high-dose thiamine and benfotiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei-Jadidi, Roya; Karachalias, Nikolaos; Ahmed, Naila; Battah, Sinan; Thornalley, Paul J

    2003-08-01

    Accumulation of triosephosphates arising from high cytosolic glucose concentrations in hyperglycemia is the trigger for biochemical dysfunction leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy-a common complication of diabetes associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Here we report that stimulation of the reductive pentosephosphate pathway by high-dose therapy with thiamine and the thiamine monophosphate derivative benfotiamine countered the accumulation of triosephosphates in experimental diabetes and inhibited the development of incipient nephropathy. High-dose thiamine and benfotiamine therapy increased transketolase expression in renal glomeruli, increased the conversion of triosephosphates to ribose-5-phosphate, and strongly inhibited the development of microalbuminuria. This was associated with decreased activation of protein kinase C and decreased protein glycation and oxidative stress-three major pathways of biochemical dysfunction in hyperglycemia. Benfotiamine also inhibited diabetes-induced hyperfiltration. This was achieved without change in elevated plasma glucose concentration and glycated hemoglobin in the diabetic state. High-dose thiamine and benfotiamine therapy is a potential novel strategy for the prevention of clinical diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Incipient Fault Detection and Isolation of Field Devices in Nuclear Power Systems Using Principal Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaistha, Nitin; Upadhyaya, Belle R.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated method for the detection and isolation of incipient faults in common field devices, such as sensors and actuators, using plant operational data is presented. The approach is based on the premise that data for normal operation lie on a surface and abnormal situations lead to deviations from the surface in a particular way. Statistically significant deviations from the surface result in the detection of faults, and the characteristic directions of deviations are used for isolation of one or more faults from the set of typical faults. Principal component analysis (PCA), a multivariate data-driven technique, is used to capture the relationships in the data and fit a hyperplane to the data. The fault direction for each of the scenarios is obtained using the singular value decomposition on the state and control function prediction errors, and fault isolation is then accomplished from projections on the fault directions. This approach is demonstrated for a simulated pressurized water reactor steam generator system and for a laboratory process control system under single device fault conditions. Enhanced fault isolation capability is also illustrated by incorporating realistic nonlinear terms in the PCA data matrix

  11. Study of adsorption properties of impregnated charcoal for airborne iodine and methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi-dong, L.; Sui-yuang, H.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of airborne radioiodine and methyl iodide on impregnated charcoal were investigated. The activated charcoal tested was made from home-made oil-palm shells, and KI and TEDA were used as impregnants. A new technique was used to plot the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm at challenge concentrations (concentration range of iodine: 1-20 ppm v/v). Some adsorption properties of the impregnated charcoal were estimated with the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm. The dependences of the adsorption capacity and penetration behavior for airborne iodine and methyl iodide on the ambient conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and superficial velocity) were studied

  12. Polymer-filled microcontainers for oral delivery loaded using supercritical impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-01-01

    with a quasi-no-waste performance. Then ketoprofen is impregnated in the polymer matrix by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as loading medium. The amount of polymer is controlled by the volume and the number of droplets of dispensed polymer and drug loading is tuned by varying the impregnation...... procedures. This work proposes an effective loading technique for a poorly soluble model drug in microcontainers, by combining inkjet printing and supercritical fluid impregnation. Well defined quantities of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) solutions are dispensed into microcontainers by inkjet printing...

  13. X-ray Tomography and Impregnation Methods to Analyze Pore Space Hetrerogeneities at the Hydrated State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pret, D.; Ferrage, E.; Tertre, E.; Robinet, J.C.; Faurel, M.; Hubert, F.; Pelletier, M.; Bihannic, I.

    2013-01-01

    environmental conditions and preparations are used. In case of methods able to deal with wet atmospheres and nanometre resolution, sub-sampling millimetre or micrometre size hydrated samples without inducing shearing or fractures is also not still proven. Optimization of impregnation procedure for water saturated clay samples still plays a pivotal role for applying the most advanced imaging techniques at the nanometre scale. In addition, natural clay rocks in sedimentary basins or engineered barriers in deep repositories could not swell or shrink by changing their macroscopic volume. Such case corresponds to constrained swelling conditions that implies a distribution of pore and water highly contrasting with dry state and hydrated state in free swelling conditions. Moreover, swelling rate could potentially be limited down to the crystal scale. As probing in-situ the organization of hydrated and compacted clay materials into an odometer set-up is challenging, it is really poorly documented in literature. Note that opening an odometer setup and analyzing a sample is not a constrained swelling condition: immediate swelling and change of pore space occurs. Natural clayey rocks in sedimentary basins display additional spatial variations of mineral and porosity distributions with contrasted spatial frequencies or gradual evolutions due to sedimentation cycles, temporal evolutions of climate, variations of sources, diagenesis, etc. At the scale of a laboratory sample, geological history still imposes a heterogeneous spatial distribution of mineral and pore space down-scaling to the crystal scale. Localizing samples with a millimetre size or less against the heterogeneities encountered at larger scale is thus important before analyzing it with a nanometre resolution. The best is to follow a continuous down-scaling approach all along the characterization of the organization, keeping the sample in a similar state between each technique. Here we propose a method to fully impregnate up to

  14. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Formative Assessment Probes: Wet Jeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    Picture a wet towel or a puddle of water on a hot, sunny day. An hour later, the towel is dry and the puddle no longer exists. What happened to the water? Where did it go? These are questions that reveal myriad interesting student ideas about evaporation and the water cycle--ideas that provide teachers with a treasure trove of data they can use to…

  16. IMPREGNATED FIBROUS CHEMOSORBENTS OF ACID GASES FOR RESPIRATORY PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present review is dedicated to the analysis of scientific works carried out in Physico- Chemical Institute of Environment and Human Protection (Odessa, Ukrainie and directed to the development of import-substituting sorption-filtering materials for respiratory purposes – impregnated fibrous chemisorbents (IFCS of acid gases, which are manufactured using standard equipment, as well as affordable and inexpensive chemical reagents and carriers of domestic origin. The process of chemisorption of sulphur dioxide by hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA modified nonwoven fibrous material resulted acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of HMTA to form aminomethanesulfonic acid and toxic formaldehyde. The IFCS with HMTA carried was recommended to use for air purification only from SiF4, HF, HCl and Cl2. Chemisorption of sulphur dioxide by fibrous materials impregnated by ethanolamines (monoethanolamine, diethanomamine, triethanomamine and N-methylethanolamine and polyethylenepolyamine (PEPA occurs only in the presence of “free” water with formation of “onium” sulphites, hydrosulphites and pyrosulphites. IFCS-PEPA (dynamic activity is 1,38 mmol(SO2/g are not inferior to the protective characteristics of IFCS with Na2CO3, HMTA, ethanolamines and the best foreign ionexchange fibrous chemisorbents brand VION and FIBAN (dynamic activity is 0,263 ÷0,422 mmol(SO2/g under conditions of respirators actual use (jAGM = 60 ÷ 90 %, TAGM = 297 K, VAGM = 2,0 sm/s, СSO2 = 20 ÷ 1000 mg/g3, QPEPA = 3,45 mmol/g. It is recommended to use the condensation products of primary alkylamines with formaldehyde (with large molar masses than the bases, complex compounds of amines with 3d-metals (Ni(II and Cu(II, salts of amine with aminoacids (glycine and polybasic acids (orthophosphoric acid (pKa1 = 2,12 and citric acid (pKa1 = 3,13 for manufacturing of IFCS of acid gases The IFCS with indication of dynamic absorptive capacity “wearing” (IVKS-I was developed.

  17. Erosion corrosion in wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavast, J.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of different remedies against erosion corrosion in wet steam has been studied in Barsebaeck 1. Accessible steam systems were inspected in 1984, 1985 and 1986. The effect of hydrogen peroxide injection of the transport of corrosion products in the condensate and feed water systems has also been followed through chemical analyses. The most important results of the project are: - Low alloy chromium steels with a chromium content of 1-2% have shown excellent resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. - A thermally sprayed coating has shown good resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. In a few areas with restricted accessibility minor attacks have been found. A thermally sprayed aluminium oxide coating has given poor results. - Large areas in the moisture separator/reheater and in steam extraction no. 3 have been passivated by injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide to the high pressure steam. In other inspected systems no significant effect was found. Measurements of the wall thickness in steam extraction no. 3 showed a reduced rate of attack. - The injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide has not resulted in any significant reduction of the iron level result is contrary to that of earlier tests. An increase to 40 ppb resulted in a slight decrease of the iron level. - None of the feared disadvantages with hydrogen peroxide injection has been observed. The chromium and cobalt levels did not increase during the injection. Neither did the lifetime of the precoat condensate filters decrease. (author)

  18. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  19. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult bed-wetting: A concern? My 24-year-old husband has started to wet the bed at ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  20. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g) and...

  1. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  2. A Mathematical Model of Repeated Impregnation of Porous Bodies with Solutions of Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Glebov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes basic methods of impregnating porous bodies with solutions of polymers and their use to manufacture prepregs. It also describes the existing methods of manufacturing multilayer prepregs to produce aerospace coating of the spacecraft "Soyuz". It is shown that these prepregs have to meet high requirements for the content of the polymer, as compared with other composite materials, about 35 - 40% of the mass. Methods used for their manufacturing are long-term and non-controllable. The assumption is made that using the vacuum impregnation technology of a woven material will allow to accelerate the manufacturing process of these prepregs and improve their quality.In reviewing the technical literature have been found works on modeling the processes of impregnation, but they are aimed only at studying the speed of the woven material impregnation by various fluids and determining the time of impregnation. There were no models found to define prepreg parameters during the process of multiple impregnations. The aim of this work is to develop the simple mathematical model, which enables us to predict the polymer content of volatile products in the prepreg after each cycle of multiple impregnation of woven material with a solution of the polymer.To consider the vacuum impregnation method are used the prepregs based on silica and silica-nylon stitch-bonding fabric and bakelite varnish LBS-4 containing 50 - 60% of phenol resin and the solvent with minor impurities of pure phenol and water, as an example. To describe the process of vacuum impregnation of the porous work-piece is developed a mathematical description of the process of filling the porous space of the material with a varnish. It is assumed that the varnish components fill the porous space of the material in the same proportion as they are contained in the varnish.It is shown that a single impregnation cannot ensure the content of phenol resin in the prepreg over 32%, which does

  3. Effects of radiation induced polymerisation on the mechanical properties of polymer impregnated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgishi, S.; Ono, H.; Kasahara, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In this programme, effects of electron irradiation energy on mechanical properties of polymer impregnated concrete (PIC) were examined with regard to the density of the base cement mortar, the total exposure dose, the radiation source and other factors. (author)

  4. Inkjet Impregnation for Tailoring Air Electrode Microstructure to Improve Solid Oxide Cells Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Da’ as, Eman H.

    2015-01-01

    The urge to lower the operating temperature of solid oxide cells (SOCs) to the intermediate ranges between 500-700°C motivated the research into impregnation processes, which offer highly efficient SOC air electrodes at low operating temperatures

  5. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two

  6. Polymerization of impregnated monomer in wood by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing of a wood-plastic combination (WPC) by irradiation of microwave (2,450 and 915 +- 50 MHz) or gamma-ray was carried out. After the impregnation of dry woods (Hinoki: Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl., Buna: Acer mono Maxim., and Kaede: Fagus crenata Blume) with the mixture of the vinyl monomers and chemical reagents, the monomer in wood was polymerized by irradiation. In case of polymerization with microwave (2,450 MHz) the effect of oxygen was not recognized, but in the case of gamma-ray the rate of polymerization remarkably decreased in the presence of oxygen. The polymerization of various monomers was carried out also in the air, and the conversions of styrene, methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and n-butyl-methacrylate were 51.8 -- 89.1%, but that of vinyl acetate was lower (4.3 -- 8.2%). The conversion of monomers with irradiation of 915 MHz microwave was very low (2.6 -- 33.5%). The conversion of monomers increased when toluylene diisocyanate was added in the monomers. The percentage of extraction with hot benzene of WPC (chip) decreased by the addition of toluylene diisocyanate. It was concluded from C.H.N. analyses that the reaction took place among the wood, toluylene diisocyanate and methyl methacrylate. (auth.)

  7. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  8. Conservation of diverse old wooden objects by impregnation and radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.; Eibner, C.

    1983-12-01

    The conservation by impregnation with radiation-curable impregnating agents and subsequent curing with gamma radiation of an medieval wooden window-frame, several gold-coated frame fragments, a primitive flail and a poppy mallet as well as fragments of a painted mail-box and of a border is described and the results are discussed. The process is especially suited for the consolidation of heavily decayed porous objects, e.g. archaeologic findings. (Author) [de

  9. Partial-impregnation techniques in the production of wood-polymer composites through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Du Toit, G.S.; Jurriaanse, A.

    1977-04-01

    Radiation-processed wood-polymer composites produced from various partially impregnated Pinus species grown in South Africa were investigated and compared to a number of locally available noble hardwoods in respect of dimensional stability, hardness, homogeneity and weathering properties. This investigation clearly demonstrates that, through partial-impregnation techniques, wood-polymer composites can be formed from the locally grown Pinus species with a considerable saving in monomer costs without sacrificing most of the important physical properties of these materials [af

  10. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Xiaomin [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Dai, Xiaohu [National Engineering Research Centre for Urban Pollution Control, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  11. Thin layer chromatography of glucose and sorbitol on Cu(II)-impregnated silica gel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzija, O. (Ruder Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Spoljar, B. (Ruder Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Sesartic, L. (Inst. of Immunology, Zagreb (Croatia))

    1994-04-01

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separation of glucose and sorbitol on CU(II)-impregnated silica gel plates with n-propanol: Water (4:1) v/v as developer and potassium permanganate as detecting reagent has been worked out. The new impregnant is completely insoluble in water and thus enables the use of an aqueous developer. The R[sub f]-values are 55 and 10 for glucose and sorbitol, respectively. (orig.)

  12. History of the incipient Icelandic plume: Observations from ancient buried landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, Gaia; Roberts, Gareth G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Ancient buried terrestrial landscapes contain records of vertical motions which can be used to probe histories of geodynamical processes. In the North Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary basins contain excellent evidence that the continental shelf experienced staged subaerial exposure. For example, now buried landscapes were uplifted, rapidly eroded, and drowned close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. We use commercial wells and three-dimensional seismic data to reconstruct a 57-55 Ma landscape now buried 1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay area of the northern North Sea. Geochemical analyses of organic matter from core samples intersecting the erosional landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm (flowering plant) debris. Combined with the presence of coarse clastic material, mapped beach ridges, and dendritic drainage patterns, these observations indicate that this landscape was of terrestrial origin. Longitudinal profiles of ancient rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history. The best-fitting uplift rate history has three phases and total cumulative uplift of 350 m. Biostratigraphic data from surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this landscape formed within 1-1.5 Ma. This uplift history is similar to that of a slightly older buried landscape in the Faeroe-Shetland basin 400 km to the west. These records of vertical motion can explained by pulses of anomalously hot asthenosphere spreading out from the incipient Icelandic plume. Using simple isostatic calculations we estimate that the maximum thermal anomaly beneath Bressay was 50˚. Our observations suggest that a thermal anomaly departed the Icelandic plume as early as 58.5 Ma and had highest average temperatures at 55.6 Ma.

  13. Interactions of C+(2PJ) with rare gas atoms: incipient chemical interactions, potentials and transport coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, William D.; Thorington, Rebecca L.; Viehland, Larry A.; Breckenridge, W. H.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate interatomic potentials were calculated for the interaction of a singly charged carbon cation, C+, with a single rare gas atom, RG (RG = Ne-Xe). The RCCSD(T) method and basis sets of quadruple-ζ and quintuple-ζ quality were employed; each interaction energy was counterpoise corrected and extrapolated to the basis set limit. The lowest C+(2P) electronic term of the carbon cation was considered, and the interatomic potentials calculated for the diatomic terms that arise from these: 2Π and 2Σ+. Additionally, the interatomic potentials for the respective spin-orbit levels were calculated, and the effect on the spectroscopic parameters was examined. In doing this, anomalously large spin-orbit splittings for RG = Ar-Xe were found, and this was investigated using multi-reference configuration interaction calculations. The latter indicated a small amount of RG → C+ electron transfer and this was used to rationalize the observations. This is taken as evidence of an incipient chemical interaction, which was also examined via contour plots, Birge-Sponer plots and various population analyses across the C+-RG series (RG = He-Xe), with the latter showing unexpected results. Trends in several spectroscopic parameters were examined as a function of the increasing atomic number of the RG atom. Finally, each set of RCCSD(T) potentials was employed, including spin-orbit coupling to calculate the transport coefficients for C+ in RG, and the results were compared with the limited available data. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.

  14. Comparison of Machine Learning methods for incipient motion in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport of natural gravel bed streams are important processes which affect both the morphology as well as the ecology of earth's surface. For gravel bed rivers at near incipient flow conditions, particle entrainment dynamics are highly intermittent. This contribution reviews the use of modern Machine Learning (ML) methods implemented for short term prediction of entrainment instances of individual grains exposed in fully developed near boundary turbulent flows. Results obtained by network architectures of variable complexity based on two different ML methods namely the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) are compared in terms of different error and performance indices, computational efficiency and complexity as well as predictive accuracy and forecast ability. Different model architectures are trained and tested with experimental time series obtained from mobile particle flume experiments. The experimental setup consists of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and a laser optics system, which acquire data for the instantaneous flow and particle response respectively, synchronously. The first is used to record the flow velocity components directly upstream of the test particle, while the later tracks the particle's displacements. The lengthy experimental data sets (millions of data points) are split into the training and validation subsets used to perform the corresponding learning and testing of the models. It is demonstrated that the ANFIS hybrid model, which is based on neural learning and fuzzy inference principles, better predicts the critical flow conditions above which sediment transport is initiated. In addition, it is illustrated that empirical knowledge can be extracted, validating the theoretical assumption that particle ejections occur due to energetic turbulent flow events. Such a tool may find application in management and regulation of stream flows downstream of dams for stream

  15. Kullback-Leibler distance-based enhanced detection of incipient anomalies

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-09-09

    Accurate and effective anomaly detection and diagnosis of modern engineering systems by monitoring processes ensure reliability and safety of a product while maintaining desired quality. In this paper, an innovative method based on Kullback-Leibler divergence for detecting incipient anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data is presented. We use a partial least square (PLS) method as a modeling framework and a symmetrized Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD) as an anomaly indicator, where it is used to quantify the dissimilarity between current PLS-based residual and reference probability distributions obtained using fault-free data. Furthermore, this paper reports the development of two monitoring charts based on the KLD. The first approach is a KLD-Shewhart chart, where the Shewhart monitoring chart with a three sigma rule is used to monitor the KLD of the response variables residuals from the PLS model. The second approach integrates the KLD statistic into the exponentially weighted moving average monitoring chart. The performance of the PLS-based KLD anomaly-detection methods is illustrated and compared to that of conventional PLS-based anomaly detection methods. Using synthetic data and simulated distillation column data, we demonstrate the greater sensitivity and effectiveness of the developed method over the conventional PLS-based methods, especially when data are highly correlated and small anomalies are of interest. Results indicate that the proposed chart is a very promising KLD-based method because KLD-based charts are, in practice, designed to detect small shifts in process parameters. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Incipient balancing selection through adaptive loss of aquaporins in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Will

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how adaptive evolution has influenced natural variation, but identifying loci subject to positive selection has been a challenge. Here we present the adaptive loss of a pair of paralogous genes in specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae subpopulations. We mapped natural variation in freeze-thaw tolerance to two water transporters, AQY1 and AQY2, previously implicated in freeze-thaw survival. However, whereas freeze-thaw-tolerant strains harbor functional aquaporin genes, the set of sensitive strains lost aquaporin function at least 6 independent times. Several genomic signatures at AQY1 and/or AQY2 reveal low variation surrounding these loci within strains of the same haplotype, but high variation between strain groups. This is consistent with recent adaptive loss of aquaporins in subgroups of strains, leading to incipient balancing selection. We show that, although aquaporins are critical for surviving freeze-thaw stress, loss of both genes provides a major fitness advantage on high-sugar substrates common to many strains' natural niche. Strikingly, strains with non-functional alleles have also lost the ancestral requirement for aquaporins during spore formation. Thus, the antagonistic effect of aquaporin function-providing an advantage in freeze-thaw tolerance but a fitness defect for growth in high-sugar environments-contributes to the maintenance of both functional and nonfunctional alleles in S. cerevisiae. This work also shows that gene loss through multiple missense and nonsense mutations, hallmarks of pseudogenization presumed to emerge after loss of constraint, can arise through positive selection.

  17. Incipient balancing selection through adaptive loss of aquaporins in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Jessica L; Kim, Hyun Seok; Clarke, Jessica; Painter, John C; Fay, Justin C; Gasch, Audrey P

    2010-04-01

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how adaptive evolution has influenced natural variation, but identifying loci subject to positive selection has been a challenge. Here we present the adaptive loss of a pair of paralogous genes in specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae subpopulations. We mapped natural variation in freeze-thaw tolerance to two water transporters, AQY1 and AQY2, previously implicated in freeze-thaw survival. However, whereas freeze-thaw-tolerant strains harbor functional aquaporin genes, the set of sensitive strains lost aquaporin function at least 6 independent times. Several genomic signatures at AQY1 and/or AQY2 reveal low variation surrounding these loci within strains of the same haplotype, but high variation between strain groups. This is consistent with recent adaptive loss of aquaporins in subgroups of strains, leading to incipient balancing selection. We show that, although aquaporins are critical for surviving freeze-thaw stress, loss of both genes provides a major fitness advantage on high-sugar substrates common to many strains' natural niche. Strikingly, strains with non-functional alleles have also lost the ancestral requirement for aquaporins during spore formation. Thus, the antagonistic effect of aquaporin function-providing an advantage in freeze-thaw tolerance but a fitness defect for growth in high-sugar environments-contributes to the maintenance of both functional and nonfunctional alleles in S. cerevisiae. This work also shows that gene loss through multiple missense and nonsense mutations, hallmarks of pseudogenization presumed to emerge after loss of constraint, can arise through positive selection.

  18. Incipiently drowned platform deposit in cyclic Ordovician shelf sequence: Lower Ordovician Chepultepec Formation, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.A.; Read, J.F.

    1983-03-01

    The Chepultepec interval, 145 to 260 m (476 to 853 ft) thick, in Virginia contains the Lower Member up to 150 m (492 ft) thick, and the Upper Member, up to 85 m (279 ft) thick, of peritidal cyclic limestone and dolomite, and a Middle Member, up to 110 m (360 ft) thick, of subtidal limestone and bioherms, passing northwestward into cyclic facies. Calculated long term subsidence rates were 4 to 5 cm/1000 yr (mature passive margin rates), shelf gradients were 6 cm/km, and average duration of cycles was 140,00 years. Peritidal cyclic sequences are upward shallowing sequences of pellet-skeletal limestone, thrombolites, rippled calcisiltites and intraclast grainstone, and laminite caps. They formed by rapid transgression with apparent submergence increments averaging approximately 2 m (6.5 ft) in Lower Member and 3.5 m (11.4 ft), Upper Member. Deposition during Middle Member time was dominated by skeletal limestone-mudstone, calcisiltite with storm generated fining-upward sequences, and burrow-mixed units that were formed near fair-weather wave base, along with thrombolite bioherms. Locally, there are upward shallowing sequences, of basal wackestone/mudstone to calcisiltite to bioherm complexes (locally with erosional scalloped tops). Following each submergence, carbonate sedimentation was able to build to sea level prior to renewed submergence. Large submergence events caused tidal flats to be shifted far to the west, and they were unable to prograde out onto the open shelf because of insufficient time before subsidence was renewed, and because the open shelf setting inhibited tidal flat deposition. The Middle Member represents an incipiently drowned sequence that developed by repeated submergence events.

  19. Persistently elevated right ventricular index of myocardial performance in preterm infants with incipient bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czernik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance occurs during the first days after birth in all newborn infants and persists in infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. It is difficult to measure in a non-invasive fashion. We assessed the usefulness of the right ventricular index of myocardial performance (RIMP to estimate pulmonary vascular resistance in very low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL 2, 7, 14, and 28 in 121 preterm infants (median [quartiles] gestational age 28 [26]-[29] weeks, birth weight 998 [743-1225] g of whom 36 developed BPD (oxygen supplementation at 36 postmenstrual weeks. RESULTS: RIMP derived by conventional pulsed Doppler technique was unrelated to heart rate or mean blood pressure. RIMP on DOL 2 was similar in infants who subsequently did (0.39 [0.33-0.55] and did not develop BPD (0.39 [0.28-0.51], p = 0.467. RIMP declined steadily in non-BPD infants but not in BPD infants (DOL 7: 0.31[0.22-0.39] vs. 0.35[0.29-0.48], p = 0.014; DOL 14: 0.23[0.17-0.30] vs. 0.35[0.25-0.43], p<0.001; DOL 28: 0.21[0.15-0.28] vs. 0.31 [0.21-0.35], p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants, a decline in RIMP after birth was not observed in those with incipient BPD. The pattern of RIMP measured in preterm infants is commensurate with that of pulmonary vascular resistance.

