WorldWideScience

Sample records for incinerator risk issues

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  2. Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.

    1988-01-01

    One of the methods of destroying organics in radwaste is incineration. This presentation will summarise some of the advantages and problems associated with incineration and will illustrate some of these points by discussing progress in an options study into methods of treating plutonium contaminated material waste, being carried out by British Nuclear Fuels plc. The wastes amenable for treatment, fall into two categories, low-level wastes and intermediate-level wastes. (author)

  3. Municipal solid waste incineration in China and the issue of acidification: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longjie; Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Jie; Du, Cuicui; Chen, Zhiliang; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    In China, incineration is essential for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste arising in its numerous megacities. The evolution of incinerator capacity has been huge, yet it creates strong opposition from a small, but vocal part of the population. The characteristics of Chinese municipal solid waste are analysed and data presented on its calorific value and composition. These are not so favourable for incineration, since the sustained use of auxiliary fuel is necessary for ensuring adequate combustion temperatures. Also, the emission standard for acid gases is more lenient in China than in the European Union, so special attention should be paid to the issue of acidification arising from flue gas. Next, the techniques used in flue gas cleaning in China are reviewed and the acidification potential by cleaned flue gas is estimated. Still, acidification induced by municipal solid waste incinerators remains marginal compared with the effects of coal-fired power plants. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Risk identification for PPP waste-to-energy incineration projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jinbo; Song, Danrong; Zhang, Xueqing; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is regarded as a renewable energy source. In China, the sharp increase of MSW has precipitated the rapid growth of waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration plants. Private capital has been getting into the WTE incineration industry through the public–private partnership (PPP) arrangement. Due to the large construction cost and the long concession period commonly associated with this arrangement, a number of failures have emerged in PPP WTE incineration projects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the key risks of PPP WTE incineration projects in China and study the strategies for managing these risks by drawing experience and learning lessons from these projects. First, we analyzed the MSW management practices, relevant legislations and policies, and the development of PPP WTE incineration projects in China. Second, we identified ten key risks through interviews, surveys and visits to some selected projects, and provided detailed analysis of these risks. Lastly, we developed response strategies for these risks from the perspectives of both public and private sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze MSW management practices, relevant legislations and policies in China. • Through case study on PPP WTE incineration projects, ten key risks are identified. • Response strategies for key risks are developed

  5. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  6. Risk of congenital anomalies in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, S; Chevrier, C; Robert-Gnansia, E; Lorente, C; Brula, P; Hours, M

    2004-01-01

    Although municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has contributed to increase the overall environmental load of particulate matter containing dioxins and metals, evidence of health consequences to populations is sparse. To assess at a regional level (in southeast France) the impact of these emissions on birth defect rates. Communities with fewer than 50 000 inhabitants surrounding the 70 incinerators that operated at least one year from 1988 to 1997 were studied. Each exposed community (n = 194) was assigned an exposure index estimated from a Gaussian plume model. Poisson models and a reference population of the 2678 unexposed communities in the region were used to calculate relative risks for congenital malformations, adjusted for year of birth, maternal age, department of birth, population density, average family income, and when available, local road traffic. The rate of congenital anomalies was not significantly higher in exposed compared with unexposed communities. Some subgroups of major anomalies, specifically facial clefts and renal dysplasia, were more frequent in the exposed communities. Among exposed communities, a dose-response trend of risk with increasing exposure was observed for obstructive uropathies. Risks of cardiac anomalies, obstructive uropathies, and skin anomalies increased linearly with road traffic density. Although both incinerator emissions and road traffic may plausibly explain some of the excess risks observed, several alternative explanations, including exposure misclassification, ascertainment bias, and residual confounding cannot be excluded. Some of the effects observed, if real, might be attributable to old-technology MSWIs and the persistent pollution they have generated.

  7. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  8. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  9. Wastes incineration and public health: status of recent knowledge and risk evaluation; L'incineration des dechets et la sante publique: bilan des connaissances recentes et evaluation du risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The incineration of municipal and industrial wastes produces combustion products with various pollutants like: dusts, acid gases, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, dioxines etc.. This report analyzes the toxicity of different pollutants (particulates, polycyclic halogenated compounds, cadmium, mercury, lead), the exposure of the population with respect to incineration pollutants (occupational and general exposure), and the risks linked with this exposure (hazard identification, exposure evaluation, risk characterization, results). (J.S.)

  10. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  11. Nanometer-sized emissions from municipal waste incinerators: A qualitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David R., E-mail: david.r.johnson@ghd.com

    2016-12-15

    Municipal waste incinerators (MWI) are beneficial alternatives to landfills for waste management. A recent constituent of concern in emissions from these facilities is incidental nanometer-sized particles (INP{sub MWI}), i.e., particles smaller than 1 micrometer in size that may deposit in the deepest parts of the lungs, cross into the bloodstream, and affect different regions of the body. With limited data, the public may fear INP{sub MWI} due to uncertainty, which may affect public acceptance, regulatory permitting, and the increased lowering of air quality standards. Despite limited data, a qualitative risk assessment paradigm can be applied to determine the relative risk due to INP{sub MWI} emissions. This review compiles existing data on nanometer-sized particle generation by MWIs, emissions control technologies used at MWIs, emission releases into the atmosphere, human population exposure, and adverse health effects of nanometer-sized particles to generate a qualitative risk assessment and identify data gaps. The qualitative risk assessment conservatively concludes that INP{sub MWI} pose a low to moderate risk to individuals, primarily due to the lack of relevant toxicological data on INP{sub MWI} mixtures in ambient particulate matter.

  12. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF BANKING OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Philippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the issues of operational risk management methodology in commercial bank. The main sources of operational risks, risk indicators, operational risk assessment techniques.

  13. Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavelli Livia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. Results Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. Conclusion Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

  14. CO-incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Rumplmayr, A.

    2001-01-01

    'Co-incineration plant means a stationary or mobile plant whose main purpose is the generation of energy or production of material products and which uses wastes as a regular or additional fuel; or in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal. This definition covers the site and the entire plant including all incineration lines, waste reception, storage, an site pre-treatment facilities; its waste-, fuel- and air-supply systems; the boiler; facilities for treatment or storage of the residues, exhaust gas and waste water; the stack; devices and systems for controlling incineration operations, recording and monitoring incineration conditions (proposal for a council directive an the incineration of waste - 98/C 372/07). Waste incinerators primarily aim at rendering waste inert, at reduction of its volume and at the generation of energy from waste. The main aim of co-incineration an the other hand is either the recovery of energy from waste, the recovery of its material properties or a combination of the latter in order to save costs for primary energy. Two main groups of interest have lately been pushing waste towards co-incineration: conventional fossil fuels are getting increasingly scarce and hence expensive and generate carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas). The use of high calorific waste fractions is considered as an alternative. In many countries land filling of waste is subject to increasingly strict regulations in order to reduce environmental risk and landfill volume. The Austrian Landfill Ordinance for instance prohibits the disposal of untreated waste from the year 2004. Incineration seems to be the most effective treatment option to destroy organic matter. However the capacities of waste incinerators are limited, giving rise to a search for additional incineration capacity. The obvious advantages of co-incineration, such as the saving of fossil fuels and raw materials, the thermal treatment of waste fractions and possible economic benefits by

  15. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  16. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  17. Request for Determination on BACT Issues -- Ogden Martin Tulsa Municipal Waste Incinerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  19. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  20. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy, where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs. The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3, was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76 among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59 and for

  1. Significance of waste incineration in Germany; Stellenwert der Abfallverbrennung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The report on the relevance of waste incineration in Germany is covering the following issues: change of the issue waste incineration in the last century, the controversy on waste incineration in the 80ies; environmental relevance of waste incineration; utilization of incineration residues; contribution to environmental protection; possible hazards for human health due are waste incinerator plants; the central challenges of waste incineration today; potential restraints to energy utilization in thermal waste processing; optimization of the energetic utilization of municipal wastes; future of the waste management and the relevance of waste incineration.

  2. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  3. Evaluation of the risk for heavy metals and dioxin from the incineration plant of urban solid wastes; Evaluacion del riesgo por exposicion a metales pesados y dioxinas emitidos por una planta incineradora de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, J.L.; Schuhmacher, M.

    1997-12-31

    Public fear of dioxin and cancer has heightened the controversy surrounding municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. Concern about MSW incineration has focused especial attention on the emissions of dioxins together with metals, as potential sources of human exposure to these toxics. This paper provides data on the assessment of the human health risks for the population living in the neighbourhood of a modern MSW incinerator. Results show that food is the major source of human exposure to metals and dioxin, while MSW incineration is not a principal source of human exposure. The authors conclude suggesting that studies on the background levels of metals and dioxin in the vicinity of new MSW incinerators are essentials. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  5. Negotiated risks. International talks on hazardous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, Rudolf; Sjoestedt, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    This book fills a major gap in the risk literature, as it brings together two research strands: risks, to which IIASA's research programs have contributed significantly over the years, culminating in the Risk and Vulnerability Program, and international negotiations, on which there is an abundance of published work, much of it resulting from the work of IIASA's Processes of International Negotiations Program. Throughout the book, it is pointed out that there are actor-driven risks, namely those posed by international negotiations themselves, and issue-driven risks which are caused by large-scale human activities. In fact, negotiated risks deal with some of the most serious risks facing humanity: climate change, nuclear activities, and weapons of mass destruction. The book contains both scientific analyses on the nature of internationally negotiated risks and analyses of concrete risks, both of which are of immense practical relevance in the larger context of international negotiations. (orig.)

  6. Consolidated incineration facility technical support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA's Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation's Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements

  7. A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2005-01-01

    It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes...... in controlied landfills and the feasibility of use of the ash by the phosphate and fertilizer industries. We assumed that all specified risk material (SRM) and MBM produced in Denmark would be incinerated in this gas-fired power plant. Based on observations in 2001, we assumed that, on average, six (range: 0...

  8. Dioxin emissions by the municipal solid waste incinerators: is it a risk for the public health?; Emision de dioxinas por las incineradoras de R. S. U.: Un riesgo para la salud publica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, J. L. [Universidad Rovira i Virgili. Reus. Tarragona (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    Environmental contamination from particulate and gaseous emissions containing heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as well as other compounds from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) is an issue of great concern. Recently, the controversy surrounding MSWI has intensified in our country. The key question for government agencies, public official, and public opinion is whether MSW incineration is an acceptable waste management option. Since a point-of view of public health, much concern and debate has arisen about human exposure to PCDD/Fs emitted from these facilities. The present paper provides an up-to-date perspective on MSW incineration as a source of human exposure to PCDD/Fs by comparing background PCDD/F concentrations with incinerator-emitted PCDD/F levels. It is concluded that PCDD/F exposure from MSWI would not reach percentage of 1% on total daily intake of PCDD/Fs. (Author) 18 refs.

  9. Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Ziliang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Gao, Xingbao; Zhang, Fengsong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.

  10. Impact of community engagement on public acceptance towards waste-to-energy incineration projects: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Sun, Chenjunyan; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Coffey, Vaughan

    2018-02-20

    As one of the most popular methods for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration offers effective solutions to deal with the MSW surge and globe energy issues. Nevertheless, the construction of WTE facilities faces considerable and strong opposition from local communities due to the perceived potential risks. The present study aims to understand whether, and how, community engagement improves local residents' public acceptance towards waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration facilities using a questionnaire survey conducted with nearby residents of two selected WTE incineration plants located in Zhejiang province, China. The results of data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveal that firstly, a lower level of public acceptance exists among local residents of over the age of 35, of lower education levels, living within 3 km from the WTE Plant and from WTE incineration Plants which are under construction. Secondly, the public trust of local government and other authorities was positively associated with the public acceptance of the WTE incineration project, both directly and indirectly based on perceived risk. Thirdly, community engagement can effectively enhance public trust in local government and other authorities related to the WTE incineration project. The findings contribute to the literature on MSW treatment policy-making and potentially hazardous facility siting, by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards WTE incineration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  12. Issues in Value-at-Risk Modeling and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper); B.N. Jorgensen (Bjørn); P.F. Christoffersen (Peter); F.X. Diebold (Francis); T. Schuermann (Til); J.A. Lopez (Jose); B. Hirtle (Beverly)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDiscusses the issues in value-at-risk modeling and evaluation. Value of value at risk; Horizon problems and extreme events in financial risk management; Methods of evaluating value-at-risk estimates.

  13. Environmental impact monitoring methods in the vicinity of waste incineration and co-incineration facilities - State-of-the-art. State-of-the-art of environmental impact monitoring methods in the vicinity of waste incineration and co-incineration facilities. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagnac, T.; Cornet, C.; Mathieu, L.

    2005-10-01

    Since the beginning of the 70's, the growing concern from the public opinion and the scientific community for the waste incineration issue made people aware of a number of difficulties of the process and the potential risks linked to it. For example checking the good functioning conditions of the facilities has been made compulsory through the continuous emission monitoring of a number of parameters. The ministerial decree from the 20 September 2002 brings something new: the monitoring of the impact of the facilities on its nearby environment. This monitoring comes in addition to the existing continuous monitoring of some gaseous compounds of the incineration process, and widens the scale of the monitoring to the environment of the incineration facilities. But there is no further information in the ministerial decree about the methods available to match this requirement. Incineration facilities' managers have to face a close deadline (28 December 2005) and have to make the optimal choice of a technique matching these requirements but also the needs of their facilities. The aim of this study is to help incineration facilities' managers thanks to an overview as large as possible of the different techniques available. Managers will have to take into account the characteristics of the methods and their adequacy with the local contexts of their sites. This document is meant to be a support for dealing with this issue. (authors)

  14. The solid waste contaminated incineration technique used incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukosrono; Prayitno; Isman, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The research of the incinerator radioactive waste used incinerator has been done. The aim of the experiment is to determine the number of the organic liquid waste which added on the incineration of the solid radioactive waste. The research was done by incinerate waste in the incinerator prototype which was designed for capacity 2500 gram, and the investigated variables are capacity of the incinerator, specific of the waste, and the method of the incineration. Simulated waste was used in the experiment, the waste specific which was used in the experiment was the mixture between liquid organic waste (TBPK-10%) with solid waste was coming from rice paper, tissue, carton. Two way method were investigated in the experiment, were direct incineration and indirect incineration. The direct incineration was done by incineration solid waste and organic liquid waste in the incinerator together. The indirect incineration was done by incineration of solid waste which have been used to absorb organic liquid waste. The result showed that either direct or indirect incineration independent to the incineration result. The best result have taken place on the 2250 gram capacity of the incinerator, ratio liquid organic waste to solid waste 1% - 20%. In the condition will be found reduction of volume = 43.90 - 35.91 and reduction of the waste = 13.85% - 12.15% and the ash which was resulted from incineration colored white silver with contain a little color black. (author)

  15. EIA for a waste incinerator in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2017-01-01

    A planned new waste incinerator will be located in an area which is at risk of flooding – a risk that will increase under climate change. During public hear- ings as part of the project’s EIA, inclusion of climate risks was requested. This led to mitigation measures which will decrease the risk...

  16. Risk Management Issues - An Aerospace Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks--risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements.. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner, Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  17. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Discussion of some issues in risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jingyuan; Liu Yuanzhong

    1998-01-01

    The concept of risk, the methods for assessing risk and the acceptability of risk are discussed. The emphasis was laid on the three components for complete description of a risk: scenario, probability and consequence of an event. The disadvantages of the concept and presentation of risk used in some risk analysis were pointed out. The paper emphasized that it is necessary to explicitly consider the multi-dimensionality of risk in the assessment and management of risk. Several important factors influencing the acceptability of risk and the methodology for evaluating the acceptability of risk were also described

  19. A Primer on Risks, Issues and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    2016 10 Root cause analysis gets to the heart of the risk. Why does the risk exist? What is its nature? How will the risk occur? What should be...manage risks by developing and implementing a sound , well­coordinated risk management plan and then track risks by plotting them on a 5­by­5 risk...through root cause analysis , which is the most important part of any risk management effort. SPECIAL SECTION: RISK MANAGEMENT Defense AT&L: July-August

  20. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  1. APPLIED ISSUES ABOUT BANKING RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geanina Clipici

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper emphasizes the need to deepen the understanding of the notion of banking risk management by explaining the significant risks the bank encounters during financial exercises as well as their additional entries. The study of the paper will focus on UniCredit Bank during the years 2014 and  2015 on all types of risks, in which we will provide comprehensive data on how the UniCredit Bank management applies its risk policies.

  2. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  3. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  4. Radwaste incineration at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamer, N.V.