  20. Incipient motion in gravel bed rivers due to energetic turbulent flow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos

    2013-04-01

    This contribution reviews recent developments and contributions in the field of incipient motion and entrainment of coarse sediment grains due to the action of near bed turbulent flows. Specifically, traditional shear based spatio-temporally averaged concepts and instantaneous stress tensor criteria are contrasted to the newly proposed flow event based impulse and energy criteria. The energy criterion, suggests that only sufficiently energetic turbulent events can remove a particle from its resting position on the bed surface and result on its entrainment downstream. While the impulse and energy criteria are interconnected through the energy-impulse equation, the later appears to be more versatile and appropriate for generalising to sediment transport. These flow event based criteria have a sound physical basis for describing the intermittent character of particle entrainment as inherited by near boundary turbulence at near threshold conditions. These criteria can be derived from fundamental laws of physics such as Newtonian classical mechanics and the Lagrange equations respectively. The energetic events that are capable of performing geomorphic work at the scale of individual particles are shown to follow a power law, meaning that more energetic events (capable of removing larger stones) are expected to occur less frequently. In addition, this paper discusses the role of the coefficient of energy transfer efficiency introduced in the energy equation for particle entrainment. A preliminary investigation from analysis of a series of mobile grain flume experiments illustrates that different signatures of turbulence or sequence of flow structures may have different effectiveness towards particle transport. Characteristic cases of specific energetic flow events and the associated particle response are shown and classified with regard to the time required for complete entrainment. Finally these findings are commented with respect to the implications for sediment

  1. The Effect of Water Repellent Surface Impregnation on Durability of Cement-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, service life of reinforced concrete structures is severely limited by chloride penetration until the steel reinforcement or by carbonation of the covercrete. Water repellent treatment on the surfaces of cement-based materials has often been considered to protect concrete from these deteriorations. In this paper, three types of water repellent agents have been applied on the surface of concrete specimens. Penetration profiles of silicon resin in treated concrete have been determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. Water capillary suction, chloride penetration, carbonation, and reinforcement corrosion in both surface impregnated and untreated specimens have been measured. Results indicate that surface impregnation reduced the coefficient of capillary suction of concrete substantially. An efficient chloride barrier can be established by deep impregnation. Water repellent surface impregnation by silanes also can make the process of carbonation action slow. In addition, it also has been concluded that surface impregnation can provide effective corrosion protection to reinforcing steel in concrete with migrating chloride. The improvement of durability and extension of service life for reinforced concrete structures, therefore, can be expected through the applications of appropriate water repellent surface impregnation.

  2. Thermal Effect on the phosphoric Acid Impregnated Activated Carbon Fiber and Adsorption Properties Toward Isoprene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Taek Sung; Lee, Jin Hyok; Kang, Kyung suk [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Kim, Kwang Young [Ace Lab. Co. Ltd. Taejon (Korea); Rhee, Moon Soo [Korea Ginseng and Tobacoo Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    To introduce chemisorption property and improve adsorption capacities for isoprene, ACF (Activated Carbon Fiber) was impregnated by phosphoric acid. As the impregnated ACF was dried by programmed temperature from 300 degree C to 500 degree C, degree of impregnation, surface area, thermal stability and adsorption properties for isoprene were observed. The degree of impregnation of the ACF, dried at the 400 degree C, was 12.7 w/w% and surface area was 1148 m{sup 2}/g. Over the temperature range of 450 degree C to 700 degree C, there was one-step thermal degradation by the thermal decomposition of phosphonyl group. The adsorption rate of phosphoric acid on the impregnated ACF, which was dried at 400 degree C, was the fastest. The breakthrough time of ACF that was dried at 400 degree C was 18 min., and its adsorption capacity improved roughly 7.2 times in comparison to the pure ACF. In addition, it was observed the adsorption properties persisted even after the regeneration. The adsorption efficiency of regenerated ACF was 66 percent compared to the unused impregnated ACF. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Laser incising of wood: Impregnation of columns with water-soluble dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, N.; Ando, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To know whether or not laser incising is a useful pre-treatment technique in impregnating a chemical fluid into lumber, pin holes were made in columns of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), karamatsu (Larix leptolepis Gordon) and douglas-fir (Pseudo-tsuga menziesii Franco) with 1.7 kW CO2 laser, and a water-soluble dye was impregnated into these columns with a local pressure impregnation device. Retentions, and lengths and widths of penetrations from each hole were measured quantitatively. Referring to the results of the preparatory experiment mentioned above, incising patterns for sugi and douglas-fir were designed, and the same water-soluble dye was impregnated into the laser-incised columns as well as into non-incised ones with the vacuum-pressure method to obtain penetrated layers with the target depths completely. As a result, a retention of 200 kg/m3 of dye could be achieved for a column of douglas-fir even if it is a species difficult to impregnate. The penetrated layer also could be formed completely at the depth of the laser incision. Therefore, it is concluded that laser incising can be used for the pre-treatment before impregnation of wood columns. (author)

  4. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-05

    Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400-800°C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Research and development of lithium isotope separation using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ( 6 Li) in tritium breeding materials. However, natural Li contains only about 7.6 at.% 6 Li. In Japan, new lithium isotope separation technique using ionic-liquid impregnated organic membranes have been developed. The improvement in the durability of the ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is one of the main issues for stable, long-term operation of electrodialysis cells while maintaining good performance. Therefore, we developed highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane. Both ends of the ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane were covered by a nafion 324 overcoat to prevent the outflow of the ionic liquid. The transmission of Lithium aqueous solution after 10 hours under the highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is almost 13%. So this highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane for long operating of electrodialysis cells has been developed through successful prevention of ion liquid dissolution. (J.P.N.)

  6. Effects of impregnation methods and drying conditions on quinoline hydrodenitrogenation over Ni-W based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fang; Qiu, Zegang; Zhao, Liangfu; Xiang, Hongwei [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Guo, Shaoqing [Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China)

    2014-04-15

    The effects of impregnation methods (co-impregnation and sequential impregnation) and drying conditions (air and vacuum) on the structure and catalytic behavior of MCM-41 supported Ni-W catalysts were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy (DRS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pyridine adsorbed infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR) techniques. They were tested for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline at temperatures of 300-400 deg C. The HDN results showed that the catalysts prepared by co-impregnation were more active than the catalysts prepared by sequential impregnation and the catalysts prepared by drying under vacuum were more active than the catalysts dried in air. Characterization revealed that the co-impregnation method and drying under vacuum promoted the dispersion of W, the formation of the active phases, and the formation of acidic sites on the catalysts. (author)

  7. Stress intensity factor at the tip of cladding incipient crack in RIA-simulating experiments for high-burnup PWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Yutaka; Suzuki, Motoe; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2009-01-01

    RIA-simulating experiments for high-burnup PWR fuels have been performed in the NSRR, and the stress intensity factor K 1 at the tip of cladding incipient crack has been evaluated in order to investigate its validity as a PCMI failure threshold under RIA conditions. An incipient crack depth was determined by observation of metallographs. The maximum hydride-rim thickness in the cladding of the test fuel rod was regarded as the incipient crack depth in each test case. Hoop stress in the cladding periphery during the pulse power transient was calculated by the RANNS code. K 1 was calculated based on crack depth and hoop stress. According to the RANNS calculation, PCMI failure cases can be divided into two groups: failure in the elastic phase and failure in the plastic phase. In the former case, elastic deformation was predominant around the incipient crack at failure time. K 1 is available only in this case. In the latter, plastic deformation was predominant around the incipient crack at failure time. Failure in the elastic phase never occurred when K 1 was less than 17 MPa m 1/2 . For failure in the plastic phase, the plastic hoop strain of the cladding periphery at failure time clearly showed a tendency to decrease with incipient crack depth. The combination of K 1 , for failure in the elastic phase, and plastic hoop strain at failure, for failure in the plastic phase, can be an effective index of PCMI failure under RIA conditions. (author)

  8. In situ formation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles and the impregnation of hydrophobic polycaprolactone matrix for antimicrobial medical device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phong A; Hocking, Dianna M; O'Connor, Andrea J

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial infection associated with medical devices remains a challenge to modern medicine as more patients are being implanted with medical devices that provide surfaces and environment for bacteria colonization. In particular, bacteria are commonly found to adhere more preferably to hydrophobic materials and many of which are used to make medical devices. Bacteria are also becoming increasingly resistant to common antibiotic treatments as a result of misuse and abuse of antibiotics. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of device-associated infections world-wide. Silver nanoparticles have emerged as a promising non-drug antimicrobial agent which has shown effectiveness against a wide range of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogen. However, for silver nanoparticles to be clinically useful, they must be properly incorporated into medical device materials whose wetting properties could be detrimental to not only the incorporation of the hydrophilic Ag nanoparticles but also the release of active Ag ions. This study aimed at impregnating the hydrophobic polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer, which is a FDA-approved polymeric medical device material, with hydrophilic silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, a novel approach was employed to uniformly, incorporate silver nanoparticles into the PCL matrix in situ and to improve the release of Ag ions from the matrix so as to enhance antimicrobial efficacy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids

  11. Bacterial adhesion forces to Ag-impregnated contact lens cases and transmission to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wenwen; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Hooymans, Johanna M M

    2013-03-01

    To measure adhesion forces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Serratia marcescens to a rigid contact lens (CL), standard polypropylene, and Ag-impregnated lens cases using atomic force microscopy and determine bacterial transmission from lens case to CL. Adhesion forces of bacterial strains to Ag-impregnated and polypropylene lens cases and a rigid CL were measured using atomic force microscopy. Adhesion forces were used to calculate Weibull distributions, from which transmission probabilities from lens case to CL were derived. Transmission probabilities were compared with actual transmission of viable bacteria from a lens case to the CL in 0.9% NaCl and in an antimicrobial lens care solution. Bacterial transmission probabilities from polypropylene lens cases based on force analysis coincided well for all strains with actual transmission in 0.9% NaCl. Bacterial adhesion forces on Ag-impregnated lens cases were much smaller than that on polypropylene and CLs, yielding a high probability of transmission. Comparison with actual bacterial transmission indicated bacterial killing due to Ag ions during colony-forming unit transmission from an Ag-impregnated lens case, especially for P. aeruginosa. Transmission of viable bacteria from Ag-impregnated lens cases could be further decreased by use of an antimicrobial lens care solution instead of 0.9% NaCl. Bacterial transmission probabilities are higher from Ag-impregnated lens cases than from polypropylene lens cases because of small adhesion forces, but this is compensated for by enhanced bacterial killing due to Ag impregnation, especially when in combination with an antimicrobial lens care solution. This calls for a balanced combination of antimicrobial lens care solutions and surface properties of a lens case and CL.

  12. Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts: Quantitative Spectroscopy, Preferential Adsorption of V^4+/5+, and Al2O3 Coating of Zeolite Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catana, Gabriela; Rao, R.R.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Voort, Pascal van der; Vansant, Etienne; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    A series of supported vanadium oxide catalysts were prepared by the incipient wetness method as a function of the support composition (Al2O3, SiO2, and USY), the metal oxide loading (0-1 wt %), and the impregnation salt (vanadyl sulfate and ammonium vanadate). These catalysts have been studied by

  13. Effect of support surface treatment on the synthesis, structure, and performance of Co/CNT Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschemann, Thomas O.; Lamme, Wouter S.; Manchester, Rene L.; Parmentier, Tanja E.; Cognigni, Andrea; Ronning, Magnus; de Jong, Krijn P.

    We report the preparation of supported cobalt catalysts (9 wt% Co) on untreated (CNT) and surface-oxidized (CNT-ox) carbon nanotube materials by incipient wetness impregnation with solutions of cobalt nitrate in water, ethanol, or 1-propanol. The results show that by a judicious selection of solvent

  14. Spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated multilayer paper strip against Aedes albopictus under outdoor conditions, Nagasaki, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Argueta, Tamara Belzabel Obispo; Kawada, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    Spatial repellency of a new device in which metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, is impregnated into a multilayer paper strip, against Aedes albopictus was evaluated under outdoor conditions. High spatial repellency (>80%) with the metofluthrin-impregnated (200 mg) device lasted for more than 6 weeks, while the repellency with the same device impregnated with the same amount of transfluthrin declined within 5 weeks after treatment.

  15. Wetting and evaporation of binary mixture drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2008-09-11

    Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.

  16. Wetting of flat gradient surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Gradient, chemically modified, flat surfaces enable directed transport of droplets. Calculation of apparent contact angles inherent for gradient surfaces is challenging even for atomically flat ones. Wetting of gradient, flat solid surfaces is treated within the variational approach, under which the contact line is free to move along the substrate. Transversality conditions of the variational problem give rise to the generalized Young equation valid for gradient solid surfaces. The apparent (equilibrium) contact angle of a droplet, placed on a gradient surface depends on the radius of the contact line and the values of derivatives of interfacial tensions. The linear approximation of the problem is considered. It is demonstrated that the contact angle hysteresis is inevitable on gradient surfaces. Electrowetting of gradient surfaces is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  18. Petrogenesis of incipient charnockite in the Ikalamavony sub-domain, south-central Madagascar: New insights from phase equilibrium modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takahiro; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Shaji, E.; Rambeloson, Roger A.

    2017-06-01

    Incipient charnockites representing granulite formation on a mesoscopic scale occur in the Ambodin Ifandana area of Ikalamavony sub-domain in south-central Madagascar. Here we report new petrological data from these rocks, and discuss the process of granulite formation on the basis of petrography, mineral equilibrium modeling, and fluid inclusion studies. The incipient charnockites occur as brownish patches, lenses, and layers characterized by an assemblage of biotite + orthopyroxene + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + magnetite + ilmenite within host orthopyroxene-free biotite gneiss with an assemblage of biotite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + magnetite + ilmenite. Lenses and layers of calc-silicate rock (clinopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz + titanite + calcite) are typically associated with the charnockite. Coarse-grained charnockite occurs along the contact between the layered charnockite and calc-silicate rock. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on the mineral assemblages in charnockite and biotite gneiss employing the NCKFMASHTO system as well as fluid inclusion study on coarse-grained charnockite defines a P-T range of 8.5-10.5 kbar and 880-900 °C, which is nearly consistent with the inferred P-T condition of the Ikalamavony sub-domain (8.0-10.5 kbar and 820-880 °C). The result of T versus H2O activity (a(H2O)) modeling demonstrates that orthopyroxene-bearing assemblage in charnockite is stable under relatively low a(H2O) condition of 0.42-0.43, which is consistent with the popular models of incipient-charnockite formation related to the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through dehydration of biotite. The occurrence of calc-silicate rocks adjacent to the charnockite suggests that the CO2-bearing fluid that caused dehydration and incipient-charnockite formation might have been derived through decarbonation of calc-silicate rocks during the initial stage of decompression slightly after the peak

  19. Mechanisms of wet oxidation by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    A research programme is currently under way at BNL and MEL to investigate the possible use of Hydrogen Peroxide with metal ion catalysts as a wet oxidation treatment system for CEGB organic radioactive wastes. The published literature relating to the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation and decomposition reactions of hydrogen peroxide is reviewed and the links with practical waste management by wet oxidation are examined. Alternative wet oxidation systems are described and the similarities to the CEGB research effort are noted. (author)

  20. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  1. Incorporation of Hyperbranched Supramolecules into Nafion Ionic Domains via Impregnation and In-Situ Photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiruto Kudo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nafion membranes were impregnated with photocurable supramolecules, viz., hyperbranched polyester having pendant functional carboxylic acid groups (HBPEAc-COOH by swelling in methanol and subsequently photocured in-situ after drying. Structure-property relationships of the HBPEAc-COOH impregnated Nafion membranes were analyzed on the basis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. FTIR and SSNMR investigations revealed that about 7 wt % of HBPEAc-COOH was actually incorporated into the ionic domains of Nafion. The FTIR study suggests possible complexation via inter-species hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic groups of HBPEAc-COOH and the sulfonate groups of Nafion. The α-relaxation peak corresponding to the glass transition temperature of the ionic domains of the neat Nafion-acid form was found to increase from ~100 to ~130 °C upon impregnation with enhanced modulus afforded by the cured polyester network within the ionic domains. The AC impedance fuel cell measurement of the impregnated membrane exhibited an increasing trend of proton conductivity with increasing temperature, which eventually surpassed that of neat Nafion above 100 °C. Of particular importance is that the present paper is the first to successfully incorporate polymer molecules/networks into the Nafion ionic domains by means of impregnation with hyperbranched supramolecules followed by in-situ photopolymerization.

  2. Different Types of Waste Melamine Impregnated Paper (MIP in Particleboard Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Halil BASBOGA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different types of waste melamine impregnated paper (WMIP were generated in the manufactured coated board product plants. First one is obtained when the neat décor papers were impregnated (in the impregnation line with melamine urea formaldehyde and other chemicals (WMIP1. The second one is generated during the coating of the melamine impregnated papers on the board surfaces (WMIP2. In this study, the utilization of both WMIPs in the production of particleboard as an adhesivereplacement was investigated. First, waste melamine impregnated papers (WMIPs granulated into flour form using Pulverizator with cooling capabilities. Then, they were dry-mixed with surface and core layer particles at 10% or 15% loadings. Three different WMIPs (WMIP1, WMIP2 or their mixtures - 70% WMIP1+30% WMIP2 were used as adhesive-replacement. Mechanical properties including bending strength, modulus of elasticity, internal bond strength and surface stability of the samples were determined according to EN 310, EN 319 and EN 317 standards, respectively. Based on the results, the type of WMIP had significant effect on all mechanical properties investigated. Particleboards produced with both 10% and 15% of WMIP1 loading provided adequate results for the related standards. The best result was obtained when 15% of WMIP1 was used. It is concluded that WMIP1 might be used as an adhesive-replacement in particleboard manufacturing and may provide economic and environmental benefits.

  3. Supercritical impregnation of cinnamaldehyde into polylactic acid as a route to develop antibacterial food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Carolina; Torres, Alejandra; Rios, Mauricio; Rojas, Adrián; Romero, Julio; de Dicastillo, Carol López; Valenzuela, Ximena; Galotto, María José; Guarda, Abel

    2017-09-01

    Supercritical impregnation was used to incorporate a natural compound with antibacterial activity into biopolymer-based films to develop active food packaging materials. Impregnation tests were carried out under two pressure conditions (9 and 12MPa), and three depressurization rates (0.1, 1 and 10MPamin -1 ) in a high-pressure cell at a constant temperature equal to 40°C. Cinnamaldehyde (Ci), a natural compound with proven antimicrobial activity, was successfully incorporated into poly(lactic acid) films (PLA) using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ), with impregnation yields ranging from 8 to 13% w/w. Higher pressure and slower depressurization rate seem to favor the Ci impregnation. The incorporation of Ci improved thermal, structural and mechanical properties of the PLA films. Impregnated films were more flexible, less brittle and more resistant materials than neat PLA films. The tested samples showed strong antibacterial activity against the selected microorganisms. In summary, this study provides an innovative route to the development of antibacterial biodegradable materials, which could be used in a wide range of applications of active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Processing effects in production of composite prepreg by hot melt impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, C.; Jayaraman, K.; Petty, C. A.

    1993-06-01

    The hot melt impregnation process for producing composite prepreg has been studied. The role of the exit die is highlighted by operating without impregnation bars. Experimental results show that when a fiber tow is pulled through a resin bath and then through a wedge shaped die, the total resin mass fraction and the extent of resin impregnation in the tow increase with the processing viscosity. The penetration of resin into a fiber bundle is greater when the resin viscosity is higher. This trend is unchanged over a range of tow speeds up to the breaking point. A theoretical model is developed to describe the effect of processing conditions and die geometry on the degree of impregnation. Calculations with this model indicate that for a given die geometry, the degree of impregnation increases from 58 percent to 90 percent as the ratio of the clearance between the tow and the die wall, to the total die gap is decreased from 0.15 to 0.05. Physical arguments related to the effective viscosity of the prepreg show that the clearance ratio is independent of the tow speed, but decreases as the ratio of the effective shear viscosity of the prepreg to the resin viscosity increases. This provides a connection between the experimental results obtained with varying resin viscosity and the computational results obtained with varying clearance values at the die inlet.

  5. Variability of extreme wet events over Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libanda Brigadier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of extreme wet events are well documented by several studies around the world. These effects are exacerbated in developing countries like Malawi that have insufficient risk reduction strategies and capacity to cope with extreme wet weather. Ardent monitoring of the variability of extreme wet events over Malawi is therefore imperative. The use of the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI has been recommended by many studies as an effective way of quantifying extreme wet events. In this study, ETCCDI indices were used to examine the number of heavy, very heavy, and extremely heavy rainfall days; daily and five-day maximum rainfall; very wet and extremely wet days; annual wet days and simple daily intensity. The Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT was employed at 5% significance level before any statistical test was done. Trend analysis was done using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall statistical test. All stations were found to be homogeneous apart from Mimosa. Trend results show high temporal and spatial variability with the only significant results being: increase in daily maximum rainfall (Rx1day over Karonga and Bvumbwe, increase in five-day maximum rainfall (Rx5day over Bvumbwe. Mzimba and Chileka recorded a significant decrease in very wet days (R95p while a significant increase was observed over Thyolo. Chileka was the only station which observed a significant trend (decrease in extremely wet rainfall (R99p. Mzimba was the only station that reported a significant trend (decrease in annual wet-day rainfall total (PRCPTOT and Thyolo was the only station that reported a significant trend (increase in simple daily intensity (SDII. Furthermore, the findings of this study revealed that, during wet years, Malawi is characterised by an anomalous convergence of strong south-easterly and north-easterly winds. This convergence is the main rain bringing mechanism to Malawi.

  6. Role of hydrogen on the incipient crack tip deformation behavior in α-Fe: An atomistic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, I.; Solanki, K. N.

    2018-01-01

    A crack tip in α-Fe presents a preferential trap site for hydrogen, and sufficient concentration of hydrogen can change the incipient crack tip deformation response, causing a transition from a ductile to a brittle failure mechanism for inherently ductile alloys. In this work, the effect of hydrogen segregation around the crack tip on deformation in α-Fe was examined using atomistic simulations and the continuum based Rice-Thompson criterion for various modes of fracture (I, II, and III). The presence of a hydrogen rich region ahead of the crack tip was found to cause a decrease in the critical stress intensity factor required for incipient deformation for various crack orientations and modes of fracture examined here. Furthermore, the triaxial stress state ahead of the crack tip was found to play a crucial role in determining the effect of hydrogen on the deformation behavior. Overall, the segregation of hydrogen atoms around the crack tip enhanced both dislocation emission and cleavage behavior suggesting that hydrogen has a dual role during the deformation in α-Fe.

  7. Foresight and awareness of incipient changes in a patient' clinical conditions--Perspectives of intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the phenomenon of becoming aware of incipient changes in patient condition from the perspectives and experiences of intensive care nurses. This study involved close observations of and in-depth interviews with 11 experienced intensive care nurses. The text was analysed using a hermeneutic phenomenological method that was inspired by van Manen. This study was undertaken at two different high-technology intensive care units (ICUs) in Norwegian university hospitals. Nurses formed images of individual patients composed of signs (of changes in a patient's condition) that were sensory, measurable, and manifested as the mood of the nurse. The signs may be viewed as separate from and opposed to one another, but they are tightly interwoven and interact with one another. Care situations are powerful stimuli for the patient, and it is of great importance for nurses to become aware of signs in these situations. Nurses also ascribe that following the patient over time is important for becoming aware of signs. An awareness of incipient changes in patient clinical condition requires understanding the ever-changing dynamics of patient condition and dialogic images composed of signs. Care situations and the following of patients through shifts are essential in enabling nurses to detect these signs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of 1.23% APF gel applications on incipient carious lesions: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Menezes Bonow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 1.23% APF gel application on the arrest of active incipient carious lesions in children. Sixty 7- to 12-year-old children, with active incipient lesions were included in the study. Children were divided randomly into 2 groups: 1.23% APF gel and placebo gel applications. Each group received 8 weekly applications of treatment. The lesions were re-evaluated at the 4th and 8th appointments. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks of the presence of active white spot lesions. Groups showed similar results (PR = 1.67; CI 95% 0.69–3.98. The persistence of at least 1 active lesion was associated with a higher number of lesions in the baseline (PR = 2.67; CI 95% 1.19–6.03, but not with sugar intake (PR = 1.06; CI 95% 0.56–2.86 and previous exposure to fluoride dentifrice (PR = 1.26; CI 95% 0.49–2.29. The trial demonstrates the equivalence of the treatments. The use of the APF gel showed no additional benefits in this sample of children exposed to fluoridated water and dentifrice. The professional dental plaque removal in both groups may also account for the resulting equivalence of the treatments.

  9. In situ treatment of concrete surfaces by organic impregnation and polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursella, P.; Moretti, G.; Pellecchia, V.

    1990-01-01

    The impregnation by resins of concrete structures is a process well known at PIC (Polymer Impregnated Concrete). This process improves the physical-chemical features of concrete matrixes in order to extend their durability when severe environmental conditions may occur. The main objective of this research contract has been the verification of a proper impregnation 'in situ' of existing concrete surfaces, of any laying in the space, by means of a prototype machine, expressly designed and implemented, and verification of the increase of mechanical resistance, leach resistance, durability of treated material. In a nuclear facility this goal is very important in relation to the long term integrity of concrete structures during operating lifetime and, in particular, after final shutdown. (author)

  10. Controllable Impregnation Via Inkjet Printing for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Cell Air Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Da'as, E. H.; Irvine, J. T. S.; Traversa, Enrico; Boulfrad, S.

    2013-01-01

    The impregnation method has been considered as one of the most successful techniques for the fabrication of highly efficient electrodes for solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells (SOCs) at the lab scale. However, because the impregnation is usually performed manually, its irreproducibility remains a major problem that can be solved by using controllable techniques, such as inkjet printing. In this paper, lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) air electrodes were prepared by infiltrating YSZ porous bodies with LSM precursor solution using inkjet printing, followed by annealing at 800°C for 2 hours. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of the LSM phase, which was in the form of nanoparticles with size in the 50-70 nm range on the YSZ walls, as revealed by FEG-SEM observations. The effect of printing parameters on the distribution of the impregnated phase was investigated and discussed.

  11. Surface studies of thermionic cathodes and the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, R.

    1976-09-01

    The surface properties of conventional impregnated cathodes were investigated by the use of Auger spectroscopy and work function measurements, and these were compared with a synthesized barium- or barium oxide coated tungsten surface. The barium- and barium oxide coated surfaces were prepared by evaporating barium onto a tungsten surface that can be heated to elevated temperatures. Multilayer or monolayer coverages can be investigated using this technique. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated tungsten cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on partially oxidized tungsten, using the criteria of identical Auger patterns and work functions. Desorption measurements of barium from a tungsten surface were also made. These results in conjunction with Auger and work function data were interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impregnated cathode operating in the range of 1100 C has a partial monolayer rather than a monolayer of barium on its surface

  12. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb3Sn coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of "ten stacks" of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy.

  13. Controllable Impregnation Via Inkjet Printing for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Cell Air Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Da'as, E. H.

    2013-10-07

    The impregnation method has been considered as one of the most successful techniques for the fabrication of highly efficient electrodes for solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells (SOCs) at the lab scale. However, because the impregnation is usually performed manually, its irreproducibility remains a major problem that can be solved by using controllable techniques, such as inkjet printing. In this paper, lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) air electrodes were prepared by infiltrating YSZ porous bodies with LSM precursor solution using inkjet printing, followed by annealing at 800°C for 2 hours. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of the LSM phase, which was in the form of nanoparticles with size in the 50-70 nm range on the YSZ walls, as revealed by FEG-SEM observations. The effect of printing parameters on the distribution of the impregnated phase was investigated and discussed.

  14. Impregnated cathode coated with tungsten thin film containing Sc2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Taguchi, S.; Watanabe, I.; Kawase, S.

    1987-01-01

    An impregnated cathode of a novel structure is proposed, fabricated, and evaluated. A thin tungsten film 100--400 nm in thickness containing various amounts of Sc 2 O 3 is coated on a standard impregnated cathode composed of a porous tungsten body in which electron emissive materials are impregnated. The electron emission property measured with a diode configuration is found to be dependent on Sc 2 O 3 content and surface atom distribution. Surface atom distribution is depicted by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. For high electron emission enhancement it is necessary for Sc 2 O 3 content to be 2.5--6.5 wt. % and for a layer of the order of a monolayer in thickness composed of Ba, Sc, and O to develop on the cathode surface

  15. Characteristic of Polymer-Impregnated Cement Mortar: Composites: Bulk Density and Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.; Abo-El-Enein, S.A.; El-Saft, M.M.; Sadek, M.A.; Zohdy, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of radiation initiated polymerization of some monomers on the physical properties of polymer-incorporated mortar was studied. The monomers used were: castor oil (C.O.), 4, 4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Polymerization was carried out by subjecting the monomer-impregnated mortar specimens to different doses of gamma radiation. Where polyurethane (pu) and polyurethane -methyl methacrylate copolymers were formed within the pore system. The influence of polymer impregnation on the various physico-mechanical characteristics of the resulting composites was studied with respect to bulk density and polymer loading. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study the micro-structural characteristics of the neat hardened Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mortar pastes and their polymer-impregnated composites

  16. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb3Sn coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of “ten stacks” of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy

  17. Antibiotic-Impregnated Bone Grafts in Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Anagnostakos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There exist several options for local antibiotic therapy in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. Over the past years, the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone grafts (AIBGs has become a popular procedure in the treatment of bone and joint infections. A major advantage of AIBGs involves the possibility of impregnation of various antibiotics depending on the sensitivity profile of the causative organism, whereas an additional surgery with removal of the antibiotic carrier is not necessary, as in the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement. However, generalized conclusions cannot be clearly drawn from the existing literature due to differences of bone used, impregnation method, antibiotics, their doses, laboratory circumstances, or clinical indications. The present work reviews the literature regarding this topic and sheds some light onto the choice of bone and antibiotics, manufacturing details, and clinical experience.

  18. Removal efficiency of radioactive methyl iodide on TEDA-impregnated activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by different series of carbon dioxide and steam activation from walnut shells for their optimal use as radioactive methyl iodide adsorbents in Nuclear Plants. The knowledge of the most favourable textural characteristics of the activated carbons was possible by the previous study of the commercial activated carbon currently used for this purpose. In order to increase their methyl iodide affinity, the effect of triethylenediamine impregnation was studied at 5 and 10 wt.%. The results obtained indicated that in both cases the adsorption efficiency is markedly improved by the addition of impregnant, which allows the adsorbate uptake to occur not only by physical adsorption, via non-specific interactions (as in non-impregnated carbons) but also by the specific interaction of triethylenediamine with radioactive methyl iodide. Methyl iodide retention efficiencies up to 98.1% were achieved. (author)

  19. Dielectric properties of transformer paper impregnated by mineral oil based magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timko, M; Marton, K; Tomco, L; Kopcansky, P; Koneracka, M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of combined magnetic and electric field on permittivity of transformer paper used in power transformers was observed. Transformer paper was impregnated by pure transformer oil ITO 100 and magnetic fluids based on transformer oil ITO 100 with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles. The measurements were carried out with help of high precision capacitance bridge. The electric intensity between circular planar electrodes was in the region of weak electric field (E > 10 6 V/m). The increase of electric permittivity of transformer paper impregnated by magnetic fluid opposite pure transformer paper was observed. The experiments showed that permittivity of insulator system consisting of pure transformer paper and impregnated transformer paper naturally depends on number of paper layers. The magnetodielectric effect was found to be dependent on magnetite nanoparticles concentration in magnetic fluids.

  20. Thick-target Pixe analysis of chromium, copper and arsenic impregnated lumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarela, K-E.; Harju, L.; Lill, J-O.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S-J.

    1999-01-01

    Chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) have for decades been used for wood preservation. Of these elements especially arsenic is very toxic. As CCA impregnated wood is still today used for many construction purposes, a monitoring of these metal ions is of great environmental importance. Thick-target PIXE is a powerful method for the determination of trace metals in wood. The TTPIXE method enabled study of variations of the elemental concentrations in lumber treated with CCA impregnation solution. Distribution patterns were obtained for both naturally occurring elements and elements introduced in the treatment process. During the impregnation process a desorption of e.g. alkali metal ions takes place from the wood. The sensitivity of the method is improved by dry ashing of the samples prior to PIXE analysis. The TTPIXE method was calibrated and validated using international certified reference materials (CRM) based on wood material

  1. Pore structure, mechanical properties and polymer characteristics of porous materials impregnated with methylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastrup, K.

    1976-05-01

    The pore structure of porous materials plays a decisive role with regard to many properties of the materials. One therefore expects property improvement due to impregnation to be mostly brought about as a result of pore structure modification. This supposition formed the basis for the project here presented, which had the main aim of investigating polymer impregnation in relation to pore structure. Objectives were: 1) to examine the pore structure of hardened cement paste, beech wood and porous glass before and after gas-phase impregnation with methyl-methacrylate monomer and in situ polymerization, 2) to investigate the influence of the pore structure on the molecular weight of the polymer, 3) to investigate the influence of the degree of pore filling on the elastic modulus, damping coefficient and bending strength. (author)

  2. Solvent impregnated resin for isolation of U(VI) from industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karve, M.; Rajgor, R.V.

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method based upon impregnation of Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)mono-thio-phosphinic acid) on Amberlite XAD-2 resin is proposed for isolation of U(VI) from uranmicrolite ore tailing samples and industrial effluent samples. U(VI) was sorbed from nitric acid media on the solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) and was recovered completely with 1.0 M HCl. Based upon sorption behavior of U(VI) with Cyanex 302, it was quantitatively sorbed on the SIR in a dynamic method, while the other metal ions were not sorbed by the modified resin. The preparation of impregnated resin is simple, based upon physical interaction of the extractant and solid support, has good sorption capacity for U(VI), and is also reliable for detection of traces of U(VI). (authors)

  3. Dielectric microwave absorbing material processed by impregnation of carbon fiber fabric with polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza de Castro Folgueras

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that the adequate combination of components and experimental conditions may produce materials with specific requirements. This study presents the effect of carbon fiber fabric impregnation with polyaniline conducting polymer aiming at the radar absorbing material processing. The experiments consider the sample preparation with one and two impregnations. The prepared samples were evaluated by reflectivity measurements, in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The correlation of the results shows that the quantity of impregnated material influences the performance of the processed microwave absorber. This study shows that the proposed experimental route provides flexible absorbers with absorption values of the incident radiation close to 87%.

  4. Leaf Wetness within a Lily Canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Klok, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    A wetness duration experiment was carried out within a lily field situated adjacent to coastal dunes in the Netherlands. A within-canopy model was applied to simulate leaf wetness in three layers, with equal leaf area indices, within the canopy. This simulation model is an extension of an existing

  5. Defined wetting properties of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felde, Nadja; Coriand, Luisa; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Optical surfaces equipped with specific functional properties have attracted increasing importance over the last decades. In the light of cost reduction, hydrophobic self-cleaning behavior is aspired. On the other side, hydrophilic properties are interesting due to their anti-fog effect. It has become well known that such wetting states are significantly affected by the surface morphology. For optical surfaces, however, this fact poses a problem, as surface roughness can induce light scattering. The generation of optical surfaces with specific wetting properties, hence, requires a profound understanding of the relation between the wetting and the structural surface properties. Thus, our work concentrates on a reliable acquisition of roughness data over a wide spatial frequency range as well as on the comprehensive description of the wetting states, which is needed for the establishment of such correlations. We will present our advanced wetting analysis for nanorough optical surfaces, extended by a vibration-based procedure, which is mainly for understanding and tailoring the wetting behavior of various solid-liquid systems in research and industry. Utilizing the relationships between surface roughness and wetting, it will be demonstrated how different wetting states for hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be realized on optical surfaces with minimized scatter losses.

  6. Water wizards : reshaping wet nature and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, van der E.B.A.; Disco, C.

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates how humans ‘networked’ wet nature and how this affected the shaping of Dutch society. First, it takes a grand view of Dutch history and describes how wet network building intertwined with the shaping of the Dutch landscape, its economy and its polity. Second, it investigates

  7. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet (W...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe or...

  12. Radiation-curable impregnating agents for the conservation of archaeologic wooden objects. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Wendrinsky, J.; Kalteis, H.; Grienauer, W.

    1982-12-01

    As a continuation of the work described in OEFZS Ber. No. 4165, impregnating agents curable by ionizing radiation, such as free radical polymerizable monomers or artificial resins, have been investigated. Specific weight and viscosity of the liquid mixtures have been as well determined as the specific weight and gel content of the gamma radiation-cured samples. Hardness and elastic behaviour have been estimated only. The shrinkage during hardening was found to be 5 to 12 % for low viscous mixtures (up to 600 mPa.s) and 3 to 8 % for higher viscous impregnating agents. The results are to be discussed. (Author) [de

  13. Xe-133 recuperation by adsorption in active carbon impregnated with PF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, A.V.; Marques, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Since the Mo-99 Fission Project has the aim to produce Xe-133 from gases generated in the alkaline dissolution of Al-U plates irradiated with thermal neutrons and, considering the importance of this radioisotope from the nuclear medicine point of view, studies to improve and optimize the Xe-133 recuperation were continued. Experiences were made on 'static' equilibrium employing high purity xenon and for the 'dynamic' case, Xe-133 mixed with a carrier and nitrogen as gas carrier; in this case, a 44% and a 34% increase in the capacity of xenon adsorption relaxed with activated carbon without being impregnated and impregnated with AgF, were respectively achieved. (Author) [es

  14. Conservation of waterlogged wood by freeze-drying and optional resin impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1987-09-01

    As a contribution to the 'International Comparative Study on Waterlogged Wood' (Grattan-Schweingruber-Project) of the ICOM Working Group on Waterlogged Organic Materials seven archaeological wood samples from sites in Canada, England, the Netherlands, Japan, Norway and Western Australia have been treated. The conservation process consisted of freeze-drying following a polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) treatment and - for fragile objects - of a resin impregnation using a radiation-curable impregnant and gamma radiation for curing. The results are discussed, however without paying regard to the other contributions to this international study. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 30 figs. (Author)

  15. Characterization of impregnated GDC nano structures and their functionality in LSM based cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2012-01-01

    Porous composite cathodes of LSM–YSZ (lanthanum strontium manganite and yttria stabilized zirconia) were impregnated with GDC (gadolinia doped ceria) nano particles. The impregnation process was varied using none or different surfactants (Triton X-45, Triton X-100, P123), and the quantity...... on the LSM phase and the LSM grain boundaries. The observations suggest that the improved performance associated with GDC nano particles is related to the particles placed near the TPB (triple phase boundary) zone. The GDC extends the TPB by creating an ionic conducting network on top of the LSM particles...

  16. Comment on the mechanism of operation of the impregnated tungsten cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Recent life-test measurements, over 20,000-30,000 h, on impregnated tungsten cathodes in tubes employing an open-type electron-gun structure, show emission current degradation with time. This is in contrast to those recently published by Rittner on B-type cathodes, run in close-spaced diodes, taken some years ago. These more recent life-test results are consistent with the model suggested by Forman and disputed by Rittner that the barium coverage on an impregnated cathode is less than a monolayer for most of its life and decreases with time.

  17. A Combined Electro-Thermal Breakdown Model for Oil-Impregnated Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown property of oil-impregnated paper is a key factor for converter transformer design and operation, but it is not well understood. In this paper, breakdown voltages of oil-impregnated paper were measured at different temperatures. The results showed that with the increase of temperature, electrical, electro-thermal and thermal breakdown occurred successively. An electro-thermal breakdown model was proposed based on the heat equilibrium and space charge transport, and negative differential mobility was introduced to the model. It was shown that carrier mobility determined whether it was electrical or thermal breakdown, and the model can effectively explain the temperature-dependent breakdown.

  18. Electrochemical in-situ impregnation of wood using a copper nail as source for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Block, Thomas; Nymark, Morten

    2011-01-01

    A new method for copper impregnation of wood in structures was suggested and tested in laboratory scale with specimen of new pine sapwood. A copper nail and a steel screw were placed in the wood, and an electric direct current field was applied, so the copper nail was anode and the screw...... was cathode. At the anode, copper ions were generated. The copper ions were transported into the wood by electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) towards the cathode, and a volume between the two electrodes was thereby impregnated. Copper also moved to a lesser degree in the opposite...

  19. Influence of impregnation by inorganic substances on the yield of pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevkoplyas, V N; Saranchuk, V I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Donetsk (Ukraine). Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii i Uglekhimii

    1998-09-01

    In papers was shown that fossil coals impregnation by aqueous solution of inorganic substances with a subsequent pyrolysis leads to the rise of the rate and depth of its organic mass destruction into liquid and gaseous products. This is, apperently, conditioned by changes in coals structure already on the stage of treatment. But, there are few papers that study an activating effect of inorganic reactants upon natural coals structure and their behaviour at pyrolysis. One of the methods which allows to judge structural transformation in coals at their impregnation by inorganic substances is an X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  20. Wetting of the diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The surface conditions which lead to a wide variation in the wettability of diamond surfaces have been investigated using macroscopic surfaces to allow for the crystal anisotropy. A wetting balance method of calculating adhesion tension and hence contact angle has been used for diamonds having major faces near the [111] and [110] lattice planes. Three classes of behaviour have been identified. Surface analyses by Rutherford Backscattering of helium ions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to define the role of the oxygen coverage of the surface in the transition I → O → H. Ferric ion has a hydrophilizing effect on the diamond surface, thought to be the consequence of attachment to the hydroxyl groups at the surface by a ligand mechanism. Other transition metal ions did not show this effect. The phenomenon of hydration of the surface, i.e. progressively more hydrophilic behaviour on prolonged exposure to liquid water, has been quantified. Imbibition or water penetration at microcracks are thought unlikely, and a water cluster build-up at hydrophilic sites is thought to be the best explanation. Dynamic studies indicate little dependence of the advancing contact angle on velocity for velocities up to 10 -4 m/s, and slight dependence of the receding contact angle. Hence advancing angles by this technique are similar to equilibrated contact angles found by optical techniques, but the receding angles are lower than found by other non-dynamic measurements

  1. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  2. Selective recovery of a pyridine derivative from an aqueous waste stream containing acetic acid and succinonitrile with solvent impregnated resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, J.; Visser, T.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Solvent impregnated resins (SIRs) were evaluated for the recovery of pyridine derivatives from an aqueous waste-stream containing also acetic acid and succinonitrile. For this purpose, a new solvent was developed, synthesized and impregnated in Amberlite XAD4. Sorption studies were used to determine

  3. The investigation of copper-based impregnated activated carbons prepared from water-soluble materials for broad spectrum respirator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.H.; Westreich, P.; Abdellatif, H.; Filbee-Dexter, P.; Smith, A.J.; Wood, T.E.; Croll, L.M.; Reynolds, J.H.; Dahn, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of impregnated activated carbons (IACs) from aqueous, copper-containing solutions for broad spectrum gas filtration applications is studied here. Several samples were studied to determine the effect that impregnant loading, impregnant distribution and impregnant recipe had on the overall performance. Dynamic flow testing was used to determine the gas filtration capacity of the IAC samples versus a variety of challenge gases. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to characterize the impregnant distribution on the carbon as a function of impregnant loading. Oven tests were performed to determine the thermal stability of the IAC samples exposed to elevated temperatures. The role impregnant distribution plays in gas filtration capacity and the overall performance of the IAC samples is discussed. The IAC samples prepared in this work were found to have gas filtration capacities as good as or better than broad spectrum respirator carbon samples prepared from the patent literature. IACs impregnated with an aqueous 2.4 M Cu(NO 3 ) 2 /0.04 M H 3 PO 4 .12MoO 3 /4 M HNO 3 solution that were heated to 200 deg. C under argon were found to have the best overall performance of the samples studied in this work.

  4. Determination of SO2 in the atmosphere using radioactive iodine kryptonate as impregnation medium of chromatographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.

    1975-01-01

    Chromatographic paper was impregnated with radioiodine kryptonate using the macrodiffusion technique. The decrease with time of the activity of the kryptonate-impregnated paper exposed to SO 2 -contaminated air was measured. From the decrease in chromatographic paper activity, the concentration of SO 2 was determined in the range 300 to 700 ppm. (A.K.)

  5. The investigation of copper-based impregnated activated carbons prepared from water-soluble materials for broad spectrum respirator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.H.; Westreich, P.; Abdellatif, H.; Filbee-Dexter, P.; Smith, A.J. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Wood, T.E. [3M Company, St. Paul, MN, 55144 (United States); Croll, L.M.; Reynolds, J.H. [3M Canada Company, Brockville, Ontario, K6V 5V8 (Canada); Dahn, J.R., E-mail: jeff.dahn@dal.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    The preparation of impregnated activated carbons (IACs) from aqueous, copper-containing solutions for broad spectrum gas filtration applications is studied here. Several samples were studied to determine the effect that impregnant loading, impregnant distribution and impregnant recipe had on the overall performance. Dynamic flow testing was used to determine the gas filtration capacity of the IAC samples versus a variety of challenge gases. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to characterize the impregnant distribution on the carbon as a function of impregnant loading. Oven tests were performed to determine the thermal stability of the IAC samples exposed to elevated temperatures. The role impregnant distribution plays in gas filtration capacity and the overall performance of the IAC samples is discussed. The IAC samples prepared in this work were found to have gas filtration capacities as good as or better than broad spectrum respirator carbon samples prepared from the patent literature. IACs impregnated with an aqueous 2.4 M Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/0.04 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}.12MoO{sub 3}/4 M HNO{sub 3} solution that were heated to 200 deg. C under argon were found to have the best overall performance of the samples studied in this work.

  6. Impregnation of cinnamaldehyde into cassava starch biocomposite films using supercritical fluid technology for the development of food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Ana Cristina; Dias, Ana M A; Sousa, Hermínio C; Tadini, Carmen C

    2014-02-15

    In this work, supercritical solvent impregnation (SSI) has been tested for the incorporation of natural compounds into biocomposite materials for food packaging. Cinnamaldehyde, with proved antimicrobial activity against fungi commonly found in bread products, was successfully impregnated on biocomposite cassava starch based materials using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. Different process experimental conditions were tested (pressure, impregnation time and depressurization rate) at a fixed temperature (35 °C) in order to study their influence on the amount of impregnated cinnamaldehyde as well as on the morphology of the films. Results showed that all conditions permitted to impregnate antimicrobial active amounts superior to those previously obtained using conventional incorporation methods. Moreover, a significant decrease of the equilibrium water vapor sorption capacity and water vapor permeability of the films was observed after SSI processing which is a clear advantage of the process, considering the envisaged applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Österberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1 abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18, (2 gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42, and (3 sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36. The targeted participants’ survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745. Results Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %, but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants

  8. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  9. Order of wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibagon, Ingrid; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2014-05-07

    For wetting films in dilute electrolyte solutions close to charged walls we present analytic expressions for their effective interface potentials. The analysis of these expressions renders the conditions under which corresponding wetting transitions can be first- or second-order. Within mean field theory we consider two models, one with short- and one with long-ranged solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions. The analytic results reveal in a transparent way that wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions, which occur far away from their critical point (i.e., the bulk correlation length is less than half of the Debye length) are always first-order if the solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions are short-ranged. In contrast, wetting transitions close to the bulk critical point of the solvent (i.e., the bulk correlation length is larger than the Debye length) exhibit the same wetting behavior as the pure, i.e., salt-free, solvent. If the salt-free solvent is governed by long-ranged solvent-solvent as well as long-ranged solvent-wall interactions and exhibits critical wetting, adding salt can cause the occurrence of an ion-induced first-order thin-thick transition which precedes the subsequent continuous wetting as for the salt-free solvent.

  10. The Effects of Natural Weathering on Color Stability of Impregnated and Varnished Wood Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkay Turkoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate effects of natural weathering on color stability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L. impregnated with some chemicals [tanalith-E (TN-E, adolit-KD5 (AD-KD5, and chromated copper arsenate (CCA] and then varnished [synthetic varnish (SV and polyurethane varnish (PV]. While applying varnish increased lightness, impregnation decreased lightness of the wood specimens before natural weathering. Natural weathering caused greenish, bluish, and dark color tones of the wood surface. Total color change was increased with increasing exposure times in natural weathering. Untreated (control wood specimens exhibited higher color changes than the other wood specimens in all the stages of natural weathering. The total color changes of untreated Oriental beech specimens were less than untreated Scots pine specimens. The color stability of impregnated and varnished wood specimens gave better results than untreated and solely varnished wood specimens after natural weathering. The best color stability was obtained from both Oriental beech and Scots pine wood impregnated with TN-E before PV coating.

  11. Phosphate adsorption on aluminum-impregnated mesoporous silicates : surface structure and behavior of adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; James S. Han; Min Jang; Soo-Hong Min; Jae Kwang Park; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus from excess fertilizers and detergents ends up washing into lakes, creeks, and rivers. This overabundance of phosphorus causes excessive aquatic plant and algae growth and depletes the dissolved oxygen supply in the water. In this study, aluminum-impregnated mesoporous adsorbents were tested for their ability to remove phosphate from water. The surface...

  12. 3D Imaging of Water-Drop Condensation on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Condensation of water from the atmosphere on a solid surface is an ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and has diverse technological applications, e.g. in heat and mass transfer. We investigated the condensation kinetics of water drops on a lubricant-impregnated surface, i.e., a micropillar array impregnated with a non-volatile ionic liquid. Growing and coalescing drops were imaged in 3D using a laser scanning confocal microscope equipped with a temperature and humidity control. Different stages of condensation can be discriminated. On a lubricant-impregnated hydrophobic micropillar array these are: (1) Nucleation on the lubricant surface. (2) Regular alignment of water drops between micropillars and formation of a three-phase contact line on a bottom of the substrate. (3) Deformation and bridging by coalescence which eventually leads to a detachment of the drops from the bottom substrate. The drop-substrate contact does not result in breakdown of the slippery behaviour. Contrary, on a lubricant-impregnated hydrophilic micropillar array, the condensed water drops replace the lubricant. Consequently, the surface loses its slippery property. Our results demonstrate that a Wenzel-like to Cassie transition, required to maintain the facile removal of condensed water drops, can be induced by well-chosen surface hydrophobicity.

  13. Investigation of the Acoustic Properties of Chemically Impregnated Kayu Malam Wood Used for Musical Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruk Hossen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical modification or impregnation through preparing the wood polymer composites (WPCs can effectively reduce the hygroscopicity as well as can improve the acoustic properties of wood. On the other hand, a small amount of nanoclay into the chemical mixture can further improve the different properties of the WPCs through the preparation of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNCs. Kayu Malam wood species with styrene (St, vinyl acetate (VA, and montmorillonite (MMT nanoclay were used for the preparation of WPNCs. The acoustic properties such as specific dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed/γ, internal friction (Q−1, and acoustic conversion efficiency (ACE of wood were examined using free-free flexural vibration. It was observed that the chemically impregnated wood composite showed a higher value of Ed/γ than raw wood and the nanoclay-loaded wood nanocomposite showed the highest value. The reverse trend was observed in the case of Q−1. On the other hand, chemical impregnation has a minor effect on ACE of wood for musical instruments. The results suggested that the chemically impregnated Kayu Malam wood polymer nanocomposite (WPNC is suitable for making soundboards of violin and guitar instruments to be played longer without losing tone quality.

  14. Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jian; Liao Ruijin; Chen, George

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10 -2 ∼10 6 Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture content after removing the voltage.