    A Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) is being constructed at CRNL to develop and demonstrate processes to convert reactor wastes to a form suitable for disposal. Combustible wastes can be reduced in volume to a stable ash by incineration. A prototype starved-air incinerator in the WTC is currently being commissioned on inactive waste. Overall performance to date is good. Satisfactory control of main process flows and temperatures has been achieved. Checking of system response to process failures has begun. So far, problems with a similar incinerator during initial operation at Ontario Hydro have not been encountered

  5. Quantifying the perceived risks associated with nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for quantifying and assessing perceived risks in an empirical manner. The analytical model provides for the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. The set of risk perception factors used to demonstrate the model are those that have been identified by social and behavioural scientists as principal factors influencing people in their perception of risks associated with major technical issues. These same risk factors are commonly associated with nuclear energy issues. A rational means is proposed for determining and quantifying these risk factors for a given application. The model should contribute to improved understanding of the basis and logic of public risk perception and provide practical and effective means for addressing perceived risks when they arise over important technical issues and projects. (author)

  6. The Studsvik incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzler, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Studsvik Incinerator is a Faurholdt designed, multi-stage, partial pyrolysis, controlled-air system taken into operation in 1976. The incinerator was initially operated without flue-gas filtration from 1976 until 1979 and thereafter with a bag-house filter. The Studsvik site has been host to radioactive activities for approximately 30 years. The last 10 years have included on site incineration of more than 3,000 tons of LLW. During this time routine sampling for activity has been performed, of releases and in the environment, to carefully monitor the area. The author discusses records examined to determine levels of activity prior to incinerator start-up, without and with filter

  7. CRNL active waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.W.

    1965-02-01

    At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)

  8. Contamination source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil around municipal solid waste incinerator: A case study in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Tai, Lingyu; Qiao, Zhi; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Fu, Kaixuan; Chen, Guanyi

    2018-08-01

    Few studies have comprehensively taken into account the source apportionment and human health risk of soil heavy metals in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in high population density area. In this study, 8 elements (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, and As) in fly ash, soil samples from different functional areas and vegetables collected surrounding the MSWI in North China were determined. The single pollution index, integrated Nemerow pollution index, principal component analysis (PCA), absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) model and dose-response model were used in this study. The results showed that the soils around the MSWI were moderately polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg, and heavily polluted by As and Cd. MSWI had a significant influence on the distribution of soil heavy metals in different distances from MSWI. The source apportionment results showed that MSWI, natural source, industrial discharges and coal combustion were the four major potential sources for heavy metals in the soils, with the contributions of 36.08%, 29.57%, 10.07%, and 4.55%, respectively. MSWI had a major impact on Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg contamination in soil. The non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk posed by soil heavy metals surrounding the MSWI were unacceptable. The soil heavy metals concentrations and health risks in different functional areas were distinct. MSWI was the predominate source of non-carcinogenic risk with the average contribution rate of 36.99% and carcinogenic risk to adult male, adult female and children with 4.23×10 -4 , 4.57×10 -4 , and 1.41×10 -4 respectively, implying that the impact of MSWI on human health was apparent. This study provided a new insight for the source apportionment and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in the vicinity of MSWI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  10. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  11. Modeling the dioxin emission of a municipal solid waste incinerator using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsan, Sond; Chen, Wei-Yea; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chuang, Yen Hsun; Grisdanurak, Nurak

    2013-07-01

    Incineration is considered as an efficient approach in dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment, especially in areas without sufficient land resources. Facing the concern of health risk, the toxic pollutants emitted from incinerators have attracted much attention from environmentalists, even though this technology is capable of reducing solid waste volume and demand for landfill areas, together with plenty of energy generation. To reduce the negative impacts of toxic chemicals emitted from incinerators, various monitoring and control plans are made not only for use in facilities performance evaluation but also better control of operation for stable effluent quality. How to screen out the key variables from massive observed and control variables for modeling the dioxin emission has become an important issue in incinerator operation and pollution prevention. For these reasons, this study used 4-year monitoring data of an incinerator in Taiwan as a case study, and developed a prediction model based on an artificial neural network (ANN) to forecast the dioxin emission. By doing this, a simplified monitoring strategy for incinerators with regarding to dioxin emission control can be achieved. The result indicated that the prediction model based on a back-propagation neural network is a promising method to deal with complex and non-linear data with the help of statistics in screening out the useful variables for modeling. The suitable architecture of an ANN for using in the dioxin prediction consists of 5 input factors, 3 basic layers with 8 hidden nodes. The R(2) was found to equal 0.99 in both the training and testing steps. In addition, sensitivity analysis can identify the most significant variables for the dioxin emission. From the obtained results, the frequency of activated carbon injection showed as the factor of highest relative importance for the dioxin emission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptual issues with risk analysis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Pierrick; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Lévy, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Risk analysis is a tricky procedure, where one can easily make mistakes. Indeed, although risk equations are rather general, transferring a methodology to another context or hazard type can often lead to inaccuracies or even significant errors. To illustrate this, common mistakes made with the Swiss methodology are presented, together with possible solutions. This includes the following: Risk analysis for moving objects only takes the process dimension into account (e.g. the length of a road section potentially affected by a landslide), but not the object dimension (e.g. the cars length). This is a fair simplification as long as the object dimension is considerably smaller than the process dimension. However, when the object is large compared to the process (e.g. rockfalls on a train), the results will be wrong. This problem can be illustrated by considering two blocs. According to this methodology a 1 m diameter bloc will be twice more susceptible to reach a train than a 50 cm bloc. This is obviously not correct. When it comes to rockfalls risk analysis on roads or railway found in the literature, the bloc dimension is usually neglected, in favour of the object dimension, which is a fair assumption in this context. However, it is possible to include both dimensions by using the sum of the lengths instead of one of them. Risk analysis is usually performed using 3 different scenarios, for 3 different ranges of return periods, namely 1-30, 30-100 and 100-300 years. In order to be conservative, the operator commonly considers the magnitude of the worst event that happens with a return period included between the class bounds, which means that the operator evaluates the magnitude reached or overpassed with a return period of 30, 100 and 300 years respectively. Then, since the magnitude corresponds to the upper bounds of the classes, risk is calculated using the frequency corresponding to these return periods and not to the middle of the class (and also subtracting the

  13. The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

  14. The health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator posed by PCDD/Fs in atmosphere and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Tingting; Hao, Huawei; Wu, Hao; Wang, Lili; Chen, Yuxing; Xing, Limin; Niu, Zhiguang

    2018-03-07

    In our study, health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere and soil were evaluated. The toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (TEQ) in surrounding atmosphere and soil of studied MSWI were 0.05-0.12 pg I-TEQ Nm -3 and 7.622-15.450 ng I-TEQ kg -1 , respectively. The PCDFs/PCDDs (F/D) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI ranged from 0.40 to 5.90 with a mean of 1.80, suggesting that the PCDD/Fs mainly came from combustion sources and studied MSWI could be a key source of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere. The F/D ratios of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 with a mean of 0.90, suggesting combustion is not the mainly sources of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil, and studied MSWI may have limited influence on PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil. O8CDD and 2,3,4,7,8-P5CDF could be the total PCDD/Fs and TEQ indicators in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI, respectively. The carcinogenic risk (CR) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and soil for children, teens and adults were 1.24E-06, 9.06E-07 and 4.41E-06, respectively, suggesting that the potential cancer risk occurred but the risk was at acceptable levels for both children and adults (atmosphere was performed, which will help us have a good view of the health risk levels of PCDD/Fs in surrounding environment of MWSI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  16. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  17. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  18. Towards Cloud Computing SLA Risk Management: Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Jean-Henry; Aubert, Jocelyn; Gateau, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing has become mainstream technology offering a commoditized approach to software, platform and infrastructure as a service over the Internet on a global scale. This raises important new security issues beyond traditional perimeter based approaches. This paper attempts to identify these issues and their corresponding challenges, proposing to use risk and Service Level Agreement (SLA) management as the basis for a service level framework to improve governance, risk and compliance i...

  19. Characterization of a former dump site in the Lagoon of Venice contaminated by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, and estimation of possible environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Chiarafrancesca; Zamengo, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Argese, Emanuele

    2009-10-01

    Bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator on a former contaminated site, the island of Sacca San Biagio (Lagoon of Venice), was examined in order to evaluate levels of pollutants and their potential mobility and availability. Heavy metal concentrations were determined and the actual contamination of the site was compared with national legislation on polluted sites. The site was mainly contaminated by zinc, copper and lead. Physico-chemical characterization of bottom ash was carried out by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) with micro-analysis by EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry), for information on newly formed minerals. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of particles, compounds and clusters containing heavy metals and, in particular, the presence of barium sulfate, which was assumed to be a site-specific compound. Similarities between bottom ash and atmospheric PM10 collected on the adjacent island of Sacca Fisola were studied and a risk of aerodispersion of the fine fraction of ash was assumed. Lastly, in order to evaluate the potentially available fraction of metals (non-residual fraction) and the directly exchangeable fraction, two single extraction procedures with HCl and citric acid were carried out, respectively. Results showed a relatively low concentration of readily phyto-available metals, as well as the high concentrations found for some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in the potentially mobilizable fraction.

  20. Risk management in HIV/AIDS: ethical and economic issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management in HIV/AIDS: ethical and economic issues associated with restricting HAART access only to adherent patients. ... In this context, the research looked at issues related to adherence and non-adherence to HAART from the perspective of the provider. Using the software TreeAge Pro 2009, we developed a ...

  1. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  2. Perspectives and reconciliation of viewpoints on risk assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    It is important to recognize the distinction between risk assessment and its components which include risk analysis, perspectives study, and decision analysis. Divergence of opinion within the scientific community as well as the public at large is a characteristic of issues related to nuclear power. The divergent opinions can largely be characterized as either optimistic or pessimistic in nature. Reconciliation of divergent viewpoints presents some difficult challenges. It is doubtful that issues which have an emotional or philosophical basis can be resolved through technical efforts. Public education on the technical issues might prove helpful

  3. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  4. GIS analysis in the siting of incinerators as a panacea for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste represents a key issue that threatens environmental quality in Kaduna metropolis. One of the most viable options to treat such an issue is to incinerate the collected solid waste, which can reduce the cost of solid waste disposal as well as pollution and generate electricity. Despite the significance of incineration, ...

  5. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  6. Incineration by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 15 n/cm 2 .s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.)

  7. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  8. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Legal issues in clouds: towards a risk inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemame, Karim; Barnitzke, Benno; Corrales, Marcelo; Kiran, Mariam; Jiang, Ming; Armstrong, Django; Forgó, Nikolaus; Nwankwo, Iheanyi

    2013-01-28

    Cloud computing technologies have reached a high level of development, yet a number of obstacles still exist that must be overcome before widespread commercial adoption can become a reality. In a cloud environment, end users requesting services and cloud providers negotiate service-level agreements (SLAs) that provide explicit statements of all expectations and obligations of the participants. If cloud computing is to experience widespread commercial adoption, then incorporating risk assessment techniques is essential during SLA negotiation and service operation. This article focuses on the legal issues surrounding risk assessment in cloud computing. Specifically, it analyses risk regarding data protection and security, and presents the requirements of an inherent risk inventory. The usefulness of such a risk inventory is described in the context of the OPTIMIS project.

  10. Issues and Challenges in Flood Risk Management—Editorial for the Special Issue on Flood Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan N. Jonkman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections between infrastructures, economic systems and the role of human factors in assessing and managing the risk. The challenge for flood management in the future is to develop robust and resilient solutions that perform well in uncertain future conditions.

  11. Social and ethical issues in environmental risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah H

    2011-07-01

    The recognition of the social and ethical aspects of radiation risk management has been an important part of international projects following the Chernobyl accident of 1986. This study comments on the science and policy issues in environmental risk assessment, including the social and ethical dimensions of emergency preparedness and remediation experiences gained from the Chernobyl accident. While the unique situation of Fukushima, combined with an earthquake and tsunami, raises its own social and political challenges, it is hoped that some of the lessons learnt from Chernobyl will be relevant to long-term management of the Fukushima site. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  12. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  13. A coincineração de resíduos em fornos de cimento: riscos para a saúde e o meio ambiente Co-incineration in cement kilns: health and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Milanez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é discutir a forma como a coincineração de resíduos em fábricas de cimento vem crescendo no Brasil, bem como seus impactos sobre a saúde humana e o meio ambiente. Informações gerais sobre mercado e efeitos sobre a saúde foram obtidas através de revisão bibliográfica e alguns estudos de caso, escolhidos a partir de debate com integrantes da Rede Brasileira de Justiça Ambiental, foram construídos para ilustrar a situação no Brasil. Os estudos encontrados mostraram que, independente do nível de desenvolvimento tecnológico dos países, a saúde dos trabalhadores e das pessoas que moram próximas às fábricas de cimento vem sendo prejudicada pela poluição emitida pelas empresas de cimento, em especial por aquelas que praticam a coincineração. Além disso, no contexto brasileiro, a vulnerabilidade das instituições e populações afetadas tende a agravar este problema. Como conclusão, defende-se o aumento da capacidade institucional dos órgãos brasileiros responsáveis pelo monitoramento das atividades industriais, bem como uma rediscussão mais aprofundada dos aspectos políticos e éticos ligados ao transporte e comércio de resíduos industriais.In this article we discuss the development of hazardous waste co-incineration in cement kilns in Brazil as well as its impacts on health and the environment. Information was gathered through an extensive review on social and environmental impacts of co-incineration, and case studies, chosen after discussion with social movement representatives concerned with the co-incineration issue and related to the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice, are described to illustrate the reality of co-incineration in Brazil. Studies showed that workers and community health suffers negative impacts from such practices in high-, middle- and low-income countries. In the Brazilian context, the institutional and social vulnerability intensifies these problems. To conclude, we

  14. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  15. Health and lifestyle issues as risk factors for homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, W A; Skipper, B J; Lambert, L

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are health and lifestyle issues among homeless persons that differentiate them from other segments of the population and that can be described as risk factors for homelessness. This case-control study investigated health and lifestyle issues in a panel of patients visiting a health care clinic for homeless persons. The same information was collected from a panel of county indigent patients and an equal number of privately insured patients enrolled in a nearby academic family practice center. We found significant differences among these three groups. Differences in health problems were evident, as significantly more homeless persons reported mental health, drug and alcohol abuse, and smoking problems. There were no differences in the prevalence of other general medical conditions as listed by the patients. Homeless persons were younger than the control group respondents and more likely to be male, a member of a minority group, and unmarried. The childhood experiences of homeless persons were distinctive; they were more likely to have lived in a group home or some other nonfamily situation, considered themselves to have been delinquent, run away from home, been expelled from school, or been placed in reform school. The same held true for having been in jail as an adult. They had significantly less education, their job experiences were in manual and unskilled arenas, and they were more likely to have a gambling problem. A continuum of risk also appeared in that for the most part the characteristics and experiences of the indigent group members ranked in frequency between those of the homeless and insurance groups. Causes of homelessness appear to be multifactorial. Issues related to mental health, alcohol, nicotine, and other drug and substance abuse could be responsible for their medical problems, whereas other lifestyle issues might be regarded as risk factors for homelessness.

  16. Waste treatment activities incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The waste management policy at SRP is to minimize waste generation as much as possible and detoxify and/or volume reduce waste materials prior to disposal. Incineration is a process being proposed for detoxification and volume reduction of combustion nonradioactive hazardous, low-level mixed and low-level beta-gamma waste. Present operation of the Solvent Burner Demonstration reduces the amount of solid combustible low-level beta-gamma boxed waste disposed of by shallow land burial by approximately 99,000 ft 3 per year producing 1000 ft 3 per year of ash and, by 1988, will detoxify and volume reduce 150,000 gallons or organic Purex solvent producing approximately 250 ft 3 of ash per year

  17. Redefining the issues of risk and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual framework is proposed within which the notion of risk as normally used in risk assessment (RA) could be enlarged in line with the real substance of social issues of technology policy, to help avoid RA's threatened irrelevance to social decision making. It is argued that the frequent organizational incoherence and thus the unviability of modern technology arises from 'social alienation' between the innovation-commitment phase and the implementation of the technology in society. The roles of technical elites and of particular concepts of technology in this alienation are emphasized. One of the case studies deals with 'Nuclear power - myths of scientific and organizational realism' and discusses the UK nuclear 'programme' and the Three Mile Island accident. (author)

  18. The current situation of incinerators in view of changing input quality; Aktuelle Situation in Muellverbrennungsanlagen durch veraenderte Inputqualitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, M. [MVA Hamm Betreiber GmbH, Hamm (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The issuing of the TaSi started a new period in waste management and incinerator operation. Several aspects of the current situation in incinerators are illustrated by concrete examples. Input materials management has become a key issue, especially with regard to the calorific values involved. (orig.)

  19. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  20. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  1. SRL incinerator components test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, E.J.

    1982-08-01

    A full-scale (5 kg waste/hour) controlled-air incinerator, the ICTF, is presently being tested with simulated waste as part of a program to develop technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid transuranic wastes. This unit is designed specifically to incinerate relatively small quantities of solid combustible waste that are contaminated up to 10 5 times the present nominal 10 nCi/g threshold value for such isotopes as 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 242 Cm, and 252 Cf. Automatic incinerator operation and control has been incorporated into the design, simulating the future plant design which minimizes operator radiation exposure. Over 3000 kg of nonradioactive wastes characteristic of plutonium finishing operations have been incinerated at throughputs exceeding 5 kg/hr. Safety and reliability were the major design objectives. In addition to the incinerator tests, technical data were gathered on two different off-gas systems: a wet system composed of three scrubbers in series, and a dry system employing sintered metal filters

  2. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D., E-mail: j.nixon@kingston.ac.uk [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Ghosh, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Centre for Quality Management System, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  3. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  4. Industrial Accidents Triggered by Natural Hazards: an Emerging Risk Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Basco, Anna; Salzano, Ernesto; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding or hurricanes have recently and dramatically hit several countries worldwide. Both direct and indirect consequences involved the population, causing on the one hand a high number of fatalities and on the other hand so relevant economical losses that the national gross product may be affected for many years. Loss of critical industrial infrastructures (electricity generation and distribution, gas pipelines, oil refineries, etc.) also occurred, causing further indirect damage to the population. In several cases, accident scenarios with large releases of hazardous materials were triggered by these natural events, causing so-called "Natech events", in which the overall damage resulted from the simultaneous consequences of the natural event and of the release of hazardous substances. Toxic releases, large fires and explosions, as well as possible long-term environmental pollution, economical losses, and overloading of emergency systems were recognised by post-event studies as the main issues of these Natech scenarios. In recent years the increasing frequency and severity of some natural hazards due to climate change has slowly increased the awareness of Natech risk as an emerging risk among the stakeholders. Indeed, the iNTeg-Risk project, co-funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program specifically addresses these scenarios among new technological issues on public safety. The present study, in part carried out within the iNTeg-Risk project, was aimed at the analysis and further development of methods and tools for the assessment and mitigation of Natech accidents. Available tools and knowledge gaps in the assessment of Natech scenarios were highlighted. The analysis mainly addressed the potential impact of flood, lightning and earthquake events on industrial installations where hazardous substances are present. Preliminary screening methodologies and more detailed methods based on

  5. Danish Emission Inventory for Waste Incineration and Other Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelgaard, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This report contains detailed methodological issues, activity data, emission factors, uncertainties and references for waste incineration without energy recovery and other waste source categories of the Danish emission inventories 2013. The emissions are calculated for the years 1980-2011 according...

  6. Issues regarding Risk Effect Analysis of Digitalized Safety Systems and Main Risk Contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors of safety-critical digital systems affect overall plant risk. In order to assess this risk effect, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required. This article aims to provide an overview of the issues when developing a risk model and demonstrate their effect on plant risk quantitatively. Research activities in Korea for addressing these various issues, such as the software failure probability and the fault coverage of self monitoring mechanism are also described. The main risk contributors related to the digitalized safety system were determined in a quantitative manner. Reactor protection system and engineered safety feature component control system designed as part of the Korean Nuclear I and C System project are used as example systems. Fault-tree models were developed to assess the failure probability of a system function which is designed to generate an automated signal for actuating both of the reactor trip and the complicated accident-mitigation actions. The developed fault trees were combined with a plant risk model to evaluate the effect of a digitalized system's failure on the plant risk. (authors)

  7. Risk informed decision making. Topical issues paper no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.; Szikszai, T.