  15. Process for making 90 degree K. superconductors by impregnating cellulosic article with precursor solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, J.D.; Subramanian, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an improved process for preparing a shaped article of a superconducting composition having the formula MBa 2 Cu 3 O x wherein; M is selected from the group consisting of Y, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu; x is from about 6.5 to about 7.0; the composition having a superconducting transition temperature of about 90 K. It comprises: forming in acetic acid a mixture of M(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 3 , barium acetate and copper acetate in an atomic ratio of M:Ba:Cu of about 1:2:3; heating the resulting mixture to boiling, and adding sufficient formic acid to dissolve any undissolved starting material while continuing to boil the solution; contacting an article of cellulose material with the solution thereby impregnating the article with the solution, the article having the shape desired; removing excess solution from the resulting impregnated article of cellulose material and drying the impregnated article; heating the impregnated article of cellulose material to a temperature from about 850 degree C to about 925 degree C in an oxygen-containing atmosphere for a time sufficient to form MBa 2 Cu 3 O y , where y is from about 6.0 to about 6.5, the heating effecting carbonization of the cellulose material and oxidization of carbon without ignition; and maintaining the resulting article in an oxygen-containing atmosphere while cooling for a time sufficient to obtained the desired product

  16. Swelling kinetics and impregnation of PLA with thymol under supercritical CO2 conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Stoja L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed to study swelling kinetics of polylactic acid (PLA and its impregnation with thymol in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 medium. The influences of temperature and soaking time on the swelling kinetics and impregnation yield of PLA cylindrical disc and film were investigated. Swelling experiments were performed in a high pressure view cell at 10 MPa and temperatures of 40°C, 60°C and 75°C for 2 to 24 h. On the basis of swelling kinetics, pressure of 10 MPa and temperature of 40°C were chosen for supercritical solvent impregnation (SSI of the PLA samples during 2 to24 h. The highest swelling extent was observed for the PLA monolith after 24 h treatment with pure scCO2 (7.5% and scCO2 with thymol (118.3%. It was shown that sufficiently high amount of thymol can be loaded into both PLA monolith and film using SSI after only 2 h (10.0% and 6.6%, respectively. Monolith and film of PLA impregnated with thymol could be suitable for active food packaging and sterile medical disposables.

  17. Bacterial Adhesion Forces to Ag-Impregnated Contact Lens Cases and Transmission to Contact Lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Wenwen; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.

    Purpose: To measure adhesion forces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Serratia marcescens to a rigid contact lens (CL), standard polypropylene, and Ag-impregnated lens cases using atomic force microscopy and determine bacterial transmission from lens case to CL. Methods: Adhesion

  18. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...

  19. Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, J. A.; Richards, J.; Rath, B.; Machaca, V. Q.; Castro, Y. E.; Málaga, E. S.; Levy, K.; Gilman, R. H.; Bern, C.; Verastegui, M.; Levy, M. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2011), s. 591-594 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/11/P798 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Triatoma infestans * Impregnated net * Sentinel guinea pig * Saliva * Antibody response Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  20. Clinical evaluation of a PHMB-impregnated biocellulose dressing on paediatric lacerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, G.; van Doorn, J.; Wiersema, A. M.; Klicks, R. J.; Andriessen, A.; Alblas, J. G.; Spits, H.; Post, A.; van Gent, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical benefits, primarily tolerability and reduction in pain levels, associated with the use of a PHMB-impregnated biosynthetic cellulose dressing (Suprasorb X + PHMB) on paediatric heel lacerations. Method: These lacerations were caused when children, who were being

  1. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  2. In situ processing of concrete surface by impregnation and polymerization of an organic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellecchia, V.; Ursella, P.; Moretto, G.

    1990-01-01

    The impregnation by resins of concrete structures is widely known as PIC (Polymer Impregnated Concrete). This process is normally used to improve the physical-chemical features of prefabricated items in particular to raise their lifetime under severe environmental conditions. The main target of this research contract was the verification of the possibility of a proper impregnation of existing concrete surfaces, of any dimensions and position, by comparing the obtained characteristics with those of untreated original material to check the improvement of chemical-physical properties and durability. In a nuclear facility, this goal is very important with reference to the long-term integrity of concrete walls during plant operative lifetime and after the final shutdown and decommissioning of the plant, if its dismantling is deferred. The operative steps of the research were the design, manufacturing and implementation of a tailored prototype equipment, the setting-up of the machine, the project and erection of a walling unit made of different density sectors in nuclear grade concrete and optimisation of the PIC process phases (dehydration, degassing, monomer injection, thermal cycles) during the experimental campaign. The data collected from samples gathered from field application gave results very similar to laboratory impregnated samples, thus confirming the satisfactory running of the prototype unit. Particularly the resin penetration, in spite of low porosity of nuclear grade concrete matrix, reached depths well beyond 50 mm with a significant increase of mechanical features, leaching resistance to aggressive agents and an appreciable sealing of concrete porosity

  3. Impregnation of β-​tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Vazquez, F.J.; Perera, F.H.; Meulen, van der I.; Heise, A.; Pajares, A.; Miranda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ring-¿opening polymn. of e-¿caprolactone (e-¿CL) and L-¿lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ß-¿tricalcium phosphate (ß-¿TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concd. colloidal inks prepd. from ß-¿TCP com. powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of

  4. Impregnated membranes for direct methanol fuel cells at high methanol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.H.; Schwarz, Alexander; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (SPPEK) impregnated Solupor® microporous film (SPPEK–PE) and pure SPPEK membranes with two different ion-exchange capacities (IECs) were prepared and characterized for use in DMFC applications. Swelling, proton conductivity, diffusion and DMFC experiments

  5. Ecological risks of an old wood impregnation mill: application of the triad approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karjalainen, A.-M.; Kilpi-Koski, J.; Väisänen, A.O.; Penttinen, S.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Penttinen, O.-P.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies deal with the distribution and mobility of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) metals in soil, the ecotoxicity of CCA-contaminated soils is rarely studied. The Triad approach was applied to determine the ecological risks posed by a CCA mixture at a decommissioned wood impregnation

  6. Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its development and methodological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (FeO paper) has been used to study the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants and algae, P desorption kinetics and P dynamics in the field. Since its initial development a number of differences in the method of preparation of the paper and its application have

  7. Anti-biofilm and cytotoxicity activity of impregnated dressings with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Jorge Luis [Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP (Mexico); Santos-Flores, Andrés; Araujo-Meléndez, Javier [Servicio de Epidemiología del Hospital Central “Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto”, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Velasquillo, Cristina [Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (Mexico); González, Carmen [Laboratorio de Fisiología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP (Mexico); Martínez-Castañon, Gabriel [Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas Facultad de Estomatología, UASLP (Mexico); Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel, E-mail: fidel@uaslp.mx [Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Infections arising from bacterial adhesion and colonization on chronic wounds are a significant healthcare problem. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) impregnated in dressing have attracted a great deal of attention as a potential solution. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm activities of AgNPs impregnated in commercial dressings against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria isolated of chronic wounds from a hospital patient. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was tested within biofilms generated under slow fluid shear conditions using a standard bioreactor. A 2-log reduction in the number of colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa was recorded in the reactor on exposure to dressing impregnated with 250 ppm of AgNPs, diameter 9.3 ± 1.1 nm, and also showed compatibility to mammalian cells (human fibroblasts). Our study suggests that the use of dressings with AgNPs may either prevent or reduce microbial growth in the wound environment, and reducing wound bioburden may improve wound-healing outcomes. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for wound-healing purposes • Characterization of the silver nanoparticles impregnated in dressings • Reduction in the P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was statistically significant. • Compatibility to human dermal fibroblasts as the main cell type involved in the reparation • AgNPs covering the surfaces would provide great potential for prevention and treatment.

  8. Anti-biofilm and cytotoxicity activity of impregnated dressings with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Jorge Luis; Santos-Flores, Andrés; Araujo-Meléndez, Javier; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Velasquillo, Cristina; González, Carmen; Martínez-Castañon, Gabriel; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

    2015-01-01

    Infections arising from bacterial adhesion and colonization on chronic wounds are a significant healthcare problem. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) impregnated in dressing have attracted a great deal of attention as a potential solution. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm activities of AgNPs impregnated in commercial dressings against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria isolated of chronic wounds from a hospital patient. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was tested within biofilms generated under slow fluid shear conditions using a standard bioreactor. A 2-log reduction in the number of colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa was recorded in the reactor on exposure to dressing impregnated with 250 ppm of AgNPs, diameter 9.3 ± 1.1 nm, and also showed compatibility to mammalian cells (human fibroblasts). Our study suggests that the use of dressings with AgNPs may either prevent or reduce microbial growth in the wound environment, and reducing wound bioburden may improve wound-healing outcomes. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for wound-healing purposes • Characterization of the silver nanoparticles impregnated in dressings • Reduction in the P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was statistically significant. • Compatibility to human dermal fibroblasts as the main cell type involved in the reparation • AgNPs covering the surfaces would provide great potential for prevention and treatment

  9. Operating features of decorative polymer-impregnated concretes under severe operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustina, I.B.; Lobasenok, V.A.; Yakimtsiv, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the possibility of a decorative polymer-impregnated concrete as a lining material in radiation-endangered rooms. Their extreme properties such as radiation resistance, decontamination ability, fire resistance and melting-freezing cycle resistance were studied. The material proposed shows substantially high resistance under severe operating conditions

  10. The sampling of hydrogen fluoride in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1963-01-01

    A method isproposed for the quantitative collection of hydrogen fluoride in air by drawing a known quantity of the air through filter paper impregnated with solutions of potassium hydroxide and glycerol or triethanolamine. Somu possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed.

  11. Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Jian; Liao Ruijin [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University (China); Chen, George, E-mail: jh210v@ecs.soton.ac.uk [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-12

    Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10{sup -2}{approx}10{sup 6}Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture content after removing the voltage.

  12. Incipient crystallization of transition-metal tungstates under microwaves probed by Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Kisla P. F.; Dias, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Microwave synthesis was used to produce nanosized transition-metal tungstates in environmentally friendly conditions not yet reported by the literature: 110 and 150 °C, for times of 10 and 20 min. X-ray diffraction evidenced incipient crystallized materials, while transmission electron microscopy indicates nanostructured regions of about 2–5 nm inside an amorphous matrix. Raman spectroscopy was used to probe short-range ordering in the achieved samples and also to obtain a reliable set of spectra containing all the Raman-active bands predicted by group-theory calculations. The vibrational spectra showed no extra feature, indicating that the microwave processing was able to produce short-range ordered materials without tetrahedral distortions. These distortions are frequently reported when commercially modified kitchen microwave units are employed. In this work, the syntheses were conducted in a commercial apparatus especially designed for fully controlled temperature–time–pressure conditions.

  13. A method for simulating sediment incipient motion varying with time and space in an ocean model (FVCOM): development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zichen; Wang, Yongzhi; Bian, Shuhua; Hu, Zejian; Liu, Jianqiang; Liu, Lejun

    2017-11-01

    We modified the sediment incipient motion in a numerical model and evaluated the impact of this modification using a study case of the coastal area around Weihai, China. The modified and unmodified versions of the model were validated by comparing simulated and observed data of currents, waves, and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) measured from July 25th to July 26th, 2006. A fitted Shields diagram was introduced into the sediment model so that the critical erosional shear stress could vary with time. Thus, the simulated SSC patterns were improved to more closely reflect the observed values, so that the relative error of the variation range decreased by up to 34.5% and the relative error of simulated temporally averaged SSC decreased by up to 36%. In the modified model, the critical shear stress values of the simulated silt with a diameter of 0.035 mm and mud with a diameter of 0.004 mm varied from 0.05 to 0.13 N/m2, and from 0.05 to 0.14 N/m 2, respectively, instead of remaining constant in the unmodified model. Besides, a method of applying spatially varying fractions of the mixed grain size sediment improved the simulated SSC distribution to fit better to the remote sensing map and reproduced the zonal area with high SSC between Heini Bay and the erosion groove in the modified model. The Relative Mean Absolute Error was reduced by between 6% and 79%, depending on the regional attributes when we used the modified method to simulate incipient sediment motion. But the modification achieved the higher accuracy in this study at a cost of computation speed decreasing by 1.52%.

  14. Comparison of Radiography, Laser Fluorescence, and Visual Examination in Diagnosing Incipient OcclusalCaries of Permanent First Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early diagnosis of incipient and non cavitated carious lesions is crucial for performing preventive treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the effi- ciency of three diagnostic methods of bite-wing radiography, DIAGNOdent, and visu- al examination in diagnosing the incipient occlusal caries of permanent first molars.Materials and Methods:  In this diagnostic cross-sectional study, 109 premanent first molar teeth of 31 patients aged 7-13 years were examined visually by bite-wing radi- ograghy, and DIAGNOdent. Scoring of visual and radiography examinations were based on the Ekstrand classification. Visual examination after pit and fissure opening was used as the gold standard. ROC curve (Receiver Operating Characteristics was used to define the best cut-off point for DIAGNodent compareing with gold standard and inter-examiner reproductibility of visual, radiography were assessed using Kappa test and ICC (Intraclass Correlation wase used for DIAGNOdent values.Results: The sensitivity of detecting caries that had extended into the enamel was 81.4%, 86.3%, and 81.4% for visual examination, DIAGNOdent, and radiography, respectively. Moreover, the specificity was 100%, 71.4%, and 100% for visual obser- vation, DIAGNOdent, and radiography, respectively in the enamel. The Kappa index for inter-examiner correlation was 0.7 and 0.8 for visual examination and radiog- raphy, respectively. The ICC (Intraclass Correlation was 0.98 for the values read by DIAGNOdent.Conclusion: Visual examination is rendered as the first choice in the diagnosis of in- cipient caries. In suspicious cases, radiography and laser DIAGNOdent can be used as adjunct procedures.

  15. Role of iron catalyst impregnated by solvent swelling method in pyrolytic removal of coal nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, J.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S.; Nielsen, M.; Furimsky, E. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology

    1995-11-01

    Organometallic iron precursors, ferrocene and ferric acetate, were impregnated into Illinois No. 6 (IL), Wyoming (WY) and Yallourn (YL) coals by solvent swelling technique in THF, ethanol, and a THF/ethanol binary solvent. Then iron-impregnated coals were pyrolyzed in a flow of helium at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed and a thermobalance. Conversion of coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was 20, 38 and 30% respectively, for original IL, WY, and YL coals. Iron formed from both precursors lowered the onset temperature of N{sub 2} evolution by 20-100{degree}C. When ferrocene was impregnated in coals at a concentration of 1.7-1.8 wt% as Fe, nitrogen conversion was increased to 52, 71 and 68% for IL, WY and YL coals, respectively. Ferric acetate impregnated into IL coal from THF/ethanol solution increased the nitrogen conversion much more than that from ethanol solution. The expansion of microporous coal structure by the swelling was essential for better dispersion of the catalyst precursor. The evolution of HCN as well as NH{sub 3} was effectively suppressed above 600{degree}C by the presence of iron but not influenced significantly by combinations of catalyst precursors and solvents. The increase in N{sub 2} yield was compensated by the decrease in nitrogen emitted as HCN and NH{sub 3} and in tar and char. The increase in CO evolution from the iron-impregnated IL coal at 600-800{degree}C was explained by catalytic rearrangement of aromatic structure of char, accompanying the removal of nitrogen as N{sub 2}. In a range of 600-750{degree}C, the evolution of CO as well as N{sub 2} from the other coals increased remarkably with a significant decrease in CO{sub 2} gasification in char microproes. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Modeling boron separation from water by activated carbon, impregnated and unimpregnated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, M.; Grbavcic, Z. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy; Marinovic, V. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Ist. of Technical Science of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts

    2000-10-01

    The sorption of boron from boric acid water solution by impregnated activated carbon has been studied. Barium, calcium, mannitol, tartaric acid and citric acid were used as chemical active materials. All processes were performed in a chromatographic continuous system at 22{sup 0} C. Experimental results show that activated carbon impregnated with mannitol is effective in removing boron from water. The separation of boron from the wastewater from a factory for producing enameled dishes by activated carbon impregnated with mannitol was also performed. Two models have been applied to describe published and new data on boron sorption by impregnated activated carbon. Both of them are based on the analysis of boron concentration response to the step input function. This led to a mathematical model that quite successfully described impregnation effects on adsorption capacities. [Italian] E' stato studiato l'assorbimento del boro, mediante carbone attivo impregnato, da soluzioni acquose di acido borico. Quali materiali chimici attivi sono stati utilizzati: bario, calcio, mannitolo, acido tartarico ed acido citrico. Tutti i processi sono stati condotti in un sistema cromatografico continuo a 22{sup 0}C. I risultati sperimentali mostrano che il carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo e' efficace nella rimozione del boro dall'acqua. E' anche stata effettuata la separazione del boro da acque di scarico di un'industria per la produzione di piatti smaltati mediante carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo. Sono stati applicati due modelli per descrivere i risultati, pubblicati e nuovi, dell'assorbimento del boro mediante carbone attivo impregnato. Entrambi sono basati sull'analisi della risposta alla concentrazione di boro successivamente incrementata a stadi. Cio' porta ad un modello matematico che descrive abbastanza soddisfacentemente gli effetti dell'impregnazione sulla capacita' di assorbimento.

  17. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  18. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other moisture condensation such as that resulting from removing grapes from a...

  19. Medications to Treat Bed-Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggest that depression plays a role in the cause of bed-wetting. This type of drug is thought to work one of several ways: by changing the child's sleep and wakening pattern by affecting the time ...

  20. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  1. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  2. Curvature controlled wetting in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Mikheev, Lev V.

    1995-01-01

    . As the radius of the substrate r0→∞, the leading effect of the curvature is adding the Laplace pressure ΠL∝r0-1 to the pressure balance in the film. At temperatures and pressures under which the wetting is complete in planar geometry, Laplace pressure suppresses divergence of the mean thickness of the wetting...... term reduces the thickness by the amount proportional to r0-1/3...

  3. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  4. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  5. CHEMISORPtION OF SULFUR (IV OXIDeBY PoLYETHYLENEPOLYAMINE IMPREGNATED FIBROUS MATERIALS. 1. HYDROPHILIC POLYETHYLENEPOLYAMINE IMPREGNATED FIBROUS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilicity of artificial and synthetic fibers and polyethylenepolyamine (PEPA impregnated fibrous materials based on them was investigated under static conditions using a vacuum sorption installation. Water vapor sorption isotherms were analyzed and monolayer capacitance values  and a water molecules adsorption in the first layer heats were determined in the framework of polymolecular adsorption Brunauer – Emmett – Teller. It has been found that the hydrophilicity of the fibers studied to change in the following sequence: viscose > VION AN-3 > VION KN-1 > nylon-polyester > nitrone > polyester > polypropylene; PEPA modified hydrophilic fibrous material does not depend essentially on the chemical nature of the carrier.

  6. The effect of silanated and impregnated fiber on the tensile strength of E-glass fiber reinforced composite retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswati Fathmah Rosyida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fiber reinforced composite (FRC is can be used in dentistry as an orthodontic retainer. FRC  still has a limitations because of to  a weak bonding between fibers and matrix. Purpose: This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of silane as coupling agent and fiber impregnation on the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Methods: The samples of this research were classified into two groups each of which consisted of three subgroups, namely the impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane and the non-impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane. The tensile strength was measured by a universal testing machine. The averages of the tensile strength in all groups then were compared by using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney post hoc tests. Results: The averages of the tensile strength (MPa in the impregnated fiber group can be known as follow; original impregnated fiber (26.60±0.51, 1x addition of silane (43.38±4.42, and 2x addition of silane (36.22±7.23. The averages of tensile strength (MPa in the non-impregnated fiber group can also be known as follow; original non-impregnated fiber (29.38±1.08, 1x addition of silane (29.38±1.08, 2x addition of silane (12.48±2.37. Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference between the impregnated fiber group and the non-impregnated fiber group (p<0.05. Based on the results of post hoc test, it is also known that the addition of silane in the impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the increasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC (p<0.05, while the addition of silane in the non-impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the decreasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the addition of silane in the non-silanated fiber group can increase the tensile strength of E-glass FRC, but the addition of silane in the silanated fiber group can

  7. Energy and heat balance in wet DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Viren; Moser, Alexander; Schaefer, Michael; Ritschel, Michael [BorgWarner Drivetrain Engineering GmbH, Ketsch (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Wet clutch systems are well known for their thermal robustness and versatility in a wide range of automotive applications. Conventional automatics have used them for a long time as torque converter lock-up clutches, shift elements and launch clutches. With the development of DCTs, wet clutch technology has evolved in terms of launch and shift performance, controllability, robustness and efficiency. This paper discusses improvements in the wet clutch and their impact on today's vehicle applications in terms of heat and energy management. Thermal robustness is a crucial aspect for an automatic transmission. In addition to the clutch thermal performance, the influence of transmission oil cooler and oil sump warm-up behavior are discussed. Based on our latest development activities, test results and simulations, we shall discuss the latest friction material enhancement and its impact on DCTs in terms of efficiency and performance. Drag loss is a much-discussed topic during the development of wet clutch systems. This paper discusses in detail the cause and break-up of various energy losses in a wet DCT. Efficient energy management strategies for actuation systems, cooling, and lubrication, clutch apply, and pre-selection in modern power trains with engine start / stop are evaluated based on the latest test and simulation results. Finally, the paper summarizes the performance and efficiency optimized moist clutch system. (orig.)

  8. A novel ultrasonication method in the preparation of zirconium impregnated cellulose for effective fluoride adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, M; Kumar, A Santhana Krishna; Rajesh, N

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, we propose for the first time a novel ultrasound assisted methodology involving the impregnation of zirconium in a cellulose matrix. Fluoride from aqueous solution interacts with the cellulose hydroxyl groups and the cationic zirconium hydroxide. Ultrasonication ensures a green and quick alternative to the conventional time intensive method of preparation. The effectiveness of this process was confirmed by comprehensive characterization of zirconium impregnated cellulose (ZrIC) adsorbent using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The study of various adsorption isotherm models, kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction validated the method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of infectious arthritis of the radiocarpal joint of cattle with gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsbrunner, G.; Steiner, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges were used successfully in the treatment of chronic septic arthritis of the radiocarpal joint in two cattle. Both animals were moderately to severely lame and refractory to systemic antibiotics, and one of them was refractory to joint lavage and local antibiotics. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radiography and arthrocentesis. Arthroscopy was performed under general anaesthesia and, after debridement and lavage of the joint, gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges were placed intra-articularly. Synovial fluid was sampled at 10 and 20 days after surgery and radiographs were taken three months (case 1) and two months (case 2) after surgery. The infection was eliminated from both animals and they recovered without residual lameness

  10. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Z. Ceylan; Can, B.Z.; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088 nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088 nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid

  11. Separation of yttrium using carbon nanotube doped polymeric beads impregnated with D2EHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid impregnated polyethersulfone based composite beads in combination with additives such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been prepared by non-solvent phase inversion method. The synthesized beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and infra-red spectroscopy. Effect of additives on bead morphology, solvent impregnation capacity, extractability and stability has been examined to compare their suitability for yttrium recovery from acidic medium. Microstructural investigation as well as experimental findings confirmed the role of additives in modifying the pore structures in beads, responsible for varied degree of yttrium extraction. Further the role of metal ion concentration in aqueous phase on its recovery by polymeric beads was also evaluated. Among the tested beads PES/D2EHPA/MWCNT/PVA beads were found to be superior for Y(Ill) extraction. (author)

  12. Microwave heating of electric cable insulated wires before their impregnation with a hydrophobic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niculae, D; Mihailescu, A [Romanian Electricity Authority (Romania); Indreias, I; Martin, D [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Margaritescu, A [ICPE Electrostatica, Bucharest, (Romania); Zlatonovici, D

    1998-12-31

    Underground insulated telecommunication cables must be impregnated with a hydrophobic material in order to prevent water penetration damage. To do so, the cable wire bundle must be heated to a temperature of 60 to 90 degrees C to ensure proper fluidity of the hydrophobic material that must fill the free spaces between the copper wires of the telephone cable. This paper described the microwave heating method of the wires before their impregnation. A cylindrical applicator was designed to perform a telephone bundle heating test. 800 W of microwave power were used on a telephone cable made up of 800 wires of 0.4 mm in diameter. A uniform heating was obtained throughout the section. Microwave heating was also found to be 53 per cent more energy efficient than hot air heating. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Z. Ceylan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: zcelik@atauni.edu.tr; Can, B.Z. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-03-21

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088 nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088 nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid.

  14. Strengthening of limestone by the impregnation - gamma irradiation method. Results of tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.; Tassigny, C. de

    1975-04-01

    The method developed by the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France) strengthens the stones by impregnation with a styrene resin/liquid polystyrene mixture followed by polymerization under gamma irradiation. This method is applicable to stones which can be taken into the laboratory for treatment. The increase in strength of 6 different species of French limestone has been quantitatively recorded. The following parameters were studied: possibility of water migration inside the stones, improvements of the mechanical properties of the impregnated stone, standing up to freeze-thaw conditions and artificial ageing of the stones which causes only minor changes in the appearance of the stone and a negligible decrease in weight [fr

  15. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for electrochemical applications, and devices and systems using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Brian Richmond; Chen, Xinwei; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2018-04-17

    In certain embodiments, the invention relates to an electrochemical device having a liquid lubricant impregnated surface. At least a portion of the interior surface of the electrochemical device includes a portion that includes a plurality of solid features disposed therein. The plurality of solid features define a plurality of regions therebetween. A lubricant is disposed in the plurality of regions which retain the liquid lubricant in the plurality of regions during operation of the device. An electroactive phase comes in contact with at least the portion of the interior surface. The liquid lubricant impregnated surface introduces a slip at the surface when the electroactive phase flows along the surface. The electroactive phase may be a yield stress fluid.

  16. Extraction and Separation of Uranium (VI) and Thorium (IV) Using Tri-n-dodecylamine Impregnated Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.; Saleh, A.Sh.; El-Naggar, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from chloride and nitrate solutions with tri-n- dodecylamine impregnated on Amberlite XAD4, was investigated. The distribution of U(VI) and Th(IV) was studied at different concentrations of acid, salting-out agent, extractant, aqueous metal ion and other parameters. Absorption spectral studies have been investigated for uranium species in both aqueous HCl solution and the resin phase. From these studies, it is suggested that the tetrachloro complex of U(VI) is formed in the extraction of uranium (VI) from hydrochloric acid solutions by TDA impregnated resin. Stripping of the extracted U(VI) and Th(IV) was assayed with HCl and HNO 3 . Finally, the separation of uranium from thorium and fission products in HCl media was achieved

  17. Property-porosity relationships for polymer-impregnated superconducting ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salib, S.; Vipulanandan, C.

    1990-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), was used to improve the flexural properties of the high-temperature superconducting ceramic (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ). Ceramic specimens with different porosities were prepared by dry compacting 12.5-mm-diameter disk specimens at various uniaxial pressures. Density-pressure relationships have been developed for before- and after-sintering conditions. The PMMA polymer was impregnated into the porous ceramic at room temperature. The mechanical properties were evaluated by concentrically loading simply supported disk specimens. The load-displacement responses were analyzed using the finite-element method. Impregnation of PMMA polymer at room temperature increased the flexural strength and modulus of the superconducting ceramic without affecting its electrical properties. The flexural properties depended on the porosity of the ceramics, and, hence, linear and nonlinear property-porosity relationships have been used to characterize the behavior of superconducting ceramic with an without the polymer

  18. Development of activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media : their characteristics and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Ramarathinam, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of its low maximum permissible concentration in air, air-borne radioiodine must be accurately monitored in contaminated air streams, in the working environment and handling facilities, before release to the environment from the nuclear facilities. Activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media are found to be most suitable for monitoring airborne iodine-131. Because of its simplicity and reproducible nature in assessment of air-borne radioactive iodine, the work on the development of such media was undertaken in order to find a suitable substitute for imported activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media. Eight different media of such type were developed, evaluated and compared with two imported media. Best suitable medium is recommended for its use in air-borne iodine sampling which was found to be even better suited than imported media of such type. (author)

  19. An experimental study on oil supply in a space bearing with an oil-impregnated retainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianhai; Fan, Youwen; Wen, Shizhu

    1993-06-01

    Parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film thickness in a space ball bearing is measured by electrical capacitance and resistance, and parched transients of oil film and lubricant breakdown are observed. With different oil-impregnated polymer retainers, which are employed as oil supply resources, parched degradation is restricted to some degree, even lubricant breakdown disappears and a steady state of the oil film is produced. A long-term space bail bearing demands both the lowest driving torque and a steady state oil film, which depends on a strictly controlled oil supply from oil-impregnated retainers. The results of this experimental research describe the effects of oil supply by amounts of oil in retainers on parched EHL.

  20. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1993-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Evaporation from rain-wetted forest in relation to canopy wetness, canopy cover, and net radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporation from wet canopies is commonly calculated using E-PM, the Penman-Monteith equation with zero surface resistance. However, several observations show a lower evaporation from rain-wetted forest. Possible causes for the difference between E-PM and experiments are evaluated to provide rules

  3. The interaction of a vortex ring with a sloped sediment layer: Critical criteria for incipient grain motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, R. J.

    2012-02-01

    Experiments were performed to analyse the interaction between a vortex ring and a sloped sediment layer. Attention focussed on interactions under "critical" conditions, in which sediment motion was only just induced by the ring's flow field. Both hydraulically smooth and hydraulically rough bedforms were analysed, using near-spherical monodisperse sediments with relative densities of 1.2 and 2.5 and mean diameters (dp) ranging between 80 and 1087 μm. Measurements of the vortex-ring flow field were obtained, during the interaction, using two-dimensional particle imaging velocimetry. The threshold conditions for incipient sediment motion were analysed in terms of the critical Shields parameter (Nc), defined in terms of the peak tangential velocity measured adjacent to the bed surface. Bed-slope effects were investigated by tilting the sediment layer at various angles between the horizontal and the repose limit for the sediment. In all cases, the propagation axis of the vortex ring was aligned normal to the bed surface. The measured values of Nc were compared with a force-balance model based on the conditions for incipient grain motion on a sloping bed. For hydraulically smooth bedforms, where the bed roughness is small compared to the boundary-layer depth, the model was derived to account for how viscous stresses affect the drag and lift forces acting on the near surface sediment. For hydraulically rough bedforms, where this viscous-damping effect is not present, the model assumes the drag and lift forces scale with the square of the near-bed (inviscid) velocity scale. In both cases, the model predicts that bedforms become more mobile as the bed slope is increased. However, the damping effect of the viscous sublayer acts as a stabilizing influence for hydraulically smooth bedforms, to reduce the rate at which the bed mobility increases with bed slope. The measured values of Nc were in agreement with the trends predicted by this model, and exhibit a transition in

  4. Mitochondrial DNA evidences reflect an incipient population structure in Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnio S. Damasceno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic goliath grouper is a critically endangered species that inhabits estuarine and reef environments and is threatened primarily by fishing activities and habitat destruction. Despite the urgent need for protection, its genetic conservation status remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene flow among the populations of the species along the coast of Brazil based on the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. The results indicate low haplotype diversity (0.40-0.86 and very low nucleotide diversity (0.1-0.5%. They also show that the genetic diversity of the species varies considerably along the coast and that this finding may be especially important for the identification of priority areas for its conservation. The population analyses indicate a low but significant degree of genetic structuring (ΦST =0.111, probably due to the occurrence of rare haplotypes at some locations, although the genetic differentiation between sites was not correlated with geographic distance (r=0.0501; p=0.7719, and the shared haplotypes indicate that gene flow occurs among all locations along the Brazilian coast. The results of the pairwise FST indicate a high degree of genetic differentiation between locations. The incipient population structuring detected in the present study is not related systematically to the geological or physical features of the Brazilian coast. The complex interaction of fluctuations in sea level, marine currents, and the reproductive characteristics of the species hampers the identification of the specific role of each of these processes in the gene flow dynamics of the population units of the Atlantic goliath grouper. The low overall levels of genetic diversity, the pairwise FST values and the significant population structuring among groups (ΦCT identified in the present study all reinforce the critically endangered status of the species and are inconsistent with the presence of a single, panmictic

  5. Effect of Composition and Mass Ratio on the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Catalyst Cu–Fe–La/FSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO technology is used for the treatment of the simulated printing and dyeing wastewater and also for investigating the catalyst performance indicators such as catalyst activity and stability. The catalyst activity is mainly reflected from the water decolorization and CODCr removal rates, and the stability of the catalyst is mainly reflected by the quantity of metal dissolution. The experimental results showed that the prepared Cu–Fe–La/FSC catalyst with a 1:1:2 ratio of Cu–Fe–La by the impregnation method exhibited good activity for the treatment of the simulated printing and dyeing wastewater by the CWAO method, and the decolorization and CODCr removal rates using this catalyst were 98.7% and 78.6%, respectively, with a higher catalytic activity, lower concentration of metal dissolution, and good stability.

  6. Effects of pore sizes and oxygen-containing functional groups on desulfurization activity of Fe/NAC prepared by ultrasonic-assisted impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Song [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Guo, Jia-Xiu, E-mail: guojiaxiu@scu.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Sichuan Provincial Environmental Protection Environmental Catalysis and Materials Engineering Technology Center, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liu, Xiao-Li [National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xue-Jiao [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Yin, Hua-Qiang [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Sichuan Provincial Environmental Protection Environmental Catalysis and Materials Engineering Technology Center, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Luo, De-Ming [National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity. • Different oscillation time can change surface area and pore volume of catalysts. • Ultrasonic oscillation increases Fe dispersion on carrier and effective pores. • Pore sizes play a crucial role during the SO{sub 2} removal. - Abstract: A series of Fe-loaded activated carbons treated by HNO{sub 3} (Fe/NAC) were prepared by incipient impregnation method with or without ultrasonic assistance and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse spectroscope (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. The desulfurization activities were evaluated at a fixed bed reactor under a mixed gas simulated from flue gas. The results showed that desulfurization activity from excellent to poor is as follows: Fe/NAC-60 > Fe/NAC-80 > Fe/NAC-30 > Fe/NAC-15 > Fe/NAC-0 > Fe/NAC-100 > NAC. Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity and has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 319 mg/g and breakthrough time of 540 min. The introduction of ultrasonic oscillation does not change the form of Fe oxides on activated carbon but can change the dispersion and relative contents of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The types of oxygen-containing functional groups have no obvious change for all samples but the texture properties show some differences when they are oscillated for different times. The fresh Fe/NAC-60 has a surface area of 1045 m{sup 2}/g and total pore volume of 0.961 cm{sup 3}/g with micropore volume of 0.437 cm{sup 3}/g and is larger than Fe/NAC-0 (823 m{sup 2}/g, 0.733 and 0.342 cm{sup 3}/g). After desulfurization, surface area and pore volume of all samples decrease significantly, and those of the exhausted Fe/NAC-60 decrease to 233 m{sup 2}/g and 0.481 cm{sup 3}/g, indicating that some byproducts deposit on surface to cover pores. Pore size distribution

  7. Effects of pore sizes and oxygen-containing functional groups on desulfurization activity of Fe/NAC prepared by ultrasonic-assisted impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Song; Guo, Jia-Xiu; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Luo, De-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity. • Different oscillation time can change surface area and pore volume of catalysts. • Ultrasonic oscillation increases Fe dispersion on carrier and effective pores. • Pore sizes play a crucial role during the SO 2 removal. - Abstract: A series of Fe-loaded activated carbons treated by HNO 3 (Fe/NAC) were prepared by incipient impregnation method with or without ultrasonic assistance and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse spectroscope (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 adsorption/desorption. The desulfurization activities were evaluated at a fixed bed reactor under a mixed gas simulated from flue gas. The results showed that desulfurization activity from excellent to poor is as follows: Fe/NAC-60 > Fe/NAC-80 > Fe/NAC-30 > Fe/NAC-15 > Fe/NAC-0 > Fe/NAC-100 > NAC. Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity and has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 319 mg/g and breakthrough time of 540 min. The introduction of ultrasonic oscillation does not change the form of Fe oxides on activated carbon but can change the dispersion and relative contents of Fe 3 O 4 . The types of oxygen-containing functional groups have no obvious change for all samples but the texture properties show some differences when they are oscillated for different times. The fresh Fe/NAC-60 has a surface area of 1045 m 2 /g and total pore volume of 0.961 cm 3 /g with micropore volume of 0.437 cm 3 /g and is larger than Fe/NAC-0 (823 m 2 /g, 0.733 and 0.342 cm 3 /g). After desulfurization, surface area and pore volume of all samples decrease significantly, and those of the exhausted Fe/NAC-60 decrease to 233 m 2 /g and 0.481 cm 3 /g, indicating that some byproducts deposit on surface to cover pores. Pore size distribution influences SO 2 adsorption, and fresh Fe/NAC-60 has

  8. Effects of tanalith-e impregnation substance on bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending of some wood types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Keskin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with Tanalith-E on the bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending of some wood types. The test samples prepared from beech, oak, walnut, poplar, ash and pine wood materials - that are of common use in the forest products industry of TURKEY - according to TS 345, were treated with according to ASTM D 1413-76 substantially. Un-impregnated samples according to impregnated wood materials, the bending strengths in beech to 6.83%, 5.12% in ash, 5.93% in pine, the elasticity module values to 7.15% in oak and ash, at a rate of 6.58% in the higher were found. The highest values of bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending were obtained in beech and ash woods impregnated with Tanalith-E, whereas the lowest values were obtained in the poplar wood.

  9. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V; Malikova, V; Weber, H

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  10. Improvement of the process for electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtat, M.; Lafage, B.; Leonardi, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel hydroxide electrodes containing 11g/dsqm hydroxide, with capacities of 3.6 to 3.8 Ah/dsqm were prepared at 353 K by electrochemical impregnation. The reproducibility of the results is obtained by readjusting the pH before each preparation. The control of each electrode is done during two cycles of charge and discharge following the manufacture by a potential relaxation method.

  11. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Blachly, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive iodine and radioactive methyliodide can be more than 99.7 percent removed from the air stream of a nuclear reactor by passing the air stream through a 2-inch thick filter which is made up of impregnated charcoal prepared by contacting the charcoal with a solution containing KOH, iodine or an iodide, and an oxyacid, followed by contacting with a solution containing a tertiary amine. 3 claims

  12. Isolation of Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) growing on ferric hydroxide mud impregnated with gas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudin, C. (Lavera Refinery, France); Chater, K.W.A.

    1977-09-01

    In northern France, gas oil-impregnated ferric hydroxide mud was found to support fungal growth. The fungus was identified by the Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, with whom a reference culture has been registered. Experiments indicated that its growth resulted from the biodegradation of the gas oil. It is believed that, in this unusual situation, contaminating hydrocarbons may be removed from the environment by microbial activity.

  13. Magnetic properties of iron oxide photolytically produced from Fe(CO)5 impregnated porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, N. F.; Morse, D. L.; Schreurs, J. W. H.

    1983-06-01

    This article discusses the magnetic properties observed in porous glasses impregnated with metal carbonyls after exposure to light. In the photolyzed and consolidated glasses both superparamagnetic and single domain ferrimagnetic particles were found to be present, with the single domain particles having an exceedingly high coercive force. The concentration ratio between superparamagnetic and single domain particles depends strongly on temperature. An analysis of the observed phenomena is given.

  14. Impregnation and Polymerization Methods and Systems Used in the Production of Wood-Polymer Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, W. E.; Rotariu, G. J. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC 20545 (United States)

    1968-10-15

    Studies on the radiation production of wood-polymer materials began in the United States in 1961 at West Virginia University and have continued until today. In this paper the impregnation and polymerization methods and systems that have evolved from these studies are reviewed. Included is a description of the procedures developed at the College of Forestry, Syracuse University, for producing wood-polymers via a thermal-catalytic process. (author)

  15. HZSM-5 Catalyst for Cracking Palm Oil to Gasoline: A Comparative Study with and without Impregnation

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad Roesyadi; Danawati Hariprajitno; Nurjannah Nurjannah; Santi Dyah Savitri

    2013-01-01

    It is important to develop a renewable source of energy to overcome a limited source fossil energy. Palm oil is a potential alternative and environmental friendly energy resource in Indonesia due to high production capacity of this vegetable oil. The research studied effect of catalyst to selectivity of biofuel product from cracking of palm oil. The catalyst consisted of HZSM-5 catalyst with or without impregnation. The research was conducted in two steps, namely catalyst synthesized and cata...

  16. Property improvement by gamma polymerization of methyl methacrylate impregnated local Thai wood Yang (Dipterocarpus Sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saisomboon, S.; Sumitra, T.

    1990-01-01

    Property improvement of a local Thai wood (Yang-Dipterocarpus Sp.) was studied by impregnating with methyl methacrylate before polymerizing with gamma ray. The polymer loading were 126 and 68 percent for sapwood and heart wood, respectively. Significant improvements in impact, compressive and bending strength were observed in the wood polymer composite (WPC). In addition, the microstructure and the impact fractured-surfaces of WPC were also carried with a scanning electron-microscope

  17. Gauze Impregnated With Quaternary Ammonium Salt Reduces Bacterial Colonization of Surgical Drains After Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L; Wolfe, Emily T; Shank, Nina; Chaffin, Abigail E; Jansen, David A

    2018-06-01

    Surgical site infection after breast reconstruction is associated with increased length of hospital stay, readmission rates, cost, morbidity, and mortality. Identifying methods to reduce surgical site infection without the use of antibiotics may be beneficial at reducing antimicrobial resistance, reserving the use of antibiotics for more severe cases. Quaternary ammonium salts have previously been shown to be a safe and effective antimicrobial agent in the setting of in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial properties of a quaternary ammonium salt, 3-trimethoxysilyl propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (QAS-3PAC; Bio-spear), at reducing surgical drain site colonization and infection after breast reconstruction (deep inferior epigastric perforator flap reconstruction or tissue expander placement). Twenty patients were enrolled, with 14 surgical drains covered with nonimpregnated gauze and 17 surgical drains covered with QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze, for the purposes of investigating bacterial colonization. Antibiotic sensitivity analysis was also conducted when bacterial cultures were positive. The overall incidence of bacterial colonization of surgical drains was lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (17.6% vs 64.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze reduced the incidence of bacterial colonization of surgical drains during the first (0.0% vs 33.3%) and second (33.3% vs 87.5%; P = 0.04) postoperative week. Furthermore, no enhanced antibiotic resistance was noted on drains treated with QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze. The results of this study suggest that QAS-3PAC impregnated gauze applied over surgical drains may be an effective method for reducing the incidence of bacterial colonization.

  18. Nonlocality and short-range wetting phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M; Lazarides, A

    2004-08-20

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  19. Nonlocality and Short-Range Wetting Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Lazarides, A.

    2004-08-01

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  20. Novel Aluminum Oxide-Impregnated Carbon Nanotube Membrane for the Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An aluminum oxide-impregnated carbon nanotube (CNT-Al2O3 membrane was developed via a novel approach and used in the removal of toxic metal cadmium ions, Cd(II. The membrane did not require any binder to hold the carbon nanotubes (CNTs together. Instead, the Al2O3 particles impregnated on the surface of the CNTs were sintered together during heating at 1400 °C. Impregnated CNTs were characterized using XRD, while the CNT-Al2O3 membrane was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Water flux, contact angle, and porosity measurements were performed on the membrane prior to the Cd(II ion removal experiment, which was conducted in a specially devised continuous filtration system. The results demonstrated the extreme hydrophilic behavior of the developed membrane, which yielded a high water flux through the membrane. The filtration system removed 84% of the Cd(II ions at pH 7 using CNT membrane with 10% Al2O3 loading. A maximum adsorption capacity of 54 mg/g was predicted by the Langmuir isotherm model for the CNT membrane with 10% Al2O3 loading. This high adsorption capacity indicated that adsorption was the main mechanism involved in the removal of Cd(II ions.

  1. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Eduardo; Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-03-28

    Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human-mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  2. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Massad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human–mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. Methodology: We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. Principal findings: The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Conclusions: Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  3. Pore structure modification of cement concretes by impregnation with sulfur-containing compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANAKHMETOV Marat Rafisovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors study how the impregnation with sulfur-containing compounds changes the concrete pore structure and how it influences on the water absorption and watertightness. The results of this research indicate that impregnation of cement concrete with water-based solution of polysulphide modifies pore structure of cement concrete in such a way that it decreases total and effective porosity, reduces water absorption and increases watertightness. The proposed impregnation based on mineral helps to protect for a long time the most vulnerable parts of buildings – basements, foundations, as well as places on the facades of buildings exposed to rain, snow and groundwater. Application of the new product in the construction industry can increase the durability of materials, preventing the destruction processes caused by weathering, remove excess moisture in damp basements. The surfaces treated by protective compounds acquire antisoiling properties for a long time, and due to reduced thermal conductivity the cost of heating buildings is decreased. The effectiveness of the actions and the relatively low cost of proposed hydrophobizator makes it possible to spread widely the proposed protection method for building structures.

  4. Augmentation of tendon healing with butyric acid-impregnated sutures: biomechanical evaluation in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Bryan T; Tasto, James P; Tibor, Lisa M; Healey, Robert M; Freemont, Anthony; Linn, Michael S; Chase, Derek E; Amiel, David

    2012-08-01

    Butyric acid (BA) has been shown to be angiogenic and to enhance transcriptional activity in tissue. These properties of BA have the potential to augment biological healing of a repaired tendon. To evaluate this possibility both biomechanically and histologically in an animal tendon repair model. Controlled laboratory study. A rabbit Achilles tendon healing model was used to evaluate the biomechanical strength and histological properties at 6 and 12 weeks after repair. Unilateral tendon defects were created in the middle bundle of the Achilles tendon of each rabbit, which were repaired equivalently with either Ultrabraid BA-impregnated sutures or control Ultrabraid sutures. After 6 weeks, BA-impregnated suture repairs had a significantly increased (P Tendons repaired with BA-impregnated sutures demonstrated improved biomechanical properties at 6 weeks relative to control sutures, suggesting a neoangiogenic mechanism of enhanced healing through an increased myofibroblast presence. These findings demonstrate that a relatively simple alteration of suture material may augment early tendon healing to create a stronger repair construct during this time.

  5. Micro- and macroscopic study on the porosity of marble as a function of temperature and impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga-Starzec, K.; Akesson, U.; Lindqvist, J. E.; Schouenborg, B.

    2003-04-01

    The thermal weathering of marble is demonstrated by the progressive granular decohesion that leads to an increased porosity and subsequently to loss of strength. In order to determine how temperature cycling initiates changes in the porosity of fresh and impregnated stones: two chemically and petrographically very different marble types were tested for water absorption and ultrasonic velocity propagation and analysed by fluorescence microscopy and nitrogen adsorption. The influence of the impregnation materials: GypStop P17 and P22, both silica sols with different particle size, on changes of the porosity was also evaluated. A separate long-term study of thermal expansion was additionally performed on fresh unimpregnated samples. The results indicated that inter-granular decohesion was more pronounced for the calictic marble than the dolomitic marble. The impregnation materials had a mitigating effect on the granular decohesion. Use of fluorescence microscopy, among the other methods, appears to give inexpensive and reliable information about internal structure of the marbles. A better understanding of the effect that temperature has on the porosity of marble could be used as a guide for election of suitable stone material for exterior use as well as an indication for appropriate conditioning of the samples before physical properties testing.

  6. Bacterial flagella as biotemplate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle impregnated bionanomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinathan, Priya [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Nanotech Research Facility, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641004 (India); Ashok, Anuradha M. [HRTEM facility, Nanotech Research Facility, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641004 (India); Selvakumar, R., E-mail: selvabiotech@gmail.com [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Nanotech Research Facility, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641004 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to synthesize one dimensional silver nanoparticle impregnated flagellar bionanomaterial. Flagella was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and depolymerised into flagellin monomers. The flagellin monomers were repolymerised again into flagella using suitable technique. The molecular weight of native (NF) and polymerized flagella (PF) was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NF and PF were used as a template, over which silver nanoparticles were impregnated using in situ chemical reduction process. The synthesized flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials were characterized using UV–vis, FT-IR Raman and XRD spectroscopy, and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characterization studies confirmed the attachment of silver nanoparticles over flagella and repolymerised flagella. The size of the silver nanoparticles on the flagella and repolymerised flagella varied and was in the range of 3–11 nm. I–V characteristics of the bionanomaterials were analyzed using Kethley meter which indicated the increase of conductivity after impregnation of silver nanoparticles. The results indicated that flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials can be used as a potential one dimensional bionanomaterials for various applications.

  7. Unmodified versus caustics-impregnated carbons for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions from sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandosz, T.J.; Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Turk, A.

    2000-03-15

    Unmodified and caustic-impregnated carbons were compared as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide in the North River Water Pollution Control Plant in New York City over a period of 2 years. The carbons were characterized using accelerated H{sub 2}S breakthrough capacity tests, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, and thermal analysis. The accelerated laboratory tests indicate that the initial capacity of caustic-impregnated carbons exceeds that of unmodified carbon, but the nature of real-life challenge streams, particularly their lower H{sub 2}S concentrations, nullifies this advantage. As the caustic content of the impregnated carbon is consumed, the situation reverses, and the unmodified carbon becomes more effective. When the concentration of H{sub 2}S is low, the developed surface area and pore volume along with the affinity to retain water create a favorable environment for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen sulfide and its oxidation to elemental sulfur, S{sup 4+}, and S{sup 6+}. In the case of the caustic carbon, the catalytic impact of the carbon surface is limited, and its good performance lasts only while active base is present. The results also show the significant differences in performance of unmodified carbons due to combined effects of their porosity and surface chemistry.

  8. Low Cost, Lightweight Gravity Coring and Improved Epoxy Impregnation Applied to Laminated Maar Sediment in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Schimmelmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for lightweight and affordable sediment coring and high-resolution structural documentation of unconsolidated sediment, we developed economical and fast methods for (i recovering short sediment cores with undisturbed topmost sediment, without the need for a firmly anchored coring platform, and (ii rapid epoxy-impregnation of crayon-shaped subcores in preparation for thin-sectioning, with minimal use of solvents and epoxy resin. The ‘Autonomous Gravity Corer’ (AGC can be carried to remote locations and deployed from an inflatable or makeshift raft. Its utility was tested on modern unconsolidated lacustrine sediment from a ~21 m deep maar lake in Vietnam’s Central Highlands near Pleiku. The sedimentary fabric fidelity of the epoxy-impregnation method was demonstrated for finely laminated artificial flume sediment. Our affordable AGC is attractive not only for work in developing countries, but lends itself broadly for coring in remote regions where challenging logistics prevent the use of heavy coring equipment. The improved epoxy-impregnation technique saves effort and costly chemical reagents, while at the same time preserving the texture of the sediment.