    2001-01-01

    based' approach, not risk informed. This issue is less important if the plant is being upgraded (e.g. risk informed design improvements). However, when optimization of requirements (e.g. relaxation of regulations) is being pursued, it becomes a central issue. The complementary nature of deterministic and probabilistic approaches to safety evaluation is demonstrated. A prerequisite for such an expanded use is the availability of a high quality 'living PSA', which supports the various applications. The PSA quality should be commensurate with its intended application. This means that there is not one standard for judging the adequacy of the PSA but that the quality of the PSA should be judged in relation to each specific use or application. Many efforts have been devoted to achieve consistency and quality of PSAs. They include peer reviews (e.g. the IAEA IPERS/IPSART programme), PSA standardization efforts (e.g. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) PRA Procedures Guide, IAEA PSA Guidelines, the recent draft American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) PSA Standard, IAEA-OECD/NEA guidance for regulatory review of PSA) and compilation and comparisons of PSAs for similar types of NPPs, including comparisons of the success criteria and failure rates used. Another concept being pursued is to provide a quality grading of the major PSA elements and subelements required to support a specific application and to assess the quality of the PSA in these required areas. This paper draws on some information compiled in IAEA-TECDOC-1200 'Applications of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants'. This document has been drafted as a result of several meetings

  8. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Project No. 4 - Waste incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently 12000 m 3 of combustible waste stored at the Ignalina NPP site. It is estimated that by 2005 the volume will have increase to 15000 m 3 (filters, personnel protection, clothing and plastics). As a part of the preparation for the closure of the Ignalina NPP an incineration facility will be required to process combustible wastes to reduce the overall volume of short-lived radioactive wastes stored at the Ignalina NPP site, thus reducing the overall risk to the environment. Project activities includes the design, construction and commissioning of the proposed facility, including all licensing documentation

  10. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  11. Pedestrian-motorcycle collisions: associated risks and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System (M-ROADS. The data were then analyzed via logistic regression method to determine associations between risks and injury severity in pedestrian-motorcycle collisions. The results indicate that five factors were significantly related to injury severity, which include age, location of body injury, as well as speed limit, road geometry and lighting condition of collision site. Subsequently, focus group discussions with stakeholders were also conducted to gather relevant data to identify related issues and suggestions on motorcycle safety technology with regards to collision with pedestrian.

  12. Volume reduction and solidification of radioactive waste incineration ash with waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste generated from research institutions and hospitals etc. is packed into a container and is kept. The volume reduced state or the unprocessed state by incineration or compression processing are used because neither landfill sites nor disposal methods have been fixed. Especially, because the bulk density is low, and it is easy to disperse, the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash incinerated for the volume reduction is a big issue in security, safety, stability in the inventory location. A safe and appropriate disposal processing method is desired. When the low temperature sintering method in the use of the glass bottle cullet was examined, volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste incineration ash were verified. The proposed method is useful for the easy treatment of the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash. (author)

  13. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  14. A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2005-01-01

    It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes ...

  15. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  16. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  17. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  18. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  19. Principles and issues in radiological ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel; Domotor, Stephen; Higley, Kathryn; Kocher, David; Bilyard, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a bridge between the fields of ecological risk assessment (ERA) and radioecology by presenting key biota dose assessment issues identified in the US Department of Energy's Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota in a manner consistent with the US Environmental Protection Agency's framework for ERA. Current radiological ERA methods and data are intended for use in protecting natural populations of biota, rather than individual members of a population. Potentially susceptible receptors include vertebrates and terrestrial plants. One must ensure that all media, radionuclides (including short-lived radioactive decay products), types of radiations (i.e., alpha particles, electrons, and photons), and pathways (i.e., internal and external contamination) are combined in each exposure scenario. The relative biological effectiveness of alpha particles with respect to deterministic effects must also be considered. Expected safe levels of exposure are available for the protection of natural populations of aquatic biota (10 mGy d(-1)) and terrestrial plants (10 mGy d(-1)) and animals (1 mGy d(-1)) and are appropriate for use in all radiological ERA tiers, provided that appropriate exposure assumptions are used. Caution must be exercised (and a thorough justification provided) if more restrictive limits are selected, to ensure that the supporting data are of high quality, reproducible, and clearly relevant to the protection of natural populations.

  20. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  1. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  2. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment of methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e. facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium. (Refs. 5).

  3. Principle component analysis of flue gas exhaust and health risk estimates for the population around a functional incinerator in the vicinity of Rawalpindi Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kamal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, a long term monitoring of flue gas (FG was performed, which was emerging from a point incinerator, situated in the vicinity of Rawalpindi city of Pakistan. It was aimed to analyze and correlate the spread of particulate matter, and that of exhaust gases in the surrounding residential areas. The study spanned three consecutive years of investigation. The principal component (PCA and cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of gasses from the exhaust i.e., CxHx, H2S, SO2 and CO and NOx, NO, NO2, and CO2 in PC 1 and 2, respectively. The distribution of Particulate matter 10 (PM10 remained constant over the period of three years. The concentration of PM10 remained higher than USEPA safe limits on all the sampling sites. PM10 on most of the sites correlated with the flue gasses emerging from the point source. The results indicate the influence of the flue gas exhaust on the surrounding environment, and a probable association with the public health.

  4. Financial risk and derivatives a special issue of the geneva papers on risk and insurance theory

    CERN Document Server

    Subrahmanyam, Marti

    1996-01-01

    Financial Risk and Derivatives provides an excellent illustration of the links that have developed in recent years between the theory of finance on one hand and insurance economics and actuarial science on the other. Advances in contingent claims analysis and developments in the academic and practical literature dealing with the management of financial risks reflect the close relationships between insurance and innovations in finance. The book represents an overview of the present state of the art in theoretical research dealing with financial issues of significance for insurance science. It will hopefully provide an impetus to further developments in applied insurance research.

  5. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Cancer classification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltse, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues presented are related to classification of weight of evidence in cancer risk assessments. The focus in this paper is on lines of evidence used in constructing a conclusion about potential human carcinogenicity. The paper also discusses issues that are mistakenly addressed as classification issues but are really part of the risk assessment process. 2 figs.

  6. Waste incineration and waste prevention: not a contradiction in terms; Abfallverbrennung ist kein Gegner der Abfallvermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    The paper provides a detailed analysis of the current situation on waste management in Germany and identifies 10 arguments on the issue that waste incineration and waste prevention are not contradiction in terms. The following topics are discussed within this frame: waste prevention in production and consumption; resource-efficient products; offsetting of efficiency gains by growth of volume; consumer behavior, need of waste management; influence of long-term waste management contracts; product responsibility; highest recovery rates despite incineration of residual waste; precise sorting as a prerequisite for recovery. It is concluded that waste incineration with energy generation and utilization of slag is an environmentally sound option.

  7. A feasibility study of adaptive plasma-assisted incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Julie

    Rising awareness in the need for environmental protection has brought into question the adequacy of conventional hazardous waste treatment operations. Regulatory standards are increasingly strict, and there is growing concern over the safety of incineration facilities. This research project examines the technoeconomic potential of thermal plasma technology in this context. Adaptive Plasma-Assisted Incineration (APAI) is a novel concept for secondary gas treatment in hazardous waste incineration. As an energy source for waste destruction, a thermal plasma can provide conditions far higher in temperature and in reactivity than those obtained using a combustion flame. Thus, the plasma is more effective at destroying hazardous materials, albeit at a higher cost. APAI features a thermal plasma afterburner with continual on-line optical monitoring of the gas product and feedback optimization of the plasma conditions. This approach allows complete destruction of persistent organic compounds and cost-effective response to feed load variations. The process supplements conventional incineration techniques with the effectiveness and flexibility of thermal plasma treatment. The main objectives are to reduce the risk of harmful emissions during hazardous waste incineration and to facilitate compliance with new environmental regulations. In this project, the technical feasibility of APAI was demonstrated experimentally using a laboratory-scale plasma afterburner model. The work focused on the development of a spectroscopic monitoring procedure and on the application of optimization techniques for cost-effective operation of the model system. The techno-economic potential and limitations of APAI were addressed in a conceptual study. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for specific applications. The costs of plasma-assisted and conventional methods were compared for contaminated soil remediation (by incineration and desorption) and for organic liquid waste

  8. Incineration of organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Zimmermann, Yannick Serge; Espinosa, Nieves; Lenz, Markus; Krebs, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of silver from the electrodes of roll-to-roll processed organic solar cells after incineration has been performed quantitatively by extraction with nitric acid. This procedure is more than 10 times faster than previous reports and the amount of acid needed for the extraction is reduced

  9. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  10. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  11. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  12. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  13. EPa`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Exposure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three major issues to be dealt with over the next ten years in the exposure assessment field are: consistency in terminology, the impact of computer technology on the choice of data and modeling, and conceptual issues such as the use of time-weighted averages.

  14. Relationship between regulatory issues and probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilberg, D.; Papazoglou, I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain some perspective on the characteristics and the relative number of regulatory issues that are PRA related, i.e., can be effectively addressed by plant specific PRA studies. It was also aimed at developing approaches to resolution of regulatory issues as part of plant specific PRAs. Several ongoing NRC programs include a number of safety-related issues which are applicable to operating plants. A number of these issues include aspects that strongly interact with items addressed in PRA studies. The resolution of several generic issues using PRA studies has already started. A review of over 335 issues included in three NRC programs was conducted: Generic Issue Program (GI); Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP); and TMI Action Plan (TMI). The review identifid 240 items related to PRA, 120 of which were judged to have significant effect on core damage frequency. It is believed that these items can be effectively treated in a PRA study that includes internal and external events

  15. Viewpoint Responding to Risks and Vulnerability Issues Through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. HUMAN MILK BIOMONITORING DATA: INTERPRETATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomonitoring data can, under certain conditions, be used to describe potential risks to human health (for example, blood lead levels used to determine children's neurodevelopmental risk). At present, there are very few chemical exposures at low levels for which sufficient data ...

  17. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  18. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and contaminated from Hg emissions produced by this incinerator. However the increase of Hg measured in downwind direction of the incinerator should be monitored for future potential risk.

  19. USDOE radioactive waste incineration technology: status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included

  20. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Quantification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourson, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The quantitative procedures associated with noncancer risk assessment include reference dose (RfD), benchmark dose, and severity modeling. The RfD, which is part of the EPA risk assessment guidelines, is an estimation of a level that is likely to be without any health risk to sensitive individuals. The RfD requires two major judgments: the first is choice of a critical effect(s) and its No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); the second judgment is choice of an uncertainty factor. This paper discusses major assumptions and limitations of the RfD model.

  1. Is political risk still an issue for Turkish stock market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Günay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the effects of internal political risk on the Turkish stock market in the period of 2001–2014. Empirical analyses are conducted through various methods to obtain breaks and regimes in the return volatilities of the BIST100 index. According to the results, while the number of breaks has increased in recent years, the risk level of recent periods is significantly lower than the early regimes, and the risk level trend for all regimes show a negative slope. In conclusion, the Turkish stock market responds to political events, but according to our results, not as significantly as in the past.

  2. Dangerous waste incineration and its impact on air quality. Case study: the incinerator SC Mondeco SRL Suceava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangerous waste, such as oil residues, pesticides, lacquers, stains, glues, organic solvents, hospital and food industry residues represent a major risk for all components of the environment (water, air, earth, soil, flora, fauna, people as well. Consequently, their incineration with high-performance burning installations lessens the impact on the environment, especially on the air quality, and it gives the possibility to recuperate the warmth of the incineration. This research presents a representative technique of incineration of dangerous waste at S.C. Mondeco S.R.L. Suceava, which runs according to the European standards, located in the industrial zone of Suceava, on the Suceava river valley Suceava. Also it is analysed the impact of this unit on the quality of nearby air. Moreover, not only the concentrations of gases and powders during the action of the incineration process (paramaters that are continuously monitored by highly methods are analysed, but also here are described the dispersions of those pollutants in the air, taking into account the characteristics of the source and the meteorological parametres that are in the riverbed. 

  3. Risk science and communication issues and challenges for food: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M I; Savige, G S; Dalais, F S; Wahlqvist, M L

    2000-12-01

    From any perspective, whether it be Australia or other countries, the issue of risk and food is one that includes all sectors of the community. The expansion of information technology and globalisation is making society as a whole more knowledgeable and expectant of safer foods with minimal risk. There is risk in everything and the basis of risk science is one that involves a number of established steps such as risk assessment, management and communication. The evolution of food technology, production and dietary habits, together with changes in trade, will no doubt raise new safety issues and governments need to be abreast of risk science to assess such changes.

  4. Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment

  5. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  6. Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted

  7. Incineration process fire and explosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Two incinerators will be installed in the plutonium recovery facility under construction at the Rocky Flats Plant. The fire and explosion protection features designed into the incineration facility are discussed as well as the nuclear safety and radioactive material containment features. Even though the incinerator system will be tied into an emergency power generation system, a potential hazard is associated with a 60-second delay in obtaining emergency power from a gas turbine driven generator. This hazard is eliminated by the use of steam jet ejectors to provide normal gas flow through the incinerator system during the 60 s power interruption. (U.S.)

  8. Methodological issues in cardiovascular epidemiology: the risk of determining absolute risk through statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Vassilis StavrinosOffice of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Department of Dietetics, Nutrition, Harokopio University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: During the past years there has been increasing interest in the development of cardiovascular disease functions that predict future events at individual level. However, this effort has not been so far very successful, since several investigators have reported large differences in the estimation of the absolute risk among different populations. For example, it seems that predictive models that have been derived from US or north European populations  overestimate the incidence of cardiovascular events in south European and Japanese populations. A potential explanation could be attributed to several factors such as geographical, cultural, social, behavioral, as well as genetic variations between the investigated populations in addition to various methodological, statistical, issues relating to the estimation of these predictive models. Based on current literature it can be concluded that, while risk prediction of future cardiovascular events is a useful tool and might be valuable in controlling the burden of the disease in a population, further work is required to improve the accuracy of the present predictive models.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk, models

  9. Viewpoint Responding to Risks and Vulnerability Issues Through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper emerges from a keynote presentation at the School of Education, Department of Teacher Education of the University of South Africa Research Indaba in September 2010. The paper introduces the concepts of risks and vulnerability by means of two examples of what happens when development ignores social ...

  10. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  11. Risk Management: An Analysis of Issues in Islamic Financial Industry (Occasional Papers)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Tariqullah; Ahmed, Habib

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of risk management issues of the Islamic financial industry. It outlines the risk management processes and techniques that enable financial institutions to control undesirable risks and to take benefit of the business opportunities created by the desirable ones.

  12. Issues of the economic risks theory under direct taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich Slavin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to calculate and justify the probabilistic characteristics of the economic risks of the company selling goods with profit and suffering from the burden of direct taxation. The economic nature and mechanisms of tax risks are described. Methods probabilisticdynamic method based on a few mathematically formulated principles ndash probability principle the principle of measurement etc. The method allows to find the optimal distributions of the phase variables components of the decisions vector of the production system numerical characteristics of which mathematical expectation variance covariance etc. bear the necessary information about the optimal properties of the economic actorsrsquobehavior. Results the basic equation of probabilisticdynamic method ndash the SchrodingerBellman equation ndash was integratedthe function of state was found the normal distribution was obtained of the vector of economic decisions in the phase space of the firm. The phase trajectories and the effective areas of the variables dispersion phase were researched. It is shown that at the intersection of the variation areas of normal distributions corresponding to two different production conditions there is a possibility of spontaneous transitions between these states accompanied by losses of capital assets of the company. The transition probabilities and the expression for average losses of working capital were calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of weak field tax perturbation leads to the modulation of the probability curves and average losses obtained earlier in the work by V.A. Slavin and I.N. Urusova quotMarket dynamics of productioneconomic system. 2. Transitions between production conditions. Elements of risks theoryquot for the company in the absence of taxation. The author outlines the nature of modulation of the main characteristics of tax risks related to the fact that the tax field influences the production system by phase trajectories

  13. Design and operation of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide safety guidance for the design and operation of radioactive waste incineration facilities. The guide emphasizes the design objectives and system requirements to be met and provides recommendations for the procedure of process selection and equipment design and operation. It is recognized that some incinerators may handle only very low or 'insignificant' levels of radioactivity, and in such cases some requirements or recommendations of this guide may not fully apply. Nevertheless, it is expected that any non-compliance with the guide will be addressed and justified in the licensing process. It is also recognized that the regulatory body may place a limit on the level of the radioactivity of the waste to be incinerated at a specific installation. For the purpose of this guide an insignificant level of release of radioactivity may typically be defined as either the continuous or single event release of the design basis radionuclide inventory that represents a negligible risk to the population, the operating personnel, and/or the environment. The guidance on what constitutes a negligible risk and how to translate negligible risk or dose into level of activity can be found in Safety Series No. 89, IAEA, Vienna. 20 refs, 1 fig

  14. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  15. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  16. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  17. Incinerators and health. guide for the behavior to have during a local demand of sanitary investigations around a domestic refuse incinerator; Incinerateurs et sante. Guide pour la conduite a tenir lors d'une demande locale d'investigations sanitaires autour d'un incinerateur d'ordures menageres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    11,4 million tons of municipal solid and assimilated waste were incinerated in France in 2000. The 123 incinerators compliant with the Order in Council of January 25, 1991 have undergone significant modifications in the last years, and the incineration techniques used are of great concern to the public. The backfitting to new regulations and the many research works have answered some of the rightful questions of the population on health risks caused by waste incineration. However, many doubts remain and there has been many requests by the local population for epidemiological investigations to be conducted on this issue. The objectives of this document, requested by the Health General Directorate and presented as 'actions to be taken', are to inform the decentralized services of the government and regional epidemiology units of the health problems caused by waste incineration facilities and to help them grasp on a local level the situation met around these facilities. Therefore, this paper provides some scientific arguments to justify the need (or not) for setting up some specific studies as part of an informed public health management. This document is divided in three parts. The first part describes the actions to be taken at the local level. The methodological framework is based on: i) an analysis of the local situation; ii) finding a new definition in terms of public health to the one or more questions raised, and the usefulness to set up one or more health investigations; iii) the relevance of a specific type of study which would allow to answer these questions; and iv) the feasibility of this type of study. The second part briefly describes the various types of health studies and their use as a decision-making tool on waste-incineration facilities. These results stem mainly from the analysis of studies already put forward and carried out in past local situations. The third part points out what is currently found in today's literature on

  18. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills G, Scott; Neuhauser, Sieglinde

    2000-01-01

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale

  19. Social and scientific issues in the acceptability of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.A.

    1990-09-01

    Ionising radiation hazards are perhaps the most documented and regulated occupational and environmental hazard. In the radiological protection field a single expert advisory organisation has held an unusually large influence on the international standard setting process. This is the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Two common, and opposing views, exist over the formulation of protection recommendations by the ICRP. The first, and most widely accepted, is that its recommendations are scientifically determined. The second view, is that its recommendations are politically or socially determined. A third view, provided by studies of the origins of the scientific controversy, suggests that both science and social factors are important in the assessment and limitation of risk. The aim of this thesis is to assess the process through which the ICRP formulates its radiological protection recommendations and comment on the extent that these are influenced by the affiliations of its members. This thesis concludes that the ICRP's recommendations have been shaped by a complex relationship of scientific and social considerations, in which a socio-technical commitment to nuclear energy has played a key role. The Commission has responded to new scientific data by making complex changes to its philosophy and methods of describing risk. Where reductions in numerical limits have been applied they have been accompanied by practical measures designed to limit the impact of the change and provide continuity with the old limits and flexibility in the application of the new recommendations. (author)

  20. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  1. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  2. Composition profiles and health risk of PCDD/F in outdoor air and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration and adjacent villages in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Dong, Han; Sun, Jie; Nie, Jihua; Zhang, Shuyu; Tang, Jinshun; Chen, Zhihai

    2016-11-15

    In present study, composition profiles and health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in outdoor air and fly ash from domestic waste treatment center (DWTC) were studied. In addition, the composition profiles and health risk of PCDD/F in outdoor air from adjacent villages were researched and used to quantitatively analyze the difference between onsite workers and adjacent villagers. Moreover, the difference between old intake method and new inhalation dosimetry method in the process of assessing the health risk of PCDD/Fs in outdoor air was quantitatively compared and analyzed. The results of this study were summarized as follows. (1) The 95th percentile carcinogenic risk (CR) and non-carcinogenic risk (non-CR) for onsite workers and adjacent villagers were much lower than the threshold values of 10(-6) and 1.0, respectively, suggesting no potential health risk. (2) The 95th percentile CR for onsite workers was 1.27×10(-8) and was 64.8 times higher than that of adjacent villagers (1.99×10(-10)). (3) The 95th percentile non-CR for onsite workers and adjacent villagers were 1.37×10(-4) and 1.31×10(-7), respectively. (3) Accidental ingestion of fly ash was the largest contributor to CR and non-CR for onsite workers, contributing 62.98% and 64.04% to CR and non-CR, respectively. (4) The CR and non-CR of PCDD/Fs in outdoor air for onsite workers and adjacent villagers which calculated by old intake method was much higher than the results from new inhalation dosimetry method. The results quantitatively showed the levels and potential risks of PCDD/Fs posed by a DWTC site, which can be helpful to predict the influence from DWTC sites and promote the management of DWTC in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  4. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  5. Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoff, D

    2013-09-01

    The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings.

  6. A full-scale study on thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and its secondary air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Yan, Dahai; Huang, Qifei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d -1 ) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution. The toxic equivalent quantity values of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased to solid waste incinerator economiser, and then co-processed in the air pollution control system. The degradation furnace released relatively large amounts of cadmium, lead and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans compared with the municipal solid waste incinerator, but the amounts emitted to the atmosphere did not exceed the Chinese national emission limits. Thermal degradation can therefore be used as a polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran abatement method for municipal solid waste incinerator source in China.

  7. Análise espacial dos riscos à saúde associados à incineração de resíduos sólidos: avaliação preliminar Spatial analysis of the health risks associated with solid waste incineration: a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: examinar se as emissões do incinerador de resíduos sólidos Vergueiro estavam associadas a um risco aumentado de câncer entre a população residente em seu entorno. MÉTODO: a área de influência deste incinerador foi delimitada por um raio de 7 km a partir de seu centróide georeferenciado. Os óbitos de indivíduos residentes em distritos administrativos contidos nessa área, no período de 1998 a 2002, por câncer de pulmão, fígado, laringe e linfoma não-Hodgkin em adultos, e por leucemia e todos cânceres combinados em crianças, foram selecionados e geocodificados. A área estudada foi dividida em 7 (sete anéis concêntricos delimitados por raios de 1 a 7 km a partir do incinerador. A análise da associação entre proximidade residencial ao incinerador e mortalidade por câncer foi baseada na comparação entre número de casos observados e esperados, utilizando-se o teste de Stone para examinar o declínio do risco (razão O/E com a distância do incinerador. RESULTADOS: a área estudada incluiu 1.599.532 habitantes, sendo 92.894 crianças 40 anos. Não se observou um gradiente espacial nas razões de mortalidade conforme aumenta a distância do incinerador para nenhuma das causas e morte examinadas. CONCLUSÃO: embora não tenha sido detectado aumento no risco dos cânceres previamente selecionados, é importante monitorar as emissões de incineradores ainda em funcionamento e seus possíveis efeitos na saúde. O estudo da distribuição da morbimortalidade em áreas circunvizinhas a essas instalações pode vir a ser uma opção metodológica para atividades de vigilância.OBJECTIVES: to examine if emissions from the Vergueiro solid waste incinerator are associated with an increased risk of cancer in the population in its vicinity. METHODS: the area under influence of this incinerator was delimited by a 7 km radius from its geocoded centroid. Deaths of city residents in administrative districts inside this area due to

  8. Process management - critical safety issues with focus on risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2005-12-01

    Organizational changes focused on process orientation are taking place among Swedish nuclear power plants, aiming at improving the operation. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has identified a need for increased knowledge within the area for its regulatory activities. In order to analyze what process orientation imply for nuclear power plant safety a number of questions must be asked: 1. How is safety in nuclear power production created currently? What significance does the functional organization play? 2. How can organizational forms be analysed? What consequences does quality management have for work and for the enterprise? 3. Why should nuclear power plants be process oriented? Who are the customers and what are their customer values? Which customers are expected to contribute from process orientation? 4. What can one learn from process orientation in other safety critical systems? What is the effect on those features that currently create safety? 5. Could customer values increase for one customer without decreasing for other customers? What is the relationship between economic and safety interests from an increased process orientation? The deregulation of the electricity market have caused an interest in increased economic efficiency, which is the motivation for the interest in process orientation. among other means. It is the nuclear power plants' owners and the distributors (often the same corporations) that have the strongest interest in process orientation. If the functional organization and associated practices are decomposed, the prerequisites of the risk management regime changes, perhaps deteriorating its functionality. When nuclear power operators consider the introduction of process orientation, the Nuclear Power Inspectorate should require that 1. The operators perform a risk analysis beforehand concerning the potential consequences that process orientation might convey: the analysis should contain a model specifying how safety is currently

  9. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues. PMID:29515820

  10. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.

  11. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily 134 Cs and 137 Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added 133 Cs (stable nuclide) or 134 Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, 133 Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. 134 Cs behaved in a similar fashion as 133 Cs. We found through TG–DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. - Highlights: • Behaviors of Cs on the incineration of the model waste were investigated. • More Cs was moved to fly ash with increasing of equivalence ratio and temperature. • Chemical forms of Cs in the fly ash

  12. Special Issue “Actuarial and Financial Risks in Life Insurance, Pensions and Household Finance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Regis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Special Issue is to address some of the main challenges individuals and companies face in managing financial and actuarial risks, when dealing with their investment/retirement or business-related decisions [...

  13. Permitting a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, changes in the laws and regulations have produced an increased emphasis on proper solid waste disposal. Experience with various types of industrial wastes has shown that a large segment of these materials should not go to a landfill. If these wastes are prohibited from landfills, an effective alternative is incineration. The Department of Energy (DOE) has seen the need to build an incinerator at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to treat wastes that are generated at the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations facilities, many of which are contaminated with low levels of radioactivity. An extensive effort has been put forth to bring this project to reality. Several permits from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment are required before the facility can operate. These permits include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Permit, (2) Toxic Substances Control Act Permit, (3) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit, (4) Tennessee State Air Permit, and (5) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Approval Letter. The permitting process has been very long and involved and has taken nearly three years to complete. Currently, plans are to have the facility fully operational by January 1988

  14. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  15. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    During a 10-year period (1980-1989), at least 43 cases of self-incineration with lethal outcome took place in Denmark. The incidence seems to be increasing: 11 cases took place in the first 5 years and 32 cases in the last 5 years. An even sex ratio as found (male:female = 23:20). The median age...... was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...

  16. Destruction of nuclear graphite using closed chamber incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senor, D.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Morgan, W.C.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Closed chamber incineration (CCI) is a novel technique by which irradiated nuclear graphite may be destroyed without the risk of radioactive cation release into the environment. The process utilizes an enclosed combustion chamber coupled with molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The transport of cations is intrinsically suppressed by the MCFCs, such that only the combustion gases are conducted through for release to the environment. An example CCI design was developed which had as its goal the destruction of graphite fuel elements from the Fort St. Vrain reactor (FSVR). By employing CCI, the volume of high level waste from the FSVR will be reduced by approximately 87 percent. Additionally, the incineration process will convert the SiC coating on the FSVR fuel particles to SiO 2 , thus creating a form potentially suitable for direct incorporation in a vitrification process stream. The design is compact, efficient, and makes use of currently available technology

  17. Power generation: country risk and other financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, M.

    2000-01-01

    Larger banks are very familiar with power generation financing. However, financing nuclear power plants remains a very peculiar field where nothing is possible without an agreement between the country of the buyer (sovereign guarantee) and the country of the supplier (intervention of the Export Credit Agency). The banks involved in such financing will commit themselves for a very long period of time which will exceed the financial markets' standard capabilities. Therefore it is only the intervention of the Export Credit Agencies which will allow the implementation of the required financing. It is, in fact, impossible to by-pass the country risks for these operations. Who, in 1986, during the signing ceremony of the Daya Bay contract, in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, would have imagined that, three years later, the tanks would be rolling in on the adjacent Tien An Men Square, to confront the students and that one of the consequences would be the re-scheduling of the credits granted to Bank of China? Nobody. The Power Generation, above all the nuclear one, is a long term process and, as ever, all the parameters are not known from the very beginning. This situation provides an ideal setting for a good combination of joys and shudders. (author)

  18. Principles and issues in radiological ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Daniel; Domotor, Stephen; Higley Kathryn; Kocher, David; Bilyard, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a bridge between the fields of ecological risk coefficients.variability o published particle-solution distribution coeffiissues identified in the US Department of Energy's Graded Approach fo Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota in a manner consistent with the US Environmental Protection Agency's framework for ERA. Current radiological ERA methods and data are intended for use in protecting natural populations of biota, rather than individual members of a population. Potentially susceptible receptors include vertebrates and terrestrial plants One must ensure that all media, radionuclides (including short-lived radioactive decay products), types of radiations (i.e., alpha particles electrons, and photons), and pathways (i.e., internal and external contamination) are combined in each exposure scenario. The relative biological effectiveness of alpha particles with respect to deterministic effects must also be considered. Expected safe levels of exposure are available for the protection of natural populations of aquatic biota (10 mGy d -1 ) and terrestrial plants (10 mGy d -1 ) and animals (1 mGy d -1 ) and are appropriate for use in all radiological ERA tiers, provided that appropriate exposure assumptions are used. Caution must be exercised (and a thorough justification provided) if more restrictive limits are selected, to ensure that the supporting data are of high quality, reproducible, and clearly relevant to the protection of natural populations

  19. Cloud Computing Services: Benefits, Risks and Intellectual Property Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BĂLŢĂTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Major software players of the global market, such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft are developing cloud computing solutions, providing cloud services on demand: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS and Software as a service (SaaS. In software industry and also in ICT services market, cloud computing is playing an increasingly important role. Moreover, the expansion of cloud services indirectly contributed to the development and improvement of other types of services on the market – financial and accounting services, human resources services, educational services etc. – in terms of quality and affordability. Given the fact that cloud computing applications proved to be more affordable for small and medium enterprises (SME, an increasing number of companies in almost all the fields of activity have chosen cloud based solutions, such as Enterprise Resource Management (ERP software and Customer Relationship Management (CRM software. However, cloud computing services involve also some risks concerning privacy, security of data and lack of interoperability between cloud platforms. Patent strategy of certain proprietary software companies leaded to a veritable “patent war” and “patent arm race” endangering the process of standardization in software industry, especially in cloud computing. Intellectual property (IP legislation and court ruling in patent litigations is likely to have a significant impact on the development of cloud computing industry and cloud services.

  20. Health-care waste incineration and related dangers to public health: case study of the two teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Nkonge A; Oloo, Mayabi A; Kithinji, J; Kithinji, Magambo J

    2012-12-01

    There are practically no low cost, environmentally friendly options in practice whether incineration, autoclaving, chemical treatment or microwaving (World Health Organisation in Health-care waste management training at national level, [2006] for treatment of health-care waste. In Kenya, incineration is the most popular treatment option for hazardous health-care waste from health-care facilities. It is the choice practiced at both Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. A study was done on the possible public health risks posed by incineration of the segregated hazardous health-care waste in one of the incinerators in each of the two hospitals. Gaseous emissions were sampled and analyzed for specific gases the equipment was designed and the incinerators Combustion efficiency (CE) established. Combustion temperatures were also recorded. A flue gas analyzer (Model-Testos-350 XL) was used to sample flue gases in an incinerator under study at Kenyatta National Hospital--Nairobi and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital--Eldoret to assess their incineration efficiency. Flue emissions were sampled when the incinerators were fully operational. However the flue gases sampled in the study, by use of the integrated pump were, oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide and No(x). The incinerator at KNH operated at a mean stack temperature of 746 °C and achieved a CE of 48.1 %. The incinerator at MTRH operated at a mean stack temperature of 811 °C and attained a CE of 60.8 %. The two health-care waste incinerators achieved CE below the specified minimum National limit of 99 %. At the detected stack temperatures, there was a possibility that other than the emissions identified, it was possible that the two incinerators tested released dioxins, furans and antineoplastic (cytotoxic drugs) fumes should the drugs be subjected to incineration in the two units.

  1. Waste incineration and adverse birth and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Danielle C; Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-08-01

    Public concern about potential health risks associated with incineration has prompted studies to investigate the relationship between incineration and risk of cancer, and more recently, birth outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the relationship between waste incineration and the risk of adverse birth and neonatal outcomes. Literature searches were performed within the MEDLINE database, through PubMed and Ovid interfaces, for the search terms; incineration, birth, reproduction, neonatal, congenital anomalies and all related terms. Here we discuss and critically evaluate the findings of these studies. A comprehensive literature search yielded fourteen studies, encompassing a range of outcomes (including congenital anomalies, birth weight, twinning, stillbirths, sex ratio and infant death), exposure assessment methods and study designs. For congenital anomalies most studies reported no association with proximity to or emissions from waste incinerators and "all anomalies", but weak associations for neural tube and heart defects and stronger associations with facial clefts and urinary tract defects. There is limited evidence for an association between incineration and twinning and no evidence of an association with birth weight, stillbirths or sex ratio, but this may reflect the sparsity of studies exploring these outcomes. The current evidence-base is inconclusive and often limited by problems of exposure assessment, possible residual confounding, lack of statistical power with variability in study design and outcomes. However, we identified a number of higher quality studies reporting significant positive relationships with broad groups of congenital anomalies, warranting further investigation. Future studies should address the identified limitations in order to help improve our understanding of any potential adverse birth outcomes associated with incineration, particularly focussing on broad groups of anomalies, to inform

  2. Ecotoxicology for risk assessment in arid zones: some key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, J W

    1997-01-01

    In the hot arid zones of the world, ecotoxicological research is in statu nascendi. In these zones, the major sources of contamination by toxicants are: (1) plant protection and vector control in wet zones; (2) large-scale crop protection campaigns in dry and ephemeral wet zones; (3) refuse and obsolete pesticides in dry zones; and (4) mining. Economic development in many of these zones requires an adequate knowledge of certain basic principles, i.e., where extrapolating existing knowledge does not apply. The vulnerability of ecosystems to contaminants is closely related to water flow. In dry areas, species are susceptible to factors that interfere with the ecophysiological properties regulating water loss. Most hot arid areas are found at low latitudes where temperatures show striking extremes both in time and space. Living organisms are physiologically resistant and/or show adaptive behavior to these temperature extremes. Very little is known about the effects of toxicants on these key resistant and adaptive functions, although by extrapolation a few assumptions can be made. The effects of hyperthermia, for instance, can be aggravated by GSH depleting substances, and the temporary disabling effects characteristic of many pesticides may prove fatal under these circumstances. Most wet areas show a spatial concentration of both human activity and wildlife. In mesic zones, the contamination of water represents a health risk to both humans and other living organisms. The vast majority of aquatic communities are those inhabiting temporary pools and streams. Their populations are characterized by short reproductive cycles and/or long dormant stages. Toxicants affecting growth in these areas have been shown to have a deleterious effect. In a synthesis of existing knowledge the most prominent gaps are identified and priorities for further research are made.

  3. A chemical basis for the partitioning of radionuclides in incinerator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.

    1994-09-01

    For waste containing small amounts of radioactivity, rad waste (RW), or mixed waste (MW) containing both radioactive and chemically hazardous components, incineration is a logical management candidate because of inherent safety, waste volume reduction, and low costs. Successful operation requires that the facility is properly designed and operated to protect workers and to limit releases of hazardous materials. The large decrease in waste volume achieved by incineration also results in a higher concentration of most of the radionuclides and non radioactive heavy metals in the ash products. These concentrations impact subsequent treatment and disposal. The various constituents (chemical elements) are not equal in concentration in the various incinerator feed materials, nor are they equal in their contribution to health risks on subsequent handling, or accidental release. Thus, for management of the wastes it is important to be able to predict how the nuclides partition between the primary combustion residue which may be an ash or a fused slag, the fine particulates or fly ash that is trapped in the burner off-gas by several different techniques, and the airborne fraction that escapes to the atmosphere. The objective of this report is to provide an estimate of how different elements of concern may behave in the chemical environment of the incinerator. The study briefly examines published incinerator operation data, then considers the properties of the elements of concern, and employs thermodynamic calculations, to help predict the fate of these RW and MW constituents. Many types and configurations of incinerators have been designed and tested.

  4. Envirotoxins from waste incineration - how does the supervision work?; Miljoegifter fraan avfallsfoerbraenningen - hur fungerar tillsynen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Incineration of household wastes has increased rapidly in Sweden during the last few years, and new plants are being built. The volume of residues from waste incineration is expected to grow from 450,000 tons in 1999 to 1,100,000 tons in 2008. The National Audit Office (SNAO) has made an inquiry into the supervision by responsible authorities of incineration plants and landfills in order to how the environmental legislation is applied in practise. The investigation includes case studies of six incineration plants and seven landfills where the residues from the plants are disposed. The supervision is part of a complex system made up of state, local and private actors who all have a responsibility for applying the environmental legislation. SNAO has found serious shortcomings in the operational supervision of all incineration plants studied and several landfills concerning the risk of toxins leaching into the environment. SNAO also points at the lack of knowledge at the Swedish EPA regarding the potential environmental problems of incineration residues and the need for evaluation of the supervisory function. SNAO recommends that the government take an initiative for making more detailed demands in the environmental legislation, and that the Swedish EPA should improve its knowledge about the quality of the operational supervision in accordance with the legislation.

  5. Radioactive-waste incineration at Purdue University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A study conducted at Purdue University to evaluate the feasibility of using a small (45 kg/h), inexpensive (less than $10K) incinerator for incinerating low-level radioactive waste is described. An oil-fired, dual-chamber pathological waste incinerator was installed on a 12.7-cm-thick concrete floor in a metal quonset building. A standard EPA Method 5 sampling train was used to obtain stack samples. Also, stack gas velocity was measured with a type 5 pitot tube; stack temperature was measured with a thermocouple and pyrometer. The incinerator was tested for emissions from incineration of laboratory animal carcasses, liquid scintillation fluid, and trash. Emissions measured were particulates, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, Cl, CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, and unburned hydrocarbons in the particulate fraction. Three analyses were then averaged to arrive at the final determinations. Results of the study demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of incinerating radioactive animal carcasses and liquid scintillation fluids, since emissions from those waste types were within EPA and State of Indiana limits. However, emissions from burning of trash exceeded State of Indiana limits. Therefore, incineration of trash alone, particularly if it contains glass or significant amounts of plastic, is not a recommended use of the tested equipment

  6. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The undebated issue of justice: silent discourses in Dutch flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, M.; Priest, S.J.; Leroy, P.