  9. Removal of Lead (II from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan Impregnated Granular Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mousa Ridha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of biopolymer material Chitosan impregnated granular activated carbon CHGAC as adsorbent in the removal of lead ions pb.2+ from aqueous solution was studied using batch adsorption mode. The prepared CHGAC was characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and atomic-absorption pectrophotometer. The adsorption of lead ions onto Chitosan-impregnated granular activated carbon was examined as a function of adsorbent weight, pH and contact time in Batch system. Langmuir and Freundlich models were employed to analyze the resulting experimental data demonstrated that better fitted by Langmuir isotherm model than Freundlich model, with good correlation coefficient. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the pseudo second order model in conformity to the experimental values. This means that the adsorption performance of lead ions onto CHGAC follows a pseudo second order model, which illustrates that the adsorption of Pb2+ onto CHGAC was controlled by chemisorption. The granular activated carbon GAC impregnated by Chitosan was effectively applied as adsorbent for the elimination of lead ions from aqueous solution.

  10. Bacterial flagella as biotemplate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle impregnated bionanomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan, Priya; Ashok, Anuradha M.; Selvakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to synthesize one dimensional silver nanoparticle impregnated flagellar bionanomaterial. Flagella was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and depolymerised into flagellin monomers. The flagellin monomers were repolymerised again into flagella using suitable technique. The molecular weight of native (NF) and polymerized flagella (PF) was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NF and PF were used as a template, over which silver nanoparticles were impregnated using in situ chemical reduction process. The synthesized flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials were characterized using UV–vis, FT-IR Raman and XRD spectroscopy, and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characterization studies confirmed the attachment of silver nanoparticles over flagella and repolymerised flagella. The size of the silver nanoparticles on the flagella and repolymerised flagella varied and was in the range of 3–11 nm. I–V characteristics of the bionanomaterials were analyzed using Kethley meter which indicated the increase of conductivity after impregnation of silver nanoparticles. The results indicated that flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials can be used as a potential one dimensional bionanomaterials for various applications.

  11. Impregnating Systems for Producing Wood-Plastic Composite Materials and Resinified Woods by Radiochemical Means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Laroche, R.; Marchand, J.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of the nature of the components in the impregnation mixture on the characteristics of wood-plastic combinations has been studied in the case of beech by applying a wide variety of compositions. In particular, the effect of water (in the impregnator, and in the form of moisture in the wood) on the characteristics of the products obtained has been determined. It has been shown that, in place of the conventional method for preparing resinified woods (using a ternary monomer-solvent-water mixture), it is possible to use a method involving comonomers, which obviate the need to dry the wood after treatment. The evaluation of the results obtained is based on the value of the impregnation rate and on the modifications in microscopic structure; these emphasize the differences between the types of filler and enable comparisons to be drawn with the dimensional stabilities observed. Measurements of variations in dimensions and the recurrence of moisture have made it possible to establish a classification based on the types of monomer used and the operating conditions. It is shown that a whole range of products is obtained, the properties of which differ widely and are comparatively easily adaptable to the purpose specified. These properties illustrate clearly the differences and characteristics of resinified woods as opposed to conventional wood-plastic materials. (author) [fr

  12. Impregnation of β-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; van der Meulen, Inge; Heise, Andreas; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from β-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ε-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of preceramic and Zr coating on impregnation behaviors of SiC ceramic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Kim, Sun-Han; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic composites were fabricated using a polymer impregnation and pyrolysis process. To develop the low temperature process, the pyrolysis was conducted at 600 °C in air. Both a microstructural observation and a mechanical test were utilized for the evaluation of the impregnation. For the impregnation, two kinds of polycarbosilane having a different degree of cross-linking were used. The level of cross-linking affected the ceramic yield of the composites. The cross-linking under oxygen containing atmosphere resulted in a dense matrix and high density of filling. However, tight bonding between the matrix and fibers in the fully dense composite samples, which was obtained using a cross-linking agent of divinylbenzene, turned out to be deteriorative on the mechanical properties. The physical isolation of fibers from matrix phase in the composites was very important to attain a mechanical ductility. The brittle fracture was alleviated by introducing an interphase coating with metallic Zr. The combination of forming the dense matrix and interphase coating should be a necessary condition for the SiCf/SiC fiber-reinforce composite, and it is practicable by controlling the process parameters.

  14. Effect of halide impregnation on elemental mercury removal of activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Yoon Ji; Park, Soo Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Activated carbons (ACs) were impregnated with potassium halides (KX) to enhance the removal efficiency of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). In this work, the impregnation effect of potassium bromide (KBr) and potassium iodine (KI) were investigated. The surface properties of KX-ACs were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The pore structures and total pore volumes of the KX-ACs were analyzed using the N{sub 2} /77 K adsorption isotherms. The Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of KBr-ACs and KI-ACs was studied under simulated flue gas conditions. The effects of KI and KBr loading, adsorption temperature, and flue gas components on Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency were also investigated. The results showed that the Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of the ACs was significantly enhanced by KI or KBr impregnation, and KI-ACs showed higher Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency than KBr-ACs under the same conditions. An increase in KI or KBr loading and higher adsorption temperatures improved the Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency, indicating that chemisorption occurred due to the reaction between X− and Hg{sup 0}. The lower extent of Hg{sup 0} removal exhibited by the KBr-ACs than by the KI-ACs was due to the difficulty of Br{sub 2} formation on the surfaces.

  15. An innovative process for the impregnation of magnet coils and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Morgan, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    The need to bond and encapsulate the conductor in many types of superconductive magnet is well understood. The choice of materials for bonding may influence the performance of the coil and the technique used for its application. This paper considers the merits of three types of close-quote bonding close-quote procedure and presents details of an innovative method for the vacuum impregnation of coils. The process has been developed and evaluated in an attempt to remove some of the uncertainties of the vacuum impregnation process that traditionally may be eliminated only with the use of sealed mould tools and high quality vacuum chambers. For large magnets or for mass production, this process may lead to a reduction in tooling and plant costs, together with reduced resin consumption and improved health and safety factors. The process has been developed in conjunction with a resin system that has been designed to exhibit excellent thermal shock characteristics and to minimise preparation time and post impregnation cleaning requirements

  16. Development of silver impregnated alumina for iodine separation from off-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Kikuchi, Makoto [Energy Research Laboratory, Hitachi (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    An inorganic iodine adsorbent, silver impregnated alumina (AgA), has been developed to separate iodine effectively from off-gas streams of nuclear facilities and to decrease the volume of waste (spent adsorbent). Iodine removal efficiency was improved at relatively high humidity by using alumina carrier with two different pore diameters. Waste volume reduction was achieved by impregnating relatively large amounts of silver into the alumina pores. The developed adsorbent was tested first with simulated off-gas streams under various experimental conditions and finally with actual off-gas streams of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. The decontamination factor (DF) was about 100 with the AgA bed depth of 2cm at 70% relative humidity, which was a DF one order higher than that when AgA with one pore size was used. Iodine adsorption capacity was checked by passing excess iodine into the AgA bed. Values were about 0.12 and 0.35 g-I/cm`-AgA bed for 10 and 24wt% silver impregnated AgA, respectively. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the applicability of the developed AgA to the off-gas treatment system of nuclear facilities.

  17. Prevalent material parameters governing spalling of a slag-impregnated refractory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blond, E.; Schmitt, N.; Arnould, O.; Hild, F. [LMT-Cachan (ENS de Cachan / CNRS-UMR 8535 / Univ. Paris 6), Cachan (France); Blumenfeld, P. [CRDM / ARCELOR Grande Synthe, Dunkerque (France); Poirier, J. [CRDM / ARCELOR Grande Synthe, Dunkerque (France); CRMHT-CNRS, Orleans (France)

    2004-07-01

    In steel ladle linings, bauxite refractories in contact with iron and steel slag are subjected to complex loadings. To identify the causes of degradation in different reactor linings, a coupling diagram made up of three poles is established: namely, slag impregnation (I), Thermomechanics (TM) and phase transformations (P). The variation of the microstructure and the gradient of the chemical composition resulting from the (I-P) coupling are characterized by microprobe analyses; a natural impregnation tracer is identified. The (I-T) coupling is studied by modeling the refractory lining behavior subjected to a cyclic thermal loading within the framework of the mechanics of porous continua. Parameters governing the location and amplitude of the maximum pore pressure are obtained and their influences are studied. The analysis of the (TM) pole leads to the identification of a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic model for bauxite in various states of slag impregnation. Numerical simulations show that the stress state developed during the heating stages can induce spalling, probably generated by a localized over-pressure of slag. (orig.)

  18. Interaction of the wood surface with metal ions. Part 3: The effects of light on chromium impregnated wood surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipta, J.; Németh, K.; Molnárné Hamvas, L.

    2004-01-01

    UV-light changes of untreated and chromium impregnated wood surface were investigated by absorption spectrophotometric methods. The properties of indifferent silicagel and celulose layers were to the behaviour of poplar and black locust surface. Chromic-ion-impregnation had no significant effect on the absorption spectra of these layers. On the other hand, hexavalent chromium was reduced and UV-light caused irreversible wood degradation. Surface treatment caused considerable modification in black locust

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE PROCESS OF TARTARIC ACID SEPARATION ON AMBERLITE XAD2 IMPREGNATED WITH AMBERLITE LA-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchitan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an investigation of the process of reactive ion-exchange separation of tartaric acid from model systems with macroreticular resin AmberliteXAD2 impregnated with liquid ion-exchanger Amberlite LA-2 in batch equipment.The condition of Amberlite XAD2 impregnation process was investigated. Freudlichand Langmuir equations were verified and values of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy were calculated. This article is an extended abstract of a communicationpresented at the Conference Ecological Chemistry 2012.

  20. Field evaluation of spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips against Anopheles gambiae complex in Bagamoyo, coastal Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Temu, Emmanuel A.; Minjas, Japhet N.; Matsumoto, Osamu; Iwasaki, Tomonori; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Metofluthrin is a newly synthesized pyrethroid possessing high knockdown and lethal activity against mosquitoes. Studies of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips have been performed with dengue vectors. This study reports the efficacy of the new prototypes of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips against malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae complex, in the Kongo villages of Bagamoyo district in coastal Tanzania. The study, using 20 houses, half intervention, half control, was conducted for ...

  1. Reverse Topotactic Transformation of a Cu–Zn–Al Catalyst during Wet Pd Impregnation : Relevance for the Performance in Methanol Synthesis from CO2/H2 Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, J.L.G.; López Granados, M.; Melián-Cabrera, I.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of palladium metal on the performance of a CuO–ZnO–Al2O3 catalyst is studied for methanol synthesis by hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. The dramatic decrease in the methanol yield (in mol CH3OH/h · gcat) seen for the Pd-containing catalysts is discussed in terms of formation,

  2. In Situ Densification Utilizing a Low-Viscosity Wetting Impregnant that Greating Reduces Processing Time to Produce Uniform Density Carbon-Carbon Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Wesley

    2002-01-01

    High-performance carbon-carbon (C-C) composites possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structural uses such as in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes...

  3. Structural reversibility of a ternary CuO–ZnO–Al2O3 ex hydrotalcite-containing material during wet Pd impregnation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Granados, M.; Melián-Cabrera, I.; Fierro, J.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    A Cu–Zn–Al precursor was synthesized by coprecipitation of the corresponding cations with sodium carbonate at constant pH and temperature. CuO–ZnO–Al2O3 composite oxide support was obtained by calcination (673 K) of the Cu–Zn–Al precursor. Two palladium-modified CuO–ZnO–Al2O3 samples were prepared

  4. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  5. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  6. Combustion Characteristics of Impregnated and Surface-treated Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Wood Left Outdoors for One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Said Fidan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating wood with impregnating materials in order to improve resistance to burning is a commonly employed safety measure. In this study, chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood samples were impregnated using either Tanalith-E or Wolmanit-CB according to ASTM-D 1413-76 and surface-treated using water-based or synthetic varnish according to ASTM-D 3023. These samples were used to investigate the combustion characteristics of samples left outdoors for one year as detailed in ASTM-E 160-50. The combustion temperatures of the samples left outdoors were similar upon impregnation with either Tanalith-E or Wolmanit-CB. However, the combustion temperature of the samples treated with synthetic varnish was lower than those that were treated with water-based varnish. The time to collapse and the total duration of combustion of the samples left outdoors were shorter for those impregnated with Wolmanit-CB. Weight loss of the samples left outdoors was higher for those that were impregnated with Tanalith-E and treated with water-based varnish. Gas analysis of the samples that were left outdoors indicated that the O2 content of flue gas from samples that were impregnated with Wolmanit-CB and treated with synthetic varnish was high and the CO content of flue gas from the same samples was low.

  7. Investigation of the metabolic consequences of impregnating spinach leaves with trehalose and applying a pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Panarese, Valentina; Herremans, Els; Cantre, Dennis; Schoo, Rick; Toraño, Javier Sastre; Schluepmann, Henriette; Wadso, Lars; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart M; Dejmek, Petr; Gómez Galindo, Federico

    2016-12-01

    The impregnation of leafy vegetables with cryoprotectants using a combination of vacuum impregnation (VI) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) has been proposed by our research group as a method of improving their freezing tolerance and consequently their general quality after thawing. In this study, we have investigated the metabolic consequences of the combination of these unit operations on spinach. The vacuum impregnated spinach leaves showed a drastic decrease in the porosity of the extracellular space. However, at maximum weight gain, randomly located air pockets remained, which may account for oxygen-consuming pathways in the cells being active after VI. The metabolic activity of the impregnated leaves showed a drastic increase that was further enhanced by the application of PEF to the impregnated tissue. Impregnating the leaves with trehalose by VI led to a significant accumulation of trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), however, this was not further enhanced by PEF. It is suggested that the accumulation of T6P in the leaves may increase metabolic activity, and increase tissue resistance to abiotic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Iranian toothpaste containing different concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions: in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghgoo Roza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases which could be prevented in various ways. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a toothpaste containing different concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite on the remineralization of incipient caries.   Materials and Methods: 9 sound first premolar teeth of maxilla and mandible were sectioned to four pieces. 6 specimens were stored in distilled water as control group. The remaining 30 specimens were demineralized for 72 hours and then their microhardness was measured. 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% wt nano-hydroxyapatite were added to the solution of distilled water and toothpaste. Specimens were divided into 5 groups (N=6 and after demineralization, each group were randomly immersed in the above-mentioned solutions for 15 minutes. Next, specimens were kept in artificial saliva for 1 hour followed by immersion in the related remineralizing solution for another 15 minutes. This procedure was repeated for 5 days. Finally, the microhardness of the teeth was measured. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA.   Results: The microhardness of demineralized teeth was increased following exposure to different concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite, but this increase was not statistically significant (P=0.62.   Conclusion: Nano-hydroxy apatite can enhance remineralization and increase the tooth microhardness although this increase was not significant.

  9. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  10. Evaluation of Alternative Atomistic Models for the Incipient Growth of ZnO by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Manh-Hung; Tian, Liang; Chaker, Ahmad; Skopin, Evgenii; Cantelli, Valentina; Ouled, Toufik; Boichot, Raphaël; Crisci, Alexandre; Lay, Sabine; Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Thomas, Olivier; Deschanvres, Jean-Luc; Renevier, Hubert; Fong, Dillon; Ciatto, Gianluca

    2017-03-20

    ZnO thin films are interesting for applications in several technological fields, including optoelectronics and renewable energies. Nanodevice applications require controlled synthesis of ZnO structures at nanometer scale, which can be achieved via atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the mechanisms governing the initial stages of ALD had not been addressed until very recently. Investigations into the initial nucleation and growth as well as the atomic structure of the heterointerface are crucial to optimize the ALD process and understand the structure-property relationships for ZnO. We have used a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques to investigate both the structural and chemical evolution during ZnO growth by ALD on two different substrates, i.e., SiO2 and Al2O3, which led us to formulate an atomistic model of the incipient growth of ZnO. The model relies on the formation of nanoscale islands of different size and aspect ratio and consequent disorder induced in the Zn neighbors' distribution. However, endorsement of our model requires testing and discussion of possible alternative models which could account for the experimental results. In this work, we review, test, and rule out several alternative models; the results confirm our view of the atomistic mechanisms at play, which influence the overall microstructure and resulting properties of the final thin film.

  11. SOCIOLINGUISTIC AND GEOLINGUISTIC APPROACHES TO THE HISTORICAL DIFFUSION OF LINGUISTIC INNOVATIONS: INCIPIENT STANDARDISATION IN LATE MIDDLE ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Hernández Campoy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of linguistic innovations and changes has become a common object of sociolinguistic and geolinguistic research. As such, the process has been studied from four complementary perspectives: (a the communicative or interpersonal, (b the time dimension, © the social perspective and (d the geographical or spatial. Despite the successful application of these methodologies to tracing the diffusion of innovations in progress and recently attested changes, attention is hardly ever given to reconstructing these four dimensions in connection with the diffusion of changes in the past. In this paper we consider the possibility of applying these methods and findings to the different faeets of the diffusion of a weIl attested change in the history of English: the spread of incipient standard spellings from London in the late Middle English period. Particular attention is given to the unfolding of this process in the course of time, its diffusion across social ranks and networks, as well as to its possible geographical circulation.

  12. Inkjet Impregnation for Tailoring Air Electrode Microstructure to Improve Solid Oxide Cells Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Da’as, Eman H.

    2015-09-30

    The urge to lower the operating temperature of solid oxide cells (SOCs) to the intermediate ranges between 500-700°C motivated the research into impregnation processes, which offer highly efficient SOC air electrodes at low operating temperatures. Lack of controllability and reproducibility of this technique in the conventional way is still considered as an inadequacy for industrialization since it is performed manually. Therefore, inkjet-printing technology was proposed as an adequate approach to perform scalable and controllable impregnation for SOC air electrodes, which in turn leads to low operating temperatures. Composite LSM-ionic conductive air electrodes of weight ratio 1:2 were fabricated by inkjet impregnation of lanthanum strontium manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3) precursor nitrates onto a porous ionic conductive backbone structure. First, porous yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) substrates prepared by tape casting were used to study the influence of the printing parameters on the lateral dispersion and penetration of LSM ink inside the pores. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of LSM phase after calcination at 800°C for 2 h, while SEM revealed the formation of LSM nanostructures. It has been found by optical microscope observations that the spacing between the drops and the substrate temperature have a significant role in controlling the printing process. Next, the optimized printing parameters were applied in the inkjet impregnation of the LSM ink into porous YSZ electrodes that were spin coated on both sides of dense YSZ layers. LSM-YSZ composite air electrodes achieved an area specific resistance (ASR) of around 0.29 Ω.cm2 at 700°C. The performance of LSM-YSZ composite electrodes was influenced by the microstructure and the thickness, and by the electrode/electrolyte interface characteristics. As a result, the enhancement in LSM-YSZ composite electrode performance was observed due to the better percolation in LSM, YSZ and oxygen diffusion. Finally

  13. Fe-Impregnated Mineral Colloids for Peroxide Activation: Effects of Mineral Substrate and Fe Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Machala, Libor; Yan, Weile

    2016-02-02

    Heterogeneous iron species at the mineral/water interface are important catalysts for the generation of reactive oxygen species at circumneutral pH. One significant pathway leading to the formation of such species arises from deposition of dissolved iron onto mineral colloids due to changes in redox conditions. This study investigates the catalytic properties of Fe impregnated on silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles (as prototypical mineral colloids). Fe impregnation was carried out by immersing the mineral nanoparticles in dilute Fe(II) or Fe(III) solutions at pH 6 and 3, respectively, in an aerobic environment. The uptake of iron per unit surface area follows the order of nTiO2 > nAl2O3 > nSiO2 for both types of Fe precursors. Impregnation of mineral particles in Fe(II) solutions results in predominantly Fe(III) species due to efficient surface-mediated oxidation. The catalytic activity of the impregnated solids to produce hydroxyl radical (·OH) from H2O2 decomposition was evaluated using benzoic acid as a probe compound under dark conditions. Invariably, the rates of benzoic acid oxidation with different Fe-laden particles increase with the surface density of Fe until a critical density above which the catalytic activity approaches a plateau, suggesting active Fe species are formed predominantly at low surface loadings. The critical surface density of Fe varies with the mineral substrate as well as the aqueous Fe precursor. Fe impregnated on TiO2 exhibits markedly higher activity than its Al2O3 and SiO2 counterparts. The speciation of interfacial Fe is analyzed with diffuse reflectance UV-vis analysis and interpretation of the data in the context of benzoic oxidation rates suggests that the surface activity of the solids for ·OH generation correlates strongly with the isolated (i.e., mononuclear) Fe species. Therefore, iron dispersed on mineral colloids is a significant form of reactive iron surfaces in the aquatic environment.

  14. An experimental investigation to assess the potential of using MgSO4 impregnation and Mg2+ ion exchange to enhance the performance of 13X molecular sieves for interseasonal domestic thermochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, Daniel; Claudio, Gianfranco; Eames, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg 2+ ion exchange used to enhance the energy storage potential of 13× pellets. • 13× molecular sieves do not allow the hydration of impregnated MgSO 4 . • Zeolite-Y allows for the hydration of impregnated MgSO 4 . • Ion exchange time period impacts the percentage of ion exchange completion. - Abstract: The need to develop renewable heat sources for domestic space heating is a well known problem, for solar thermal systems mismatch between generation and load is a major issue, and thermochemical interseasonal heat storage offers a solution to this problem. Recent research has shown that using an absorbent material as a host for salt hydrates can be advantageous in achieving a high energy density material while alleviating the problematic practical characteristics, such as agglomeration, which salt hydrates typically possess. In this paper results are presented for a 13X molecular sieve which was tested to determine its potential for interseasonal domestic thermochemical energy storage alone and as a host material for Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO 4 ). Two different impregnation preparation methods have been utilised in our experiments, (i) a wetness impregnation method and (ii) a new method in which 13X molecular sieve powders and MgSO 4 are formed into pellets with use of a binder. The materials produced by each method were tested against each other and compared to a zeolite-Y material to assess which is the best candidate material for thermal energy storage. The impact of ion exchange on the energy storage potential of the 13X materials was also investigated. Analysis of the materials characteristics and thermal performance was conducted using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analyser (TGA) coupled with a Residual Gas Analyser (RGA), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and a custom built fixed bed 200 g in-situ hydration and dehydration chamber to assess the materials

  15. Critical Casimir forces and anomalous wetting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) With Dirichlet boundary conditions, the critical temperature in the film is sig- ... studies: new experiments should identify the origin of the L-dependence, and ... and complete wetting should occur as T approaches Tt. The above argument is ...

  16. Wetted surface area of recreational boats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; van Vlaardingen PLA; ICH; VSP

    2018-01-01

    The wetted surface area of recreational craft is often treated with special paint that prevents growth of algae and other organisms. The active substances in this paint (antifouling) are also emitted into the water. The extent of this emission is among others determined by the treated surface area.

  17. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  18. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  19. Wet steam turbines for CANDU-Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, C.H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical characteristics of 4 wet steam turbine aggregates used in the Pickering nuclear power station are reported on along with operational experience. So far, the general experience was positive. Furthermore, plans are mentioned to use this type of turbines in other CANDU reactors. (UA) [de

  20. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sachito; Murayama, Kazunari; Yoshida, Hirohisa; Igei, Shigemitsu; Izumida, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  1. Dynamic Wetting Behavior of Vibrated Droplets on a Micropillared Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hai Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical wetting behavior has been observed under vertical vibration of a water droplet placed on a micropillared surface. The wetting transition takes place under the different processes. In compression process, the droplet is transited from Cassie state to Wenzel state. The droplet undergoes a Wenzel-Cassie wetting transition in restoring process and the droplet bounces off from the surface in bouncing process. Meanwhile, the wetting and dewetting models during vibration are proposed. The wetting transition is confirmed by the model calculation. This study has potential to be used to control the wetting state.

  2. Incipient Domestication Processes in Multicultural Contexts: A Case Study of Urban Parks in San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Betancurt

    2017-12-01

    urban parks are constructed cultural niches which, as in an agroforestry system, are scenarios which reveal processes of incipient domestication that reflect different cosmovisions and drivers typical of multicultural contexts.

  3. Pattern of genetic differentiation of an incipient speciation process: The case of the high Andean killifish Orestias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Jiménez, Claudia Jimena; Peña, Fabiola; Morales, Pamela; Méndez, Marco; Sallaberry, Michel; Vila, Irma; Poulin, Elie

    2017-01-01

    During the Pleistocene and Holocene, the southwest Andean Altiplano (17°-22°S) was affected by repeated fluctuations in water levels, high volcanic activity and major tectonic movements. In the early Holocene the humid Tauca phase shifted to the arid conditions that have lasted until the present, producing endorheic rivers, lakes, lagoons and wetlands. The endemic fish Orestias (Cyprinodontidae) represents a good model to observe the genetic differentiation that characterizes an incipient speciation process in allopatry since the morphospecies described inhabit a restricted geographic area, with present habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity and population structure of four endemic morphospecies of Orestias (Cyprinodontidae) found in the Lauca National Park (LNP) analyzed with mitochondrial markers (Control Region) and eight microsatellites, revealed the existence of genetic groups that matches the fragmentation of these systems. High values of genetic and phylogeographic differentiation indices were observed between Chungará Lake and Piacota lagoon. The group composed of the Lauca River, Copapujo and Chuviri wetlands sampling sites showed a clear signal of expansion, with a star-like haplotype network. Levels of genetic differentiation were lower than in Chungará and Piacota, suggesting that these localities would have differentiated after the bottlenecks linked to the collapse of Parinacota volcano. The Parinacota sample showed a population signal that differed from the other localities revealing greater genetic diversity and a disperse network, presenting haplotypes shared with other LNP localities. A mixing pattern of the different genetic groups was evident using the microsatellite markers. The chronology of the vicariance events in LNP may indicate that the partition process of the Orestias populations was gradual. Considering this, and in view of the genetic results, we may conclude that the morphospecies from LNP are populations in ongoing

  4. Experimental-theoretical approach to carbon monoxide density calculation at the incipient stage of the fire indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzach, S. V.; Suleykin, E. V.; Akperov, R. G.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new experimental-theoretical approach to the toxic gases concentrations assessment in case of fire indoors is offered. The analytical formulas for calculation of CO average volume density are received. These formulas do not contain the geometrical sizes of the room and surfaces dimensions of combustible materials and, therefore, are valid under conditions of as a small-scale fire as a large-scale fire. A small-scale experimental installation for modeling fire thermal and gas dynamics in the closed or open thermodynamic system has been designed. The results of the experiments on determining dependencies of CO average volume density from average volume temperature and oxygen average volume density as well as dependencies of specific coefficients of CO emission and specific mass rates of the combustible material gasification from the time of tests during the burning of wood, transformer oil and PVC cables shield are presented. The results of numerical experiments on CO density calculation in small and large scale rooms using the proposed analytical solutions, integral, zone and field models for calculation of fire thermal and gas dynamics are presented. The comparison with the experimental data obtained by the authors and given in the literature has been performed. It is shown that CO density calculation in the full-scale room at the incipient stage of the fire can be carried out taking into account only the experimental dependences of CO from temperature or O2 density, that have been obtained from small-scale experiments. Therefore the solution of the equation of carbon monoxide mass conservation law is not necessary.