    2018-01-01

    Flood risk of all types of flooding is projected to increase based on climate change projections and increases in damage potential. These challenges are likely to aggravate issues of justice in flood risk management (hereafter FRM). Based on a discursive institutionalist perspective, this paper

  8. Telemental Health for Children and Adolescents: An Overview of Legal, Regulatory, and Risk Management Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gregory M; Luxton, David D

    2016-04-01

    The use of technology to provide telemental healthcare continues to increase; however, little has been written about the legal and regulatory issues involved in providing this form of care to children and adolescents. This article reviews existing laws and regulations to summarize the risk management issues relevant to providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents. There are several legal and regulatory areas in which telemental health clinicians need to have awareness. These areas include: 1) Licensure, 2) malpractice liability, 3) credentialing and privileging, 4) informed consent, 5) security and privacy, and 6) emergency management. Although legal and regulatory challenges remain in providing telemental healthcare to children and adolescents, it is possible to overcome these challenges with knowledge of the issues and appropriate risk management strategies. We provide general knowledge of these key legal and regulatory issues, along with some risk management recommendations.

  9. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge on dioxins formation and emission from waste incinerators. The pertinent Italian law and effects on man health are dealt with, too. The picture of existing municipal incinerators is presented concerning both the actual emission levels and the monitored levels in the environment. Sampling and analysis systems of these organic chlorinated micro-pollutants and current theories on precursors, formation mechanisms, and influence of different parameters are also described. The last section deals with some of the techniques that can be used to reduce dioxins formation and emission from municipal incinerators. (author)

  10. Radwaste incineration, is it ready for use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The incinerator installed at JAERI in 1973 has the record of being operated continually for eight years without noticeable damage even in the refractories. We are convinced that it can be used for along period of time. These incinerators in Japan are now regarded as the useful and reliable waste management facilities, though they are processing the restricted sorts of wastes, such as low level ombustible solids and oils. In the future, incinerators of these types are supposed to increase in number in Japan, and they will continue to contribute as an important volume reduction measure which can also convert the wastes to chemically stable substances

  11. Development and testing of a mobile incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development and testing of a mobile incinerator for processing of combustible dry active waste (DAW) and contaminated oil generated at Nuclear Power Plants is presented. Topics of discussion include initial thoughts on incineration as applied to nuclear waste; DOE's Aerojet's, and CECo's role in the Project; design engineering concepts; site engineering support; licensability; generation of test data; required reports of the NRC and Illinois and California EPA's; present project schedule for incinerating DAW at Dresden and other CECo Stations; and lessons learned from the project

  12. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  13. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant

  14. Maritime transportation risk analysis: Review and analysis in light of some foundational issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Many methods and applications for maritime transportation risk analysis have been presented in the literature. In parallel, there is a recent focus on foundational issues in risk analysis, with calls for intensified research on fundamental concepts and principles underlying the scientific field. This paper presents a review and analysis of risk definitions, perspectives and scientific approaches to risk analysis found in the maritime transportation application area, focusing on applications addressing accidental risk of shipping in a sea area. For this purpose, a classification of risk definitions, an overview of elements in risk perspectives and a classification of approaches to risk analysis science are applied. Results reveal that in the application area, risk is strongly tied to probability, both in definitions and perspectives, while alternative views exist. A diffuse situation is also found concerning the scientific approach to risk analysis, with realist, proceduralist and constructivist foundations co-existing. Realist approaches dominate the application area. Very few applications systematically account for uncertainty, neither concerning the evidence base nor in relation to the limitations of the risk model in relation to the space of possible outcomes. Some suggestions are made to improve the current situation, aiming to strengthen the scientific basis for risk analysis. - Highlights: • Risk analyses in maritime transportation analysed in light of foundational issues. • Focus on definitions, perspectives and scientific approaches to risk analysis. • Probability-based definitions and realist approaches dominate the field. • Findings support calls for increased focus on foundational issues in risk research. • Some suggestions are made to improve the current situation

  15. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  16. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  17. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...... of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted....

  18. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  19. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests

  20. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  1. ORGDP RCRA/PCB incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.

    1987-01-01

    A dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator is currently being constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant [ORGDP (K-25)] to destroy uranium contaminated, hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated by the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, TN; Paducah, KY; and Portsmouth, OH. In addition, waste will also be received from the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Destruction of PCBs and hazardous liquid organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. This system was selected faster a study of various alternatives. Incineration was chosen because it is dependable, permanent, detoxifies organics, and reduces volume. The rotary kiln incinerator was selected because it can thermally destroy organic constituents of liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incineration off-gas treatment system, the facility includes a tank farm, drum storage buildings, a solids preparation area, a control room, and a data management system. The incineration system, off-gas treatment system, and related instrumentation and controls are being provided by International Waste Energy Systems (IWES) which is responsible for design, construction, startup, and performances testing

  2. Incineration of European non-nuclear radioactive waste in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, B. P.; Ferguson, D.; Stephenson, B.

    2013-01-01

    Incineration of dry low level radioactive waste from nuclear stations is a well established process achieving high volume reduction factors to minimise disposal costs and to stabilise residues for disposal. Incineration has also been applied successfully in many European Union member countries to wastes arising from use of radionuclides in medicine, nonnuclear research and industry. However, some nations have preferred to accumulate wastes over many years in decay stores to reduce the radioactive burden at point of processing. After decay and sorting the waste, they then require a safe, industrial scale and affordable processing solution for the large volumes accumulated. This paper reports the regulatory, logistical and technical issues encountered in a programme delivered for Eckert and Ziegler Nuclitec to incinerate safely 100 te of waste collected originally from German research, hospital and industrial centres, applying for the first time a 'burn and return' process model for European waste in the US. The EnergySolutions incinerators at Bear Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA routinely incinerate waste arising from the non-nuclear user community. To address the requirement from Germany, EnergySolutions had to run a dedicated campaign to reduce cross-contamination with non-German radionuclides to the practical minimum. The waste itself had to be sampled in a carefully controlled programme to ensure the exacting standards of Bear Creek's license and US emissions laws were maintained. Innovation was required in packaging of the waste to minimise transportation costs, including sea freight. The incineration was inspected on behalf of the German regulator (the BfS) to ensure suitability for return to Germany and disposal. This first 'burn and return' programme has safely completed the incineration phase in February and the arising ash will be returned to Germany presently. The paper reports the main findings and lessons learned on this first

  3. Process control in municipal solid waste incinerators: survey and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, R; Baxter, D

    2004-06-01

    As there is only rare and scattered published information about the process control in industrial incineration facilities for municipal solid waste (MSW), a survey of the literature has been supplemented by a number of waste incineration site visits in Belgium and The Netherlands, in order to make a realistic assessment of the current status of technology in the area. Owing to the commercial character, and therefore, the confidentiality restrictions imposed by plant builders and many of the operators, much of the information collected has either to be presented in a generalized manner, and in any case anonymously. The survey was focused on four major issues: process control strategy, process control systems, monitors used for process control and finally the correlation between the 850 degrees C/2 s rule in the European waste incineration directive and integrated process control. The process control strategies range from reaching good and stable emissions at the stack to stabilizing and maximizing the energy output from the process. The main indicator to be monitored, in cases in which the focus is controlling emissions, is the oxygen content in the stack. Keeping the oxygen concentration in a determined range (usually between 8 and 12 vol.%) ensures stable and tolerated concentrations of the gaseous emissions. In the case for which stabilization of energy production is the principal aim, the main controlled parameter is the steam temperature and flow-rate, which is usually related to the fuel energetic input. A lot of other parameters are used as alarm criteria, the most common of which is the carbon monoxide concentration. The process control systems used most commonly feature partially automated classical proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. New and innovative process control systems, such as fuzzy-logic control systems, are still unknown to most plant managers while their performance is reported to be unsatisfactory in plants in which such systems

  4. Risk perception in an interest group context: an examination of the TMI restart issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Carnes, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Human response to environmental hazards and risks has been the subject of considerable research by social scientists. Work has traditionally focused on either individual response to the risks of an ongoing or future threat (hazards research), or group and organizational response to a specific disaster event (disaster research). As part of a larger investigation of the restart of the Unit 1 reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI), the response of interest groups active in the restart issue to the continued threat of TMI and to future risks due to restart was examined. After reviewing the restart issue in general, the local dimensions of the restart issue from interest group perspectives are discussed. A method for defining appropriate issues at the community level is reviewed. Differences in the perceived local impacts of alternative decisions, and systems of beliefs associated with differing perceptions are discussed. Finally, the implications of interest group versus individual perceptions of local issues for decision making about TMI, in particular, and about technological hazards management, in general, are discussed. Associated implications for determining socially acceptable risk levels are identified

  5. A Model for Determining Modular Heat Recovery Incinerator Feasibility on Air Force Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    recognize that there are limits in the level of control that an Air Force installation can yield to the public (73:86). e Polluion •Issues. It is...AD-A261 336 11 lHINN 1 AFIT/GEE/ENV/92S-2 DTIC ELECTE MAR2 1993 C A MODEL FOR DETERMINING MODULAR HEAT RECOVERY INCINERATOR FEASIBILITY ON AIR FORCE...INCINERATOR FEASIBILITY ON AIR FORCE INSTALLATIONS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  6. Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle.

  7. Analysis of operating costs a Low-Level Mixed Waste Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loghry, S.L.; Salmon, R.; Hermes, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    By definition, mixed wastes contain both chemically hazardous and radioactive components. These components make the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes expensive and highly complex issues because the different regulations which pertain to the two classes of contaminants frequently conflict. One method to dispose of low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) is by incineration, which volatizes and destroys the organic (and other) hazardous contaminants and also greatly reduces the waste volume. The US Department of Energy currently incinerates liquid LLMW in its Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located at the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This incinerator has been fully permitted since 1991 and to date has treated approximately 7 x 10 6 kg of liquid LLMW. This paper presents an analysis of the budgeted operating costs by category (e.g., maintenance, plant operations, sampling and analysis, and utilities) for fiscal year 1994 based on actual operating experience (i.e., a ''bottoms-up'' budget). These costs provide benchmarking guidelines which could be used in comparing incinerator operating costs with those of other technologies designed to dispose of liquid LLMW. A discussion of the current upgrade status and future activities are included in this paper. Capital costs are not addressed

  8. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Z, L.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  9. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  10. Inventory Analysis and Social Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tsang Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WtE incineration technology is widely used to solve the energy supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation problems in urban areas. In Taiwan, there are new laws and regulations that would affect greenhouse gas management of WtE incineration plants. This research aims to identify or raise key issues to be promoted for WtE incineration plants due to existing management systems and complex issues mixed with GHG, energy, and solid waste treatment. This study utilizes inventory analysis and social LCA (SLCA approach on GHG management of WtE incineration plants in Taiwan to systematically identify materiality issues to be promoted. According to the results of materiality analysis for SLCA, this study generalizes four stakeholders, nine subcategories, and their 15 inventory indicators; and concludes that, among assessment results of 15 inventory indicators, three indicators are at a high level, four at a medium level, and eight at a low level. In total, 12 materiality issues are recognized. This study suggests WtE incineration plants should consider the following materiality issues with respect to priority: a systematic database and calculation methods, the goal and criteria of the laws and regulations, technology development toward circular economy and promotion activity or opportunity for local community and organization level.

  11. Communication on radiation risk as an area of conflict between radiological, sociological and perceptional issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Taghizadegan, R. [University of Technology Vienna, Atominstitute of Austrian Universities, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Risk communication in radiation protection must not be considered as a single discipline, but is based upon an effective interaction of different scientific fields. This implies that radiological and sociological issues as well as risk perception are to be taken into account. However, communication is not straightforward, as the fields have different objectives, are different in terminology, apply different approaches to solve problems, and are using different languages. Issues to be addressed in this paper are among others: possible meanings and definitions of the term 'risk', handling of uncertainty and variability of parameters as risk factors, importance of doses delivered in the far future, reasonable application of the dose commitment concept, and perception of small numbers. Other issues are sociological issues as interests of stakeholders and involved parties, importance of public opinion, media and cultural prototypes, bias in different groups of advocate. As communication will become effective only if the different contributing parties adjust their way of thinking and their language to the requirements of others without modification of their knowledge, guidance for interaction is important. The paper will review possible approaches suitable for better communication. (authors)

  12. Communication on radiation risk as an area of conflict between radiological, sociological and perceptional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Taghizadegan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Risk communication in radiation protection must not be considered as a single discipline, but is based upon an effective interaction of different scientific fields. This implies that radiological and sociological issues as well as risk perception are to be taken into account. However, communication is not straightforward, as the fields have different objectives, are different in terminology, apply different approaches to solve problems, and are using different languages. Issues to be addressed in this paper are among others: possible meanings and definitions of the term 'risk', handling of uncertainty and variability of parameters as risk factors, importance of doses delivered in the far future, reasonable application of the dose commitment concept, and perception of small numbers. Other issues are sociological issues as interests of stakeholders and involved parties, importance of public opinion, media and cultural prototypes, bias in different groups of advocate. As communication will become effective only if the different contributing parties adjust their way of thinking and their language to the requirements of others without modification of their knowledge, guidance for interaction is important. The paper will review possible approaches suitable for better communication. (authors)

  13. Application of the SBWR PRA to respond to risk-based regulation issues for advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebregts, A.J. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands). Risk Analysis Section; Duncan, J.D. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States). Nuclear Energy Div.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses briefly the SBWR design, the 1993 SBWR PRA, and two specific, recent risk-based regulation issues for advanced reactors, viz. the Regulatory Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS, including the Focused PRA), and the Phenomenological PRA. (orig.).

  14. Presenting Social Issues with Videotape [and] Teaming Up to Take a Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Diana; Jackson, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Two articles discuss the use of media in schools. One describes the use of videotapes to present social issues; the second describes the use of an integrated learning system with ninth and tenth grade at-risk students to improve their rate of attendance, academic achievement, and self-esteem. (LRW)

  15. Methodological issues in the study of risk perception and human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad perspective on the use of the methods and techniques of the behavioral and social sciences as they pertain to the work of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, particularly in issues of risk perception. Four major topics or themes are discussed: (1) a brief overview of the classic theories of risk perception; (2) current contractor work in the area of risk perception and cognitive psychology; (3) other uses of the social and behavioral sciences in the Agency; and (4) methodological considerations in using the techniques

  16. Probabilistic and technology-specific modeling of emissions from municipal solid-waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Annette; Peyer, Fabio; Salzmann, Christoph; Saner, Dominik

    2011-04-15

    The European legislation increasingly directs waste streams which cannot be recycled toward thermal treatment. Models are therefore needed that help to quantify emissions of waste incineration and thus reveal potential risks and mitigation needs. This study presents a probabilistic model which computes emissions as a function of waste composition and technological layout of grate incineration plants and their pollution-control equipment. In contrast to previous waste-incineration models, this tool is based on a broader empirical database and allows uncertainties in emission loads to be quantified. Comparison to monitoring data of 83 actual European plants showed no significant difference between modeled emissions and measured data. An inventory of all European grate incineration plants including technical characteristics and plant capacities was established, and waste material mixtures were determined for different European countries, including generic elemental waste-material compositions. The model thus allows for calculation of country-specific and material-dependent emission factors and enables identification and tracking of emission sources. It thereby helps to develop strategies to decrease plant emissions by reducing or redirecting problematic waste fractions to other treatment options or adapting the technological equipment of waste incinerators.

  17. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  18. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk management and organizational systems for high-level radioactive waste disposal: Issues and priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, J.; Cook, B.; Kasperson, R.; Brown, H.; Guble, R.; Himmelberger, J.; Tuller, S.

    1988-09-01

    The discussion to follow explores the nature of the high-level radioactive waste disposal tasks and their implications for the design and organizational structure of effective risk management systems. We organize this discussion in a set of interrelated tasks that draw upon both relevant theory and accumulated experience. Specifically these tasks are to assess the management implications of the high levels of technical and social uncertainty that characterize the technology and mission; to identify the elements of organizational theory that bear upon risk management system design; to explore these theoretical issues in the context of two hypothetical risk scenarios associated with radioactive waste disposal; to consider the appropriate role of engineered and geological barriers; to examine briefly issues implicit in DOE's past waste management performance, with special attention to the Hanford facility; and to suggest findings and recommendations that require further attention. 74 refs

  20. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials

  1. Guide of Evaluation of the Operation of Incinerators of Solid Waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Sanchez, J.

    2001-01-01

    administration of residuals. That is to say, it will be strictly applied to the special residuals, mainly for the low energy contained in the generated waste, what makes expensive the operation costs and maintenance. The incineration is a highly effective treatment technique when it is carried out with technical, scientific, administrative and financial approaches, since it reduces the biological risk, the weight, the volume and the time of treatment of the residual. (Author) [es

  2. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  4. Holistic approach to multi-unit site risk assessment: Status and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Jang, Mi Suk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Company (NESS), Daejeon Business Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 point out, among other matters, that concurrent accidents at multiple units of a site can occur in reality. Although site risk has been deterministically considered to some extent in nuclear power plant siting and design, potential occurrence of multi-unit accident sequences at a site was not investigated in sufficient detail thus far in the nuclear power community. Therefore, there is considerable worldwide interest and research effort directed toward multi-unit site risk assessment, especially in the countries with high-density nuclear-power-plant sites such as Korea. As the technique of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been successfully applied to evaluate the risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants in the past several decades, the PSA having primarily focused on single-unit risks is now being extended to the multi-unit PSA. In this paper we first characterize the site risk with explicit consideration of the risk associated with spent fuel pools as well as the reactor risks. The status of multi-unit risk assessment is discussed next, followed by a description of the emerging issues relevant to the multi-unit risk evaluation from a practical standpoint.

  5. Uses of human reliability analysis probabilistic risk assessment results to resolve personnel performance issues that could affect safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.; Spettell, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    This report is the first in a series which documents research aimed at improving the usefulness of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) results in addressing human risk issues. This first report describes the results of an assessment of how well currently available PRA data addresses human risk issues of current concern to NRC. Findings indicate that PRA data could be far more useful in addressing human risk issues with modification of the development process and documentation structure of PRAs. In addition, information from non-PRA sources could be integrated with PRA data to address many other issues. 12 tabs

  6. Policy issues arising from the judgmental nature of risk-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcquaid, J.

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of risks is pervaded by the need to exercise judgement. The scientific basis for characterising risk problems and judging the effectiveness of possible controls is often uncertain, lacking information and understanding of the processes involved. However, the risk management measures adopted will not be determined by science alone, but must reflect sociological, economic, ethical and political considerations. These in turn are in themselves judgmental, informed to a greater or lesser extent by empirical evidence and influenced by the prevailing climate of public opinion. The overall process provides a rich source of confusion for the public as to the status of the eventual policy decision, with important implications for the manner in which the process of communication is managed. The important role of judgement, as distinct from formal analysis, at every stage needs to be reflected in risk communication. The engagement of those who bear the risks, and of other interested parties in the exercise of judgement must be tailored to nature of the judgement and to the decision to be made. Appropriate procedures need to be adopted to enable that engagement. Although the issue has come into particular prominence in recent years, it is not a new phenomenon. The presentation will describe the arrangements that have been developed in the UK over the past 25 years, and will be illustrated by some specific examples of risk decision making on issues of high public concern. (author)

  7. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  8. Conceptual process description of M division incinerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, T.K.

    1989-04-13

    This interoffice memorandum describes an incineration system to be used for incinerating wood. The system is comprised of a shredder and an incinerator. The entire process is described in detail. A brief study of particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides emission is presented.

  9. Addition of liquid waste incineration capability to the INEL's low-level waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; Clark, D.P.; McFee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid waste system has recently been installed in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In this paper, aspects of the incineration system such as the components, operations, capabilities, capital cost, EPA permit requirements, and future plans are discussed. The principal objective of the liquid incineration system is to provide the capability to process hazardous, radioactively contaminated, non-halogenated liquid wastes. The system consists primarily of a waste feed system, instrumentation and controls, and a liquid burner, which were procured at a capital cost of $115,000

  10. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  11. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  12. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force

  13. Current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. 1. Features and issues of probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) could play an important role in assuring safety of NPPs. However PRA had not always effectively used, which was indicated in Japanese government's report on Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. At the Risk Technical Committee (RTC) of Standards Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, preparation of standards (implementing criteria) focusing on PRA methodology and investigation on basic philosophy for use of PRA had been in progress. Based on activities of RTC, a serial in three articles including this described current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. This article introduced features and issues of PRA methodology related to the use of PRA. Features of PRA methodology could be shown as (1) systematic and comprehensive understanding of risk, (2) support of grading approach, (3) identification of effective safety upgrade measures and (4) quantitative understanding of effects of uncertainty. Issues of PRA methodology were (1) extension of PRA application area, (2) upgrade of PRA methodology, (3) quality assurance of PRA, (4) treatment of uncertainty and (5) quantitative evaluation criteria. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Identification and Evaluation of Integration and Cross Cutting Issues Across HRP Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Shelhamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The HRP Integrated Research Plan contains the research plans for the 32 risks requiring research to characterize and mitigate. These risks to human health and performance in spaceflight are identified by evidence and each one focuses on a single aspect of human physiology or performance. They are further categorized by aspects of the spaceflight environment, such as altered gravity or space radiation, that that play a major role in their likelihood and consequence. From its inception the "integrate" in the Research Plan has denoted the integrated nature of risks to human health and performance, the connectedness of physiological systems within the human body regardless of the spaceflight environment, and the integrated response of the human body to the spaceflight environment. Common characteristics of the spaceflight environment include altered gravity, atmospheres and light/dark cycles, space radiation, isolation, noise, and periods of high or low workload. Long term exposure to this unique environment produces a suite of physiological effects such as stress; vision, neurocognitive and anthropometric changes; circadian misalignment; fluid shifts, deconditioning; immune dysregulation; and altered nutritional requirements. Matrix diagraming was used to systematically identify, analyze and rate the many-to-many relationships between environmental characteristics and the suite of physiological effects. It was also to identify patterns in the relationships of common physiological effects to each other. Analyses of patterns or relationships in these diagrams help to identify issues that cut across multiple risks. Cross cutting issues benefit from a multidisciplinary approach that synthesizes concepts or data from two or more disciplines to identify and characterize risk factors or develop countermeasures relevant to multiple risks. They also help to illuminate possible problem areas that may arise when a countermeasure impacts risks other than those which it was

  15. Military Suicide: Developing an Understanding of Basic Issues to Provide a Lower Risk Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    prevention programs may not fully address the underlying mental health issues associated with the young adult population. As a result, the services may be inadvertently recruiting service members with increased risk....preventing suicides for currently serving service members. An exploration of available research and demographic data identifies specific...populations present specific trends in behavior and demographics that lead to suicidal behaviors. The research suggests that a significant proportion

  16. Emerging Issues for our Nation's Health: The Intersection of Marijuana Use and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Vidot, Denise C.; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Current marijuana use rates are the highest in the past decade and not likely to decrease given the legalization of marijuana for medicinal and/or recreational use. Concurrently, the nation is facing epidemic levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes but little is known about the intersecting relationships of marijuana use and cardiometabolic health. The objective of this study was to explore emerging issues in context to the intersection of cardiometabolic risk and marijuana use...

  17. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  18. Incineration of wastes from nuclear installations with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Juelich Research Center a two-stage incineration process has been developed which, due to an integral thermal treatment stage, is most suitable for the incineration of heterogeneous waste material. The major advantages of this technique are to be seen in the fact that mechanical treatment of the waste material is no longer required and that off gas treatment is considerably facilitated. (orig.) [de

  19. Risk, liability, and economic issues with long-term CO2 storage—A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven T.

    2017-01-01

    Given a scarcity of commercial-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the risks, liability, and their cost implications for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). The probabilities of leakage and the risk of induced seismicity could be remote, but the volume of geologic CO2 storage (GCS) projected to be necessary to have a significant impact on increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere is far greater than the volumes of CO2 injected thus far. National-level estimates of the technically accessible CO2storage resource (TASR) onshore in the United States are on the order of thousands of gigatons of CO2 storage capacity, but such estimates generally assume away any pressure management issues. Pressure buildup in the storage reservoir is expected to be a primary source of risk associated with CO2 storage, and only a fraction of the theoretical TASR could be available unless the storage operator extracts the saltwater brines or other formation fluids that are already present in the geologic pore space targeted for CO2 storage. Institutions, legislation, and processes to manage the risk, liability, and economic issues with CO2 storage in the United States are beginning to emerge, but will need to progress further in order to allow a commercial-scale CO2 storage industry to develop in the country. The combination of economic tradeoffs, property rights definitions, liability issues, and risk considerations suggests that CO2 storage offshore of the United States may be more feasible than onshore, especially during the current (early) stages of industry development.

  20. Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants in workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Meihuan; Zheng, Jing; Xu, Rongfa; Zhuang, Xi; Lin, Ying; Ren, Mingzhong

    2018-06-01

    Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in workers from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and an incineration plant, in order to assess the PFR exposure risks of workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were the most frequently detected chemicals (82-93%). The median concentrations of BCEP, BDCIPP, and DPHP were 1.77, 0.23, and 0.70 ng/mL, and 1.44, 0.22, and 0.11 ng/mL in samples from the e-waste site and the incineration plant, respectively. Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) was detected in all samples from the incineration plant, with a median level of 0.30 ng/mL. The concentrations of BDCIPP (r = -0.31, p waste site. Negative and significant correlations were also observed between the concentrations of BCEP (r = -0.42, p incineration plant. No gender differences were observed in levels of PFR metabolites in urine samples (p > 0.05). Concentrations of BDCIPP in female were significantly correlated with occupational exposure time (r = -0.507, p  0.05). Overall, the workers with occupational exposure to PFRs had different profiles of urinary PFR metabolites. The age, occupational exposure time, and gender seemed not to be main factors mediating the exposure to PFRs for workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrically fired incineration of combustible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.; Hill, M.

    1985-01-01

    Du Pont Company and Shirco, Inc. are developing a process to incinerate plutonium-contaminated combustible waste in an electrically fired incineration system. Preliminary development was completed at Shirco, Inc. prior to installing an incineration system at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), which is operated by Du Pont for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The waste consists of disposable protective clothing, cleaning materials, used filter elements, and miscellaneous materials exposed to plutonium contamination. Incinerator performance testing, using physically representative nonradioactive materials, was completed in March 1983 at Shirco's Pilot Test Facility in Dallas, TX. Based on the test results, equipment sizing and mechanical begin of a full-scale process were completed by June 1983. The full-scale unit is being installed at SRL to confirm the initial performance testing and is scheduled to begin in June 1985. Remote operation and maintenance of the system is required, since the system will eventually be installed in an isolated process cell. Initial operation of the process will use nonradioactive simulated waste. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Waste Incineration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Baxter, D.; Martinec, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 78-90 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * waste * incineration Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2006

  3. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  4. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  5. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  6. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial

  7. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  8. On site clean up with a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.L. Jr.; Tessitore, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers and the EPA have determined that on-site incineration for the detoxification of soils, sediments, and sludges is a viable, safe, and economic alternative. This paper discusses an approach to on-site incineration as a method of detoxification of soils/sediments contaminated with organic hazardous wastes. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures used to evaluate on-site incineration at a large Superfund site with extensive PCB contaminated soils and sediments. The paper includes the following: (1) a discussion of site waste quantities and properties, (2) a selection of an incineration technology with a resulting concept and design, (3) a discussion of incinerator permitting requirements, (4) discussion and rationale for an incinerator sub-scale testing approach, and (5) analysis of on-site incineration cost

  9. Nuclear energy and waste incineration as controversial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloede, F.

    1990-01-01

    From the surveys, four key demands can be identified, which at the same time reflect malfunctions of the instrument of participation of the public. The demands can be formulated as follows: concerns of the citizens should be taken more seriously; more information ought to be given, and prepared so as to be more easily understood by the general public; the rights granted to citizens should be enhanced; participation of the public should be scheduled already for early phases of the planning and licensing procedures. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. A review of municipal solid waste environmental standards with a focus on incinerator residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues are often neglected until a lapse in the care for environment, which leads to serious human health problem, would then put regulation gaps in the spotlight. Environmental regulations and standards are important as they maintain balance among competing resources and help protect human health and the environment. One important environmental standard is related to municipal solid waste (MSW. Proper MSW management is crucial for urban public health. Meanwhile, the sustainability of landfills is also of concern as increasing volumes of MSW consume finite landfill space. The incineration of MSW and the reuse of incinerated residues help alleviate the burden on landfill space. However, the reuse of MSW incinerator residues must be regulated because they may expose the environment to toxic heavy metal elements. The study of environmental standards from different countries applicable to MSW is not widely published, much less those for incinerated MSW residue reuse. This paper compares extant waste classification and reuse standards pertinent to MSW, and explores the unique recent history and policy evolution in some countries exhibiting high environmental regard and rapid changes, so that policy makers can propose new or revise current MSW standards in other countries.

  11. Current issues regarding radiation risk education in Medical Universities of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Hosoi, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoki; Kanda, Reiko; Hosoya, Noriko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Awai, Kazuo; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of radiation research is to understand the biological effects of radiation exposure to humans, the molecular mechanisms of biological response m organisms, and its sale application for medical and industrial use. In order to know the current state or education on fundamentals of radiology including radiation biology, a nation-wide questionnaire survey had been performed at medical schools and different co-medical courses in Japanese universities, during the period of 2004 and 2005. The survey results showed: (1) Difference in teaching hours for education on radiation between medical schools with and without department or division of radiation biology or radiation-related field. (2) Teaching hours for education on radiation in nursing course were very limited among the co-medical courses. Although, some improvement have been found about the state of education on radiation risk at medical schools, after the disaster of nuclear accident at Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Plant of TEPCO in March 2011. However, still much more effort t is needed to improve basic education on radiation. Science Council of Japan issued the recommendation on September 4, 2014 'Making radiation health risk education compulsory in medical education'. The working group for this purpose was set up under the Council of Head of National Medical Schools of Japan, on January 28, 2015. Here, we describe the details and current issues regarding radiation risk education in medical schools of Japan, as well as the efforts required for its betterment. (author)

  12. Making partnerships work: issues of risk, trust and control for managers and service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rae; Smith, Penny; Adam, Jenny

    2009-03-01

    Trust is widely recognised is a core feature of partnership relationships and one that facilitates joint work. It is an issue that must be addressed if partnerships are to enhance service system integration. In recent literature trust has been linked to concepts of risk and control. In this study of trust within a Primary Care Partnership (PCP) in Australia the experiences of risk and uncertainty, and control, of participants in different structural positions, were explored in detail. The data used in this paper was qualitative, derived from 63 interviews with managers and service providers participating in committees of the PCP. This paper reports on the differences in the experience of risk and uncertainty, trust and control, of managers and service providers working as boundary spanners through the committees of a PCP. For managers there were significant risks and uncertainties, and trust and control were important. For service providers there were few risks and uncertainties, and trust and control were of much less importance. Some policy implications of the differences in perspective are discussed, as are important areas for further research.

  13. Defense waste cyclone incinerator demonstration program: October--March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The cyclone incinerator developed at Mound has proven to be an effective tool for waste volume reduction. During the first half of FY-1979, efforts have been made to increase the versatility of the system. Incinerator development was continued in three areas. Design changes were drafted for the present developmental incinerator to rectify several minor operational deficiencies of the system. Improvements will be limited to redesign unless installation is required to prove design or to permit implementation of other portions of the plan. The applications development portion of the feasibility plan is focused upon expanding the versatility of the incinerator. An improved delivery system was installed for burning various liquids. An improved continuous feed system was installed and will be demonstrated later this year. Late in FY-1979, work will begin on the conceptual design of a production cyclone incinerator which will handle nonrecoverable TRU waste, and which will fully demonstrate the capabilities of the cyclone incinerator system. Data generated in past years and during FY-1979 are being collected to establish cyclone incineration effects on solids, liquids, and gases in the system. Data reflecting equipment life cycles and corrosion have been tabulated. Basic design criteria for a cyclone incinerator system based on developmental work on the incinerator through FY-1979 have been assembled. The portion of the material dealing with batch-type operation of the incinerator will be published later this year

  14. HIV/AIDS Risk and Prevention Issues Among Inuit Living in Nunavut Territory of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alexander

    HIV infections occur across the Arctic but their incidence among aboriginal populations varies vastly. At the time this research was initiated there were no data on their occurrence, risk of HIV/AIDS or preventive strategies among Inuit living in the Nunavut territory of Canada. This review is the first to assess the risk of HIV infection among Inuit and evaluate current prevention strategies among Canadian-Inuit populations. The contents of this article are based on the author's own research, undertaken during 3 visits to the Canadian Arctic and the published literature. Disproportionately high rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea within Inuit communities confirm the potential threat of silent HIV transmission. Inuit awareness of HIV/AIDS issues remains inadequate. It is easy to blame distorted perceptions fuelled by the media, religious influence and socio-cultural factors. Aboriginal and Inuit groups, including youth, women and injection drug abusers are at increased risk of infection. The adaptability of proven prevention methods including condom use and male circumcision are discussed. Access to treatment, adherence and resistance issues in the North Canada, require attention. HIV/AIDS poses a considerable threat to Canadian Inuit public health. The most important problem to be addressed is Inuit lack of awareness and understanding of HIV. Education is the single most effective means of prevention. Inuit-specific and culture-sensitive interventions are recommended. Further research opportunities exist to investigate Inuit understanding over HIV/AIDS issues and to assess local prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Postclosure risks at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository: A review of methodological and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, J.; Kasperson, R.E.; Goble, R.; Renn, O.

    1988-06-01

    Accordingly, the first section of the report provides an overview and critique of the risk analysis methodology proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE 1988) in the Draft Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and related documents. The second section addresses specific technical problems associated with the site. Each section considers the significance or implications of the issues for the successful long-term isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. We conclude with overall observations on the adequacy of current understandings and approaches in the waste disposal program and implications for the State of Nevada

  16. Levels and trends of PCDD/Fs in human blood and milk of residents in the vicinity of a modern municipal solid waste incinerator near to Lisbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, New Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Possible health hazard from human exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator emissions, which can include chlorinated persistent organic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs), is of great public concern. The needed rigorous control of these emissions should be reflected by not different time trends in the PCDD/Fs levels of both the populations residing in the vicinity of incinerators and others selected as control, similar in socio-demographic and other factors potentially influencing those levels. To check the possibility of enhanced body burdens due to MSW emissions, well-designed studies have to be performed to determine human exposure to PCDD/Fs over time. Biological (human) monitoring of these chemicals has several advantages over environmental monitoring, since it is able to measure human body burden and accounts for exposure from all sources, environmental pathways and routes of absorption. However, it is practically unable to identify specific sources, routes and pathways, important issues for risk management purposes. Since 1999, a modern municipal solid waste incinerator is operating in the Metropolitan Area of North-Lisbon, Portugal. In order to get a reliable data basis on the body burden of PCDD/Fs in the population residing in the vicinity of the plant, susceptible of identifying time trends and possible regional differences, a biomonitoring program was implemented in the ambit of the VALORSUL Environmental Health Survey, referred elsewhere. The present paper describes results of this biomonitoring program, which includes repeated cross-sectional studies and, as much as possible, regular examinations of blood and breast milk samples, to determine PCDD/F levels.

  17. Combining MCDA and risk analysis: dealing with scaling issues in the multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Rob; Salling, Kim Bang

    This paper proposes a new decision support system (DSS) for applying risk analysis and stochastic simulation to the multiplicative AHP in order to deal with issues concerning the progression factors. The multiplicative AHP makes use of direct rating on a logarithmic scale, and for this purpose...... the progression factor 2 is used for calculating scores of alternatives and √2 for calculation of criteria weights when transforming the verbal judgments stemming from pair wise comparisons. However, depending on the decision context, the decision-makers aversion towards risk, etc., it is most likely...... using a short, natural, and long scale, the proposed paper suggests a new approach in order to capture the influence from the progression factors in terms of including probability distributions. Herein, the uncertainty both with regard to the scale and the inherent randomness from the factor...

  18. Policy issues in setting de minimis standards for latent cancer risks of radiation and chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the fuel cycles for the development and utilization of alternative energy resources, the risk of latent cancer arises from a number of sources. Included are ionizing radiation and the carcinogenic potential of polluting chemicals present in certain fuels or in materials associated with the construction, operation, maintenance or waste treatment processes of nuclear power, fossil fuels, synfuels, biomass, and other sources of energy. One aspect of developing a carcinogen guideline policy for a consistent and effective regulatory regime to use in dealing with these assorted carcinogenic risks is the setting of de minimis quantitative standards. In this report, 11 policy issues related to the setting of such regulatory standards are identified and a brief commentary is provided. 15 references, 1 table

  19. Exploring Issues Limiting the Use of Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Norton

    2015-10-01

    A final conclusion is that no matter how useful, knowledge itself is not a panacea for DRR. Decision-making is invariably influenced by conflicting priorities, objectives and constraints, and not necessarily in all stakeholders’ interests or even reflecting their objectives. For example in the midst of the Greek economic crisis, disaster risk awareness and acceptability are becoming less a matter of DRR information and knowledge and must rather be addressed with a view to the new hierarchy of risks (socio-economic, health, emerging generated by the crisis. However, acknowledging the complexity of the issue should not stand in the way of much needed efforts towards enabling knowledge for DRR with all the tools available in today’s changing world.

  20. Use of calcium channel blockers in cardiovascular risk reduction: issues in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Acosta, Julio; Urina-Triana, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    -adrenoreceptor antagonists, CCBs are metabolically neutral, inducing minimal changes in serum lipids and decreasing the incidence of new-onset diabetes compared with other antihypertensive agents. CCBs are well tolerated when administered as monotherapy or combination therapy, with long-acting formulations minimizing adverse events even further compared with short-acting formulations. These characteristics make CCBs an attractive option for the treatment of hypertension and CV risk in Latin America, which remain significant health issues in this region.