  5. Thermal hydraulic conditions inducing incipient cracking in the 900 MWe unit 93 D reactor coolant pump shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bore, C.

    1995-01-01

    From 1987, 900 MWe plant operating feedback revealed cracking in the lower part of the reactor coolant pump shafts, beneath the thermal ring. Metallurgical examinations established that this was due to a thermal fatigue phenomenon known as thermal crazing, occurring after a large number of cycles. Analysis of thermal hydraulic conditions initiating the cracks does not allow exact quantification of the thermal load inducing cracking. Only qualitative analyses are thus possible, the first of which, undertaken by the pump manufacturer, Jeumont Industrie, showed that the cracks could not be due to the major transients (stop-start, injection cut-off), which were too few in number. Another explanation was then put forward: the thermal ring, shrunk onto the shaft it is required to protect against thermal shocks, loosens to allow an alternating downflow of cold water from the shaft seals and an upflow of hot water from the primary system. However, approximate calculations showed that the flow involved would be too slight to initiate the cracking observed. A more stringent analysis undertaken with the 2D flow analysis code MELODIE subsequently refuted the possibility of alternating flows beneath the ring establishing that only a hot water upflow occurred due to a 'viscosity pump' phenomenon. Crack initiation was finally considered to be due to flowrate variations beneath the ring, with the associated temperature fluctuations. This flowrate fluctuation could be due to an unidentified transient phenomenon or to a variation in pump operating conditions. This analysis of the hydraulic conditions initiating the cracks disregards shaft surface residual stresses. These are tensile stresses and show that loads less penalizing than those initially retained could cause incipient cracking. Thermal ring modifications to reduce these risks were proposed and implemented. In addition, final metallurgical treatment of the shafts was altered and implemented. In addition, final metallurgical

  6. Fault Growth and Propagation and its Effect on Surficial Processes within the Incipient Okavango Rift Zone, Northwest Botswana, Africa (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekwana, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) is suggested to be a zone of incipient continental rifting occuring at the distal end of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), therefore providing a unique opportunity to investigate neotectonic processes during the early stages of rifting. We used geophysical (aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric), Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission, Digital Elevation Model (SRTM-DEM), and sedimentological data to characterize the growth and propagation of faults associated with continental extension in the ORZ, and to elucidate the interplay between neotectonics and surficial processes. The results suggest that: (1) fault growth occurs by along axis linkage of fault segments, (2) an immature border fault is developing through the process of “Fault Piracy” by fault-linkages between major fault systems, (3) significant discrepancies exits between the height of fault scarps and the throws across the faults compared to their lengths in the basement, (4) utilization of preexisting zones of weakness allowed the development of very long faults (> 25-100 km) at a very early stage of continental rifting, explaining the apparent paradox between the fault length versus throw for this young rift, (5) active faults are characterized by conductive anomalies resulting from fluids, whereas, inactive faults show no conductivity anomaly; and 6) sedimentlogical data reveal a major perturbation in lake sedimentation between 41 ka and 27 ka. The sedimentation perturbation is attributed to faulting associated with the rifting and may have resulted in the alteration of hydrology forming the modern day Okavango delta. We infer that this time period may represent the age of the latest rift reactivation and fault growth and propagation within the ORZ.

  7. Influence of Nutrient Impregnated into Zeolite Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellyanawaty, M.; Chusna, F. M. A.; Sudibyo, H.; Nurjanah, N.; Budhijanto, W.

    2018-03-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) was wastewater generated from palm oil milling activities which was brownish liquid, acidic with pH 3-4, and contained soluble materials which were hazardous to the environment. It was characterized by high organic loading (COD 40,000–60,000 mg/L). According to its characteristics, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable energy through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable energy production would be an additional advantage to the palm oil industries. Methanogenesis was the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. In the conventional anaerobic digester, it required large reactors and long retention time. The addition of microbial immobilization media was to improve anaerobic reactor performance in term of higher organic removal and methane production. Additionally, better performance could lead to reduction of reactor volume and shorter retention time in high rate anaerobic digester. The loading of essential microorganism nutrient into the media might increase the affinity of bacteria to attach and grow on the media surface. Activating or inhibition effects of natural and modified zeolite addition in anaerobic digestion of POME was studied in batch reactors using erlenmeyer of 1,000 mL at COD concentrations of about 8,000 mg/L. Zeolite was impregnated with nickel and magnesium at concentrations of 0.0561 mg Ni/g zeolite and 0.0108 mg Mg/g zeolite. The effect of the different zeolite addition was determined by the measurement of soluble COD (sCOD), Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) and biogas production. Greater effect of modified zeolite was observed in zeolite impregnated with nickel with a 54% increase of biogas production. Meanwhile, the modified zeolite impregnated with magnesium had no positive impact to the methanogenic bacteria activities.

  8. Materials characterization of impregnated W and W–Ir cathodes after oxygen poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impregnated W and W–Ir cathodes were operated with 100 ppm of oxygen in Xe gas. • High concentrations of oxygen accelerated the formation of tungstate layers. • The W–Ir emitter exhibited less erosion and redeposition at the upstream end. • Tungsten was preferentially transported in the insert plasma of the W–Ir cathode. - Abstract: Electric thrusters use hollow cathodes as the electron source for generating the plasma discharge and for beam neutralization. These cathodes contain porous tungsten emitters impregnated with BaO material to achieve a lower surface work function and are operated with xenon propellant. Oxygen contaminants in the xenon plasma can poison the emitter surface, resulting in a higher work function and increased operating temperature. This could lead directly to cathode failure by preventing discharge ignition or could accelerate evaporation of the BaO material. Exposures over hundreds of hours to very high levels of oxygen can result in increased temperatures, oxidation of the tungsten substrate, and the formation of surface layers of barium tungstates. In this work, we present results of a cathode test in which impregnated tungsten and tungsten–iridium emitters were operated with 100 ppm of oxygen in the xenon plasma for several hundred hours. The chemical and morphological changes were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and laser profilometry. The results provide strong evidence that high concentrations of oxygen accelerate the formation of tungstate layers in both types of emitters, a phenomenon not inherent to normal cathode operation. Deposits of pure tungsten were observed on the W–Ir emitter, indicating that tungsten is preferentially removed from the surface and transported in the insert plasma. A W–Ir cathode surface will therefore evolve to a pure W composition, eliminating the work function benefit of W–Ir. However, the W–Ir emitter exhibited less erosion

  9. On the reactive adsorption of ammonia on activated carbons modified by impregnation with inorganic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandosz, T.J.; Petit, C. [CUNY City College, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-10-15

    Ammonia adsorption was studied under dynamic conditions, at room temperature, on activated carbons of different origins (coal-based, wood-based and coconut-shell-based carbons) before and after their impregnation with various inorganic compounds including metal chlorides, metal oxides and polycations. The role of humidity was evaluated by running tests in both dry and moist conditions. Adsorbents were analyzed before and after exposure to ammonia by thermal analyses, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Results of breakthrough tests show significant differences in terms of adsorption capacity depending on the parent carbon, the impregnates and the experimental conditions. It is found that surface chemistry governs ammonia adsorption on the impregnated carbons. More precisely, it was demonstrated that a proper combination of the surface pH, the strength, type and amount of functional groups present on the adsorbents' surface is a key point in ammonia uptake. Water can have either positive or negative effects on the performance of adsorbents. It can enhance NH{sub 3} adsorption capacity since it favors ammonia dissolution and thus enables reaction between ammonium ions and carboxylic groups from the carbons' surface. On the other hand, water can also reduce the performance from the strength of adsorption standpoint. It promotes dissolution of ammonia and that ammonia is first removed from the system when the adsorbent bed is purged with air. Ammonia, besides adsorption by van der Waals forces and dissolution in water, is also retained on the surface via reactive mechanisms such as acid-base reactions (Bronsted and Lewis) or complexation. Depending on the materials used and the experimental conditions, 6-47% ammonia adsorbed is strongly retained on the surface even when the bed is purged with air.

  10. Comparison of the Acidity of Heteropolyacids Encapsulated in or Impregnated on SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heteropolyacids (HPA immobilized onto SBA-15 silica were prepared by two different ways using either impregnation or encapsulation methodologies. Two Keggin-type HPA, H3PW12O40 and H4SiW12O40 were considered in this study. The resulting hybrid materials were fully characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopies and 31P MAS NMR. All characterization methods showed that at room temperature the catalysts contained well-dispersed and intact Keggin units throughout the solid. The catalytic activity of these solids was investigated in the isomerization of n-hexane. The impregnated and encapsulated phosphotungstic catalysts performed similarly in catalysis showing that the amount of active sites was nearly the same in both catalysts. On the contrary, the tungstosilicic encapsulated material was completely inactive while its impregnated counterpart was even more active than the phosphotungstic derived catalysts. The acidity of the solids was measured by various methods: microcalorimetry of ammonia adsorption, ammonia desorption followed by Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD and DRIFT/GC-MS and pyridine adsorption followed by infrared spectroscopy. Only pyridine adsorption and ammonia desorption followed by DRIFT/GC-MS agreed with the catalytic data. Ammonia adsorption followed by microcalorimetry was not able to differentiate between the four catalysts while the TPD experiments led to unreliable results, as not only the evolved ammonia but also other molecules such as water were taken into account in the measurements. The behavior difference between the encapsulated silico- and phosphotungstic acids was explained by a more pronounced encapsulation in the case of silicon.

  11. [Mechanism of gold solid extraction from aurocyanide solution using D3520 resin impregnated with TRPO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Shi-Xiong; Zou, An-Qin; Chen, Jing; Guo, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Trialkyphosphine oxides (TRPO) was successfully used for the impregnation of D3520 resin to prepare an extractant-impregnated resin (EIR). Solid extraction of Au(I) from alkaline cyanide solution was studied using this extractant-impregnated resin (EIR), with addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), directly into the aurous aqueous phase in advance. The mechanism of solid extraction was further investigated by means of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The column separation studies have shown that cationic surfactant CTMAB played a key role in the solid phase extraction, and the resin containing TRPO were effective for the extraction of gold when the molar ratio of CTMAB: Au( I ) reached 1:1. FTIR spectroscopy of gold loaded EIR showed that the frequency of C[triple bond]N stretching vibration was at 2144 cm(-1), and the frequency of P=O stretching vibration shifted to lower frequency from 1153 to 1150 cm(-1). The XPS spectrum of N(1s), Au(4f7/2) and Au(4f5/2) sugges- ted that the coordination environment of gold did not change before and after extraction, and gold was still as the form of Au (CN)2(-) anion exiting in the loaded resin; O(1s) spectrum showed that the chemically combined water significantly increased after solid extraction from 30.74% to 42.34%; Comparing to the P(2p) spectrum before and after extraction, the binding energy increased from 132. 15 to 132. 45 eV, indicating there maybe existing hydrogen-bond interaction between P=O and water molecule, such as P=O...H-O-H. The above results obtained established that in the solid extraction process, the hydrophobic ion association [CTMA+ x Au(CN)] diffused from the bulk solution into the pores of the EIR, and then be solvated by TRPO adsorbed in the pores through hydrogen bonding bridged by the water molecules.

  12. A preliminary report on the effects of paclitaxel-impregnated stents on sheep nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Brian W; Citardi, Martin J; Vogler, George; Gardner, Laura; Smith, Greg; Javer, Amin R; Burt, Helen M; Jackson, John; Kuhn, Frederick A

    2004-01-01

    Traditional frontal sinus stents serve only as mechanical devices. It has been proposed that stents also may serve as drug-delivery systems for the topical application of drugs that minimize postoperative scarring. Paclitaxel (Taxol), which has recognized antiscarring effects, may be incorporated via a polymeric formulation into standard rubber stents. The impact of topically applied paclitaxel on the morphology of the nasal mucosa is unknown. An adult sheep model was used for this study. A modified rubber T-tube stent (incorporating paclitaxel at varying dosages) was secured to each side of the septum in four animals (eight sides). An unmodified T-tube was placed on each side of one animal, a T-tube with the drug carrier (but no paclitaxel) was placed on each side of the second animal, and T-tubes with varying paclitaxel were placed on each side of the final two animals. After 4 weeks, animals were killed and the nasal mucosa was harvested. The nasal mucosa was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. A pathologist then assessed the nasal mucosa for vascular congestion, glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, mucosal metaplasia, and mucosal ulceration. No consistent histopathological differences were noted in the specimens. All specimens showed varying degrees of vascular congestion, glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, and mucosal metaplasia; the paclitaxel-impregnated stents were not consistently associated with more severe mucosal injury. Finally, mucosal ulceration was noted to be very rare in all specimens. This preliminary report describes the impact of paclitaxel-impregnated stents on sheep nasal mucosa, which tolerated these stents very well. Because paclitaxel minimizes scarring reactions at very low concentrations, paclitaxel-impregnated stents may prove useful in clinical situations in which frontal sinus stenting is deemed necessary. Additional investigations with animal models, as well as clinical trials, may be warranted.

  13. Factors affecting the retention of methyl iodide by iodide-impregnated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.; Malstrom, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper comprises two sets of studies of methyl iodide retention by iodide-impregnated carbon. In the first of these, the retention of the methyl iodide on the carbon surface and its subsequent evolution were observed directly by a technique of combustion and phosphorescence. In the second, the methyl iodide retention in a standard test was compared with surface area measurements and the concentration of unreacted iodine. A correlation among these parameters was identified and characterized. Carbon quality was varied through the selection of used material with differing service histories. Air from the Savannah River Site reactor buildings is vented through carbon beds for control of radioiodine before release to the atmosphere. The carbon used is North American Carbon Co. type GX-176 coconut shell carbon impregnated with 1% triethylenedimaine (TEDA) and 2% potassium iodide by weight. Replacement intervals for the carbon have been as long as thirty months. Analysis of samples withdrawn at much shorter times has shown that the TEDA is lost after a few months, and the performance of the carbon for methyl iodide retention is dependent on the iodide impregnant. Efficient methyl iodide retention is not a requirement for carbon in this service; however, methyl iodide retention as measured by the ASTM Test D3803 (method B) has been found to correlate well with other desirable properties of the carbon such as radiation stability. The studies undertaken here were intended to shed light on the changes taking place in this carbon during long-term service and to provide a basis for simpler measurements of carbon quality

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of Cr(VI) extraction using TOPO impregnated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee, E-mail: chelohkc@nus.edu.sg

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) extraction by extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) was investigated. • EIM exhibited high extraction efficiency, mass transfer rate and stability. • Mass transfer mechanism was proposed based on kinetics and equilibrium data. • Uptake of Cr(VI) by EIMs was endothermic and spontaneous. • Cr(VI) extraction by EIMs was dominated by physical interactions. - Abstract: Solid/liquid extraction of Cr(VI) was accomplished using trioctylphosphine oxide impregnated polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Extraction of 100–500 mg/L Cr(VI) by the extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) was characterized by high uptake rate and capacity, and equilibrium was attained within 45 min of contact. Extraction equilibrium was pH-dependent (at an optimal pH 2), whereas stripping using 0.2 M sodium hydroxide yielded the highest recovery of 98% within 60 min. The distribution coefficient was independent of initial Cr(VI) concentration, and the linear distribution equilibrium isotherm could be modeled using Freundlich isotherm. The mass transfer kinetics of Cr(VI) was examined using pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models and a mass transfer mechanism was deduced. The distribution coefficient increased with temperature, which indicated endothermic nature of the reaction. Enthalpy and entropy change during Cr(VI) extraction were positive and varied in the range of 37–49 kJ/mol and 114–155 J/mol, respectively. The free energy change was negative, confirming the feasibility and spontaneity of the mass transfer process. Results obtained suggest that EIMs are efficient and sustainable for extraction of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

  15. Dynamics of Wetting of Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Controlling the surface wettability of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surfaces has extensive industrial applications ranging from coating, painting and printing technology and waterproof clothing to efficiency increase in power and water plants. This requires enhancing the knowledge about the dynamics of wetting on these hydrophobic surfaces. We have done experimental investigation on the dynamics of wetting on hydrophobic surfaces by looking deeply in to the dependency of the dynamic contact angles both advancing and receding on the velocity of the three-phase boundary (Solid/Liquid/Gas interface) using the Wilhelmy plate method with different ultra-hydrophobic surfaces. Several fluids with different surface tension and viscosity are used to study the effect of physical properties of liquids on the governing laws.

  16. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojanpera, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  17. New advances in wet scrubbing improvement efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, A.R. [Altech Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Wet scrubbing systems are the most versatile and cost efficient of all air pollution abatement technologies. This paper presented System REITHER{sup TM} which is a new generation of venturi scrubber. The advantages of this design are that it is simple and compact, has high removal efficiencies for sub-micron dusts or aerosols and it is flexible to handle any mass flow rate. It also provides high and constant reliability, is easy to control and has the potential to absorb gaseous pollutants. Another advantage is that it can handle corrosive streams through corrosion resistant materials. Innovations in wet scrubbing have made it possible to provide reliable and efficient separation of fine particles, corrosive aerosols and gases. New technology provides industrial engineers with a cost effective option when control air emissions is required. 1 fig.

  18. Facts and fallacies in wet deposition modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Manning, P.M.; Simms, K.

    1987-01-01

    Following a reactor accident, relatively high contamination at ground level can occur, even at quite long distances from the source, if the pollutant cloud encounters intense precipitation. To estimate such contamination and its extent properly, it is necessary to take into account the spatial and temporal structure of rain patterns and their motion. Currently, models of wet deposition are rather crude. Source meteorology is usually used and is clearly inadequate. Furthermore, no allowance is made for the dynamic nature of rainfall, which occurs as a result of vertical air motions and convergence; nor for the different scavenging mechanism operating in and below cloud. Meteorological information available on these aspects of wet deposition is reviewed, and their importance and inclusion in modelling and prediction of resulting ground contamination is indicated. Some of the pitfalls of simple modelling procedures are illustrated. (author)

  19. Avoided critical behavior in dynamically forced wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijer, Jacco H; Delon, Giles; Fermigier, Marc; Andreotti, Bruno

    2006-05-05

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. In this Letter we study the dynamical wetting transition at which a liquid film gets deposited by withdrawing a vertical plate out of a liquid reservoir. It has recently been predicted that this wetting transition is critical with diverging time scales and coincides with the disappearance of stationary menisci. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the transition is due to the formation of a solitary wave, well below the critical point. As a consequence, relaxation times remain finite at threshold. The structure of the liquid deposited on the plate involves a capillary ridge that does not trivially match the Landau-Levich film.

  20. Salting by vacuum brine impregnation in nitrite-free lonza: effect on Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Serio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or straindependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  1. A new resin system for the impregnation and bonding of large magnet coils

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS is an instrument which forms part of the Large Hadron Collider, a high energy physics experiment which is under construction at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. The properties of the candidate resin systems developed for the impregnation of the Atlas End Cap Toroid magnets are presented. The resin systems contain a blend of two resins; a low viscosity Bisphenol F resin, with a long chain aliphatic epoxide resin. An aromatic amine curing agent was used. It was found that increased additions of the long chain aliphatic epoxide resin resulted in longer useable life, lower glass transition temperature, lower modulus, higher toughness and higher bond strength at 4 K. (4 refs).

  2. Salting by Vacuum Brine Impregnation in Nitrite-Free Lonza: Effect on Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Annalisa; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Pittia, Paola; Rosa, Marco Dalla; Paparella, Antonello

    2017-01-24

    Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI) as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or strain-dependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  3. MECANISME DE DEGRADATION DE FILMS DE POLYPROPYLENE IMPREGNE SOUS CHAMP ELECTRIQUE EN PRESENCE D'OXYGENE

    OpenAIRE

    Said , Sylvère

    1994-01-01

    The concern of this body of work is the mechanism of dégradation of impregnated polypropylène film capacitors in an oxygen blanket. Tins study is carried out on plane électrode capacitor models with expérimental parameters (AC electrical field in the range 66 V/um-200 V/pm, oxygen blanket, température 80°C) which hâve enabled us to obtain results in good agreement with industrial capacitor behaviour.Capacitor ageing is mainly assessed by its mean life-time and the change in the physio-chemica...

  4. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of removing methyliodide 131 gas from the effluent of a reactor, comprises passing the effluent gas through a charcoal sorbent formed by first contacting charcoal with a liquid containing a hypoiodite obtained when an aqueous mixture of a first component comprising a salt of an iodine oxyacid selected from periodate, iodate and hypoiodite and a second component selected from iodine and/or an iodide salt is adjusted to a pH of about 10 by the addition of an inorganic base, and then contacting the resulting impregnated charcoal with a tertiary amine. (author)

  5. Quick analytical separation of glucose and fructose with impregnated woven glass fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    (1) A wide separation of glucose and fructose was obtained in 30 min with simple, inexpensive equipment using polysilicic impregnated woven glass fiber and the solvent acetone-n-butanol-1 M H 3 BO 3 (50:40:10). (2) A calibration of a radiochromatogram scanner was performed for 11 C. (3) Three Rsub(F) values could be compared to provide positive chemical identification of [ 11 C]glucose and [ 11 C]fructose. (4) Radiochemical composition and approximate specific activity were determined from a small aliquot (1-4 μl). (Auth.)

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigation of mechanical disturbances in epoxy-impregnated superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasa, Y.; Bobrov, E.S.; Tsukamoto, O.; Takaghi, T.; Fujita, H.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical correlation between shear stress and epoxy resin fracture developed in an earlier paper was verified experimentally using a series of epoxy-impregnated, thin-walled superconducting test coils. In test coils with both ends rigidly clamped, cracks occurred as transport current was increased; during a training sequence the test was terminated by a premature quench. Using acoustic emission and voltage signals, each premature quench was linked directly to a crack occurring near one of the ends. Test coils which had both ends unsupported, giving the winding freedom to expand radially, did not experience epoxy fracture and showed no premature quenches. (author)

  7. Improvement of operational properties of shell limestone building materials by polysulfide solution impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSALIMOV Ismail Alexandrovich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of studies on the effectiveness of impregnation with polysulfide solutions of shell limestone used as facing and wall material, as well as for the manufacture of road products are presented. Modification of the limestone with the impregnating composition «Akvastat» created by the authors which is sulfur-containing water-based solution of calcium polysulfide containing alcohols and surfactants, can significantly reduce water absorption and increase durability of limestone. Impregnating composition on the basis of calcium polysulfide possesses density of 1.22–1.24 g/cm3, the infiltrant penetrates into the pore structure of limestone to a depth of 4 cm or more, depending on the density and structure of the sample. While the material is drying, sulfur nanoparticles are crystallized from the polysulfide solution in its pores. They partially fill pore space and form protective durable insoluble hydrophobic coating that impedes the penetration of water into the pores of the limestone, but preserves its vapor permeability, which is important for wall and decoration materials. The evaluation of protective coatings was performed with laser particle size analyzer, scanning probe microscope and a diffractometer. It showed that the average size of the particles forming the protective coating is in the range of 20–25 nm, the particles shape is spherical, the particles are elemental sulfur with orthorhombic structure of the crystal lattice. The processing of shell limestone with calcium polysulphide solution provides formation of coating based on nanosized sulfur on the surface of stone pores. The coating partially fills the pore space and, as it is hydrophobic, reduces the water absorption of the samples by a factor of 5–8, increases their average density by 22–27%, strength in 1,2–1,3 times, the softening factor by 6–19%, that makes possible to predict the increase of the durability of building materials based on shell limestone to 1

  8. Quantitative electrochromatography of uranium and platinum on papers impregnated with thorium and antimony based cation exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Electrochromatography of 32 metal ions have been studied on papers impregnated with thorium antimonate cation exchanger in aq. organic acids, aq. nitric acid as well as in EDTA buffers. On the basis of differential migration which depends on the ion exchange properties of thorium antimonate and nature of complexes formed with the electrolytes, some useful qualitative and quantitative separations of synthetic mixtures of metal ions have been achieved. The effect of some other physical parameter has also been discussed. Quantitative separation of platinum and uranium has been developed. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Wet flue gas desulphurization and new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Michelsen, M.L.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigations of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD). A review of the current knowledge of the various rate determining steps in wet FDG plants is presented. The mechanism underlying the rate of dissolution of finely grained limestone particles was examined in a laboratory batch apparatus using acid titration. Three Danish limestones of different origin were tested. A transient, mass transport controlled, mathematical model was developed to describe the dissolution process. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. Empirical correlations for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant (falling-film column) were determined. The presence of inert particles in the liquid phase was found to decrease the rate of gas phase mass transport with up to 15%, though the effect could not be correlated. A detailed model for a wet FGD pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, was developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup -}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH-profiles, solids contents of slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. The possibility of co-firing straw and coal was investigated in a full-scale power plant. No effects on the overall performance of the wet FGD plant were observed, though laboratory experiments with fine dust and fly ash from the full-scale experiments showed a decrease in limestone reactivity. (EG) EFP-95. 45 refs.; Also ph.d. thesis of Soeren Kiil

  10. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  11. Exposure to wet work in working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegel, Tessa G; Nixon, Rosemary L; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-02-01

    The Australian National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance (NHEWS) Survey 2008 was a cross-sectional survey undertaken by Safe Work Australia to inform the development of exposure prevention initiatives for occupational disease. This is a descriptive study of workplace exposures. To assess the occupational and demographic characteristics of workers reporting exposure to wet work. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 4500 workers. Two wet work exposure outcomes (frequent washing of hands and duration of time spent at work with the hands immersed in liquids) were analysed. The response rate for the study was 42.3%. For hand-washing, 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-10.7] reported washing their hands more than 20 times per day. For immersion of hands in liquids, 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1) reported immersion for more than 2 hr per day. Females were more likely to report exposure to frequent hand-washing than males [odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.49-2.61]. Workers in the lowest occupational skill level jobs were more likely to report increased exposure to hands immersed in liquids than those in the highest (OR 6.41, 95% CI 3.78-10.88). Workers reporting skin exposure to chemicals were more likely to report exposure to hand-washing (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.91-4.66) and immersion of the hands in liquids (OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.92-5.74). Specific groups of workers reported high levels of exposure to wet work. There were differences between the profiles of workers reporting frequent hand-washing and workers reporting increased duration of exposure to hands immersed in liquids. We also found a high correlation between wet work and chemical exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  13. Effect of Dipping and Vacuum Impregnation Coating Techniques with Alginate Based Coating on Physical Quality Parameters of Cantaloupe Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Parreidt, Tugce; Schmid, Markus; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-04-01

    Edible coating based on sodium alginate solution was applied to fresh-cut cantaloupe melon by dipping and vacuum impregnation coating methods. One aim of this work is to produce more technical information concerning these conventional and novel coating processes. For this purpose, the effect of various coating parameters (dipping time, draining time, time length of the vacuum period, vacuum pressure, atmospheric restoration time) with several levels on physical quality parameters (percentage of weight gain, color, and texture) of noncoated and coated samples were determined in order to define adequate coating process parameters to achieve a successful coating application. Additionally, the effects of dipping and vacuum impregnation processes were compared. Both processes improved the firmness of the melon pieces. However, vacuum impregnation application had higher firmness and weight gain results, and had significant effect (P coating technique and the parameters used significantly affect the physical quality characteristics of coated food products. The work presented produced more technical information concerning dipping and vacuum impregnation coating techniques, along with evaluating the effects of various coating parameters with several levels. The results revealed that vacuum impregnation technique is a successful coating method; however the effects should be carefully assessed for each product. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine for carbon dioxide capture under the flue gas condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min-Sang; Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr

    2015-03-15

    In this study, silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) were prepared via a two-step process: (i) hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and (ii) impregnation of PEI. The adsorption properties of CO{sub 2} were investigated using CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms at 298 K and thermogravimetric analysis under the flue gas condition (15% CO{sub 2}/85% N{sub 2}). The results obtained in this study indicate that CO{sub 2} adsorption increases after impregnation of PEI. The increase in CO{sub 2} capture was attributed to the affinity between CO{sub 2} and the amine groups. CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption experiments, which were repeated five times, also showed that the prepared adsorbents have excellent regeneration properties. - Graphical abstract: Fabrication and CO{sub 2} adsorption process of the S-MWCNTs impregnated with PEI. - Highlights: • Silica coated-MWCNT impregnated with PEI was synthesized. • Amine groups of PEI gave CO{sub 2} affinity sites on MWCNT surfaces. • The S-MWCNT/PEI(50) exhibited the highest CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity.

  15. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of PLA/PCL films with natural substances for bacterial growth control in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Stoja; Hollermann, Gesa; Errenst, Cornelia; Pajnik, Jelena; Frerich, Sulamith; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch; Ivanovic, Jasna

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable polymers with antibacterial properties are highly desirable materials for active food packaging applications. Thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol with a strong antibacterial activity is abundant in plants belonging to the genus Thymus. This study presents two approaches for supercritical CO 2 impregnation of poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) blended films to induce antibacterial properties of the material: (i) a batch impregnation process for loading pure thymol, and (ii) an integrated supercritical extraction-impregnation process for isolation of thyme extract and its incorporation into the films, operated in both batch or semi-continuous modes with supercritical solution circulation. The PCL content in films, impregnation time and CO 2 flow regime were varied to maximize loading of the films with thymol or thyme extract with preserving films' structure and thermal stability. Representative film samples impregnated with thymol and thyme extract were tested against Gram (-) (Escherichia coli) and Gram(+) (Bacillus subtilis) model strains, by measuring their metabolic activity and re-cultivation after exposure to the films. The film containing thymol (35.8 wt%) showed a strong antibacterial activity leading to a total reduction of bacterial cell viability. Proposed processes enable fast, controlled and organic solvent-free fabrication of the PLA/PCL films containing natural antibacterial substances at moderately low temperature, with a compact structure and a good thermal stability, for potential use as active food packaging materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selection of best impregnated palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumathi, S.; Bhatia, S.; Lee, K.T.; Mohamed, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the impregnated carbon-based sorbents for simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NOx from simulated flue gas. The carbon-based sorbents were prepared using palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) impregnated with several metal oxides (Ni, V, Fe and Ce). The removal of SO 2 and NOx from the simulated flue gas was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results showed that PSAC impregnated with CeO 2 (PSAC-Ce) reported the highest sorption capacity among other impregnated metal oxides for the simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NOx. PSAC-Ce showed the longest breakthrough time of 165 and 115 min for SO 2 and NOx, respectively. The properties of the pure and impregnated PSAC were analyzed by BET, FTIR and XRF. The physical-chemical features of the PSAC-Ce sorbent indicated a catalytic activity in both the sorption of SO 2 and NOx. The formation of both sulfate (SO 4 2- ) and nitrate (NO 3- ) species on spent PSAC-Ce further prove the catalytic role played by CeO 2 .

  17. Selection of best impregnated palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, S.; Bhatia, S.; Lee, K.T. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, A.R., E-mail: chrahman@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    This work examines the impregnated carbon-based sorbents for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx from simulated flue gas. The carbon-based sorbents were prepared using palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) impregnated with several metal oxides (Ni, V, Fe and Ce). The removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx from the simulated flue gas was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results showed that PSAC impregnated with CeO{sub 2} (PSAC-Ce) reported the highest sorption capacity among other impregnated metal oxides for the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NOx. PSAC-Ce showed the longest breakthrough time of 165 and 115 min for SO{sub 2} and NOx, respectively. The properties of the pure and impregnated PSAC were analyzed by BET, FTIR and XRF. The physical-chemical features of the PSAC-Ce sorbent indicated a catalytic activity in both the sorption of SO{sub 2} and NOx. The formation of both sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and nitrate (NO{sup 3-}) species on spent PSAC-Ce further prove the catalytic role played by CeO{sub 2}.

  18. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle.

  19. The wetting behavior of alkanes on water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragil, Karine; Broseta, Daniel; Kalaydjian, Francois [Institut Francais du Petrole, BP 311, 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex (France); Bonn, Daniel; Meunier, Jacques [ENS, Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Indekeu, Joseph [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-06-06

    This paper presents recent experimental and theoretical results concerning the wetting behavior of n-alkanes on water as a function of thermodynamic conditions (i.e., temperature, pressure, etc.). The transition from lenses to a macroscopically thick film, that takes place when the temperature is increased, occurs for n-alkanes on water in a manner very different from that encountered in other fluid systems. For n-pentane on water, ellipsometric measurements reveal that the growth of the pentane layer to a macroscopically thick film occurs in a continuous manner, for a temperature ({approx}53C) corresponding to a change in the sign of the Hamaker constant. A theoretical approach based on the Cahn-Landau theory, which takes into account long-range (van der Waals) forces, enables us to explain the mechanism of this continuous wetting transition. This transition is preceded (at a lower temperature) by a discontinuous transition from a thin film (of adsorbed molecules) to a thick (but not macroscopically thick) film. The latter transition was not visible for pentane on water (it should occur below the freezing temperature for water), but we expect to observe it for longer alkanes (e.g., hexane) on water. Work is underway to examine the wetting behavior of oil/brine systems more representative of reservoir conditions

  20. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle

  1. Study of polycaprolactone wet electrospinning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostakova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wet electrospinning is a useful method for 3-dimensional structure control of nanofibrous materials. This innovative technology uses a liquid collector instead of the metal one commonly used for standard electrospinning. The article compares the internal structural features of polycaprolactone (PCL nanofibrous materials prepared by both technologies. We analyze the influence of different water/ethanol compositions used as a liquid collector on the morphology of the resultant polycaprolactone nanofibrous materials. Scanning electron micro-photographs have revealed a bimodal structure in the wet electrospun materials composed of micro and nanofibers uniformly distributed across the sample bulk. We have shown that the full-faced, twofold fiber distribution is due to the solvent composition and is induced and enhanced by increasing the ethanol weight ratio. Moreover, the comparison of fibrous layers morphology obtained by wet and dry spinning have revealed that beads that frequently appeared in dry spun materials are created by Plateau-Rayleigh instability of the fraction of thicker fibers. Theoretical conditions for spontaneous and complete immersion of cylindrical fibers into a liquid collector are also derived here.

  2. Ceramic joining through reactive wetting of alumina with calcium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phase analysis of the fractured joint surface clearly indicate reactive wetting of the alumina ceramics. This wetting enhances ... ally considered oxide materials for many applications. .... three cases but is more pronounced in the case of C12A7.

  3. A new remote optical wetness sensor and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Hillen, W.C.A.M.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    An optical wetness sensor (OWS) was developed for continuous surface wetness measurements. The sensor is an all-weather instrument that does not interfere with the surface wetting and drying process and is unaffected by solar radiation. It is equipped with its own light source with which it can scan

  4. Characteristics of wet work in the cleaning industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, F H W; Van Der Harst, J J; Schuttelaar, M L; Groothoff, J W; Coenraads, P J

    Wet work is the main cause of occupational contact dermatitis in the cleaning industry. Dermatologists and occupational physicians need to base their primary and secondary prevention for workers in the cleaning industry on the characteristics of wet work exposures. We quantified the burden of wet

  5. Synthesis of K2O/Zeolite catalysts by KOH impregnation for biodiesel production from waste frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, N.; Husin, H.; Yanti, D.; Pontas, K.; Alam, P. N.; Ridho, M.; Iskandar

    2018-03-01

    K2O/Zeolite compounds were successfully synthesized using KOH as starting material and natural zeolite as support. The catalysts were calcined at 500°C for 3 h and then characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SEM images reveal that the zeolite and K2O/zeolite particles are irregular in shape (100 to 400 nm). The independent variables were impregnated amounts of KOH (15 - 25%), catalyst to oil ratios of 1.0 - 6.0 wt.%, and reaction time of 2 h. The highest biodiesel yield of 95% was produced from the reaction with 2.1 wt.% catalyst of 25% KOH impregnated. The properties of produced biodiesel complied with SNI. The catalytic stability test showed that the 25% KOH impregnated catalyst was stable.

  6. Effects of acid impregnated steam explosion process on xylose recovery and enzymatic conversion of cellulose in corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Hongjia; Li, Menghua; Wang, Shizeng; Yuan, Qipeng

    2014-12-19

    Corncob residue is a cellulose-rich byproduct obtained from industrial xylose production via dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in acid hydrolysis residue of corncob (AHRC) is often less efficient without further pretreatment. In this work, the process characteristics of acid impregnated steam explosion were studied in conjunction with a dilute acid process, and their effects on physiochemical changes and enzymatic saccharification of corncob residue were compared. With the acid impregnated steam explosion process, both higher xylose recovery and higher cellulose conversion were obtained. The maximum conversion of cellulose in acid impregnated steam explosion residue of corncob (ASERC) reached 85.3%, which was 1.6 times higher than that of AHRC. Biomass compositional analysis showed similar cellulose and lignin content in ASERC and AHRC. XRD analysis demonstrated comparable crystallinity of ASERC and AHRC. The improved enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was attributed to higher porosity in ASERC, measured by mercury porosimetry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis H-Zeolite catalyst by impregnation KI/KIO3 and performance test catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Rizky Wicaksono, Adit; Hakim Firdaus, Lukman; Okvitarini, Ndaru

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to produce H-catalyst catalyst that was impregnated with KI/KIO3. The catalyst was analyzed about surface area, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and performance test of catalyst for biodiesel production. An H-Zeolite catalyst was synthesized from natural zeolite with chemical treatment processing, impregnation KI/KIO3 and physical treatment. The results shows that the surface area of the catalyst by 27.236 m2/g at a concentration of 5% KI. XRD analysis shows peak 2-θ at 23.627o indicating that KI was impregnated on H-zeolite catalyst. The catalyst was tested in production of biodiesel using palm oil with conventional methods for 3 hour at temperature of 70-80 oC. The result for conversion Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) reached maximum value on 87.91% under production process using catalyst 5% KIO3-H zeolite.

  8. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

  9. Preparation of amine-impregnated silica foams using agar as the gelling agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Iara M., E-mail: iaramj01@yahoo.com.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais – UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala, 2230 (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais – UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, 5° andar (Brazil); Souza, Douglas F.; Vasconcelos, Daniela C.L.; Nunes, Eduardo H.M. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais – UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala, 2230 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wander L., E-mail: wlv@demet.ufmg.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais – UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala, 2230 (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we successfully prepared amine-impregnated gel-cast silica foams using agar and atmospheric air as the gelling agent and heat treatment atmosphere, respectively. The concentration of 3,6-anhydrogalactose in agar was evaluated by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis). The obtained foams were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) coupled to mass spectrometry (TG-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microtomography (micro-CT), and Archimedes method. The cold crushing strength of the materials prepared in this work was assessed using a mechanical testing stage available in the micro-CT system. The obtained foams exhibited a highly interconnected pore network, with an expressive presence of open pores. Samples heat-treated at 1300 °C for 2 h showed both an expressive porosity (≈ 77%) and a significant cold crushing strength (≈ 1.4 MPa). It was observed that the calcination of the prepared materials at 1200 °C for times as long as 16 h may lead to the rupture of pore walls. FTIR and TG-MS revealed that amine groups were properly incorporated into the foams structure. - Highlights: •Successful preparation of amine-impregnated gel-cast silica foams •Agar used as the gelling agent •Samples with expressive porosity and cold crushing strength •Sintering times as long as 16 h led to the rupture of the pore network.

  10. Preparation of amine-impregnated silica foams using agar as the gelling agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, Iara M.; Souza, Douglas F.; Vasconcelos, Daniela C.L.; Nunes, Eduardo H.M.; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we successfully prepared amine-impregnated gel-cast silica foams using agar and atmospheric air as the gelling agent and heat treatment atmosphere, respectively. The concentration of 3,6-anhydrogalactose in agar was evaluated by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis). The obtained foams were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) coupled to mass spectrometry (TG-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microtomography (micro-CT), and Archimedes method. The cold crushing strength of the materials prepared in this work was assessed using a mechanical testing stage available in the micro-CT system. The obtained foams exhibited a highly interconnected pore network, with an expressive presence of open pores. Samples heat-treated at 1300 °C for 2 h showed both an expressive porosity (≈ 77%) and a significant cold crushing strength (≈ 1.4 MPa). It was observed that the calcination of the prepared materials at 1200 °C for times as long as 16 h may lead to the rupture of pore walls. FTIR and TG-MS revealed that amine groups were properly incorporated into the foams structure. - Highlights: •Successful preparation of amine-impregnated gel-cast silica foams •Agar used as the gelling agent •Samples with expressive porosity and cold crushing strength •Sintering times as long as 16 h led to the rupture of the pore network.

  11. In Vitro Investigation of a Terbinafine Impregnated Subcutaneous Implant for Veterinary Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A terbinafine impregnated subcutaneous implant was evaluated to determine if drug was released into isotonic saline over the course of 6 months at two different temperatures, 37°C and 4°C. These temperatures were chosen to simulate the nonhibernating (37°C and hibernating body (4°C temperatures of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus. Insectivorous bats of North America, including little brown bats, have been devastated by white nose syndrome, a fungal infection caused by Geomyces destructans. No treatments exist for bats infected with G. destructans. Implants were placed into isotonic saline; samples were collected once per week and analyzed with HPLC to determine terbinafine concentrations. The mean amount of terbinafine released weekly across the 28 weeks was approximately 1.7 μg at 4°C and 4.3 μg at 37°C. Although significant differences in the amount released did occur at some time points, these differences were not consistently greater or less at either of the temperatures. This study showed that terbinafine was released from an impregnated implant over the course of 6 months at concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.06 μg/mL depending on temperature, which may be appropriate for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus infected with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white nose syndrome.

  12. Perfluoropolyether-Impregnated Mesoporous Alumina Composites Overcome the Dewetting-Tribological Properties Trade-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2018-03-28

    Conventional omniphobic surfaces suffer from wear-sensitivity due to soft apolar coatings or substrates and protruding surface features that are eroded even for mild abrasion treatments, leading to the loss of dewetting properties after wear. Evidently, there was a trade-off between dewetting and tribological properties. Here, we show the establishment of self-healing slippery properties post severe abrasion by utilizing perfluoropolyether-impregnated mesoporous Al 2 O 3 (MPA) composites. The hard polar alumina matrix provides the optimal tribological properties, and the liquid lubricant in the porous network contributes to both tribological and self-healing dewetting properties. These composites sustained normal pressures up to 350 MPa during reciprocating sliding contacts. The severely abraded surfaces are capable of self-replenishing in ambient environment, driven by capillarity and surface diffusion processes, and regained their slippery properties toward water and hexadecane after 15 h of self-healing. Eventually, a dewetting-tribology diagram has been introduced to show different regimes, namely-optimal slippery properties, optimal tribological properties, and a mixed regime). We found out that the microstructural expression [Formula: see text] is a robust guiding tool to predict the regime of interest. This dewetting-tribological diagram may be marked as an inception to designing abrasion-resistant slippery liquid impregnated composites for overcoming the dewetting tribological properties trade-off. Such surfaces may potentially find applications in paint industries and as anti-icing surfaces.

  13. Control of Effluent Gases from Solid Waste Processing using Impregnated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fisher, John; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    2005-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with solid waste processing technologies is effluent contaminants that are released in gaseous forms from the processes. This is a concern in both biological as well as physicochemical solid waste processing. Carbon dioxide (CO2), the major gas released, does not present a serious problem and there are currently in place a number of flight-qualified technologies for CO2 removal. However, a number of other gases, in particular NOx, SO2, NH3, and various hydrocarbons (e.g. CH4) do present health hazards to the crew members in space habitats. In the present configuration of solid waste processing in the International Space Station (ISS), some of these gases are removed by the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), demands a major resupply. Reduction of the resupply can be effective by using catalyst impregnated carbon nanotubes. For example, NO decomposition to N2 and O2 is thermodynamically favored. Data showing decomposition of NO on metal impregnated carbon nanotubes is presented. Comparisons are made of the existing TCCS systems with the carbon nanotube based technology for removing NOx based on mass/energy penalties.

  14. Novel biochar-impregnated calcium alginate beads with improved water holding and nutrient retention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Gao, Bin; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Zheng, Yulin; Lyu, Honghong

    2018-03-01

    Drought conditions and nutrients loss have serious impacts on soil quality as well as crop yields in agroecosystems. New techniques are needed to carry out effective soil water and nutrient conservation and fertilizer application tools. Here, calcium alginate (CA) beads impregnated with ball-milled biochar (BMB) were investigated as a new type of water/nutrients retention agent. Both CA and Ca-alginate/ball milled biochar composite (CA-BMB) beads showed high kinetic swelling ratios in KNO 3 solution and low kinetic swelling ratios in water, indicating that CA-BMB beads have the potential to retain mineral nitrogen and nutrients by ion exchange. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model well-described the swelling kinetics of both beads in KNO 3 solution. Over a range of temperatures, the characteristics of dehydration suggested that impregnation with BMB improved the water holding capacity and postponed the dehydration time of Ca-alginate. The cumulative swelling and release characteristics of water, K + , and NO 3 - indicated that CA-BMB beads have great potential as a soil amendment to improve its nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Merbau Extractives as a Potential Wood-Impregnating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Malik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the major content of merbau extractives (ME and their potential use as an impregnating material for low-quality timber. Extraction was done by maceration with ethanol, ethyl-acetate, and hot-water. Physico-chemical, phyto-chemical, UV-visible, and infrared spectroscopy, as well as py-GCMS analysis were then performed on dried extract. The results showed that organic solvent extractions resulted in much higher yields, by 12.50% than that of hot water (1.10%. The merbau extractives liquid obtained had a low acidity, with a pH ranging from 5 to 6, which is typical of phenolic compounds. Flavonoids and phenolics were found as the major compounds. UV-vis spectra showed that ME (λ=279 nm consists of conjugated or aromatic systems, similar to standard resorcinol, which was used as the reference (λ=274 nm. The FTIR spectra showed the absorption bands at 3369 cm-1 that represent the functional group of hydroxyl (OH bonds, and 1619 and 1510 cm-1, representing the aromatic ring (C=C, which could be associated with resorcinol. The Py-GCMS showed that ME is predominated by resorcinol (C6H6O2 with a 79% concentration. The ME could be potentially used for producing phenolic/resorcinolic resin through polymerization, which could be applied for wood impregnation.

  16. Physico-chemical studies of gamma-irradiated polyester. Impregnated cement mortar composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.R.; Afifi, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of impregnation time on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of polyester-cement mortar composite has been investigated. The samples were soaked in unsaturated polyester resin containing 40% styrene monomer at impregnation times ranging from 1-15 hours and then exposed to 50 kGy of γ-irradiation. The effects on polymer loading, compressive strength, apparent porosity, and water absorption in addition to IR spectra and TGA of the samples were studied. It was found that, the polymer loading and compressive strength increase with the increased of soaking time up to 4 hours and there is no significant improvement of the polymer loading and strength. Whereas, the apparent porosity and water absorption behave in an opposite direction. These are attributed to the presence of polymer in the pores of the samples. IR spectra showed that, new bands appeared as result of the reaction between polyester and set cement. TGA showed that, the polyester cement composite has higher thermal stability as a compared to irradiated polyester. (author)

  17. Basic technology for {sup 6}Li enrichment using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp [Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Terai, Takayuki [The Institute of Engineering Innovation and Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ({sup 6}Li) in tritium breeding materials. However, natural Li contains only about 7.6 at.% {sup 6}Li. In this paper, a new lithium isotope separation technique using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is proposed. In order to separate and concentrate lithium isotopes, only lithium ions are able to move through the membrane by electrodialysis between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. Preliminary experiments of lithium isotope separation were conducted using this phenomenon. Organic membranes impregnated with TMPA-TFSI and PP13-TFSI as ionic liquids were prepared, and the relationship between the {sup 6}Li separation coefficient and the applied electrodialytic conditions was evaluated using them. The results showed that the {sup 6}Li isotope separation coefficient in this method (about 1.1-1.4) was larger than that in the mercury amalgam method (about 1.06).

  18. The effect of loading and particle size on the oxygen reaction in CGO impregnated Pt electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Porous platinum electrodes impregnated with Gd x Ce1−x O2−δ (CGO) are investigated to characterise how nano-sized CGO grains affect the oxygen reaction. Impedance measurements were performed at temperatures between 450 and 750 °C and at oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 and 5 × 10−5 bar for electro......Porous platinum electrodes impregnated with Gd x Ce1−x O2−δ (CGO) are investigated to characterise how nano-sized CGO grains affect the oxygen reaction. Impedance measurements were performed at temperatures between 450 and 750 °C and at oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 and 5 × 10−5 bar...... for electrodes with various CGO loadings and electrodes annealed at various temperatures. The morphology was characterised by scanning electron microscopy and the CGO grain size was determined from X-ray diffraction peak broadening. The results showed that the polarisation resistance decreased with increasing...

  19. Solid phase extraction of Am (III) by resins impregnated with multiply diglycolamide-functionalized ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujar, R.B.; Ansari, S.A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Verboom, W.

    2016-01-01

    Solvent extraction studies with multiply diglycolamide-functionalized extractants such as tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) or diglycolamide-functionalized calix(4)arene (C4DGA) ligands have shown excellent results as compared to those of normal DGA ligands such as TODGA. A very high selectivity for Am(III) has been reported with these ligands with respect to U(VI) and Pu(IV). High selectivities and large extraction efficiencies of these ligands towards trivalent f elements were ascribed to a co-operative complexation mechanism. Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of these ligands increased several folds in ionic liquid medium as compared to paraffinic solvents. It was of interest, therefore, to prepare extraction chromatographic resins by impregnation of solvent systems containing these ligands in an ionic liquid. In the present work, solid phase extraction studies were carried out using these two multiply diglycolamide-functionalized extractants, viz. T-DGA (resin I) and C4DGA (resin-II) containing the ionic liquid C 4 mim. NTf 2 impregnated on Chromosorb-W

  20. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae; Park, Hee Sang

    2017-01-01

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method