  1. Ultrafine particle emission of waste incinerators and comparison to the exposure of urban citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of the growing interest on the impact of airborne particles on human exposure as well as the strong debate in Western countries on the emissions of waste incinerators, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) show the emission factors of ultrafine particles (particles with a diameter less than 100 nm) of waste incinerators; and (ii) assess the contribution of waste incinerators in terms of ultrafine particles to exposure and dose of people living in the surrounding areas of the plants in order to estimate eventual risks. The review identified only a limited number of studies measuring ultrafine particle emissions, and in general they report low particle number concentrations at the stack (the median value was equal to 5.5×10(3) part cm(-3)), in most cases higher than the outdoor background value. The lowest emissions were achieved by utilization of the bag-house filter which has an overall number-based filtration efficiency higher than 99%. Referring to reference case, the corresponding emission factor is equal to 9.1×10(12) part min(-1), that is lower than one single high-duty vehicle. Since the higher particle number concentrations found in the most contributing microenvironments to the exposure (indoor home, transportation, urban outdoor), the contribution of the waste incinerators to the daily dose can be considered as negligible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ohio incinerator given the go-ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemezis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A federal judge has denied a request for an injunction against the startup of the long-stalled Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. The $140-million plant, owned by a US subsidiary of Swiss engineering group Von Roll Ltd. (Zuerich), will go through a startup stage and a seven-day trial burn during the next two months, according to WTI. In testimony in federal court in Huntington, WV, WTI had said it was losing $115,000/day in fixed costs because of the plant's startup delay. The company also said that long-term contracts with Chemical Waste Management (CWM; Oak Brook, IL), Du Pont (Wilmington, DE), and BASF Corp. (Parsippany, NJ) to use plant services could be jeopardized by the delay. WTI is believed to have 10-year service contracts with the three companies and also will use CWM to dispose of the ash from the incinerator

  3. Issues in risk assessment and modifications of the NRC health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-07-02

    A report, Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, was published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in 1985, and revised in 1989. These reports provided models for estimating health effects that would be expected to result from the radiation exposure received in a nuclear reactor accident. Separate models were given for early occurring effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects; however, this paper addresses only late somatic effects, or the risk of cancer expected to occur in the lifetimes of exposed individuals. The 1989 revision was prepared prior to the publication of the BEIR V, 1988 UNSCEAR, and ICRP 60 reports. For this reason, an addendum was needed that would provide modified risk models that took into account these recent reports, and, more generally, any new evidence that had appeared since the 1989 publication. Of special importance was consideration of updated analyses of the Japanese A-bomb survivor study data based on revised DS86 dosimetry. The process of preparing the addendum required thorough review and evaluation of the models used by the BEIR V, UNSCEAR, and ICRP committees, and also required thorough consideration of the various decisions that must be made in any risk assessment effort. This paper emphasizes general issues and problems that arise in risk assessment, and also indicates areas where additional development and application of statistical methods may be fruitful.

  4. Issues in using epidemiologic data to estimate cancer risks from environmental chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picciotto, I.-H.; Neutra, R.; Alexeeff, G.; Lipsett, M.; Holtzman, D. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    Quantitative assessment of cancer is an important health policy application of environmental epidemiology. This paper addresses how epidemiology can reduce uncertainty in estimates of cancer risk from environmental exposures. To extrapolate to low levels, epidemiologic studies need well-qualified exposure data, adequate control of confounding, and a positive dose-response trend. In cases such as cadmium and arsenic, a critical issue is the shape of the dose-response curve. The data on arsenic suggest that assumption of linearity may under-estimate risk. Other uncertainties arise in extrapolating from adult males in occupational settings to a heterogeneous population exposed environmentally. Epidemiologic studies with less exposure data or negative findings may be used for a risk assessment based on animal data (e.g., ethylene dibromide, ethylene oxide, and methylene chloride). Then the hypothesized effect level for humans depends on the animal-based potency and estimated human exposures. Therefore, statistical power hinges on study size and on exposure levels (ethylene oxide, methylene chloride, and saccharin). Comparisons of human epidemiologic data and animal bioassays may permit the rejection of models and a narrowing of the range of plausible risks (e.g., ethylene dibromide, cadmium), or suggest that the animal-based assessment is not contradicted by the epidemiologic data (e.g., ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, methylene chloride).

  5. Conceptual design report for alpha waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Alpha Waste Incinerator, a new facility in the SRP H-Area, will process transuranic or alpha-contaminated combustible solid wastes. It will seal the radioactive ash and scrubbing salt residues in cans for interim storage in drums on site burial ground pads. This report includes objectives, project estimate, schedule, standards and criteria, excluded costs, safety evaluation, energy consumption, environmental assessment, and key drawings

  6. The Savannah River Plant Consolidated Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A full scale incinerator is proposed for construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) beginning in August 1989 for detoxifiction and volume reduction of liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous waste. Wastes to be burned include drummed liquids, sludges and solids, liquid process wastes, and low-level boxed job control waste. The facility will consist of a rotary kiln primary combustion chamber followed by a tangentially fired cylindrical secondary combustion chamber (SCC) and be designed to process up to 12 tons per day of solid and liquid waste. Solid waste packaged in combustible containers will be fed to the rotary kiln incinerator using a ram feed system and liquid wastes will be introduced to the rotary kiln through a burner nozzle. Liquid waste will also be fed through a high intensity vortex burner in the SCC. Combustion gases will exit the SCC and be cooled to saturation in a spray quench. Particulate and acid gas are removed in a free jet scrubber. The off-gas will then pass through a cyclone separator, mist eliminator, reheater high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and induced draft blowers before release to the atmosphere. Incinerator ash and scrubber blowdown will be immobilized in a cement matrix and disposed of in an onsite RCRA permitted facility. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) will provide detoxification and volume reduction for up to 560,000 CUFT/yr of solid waste and up to 35,700 CUFT/yr of liquid waste. Up to 50,500 CUFT/yr of cement stabilized ash and blowdown will beproduced for an average overall volume reduction fator of 22:1. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Commercial Cyclone Incinerator Demonstration Program: April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, the first program objective, NRC review of the Feasibility Plan, was achieved, and work began on the second objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Potential applications for the cyclone incinerator have been investigated. The feasibility plan for the incinerator system was reviewed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Following a series of cold checkout burns, implementation of the feasibility plan was begun with the start of laboratory-scale experiments. Inconel 601 is being investigated as a material of construction for the incinerator burn chamber

  9. Issues, challenges, and approaches for risk-informed decommissioning in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, D.A.; Johnson, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) is the principal Federal regulatory authority in the United States responsible for ensuring public health and safety from the civilian use of radioactive material. US-NRC staff has developed and implemented various risk-informed approaches for regulating and managing the remediation of contaminated sites. A risk-informed approach to regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been generally defined by the US-NRC staff as an approach to decision-making that uses risk insights as well as traditional considerations to focus regulator and licensee attention on decommissioning activities commensurate with their importance to health and safety. Ensuring that decommissioning is carried out using a risk-informed approach should improve the focus on safety in decommissioning, improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and realism in regulatory decisions, and reduce unnecessary regulatory burden, and cost, on licensees. This paper summarizes the efforts by the US-NRC to develop and implement risk-informed approaches to the remediation of nuclear facilities in the United States. It also discusses the issues and challenges encountered by the US-NRC in attempting to implement a risk-informed approach to decommissioning. The US-NRC has been incrementally implementing its existing risk-informed and performance-based approach as it has completed its decommissioning regulations, guidance and other tools over the past several years. The principal challenge for US-NRC is implementing the existing risk-informed approach at specific sites in a manner that maintains safety, reduces costs, and enhances public understanding of the US-NRC's approach. In addition, effectively communicating how the US-NRC approaches are risk-informed and performance-based; ensuring that licensees understand, and take advantage of, the flexibility in meeting the decommissioning goals; ensuring that licensees and staff are aware of the

  10. Risk factors for redemption of feline neutering vouchers issued by welfare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Rachel H; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim J; Clements, Jane; Murray, Jane K

    2017-10-21

    Animal welfare organisations in the UK invest substantial resources to fund subsidised neutering vouchers to increase feline neutering rates. Little evidence exists to quantify factors influencing voucher redemption. This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors (including voucher value and expiry period) for redemption of neutering vouchers issued by staff of the feline welfare charity Cats Protection. Data were collected using telephone interview-administered questionnaires of cat owners who were issued a neutering voucher(s) and from Cats Protection voucher payment records. During the four-month study 2655 owners were issued 3935 vouchers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that owners of cats that had produced ≥1 litter before voucher request, owners eligible for a voucher due to receiving benefits and owners who rented their homes or lived with family were less likely to redeem vouchers than owners whose cats had not had a litter, were eligible for a voucher for other reasons and/or owners who owned their home, respectively. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  12. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  13. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  14. Metal recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA): state of the art, potential and environmental benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Holtze, Maria S.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Incineration has a central role in the waste management system in Denmark (e.g. 52% of the household waste) resulting in approximately 726000t of solid residues each year. However, the targets imposed by the Danish Waste Strategy and the increasing discussions about resource in waste raise an issue...... on resource losses through waste incineration. In this framework, this study provides actual data on the state of the art of the recovery of resource in MSWIBA in Denmark (i.e. metals), on the potential for further recovery and on the environmental benefits or burdens assessed through the Life Cycle...

  15. Personal support networks, social capital, and risk of relapse among individuals treated for substance use issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Daria; Gallupe, Owen; Carrington, Peter J; Colozzi, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The success of treatment for substance use issues varies with personal and social factors, including the composition and structure of the individual's personal support network. This paper describes the personal support networks and social capital of a sample of Italian adults after long-term residential therapeutic treatment for substance use issues, and analyses network correlates of post-treatment substance use (relapse). Using a social network analysis approach, data were obtained from structured interviews (90-120 min long) with 80 former clients of a large non-governmental therapeutic treatment agency in Italy providing voluntary residential treatments and rehabilitation services for substance use issues. Participants had concluded the program at least six months prior. Data were collected on socio-demographic variables, addiction history, current drug use status (drug-free or relapsed), and the composition and structure of personal support networks. Factors related to risk of relapse were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. A main goal of this study was to identify differences between the support network profiles of drug free and relapsed participants. Drug free participants had larger, less dense, more heterogeneous and reciprocal support networks, and more brokerage social capital than relapsed participants. Additionally, a lower risk of relapse was associated with higher socio-economic status, being married/cohabiting, and having network members with higher socio-economic status, who have greater occupational heterogeneity, and reciprocate support. Post-treatment relapse was found to be negatively associated with the socioeconomic status and occupational heterogeneity of ego's support network, reciprocity in the ties between ego and network members, and a support network in which the members are relatively loosely connected with one another (i.e., ego possesses "brokerage social capital"). These findings suggest the

  16. Research and development plan for the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; McCormack, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Objective is to develop an incinerator for processing disposed transuranium waste. This R and D plan describes the R and D efforts required to begin conceptual design of the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator (Andco-Torrax). The program includes: incinerator, off-gas treatment, waste handling, instrumentation, immobilization analyses, migration studies, regulations, Belgium R and D test plan, Disney World test plan, and remote operation and maintenance

  17. Incinerators for radioactive wastes in Japanese nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1983-01-01

    As the measures of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in nuclear power stations, the development of the techniques to decrease wastes, to reduce the volume of wastes, to treat wastes by solidification and to dispose wastes has been advanced energetically. In particular, efforts have been exerted on the volume reduction treatment from the viewpoint of the improvement of storage efficiency and the reduction of transport and disposal costs. Incineration as one of the volume reduction techniques has been regarded as the most effective method with large reduction ratio, but it was not included in waste treatment system. NGK Insulators Ltd. developed NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, and seven incinerators were installed in nuclear power stations. These incinerators have been operated smoothly, and the construction is in progress in six more plants. The necessity of incinerators in nuclear power stations and the problems in their adoption, the circumstance of the development of NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, the outline of the incinerator of Karlsruhe nuclear power station and the problems, the contents of the technical development in NGK, the outline of NGK type incinerators and the features, the outline of the pretreatment system, incinerator system, exhaust gas treatment system, ash taking out system and accessory equipment, the operational results and the performance are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Nuclear incineration method for long life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uematsu, Kunihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear incineration method is the method of converting the long life radioactive nuclides in wastes to short life or stable nuclides by utilizing the nuclear reaction caused by radiation, unlike usual chemical incineration. By the nuclear incineration, the radioactivity of wastes increases in a short period, but the problems at the time of the disposal are reduced because of the decrease of long life radioactive nuclides. As the radiation used for the nuclear incineration, the neutron beam from fission and fusion reactors and accelerators, the proton beam and gamma ray from accelerators have been studied. The object of the nuclear incineration is actinide, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-129 and Tc-99. In particular, waste actinide emits alpha ray, and is strongly toxic, accordingly, the motive of attempting the nuclear incineration is strong. In Japan, about 24t of waste actinide will accumulate by 2000. The principle of the nuclear incineration, and the nuclear incineration using nuclear fission and fusion reactors and accelerators are described. The nuclear incineration using fission reactors was examined for the first time in 1972 in USA. It is most promising because it is feasible by the present technology without particular research and development. (Kako, I.)

  19. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Planning of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel power plants; Planung von Abfallverbrennungsanlagen und Ersatzbrennstoffkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteyl, A.; Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Since the end of the deposition of non-pretreated wastes, the establishment and extension of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel power plants increasingly gains in importance. The publishers of the book under consideration try to describe the complex and facet-rich topic of plant planning clearly and understandably. The book under consideration consists of the following contributions: (1) Principles in terms of legal planning for refuse-derived fuel power plants (A. Versteyl); (2) Planning of a residue power plant for the energy supply of a paper factory (J. Sommer, R. Trumpf); (3) Determination of the energy demand in companies and thermal design of refused fuel power plants on demand (U. Seiler); (4) A mass balance of contaminants in the scope of license planning of thermal waste treatment plants (M. Loeschau); (5) Financing of refuse-derived fuel power plants and waste incineration plants (B. Schaefer); (6) Risk management, damage management, and insurance management according to the operation of a waste incineration plant (H. Weschenbach); (7) A parametric outline of a contract for the incineration of refuse-derived fuels in refuse-derived fuel power plants (H.-J. Schwefer); (8) What has to be considered at the planning of refused-derived fuel power plants? (H. Seeger, N. Oldhafer); (9) Main contractor versus component supplier (E. Fleck); (10) Contract management for power plants - main contents of the delivery contract for refused-derived fuels (R. Prelle); (11) About the controversy according to waste incineration (B. Johnke); (12) Waste incineration - a contribution to climate protection in Federal Republic of Germany (B. Johnke, W. Butz, M. Treder); (13) Competition in the actual waste management (W. Frenz); (14) Energy economy act - general view and actual applications (H. Recknagel); (15) Waste management and new developments in the energy economy act (P. Salje); (16) Promotion of a decentral energy supply according to the old and new law of the

  1. Analytical and assay issues for use of cardiac troponin testing for risk stratification in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alan H B; Christenson, Robert H

    2013-08-01

    of cardiovascular disease risk. Additional analytical and clinical validations are needed to fully elucidate cardiac troponin metabolism and resolve ongoing clinical and laboratory issues. While these issues are directed to the use of troponin in primary care, most of these concepts are relevant to the use of troponin in acute coronary syndromes as well. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methodologic issues in clinical trials for prevention or risk reduction in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J M; Sowers, M F; Messier, S P; Bradley, J; Arangio, G; Katz, J N; Losina, E; Rovati, L; Bachtell, N; Cooper, C; Spector, T; Zhang, W; Gardiner, J; Wahba, M

    2011-05-01

    The design and execution of prevention trials for OA have methodological issues that are distinct from trials designed to impact prevalent disease. Disease definitions and their precise and sensitive measurement, identification of high-risk populations, the nature of the intervention (pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, behavioral) and its potential pleiotropic impacts on other organ systems are critical to consider. Because prevention trials may be prolonged, close attention to concomitant life changes and co-morbidities, adherence and participant retention in the trial is of primary importance, as is recognition of the potential for "preventive misconception" and "behavioral disinhibition" to affect the ability of the trial to show an effect of the intervention under study. None of these potential pitfalls precludes a successful and scientifically rigorous process and outcome. As technology improves the means to measure and predict the OA process and its clinical consequences, it will be increasingly possible to screen individuals for high-risk phenotypes, combining clinical factors with information from imaging, genetic, metabolic and other biomarkers and to impact this high-risk condition to avoid or delay OA both structurally and symptomatically. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues.

  5. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues

  6. Psychological risks associated with appearance-altering procedures: issues "facing" cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Walter F; Prstojevich, Steven J; Langley, Harriet S; Hlavacek, Matthew R

    2010-11-01

    There is a dynamic and fluid relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychology that requires careful and constant attention from the surgeon. Surgeons all desire a "short and sweet" checklist evaluation that tells them if it is safe for the patient to undergo an elective surgical procedure. Obviously, this is wishful thinking. It is asking too much for surgeons to be able to quantify the overall psychological risk. Rather, they should objectively screen, review, and evaluate as many of the variables as possible. These include but are not limited to the surgical issue, the personality of the patient, the patient's family and/or relationships, and the overall context of the situation. Surgeons should also reflect on both their technical expertise and limitations and the patient's personal resiliency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overview on hydrogen risk research and development activities: Methodology and open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bentaib

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a severe accident in a light water nuclear reactor, large amounts of hydrogen can be generated and released into the containment during reactor core degradation. Additional burnable gases [hydrogen (H2 and carbon monoxide (CO] may be released into the containment in the corium/concrete interaction. This could subsequently raise a combustion hazard. As the Fukushima accidents revealed, hydrogen combustion can cause high pressure spikes that could challenge the reactor buildings and lead to failure of the surrounding buildings. To prevent the gas explosion hazard, most mitigation strategies adopted by European countries are based on the implementation of passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs. Studies of representative accident sequences indicate that, despite the installation of PARs, it is difficult to prevent at all times and locations, the formation of a combustible mixture that potentially leads to local flame acceleration. Complementary research and development (R&D projects were recently launched to understand better the phenomena associated with the combustion hazard and to address the issues highlighted after the Fukushima Daiichi events such as explosion hazard in the venting system and the potential flammable mixture migration into spaces beyond the primary containment. The expected results will be used to improve the modeling tools and methodology for hydrogen risk assessment and severe accident management guidelines. The present paper aims to present the methodology adopted by Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire to assess hydrogen risk in nuclear power plants, in particular French nuclear power plants, the open issues, and the ongoing R&D programs related to hydrogen distribution, mitigation, and combustion.

  8. Operation of a 1/10 scale mixed water incinerator air pollution control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, W.

    1996-01-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes generated by site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the CIF air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing commercial and DOE incinerators, on-site air pollution control experience, and recommendations from contracted consultants. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, known as the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF) was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its current mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Due to the nature of the wastes to be incinerated at the CIF, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas stream before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber

  9. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  10. Environmental issues and process risks for operation of carbon capture plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajnert Radosław

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this publication is a presentation of environmental issues and process risks connected with operation an installation for carbon capture from waste gas. General technological assumptions, typical for demonstration plant for carbon capture from waste gas (DCCP with application of two different solutions – 30% water solution of monoethanoloamine (MEA and water solution with 30% AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and 10% piperazine have been described. The concept of DCCP installation was made for Łaziska Power Plant in Łaziska Górne owned by TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A. Main hazardous substances, typical for such installation, which can be dangerous for human life and health or for the environment have been presented. Pollution emission to the air, noise emission, waste water and solid waste management have been described. The environmental impact of the released substances has been stated. Reference to emission standards specified in regulations for considered substances has been done. Principles of risk analysis have been presented and main hazards in carbon dioxide absorption node and regeneration node have been evaluated.

  11. Environmental issues and process risks for operation of carbon capture plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnert, Radosław; Nowak, Martyna; Telenga-Kopyczyńska, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this publication is a presentation of environmental issues and process risks connected with operation an installation for carbon capture from waste gas. General technological assumptions, typical for demonstration plant for carbon capture from waste gas (DCCP) with application of two different solutions - 30% water solution of monoethanoloamine (MEA) and water solution with 30% AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol) and 10% piperazine have been described. The concept of DCCP installation was made for Łaziska Power Plant in Łaziska Górne owned by TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A. Main hazardous substances, typical for such installation, which can be dangerous for human life and health or for the environment have been presented. Pollution emission to the air, noise emission, waste water and solid waste management have been described. The environmental impact of the released substances has been stated. Reference to emission standards specified in regulations for considered substances has been done. Principles of risk analysis have been presented and main hazards in carbon dioxide absorption node and regeneration node have been evaluated.

  12. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  13. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, S.; Bellinger, E.

    1988-03-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  14. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment or disposal by incineration. 20.2004 Section 20.2004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2004 Treatment or disposal by incineration. (a) A licensee may treat or dispose of licensed...

  15. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  16. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  17. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  18. ATUE: the end of the incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilbonne, P.

    1997-01-01

    The CEA's ATUE incinerator is used to burn low-level contaminated solvents and oils since 1981, in order to transform them into chemically stable ashes, thus leading to an important volume reduction: it is composed of an horizontal burner and a vertical gas cooling chamber. Combustion temperature is 900 C; ashes are collected and blocked into cement, with a new special process (PICC). 5 m 3 of liquid produces 350 kg of a solid and stable mixture. This equipment is due to be closed in December 1997, and will then be dismantled

  19. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  20. Thermal analysis of an enriched flame incinerator for aqueous residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacava, Pedro Teixeira; Pimenta, Amilcar Porto [Divisao de Engenharia Aeronautica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Pca. Mal. Eduardo Gomes, 50, Vila das Acacias, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Joao A. [Departamento de Energia, Campus de Guaratingueta, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marco Aurelio [Laboratorio Associado de Combustao e Propulsao, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Rod. Presidente Dutra, km 40, 12630-000, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2006-03-01

    The use of oxygen to enrich the combustion air can be an attractive technique to increase capacity of an incinerator originally designed to operate with air. If incinerator parameters such as operation temperature, turbulence level and residence time are fixed for a certain fuel supply rate, it is possible to increase the residue consumption rate using enriched air. This paper presents the thermal analysis for operation with enriched air of an aqueous residue experimental incinerator. The auxiliary fuel was diesel oil. The theoretical results showed that there is a considerable increase in the incineration ratio up to approximately 50% of O{sub 2} in the oxidiser. The tendency was confirmed experimentally. Thermal analysis was demonstrated to be an important tool to predict possible incinerator capacity increase. (author)

  1. Licensing requirements for backfit incinerators at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, R.L.; Edwards, C.W.; Wilson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper, and the project it reports on, examines the licensing requirements for backfit incinerators at operating power plants. Analysis was made of incinerating low-level dry radioactive waste in a backfit incinerator at an existing power plant. The operation of the incinerator has been studied from viewpoints of operator safety, consequence of system failures including worst case scenarios, and radiological impact for normal and upset conditions. Analysis showed that releases under all normal operating or upset conditions are an extremely small fraction of the applicable limits. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review concluded that the document produced as a result of this project was useful as a design guide and of value in licensing backfit incinerators. 1 table

  2. LCA Comparison of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Every year around 50 millions Mg solid waste are incinerated in Europe. Large differences exist in different regions, mainly regarding energy recovery, flue gas treatment and management of solid residues. This paper aims to identify and quantify those differences, providing a Life Cycle Assessment...... of two incinerator systems that are representative of conditions in Northern and Southern Europe. The two case studies are Aarhus (Denmark) and Milan (Italy). The results show that waste incineration appears more environmentally friendly in the Danish case than in the Italian one, due to the higher...... energy recovery and to local conditions, e.g. substitution of electricity and heat in the area. Focusing on the incineration process, Milan incinerator performs better than Aarhus, since its upstream impacts (related to the production of chemicals used in flue gas cleaning) are more than compensated...

  3. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  4. Research paper 2000-B-8: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    End-of-pipe options are needed whenever recycling and source reduction can not cope with waste streams at acceptable costs. One of the disposal options is waste incineration. The incineration of waste was considered 'clean' for a long time. In the 1970's and 1980's it proved that the incineration of municipal waste was a significant source of air pollution. Notorious pollutants were hydrogen chloride, hydrogen florid, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, fine particulate matter, 'heavy metals' and dioxines and furans. Most notorious and issue of public anxiety in some countries were emissions of dioxines and that might cause cancer and birth defects. Municipal waste is domestic waste from households and comparable waste from markets and companies. Consent is present that in the long history of waste incinerators, incineration in plants started in Europe around 1900, important steps to secure health and the environment have been taken and will be taken in the future. Debates are still going on the level of emissions that is negligible and acceptable. Also in the European arena waste management is about knowledge, perceptions, uncertainties and negotiations. Arguments are on the right level of ambition and the right level of fine-tuning where precautionary measures are discussed. The European Union decided to issue two European Directives on the atmospheric emissions from municipal waste incineration in 1989. This chapter focuses on the implementation and effects of the 1989 Directives. In section 2 of this chapter we summarize the bargaining on the 1989 European Directives. Section 2 indicates that characteristics of municipal waste incineration and the level of pre-existing national regulation sectors in individual member states played decisive roles. When the 1989 Directives came into force, the requirements had to be integrated in the national legislation in European Member States. In section 3 Germany and the Netherlands will prove

  5. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  6. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  7. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  8. Applicability of PSA Issues for Risk Assessment during Optimisation of In-Service Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolykhanov, V.; Skalozubov, V.; Kovrigkin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The current codes determining periodicity of in-service inspection of the NPP equipment have been formed using deterministic approaches and have an unnecessary degree of conservatism. A perspective direction of perfection of normative base is decision making on a basis of risk-informed methodologies. It allows to increase safety of NPP equipment's operation and to optimise programs on inspection of the equipment subject to limited resources by focusing efforts on the most safety significant elements of the equipment. It is internationally accepted that methodology of the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is the most universal and comprehensive tool focused on the general assessment of safety of NPP as a whole. By now, PSA Level 1 is fulfilled for all pilot units of the Ukrainian NPPs that is a valuable result, which should be taken into account at an assessment of reliability of the equipment. However, specificity of PSA methodology should be taken into account at the decision of the particular tasks aimed at optimisation of maintenance of the equipment within individual systems. The estimation of the contribution to core damage frequency (CDF) is a PSA issue usually used to assess the significance of consequences of failure of a system/equipment during risk-informed decision-making. This work shows that above factor is only a part of assessment of the significance of consequences as core damage can be expressed in different amount of the damaged fuel elements and, hence, severity of consequences. Besides CDF is directly affected only by active elements which failure can be an initiating event. PSA methodology uses averaged reliability factors of the equipment for all possible operating modes occurring at transitive accident process. Here, there are limited opportunities to account impact of periodicity of maintenance of the equipment on reliability and to predict impact of change of the inspection program. PSA methodology does not allow taking into account

  9. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock

    2014-01-01

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  10. ANALYTICAL ISSUES OF RISK COMMUNICATION. RATIONALE FOR APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING RESEARCH DATABASES ON RADIATION SAFETY AND SOCIAL RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Rekhtina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important stages of risk communication is the analysis of publications in traditional media and the Internet, which largely shape people’s attitudes to various issues. At the same time, the availability of large amounts of information relating to any subject area complicates the possibility of manual analysis and adequate description of all of the information. On the other hand, the availability of information causes the urgency of developing methods to improve the effectiveness of its analysis. One way to automate the analysis of large amounts of information is the development of databases or automated information systems containing information materials on the subject matter under study and suggesting the possibility of automated processing. The objective of this work is to analyze the experience of developing such systems and databases by the research teams of the St. Petersburg Institute of Radiation Hygiene and St. Petersburg State University and to identify key features of the use of bases Data for social research. The results of the analysis showed that the methodological approaches used were very close. The analysis is performed according to the method of autoethnographical research. The strategy application of the comparative analysis allows identifying common features characterizing the situation of development and implementation of databases to practice of the risk communication studies. The article discusses the features associated with them, the limitations of the primary data, such as text, discursive nature of most of the materials, information noise, high dependence on context, variability, different structure, format and appearance of materials. The important parameters for solving problems of the qualitative and quantitative analysis are given in the article. An important condition of creating effective, from the point of view of socio-communication studies information system is to implement the processing

  11. Family communication about genetic risk information: particular issues for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Gillian; Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Gill, Paramjit

    2010-05-01

    Open family communication about genetic conditions and associated risk is important to children's identity, coping and decision making. Parents however find talking to their children difficult and because of associated care needs and emotional reactions it can be particularly stressful in families affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This article reports on the findings of a group of families affected by DMD who formed part of a larger study where adult and child members of 33 families affected by one of six genetic conditions were interviewed. Parents thought they should talk to children about a genetic condition in their family and children wanted information and open discussion. In families affected by DMD clear gender differences were identified between mothers and fathers in coping and in their roles in relation to the condition. There was a particularly close bond between mothers and affected sons. For most conditions, mothers were central to giving children information but the identified issues made this problematic in families with DMD. This resulted in affected children receiving little information about their condition at all and female siblings being unlikely to receive information about their potential carrier status until they were about 16-year old. Insight into family communication within families affected by DMD assists healthcare professionals in recognizing and meeting the particular support needs of this group of families. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Incineration of a Commercial Coating with Nano CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Olivier; Ounoughene, Ghania; Meunier, Laurent; Debray, Bruno; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The potential environmental risk arising from the incineration of waste containing nanomaterials is a new field which deserves further attention. Some recent studies have begun to focus on this topic but the data are incomplete. In addition, there is a need to consider real life waste. The present study gives some insight into the fate and behavior of a commercial coating containing a commercial additive (7% w/w) based on nano-CeO2 (aggregates of 10 to 40 nm, with elemental particles of 2-3 nm). The tests have been conducted with a system developed in the frame of the NanoFlueGas project. The test protocol was designed to respect the regulatory criteria of a good combustion in incineration plants (temperature around 850°C, highly ventilated combustion, at least 2 s residence time for the combustion gas in a post-combustion chamber at 850°C, and high oxygen/fuel contact). Time tracking by electric low pressure impaction (ELPI) shows that the incineration produces aerosol with number concentration dominated by sub-100 nm particles. Cerium is observed by TEM and EDS analysis but as a minor compound of a sub-group of particles. No nanoCeO2 particles have been observed in the aerosol. ICP-MS analysis indicates that the residual material consists mainly of CeO2 (60% of the mass). Observation by TEM establishes that this material is in the form of aggregates with individual particle of 40-200 nm and suggests that sintering occurred during incineration. As a conclusion, the lab scale incineration study led mainly to the release of nano-CeO2 in the residual material, as the major component. Its size distribution is different than the one of the nano-CeO2 observed in the initial sample before incineration. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of nanoCeO2 behavior, and to integrate experiments at lab and real scale.

  13. Low-level waste institutional waste incinerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Literature surveyed indicated that institutional LLW is composed of organic solids and liquids, laboratory equipment and trash, and some pathological waste. Some toxic and hazardous chemicals are included in the variety of LLW generated in the nation's hospitals, universities, and research laboratories. Thus, the incinerator to be demonstrated in this program should be able to accept each of these types of materials as feedstock. Effluents from the DOE institutional incinerator demonstration should be such that all existing and proposed environmental standards be met. A design requirement was established to meet the most stringent flue gas standards. LLW incineration practice was reviewed in a survey of institutional LLW generators. Incinerator manufacturers were identified by the survey, and operational experience in incineration was noted for institutional users. Manufacturers identified in the survey were contacted and queried with regard to their ability to supply an incinerator with the desired capability. Special requirements for ash removal characteristics and hearth type were imposed on the selection. At the present time, an incinerator type, manufacturer, and model have been chosen for demonstration

  14. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  15. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  16. Local CFD kinetic model of cadmium vaporization during fluid bed incineration of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, J. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Gauthier, D., E-mail: Daniel.Gauthier@promes.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Falcoz, Q.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Mazza, G. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A 2-D local CFD model for simulating the Cd vaporization process is presented. ► It includes a kinetic expression of Cd vaporization into the incineration process. ► Pyrolysis, volatiles’ combustion and residual carbon combustion are also taken into account. ► It fits very well the experimental results obtained on a lab-scale fluidized bed reported in literature. ► It also compares favorably with a model developed previously by the group. -- Abstract: The emissions of heavy metals during incineration of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are a major issue to health and the environment. It is then necessary to well quantify these emissions in order to accomplish an adequate control and prevent the heavy metals from leaving the stacks. In this study the kinetic behavior of Cadmium during Fluidized Bed Incineration (FBI) of artificial MSW pellets, for bed temperatures ranging from 923 to 1073 K, was modeled. FLUENT 12.1.4 was used as the modeling framework for the simulations and implemented together with a complete set of user-defined functions (UDFs). The CFD model combines the combustion of a single solid waste particle with heavy metal (HM) vaporization from the burning particle, and it takes also into account both pyrolysis and volatiles’ combustion. A kinetic rate law for the Cd release, derived from the CFD thermal analysis of the combusting particle, is proposed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained in a lab-scale fluidized bed incinerator reported in literature, and with the predicted values from a particulate non-isothermal model, formerly developed by the authors. The comparison shows that the proposed CFD model represents very well the evolution of the HM release for the considered range of bed temperature.

  17. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  18. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA's permit envelope

  19. Operation of chemical incinerator for disposal of legacy chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Saha, S.; Pimple, M.V.; Naik, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    For safe disposal of age-old legacy and unused chemicals in BARC, Trombay, oil-fired chemical incinerator with a capacity of 20 kg h -1 for solid and liquid chemical is installed adjacent to trash incinerator near RSMS, Gamma Field. The Incinerator was supplied by M/s B. L. Engineering Works, Ahmedabad. Commission of the same at Trombay site was carried out, under the supervision of Civil Engineering (CED), Technical Services Division (TSD) and Analytical Chemistry Division (custodian of the facility)

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration For Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Akoore, Alfred Akelibilna

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is a common practice of waste management tool in most developed countries, for the purpose of converting mass and volumes of waste into a very useful energy content. The aim of this study was to compare the costs benefits of waste incineration for Accra Brewery boiler plant and to investigate also the availability of waste and it´s compositions in Accra, as well as to determine the feasibility of using this waste as a source of fuel to the waste incineration plant. T...

  1. Development of an incineration system for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.

    1989-01-01

    NUKEM GmbH (W. Germany) has developed and built some plants for treatment of radioactive waste. In cooperation with Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and on the basis of non-nuclear incineration plants, NUKEM has designed and built a new incineration plant for low level radioactive solid waste. The main features of the plant are improvement of the waste handling during feeding, very low particulate load downstream the incinerator and simple flue-gas cleaning system. This process is suitable for treatment of waste generated above all in nuclear power plants. (author)

  2. Beta-gamma contaminated solid waste incinerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.E.

    1979-10-01

    This technical data summary outlines a reference process to provide a 2-stage, 400 lb/hour incinerator to reduce the storage volume of combustible process waste contaminated with low-level beta-gamma emitters in response to DOE Manual 0511. This waste, amounting to more than 200,000 ft/sup 3/ per year, is presently buried in trenches in the burial ground. The anticipated storage volume reduction from incineration will be a factor of 20. The incinerator will also dispose of 150,000 gallons of degraded solvent from the chemical separations areas and 5000 gallons per year of miscellaneous nonradioactive solvents which are presently being drummed for storage.

  3. Incineration in the nuclear field. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of power reactors, like that of fuel fabrication and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, generated substantial quantities of waste. A large share of this waste is low- and medium-level waste, which is also combustible. Similarly, a number of institutes, laboratories, and hospitals, in the course of their activities, generated waste which a portion is radioactive and combustible. The chief advantage of incineration is to minimize the volume of burnable waste treated, and to produce a residue termed 'ash'. SGN has built up 25 years of experience in this field. The incinerators have been designed and the incineration processes are specially studied by SGN

  4. Incineration system for solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, J.K.Z.; Grosche Filho, C.E.; Alfonso, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    An incineration system that allows the burning of solid and liquid radioactive wastes transforming them to highly insoluble ashes, and volumetric reduction from 30 to 50 times, depending on the incinerated waste. The global factor of activity retention contained in the waste is the order of 99%. The proposed incineration system allows the total combustion of radioactive waste and the generated gases during the burning. The formation of gaseous secondary wastes is minimum and any liquid waste is formed, reducing the costs of installation and operation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Incineration experience at Oconee Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Radwaste Facility at Oconee Nuclear Station contains a Fluidized Bed Dryer/Incinerator System which will be used to process contaminated trash (DAW), oil, powdex resin, and chemical cleaning waste. This system was designed by Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. The ash and salts resulting from this process will be solidified using the Stock Equipment Company Polymer Solidification System. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of start-up and pre-operational testing of these systems, describe the mass balance program the authors will be using to meet the requirements of 10CFR61, and to discuss the sampling of the ash and salts that will be produced as a result of the process. Additionally, tests which are designed to verify the mass balance for the Aeroject System, are discussed

  6. Earthquake Seismic Risk Reduction in Ohio: ODNR's Efforts to Address Issues with Natural and Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing concerns regarding both natural and induced seismicity in Ohio, ODNR (Ohio Department of Natural Resources) initial efforts on seismic risk reduction paved way to various changes and improvement to tackle several major issues. For natural earthquakes, regional seismicity indicates a NE-SW structure in the northern portion of the area associated with a number of moderate historical earthquakes but no active trace identified. On the other hand, earthquakes of 1986 and 2011 are most probably incidents of induced seismicity that trigger more public uproar against disposal of regulated waste waters through injections. ODNR, in efforts to adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, had recently strengthen itself both through additional human resources and improved infrastructure. Tougher regulations and additional field tests were required that took effect immediately when a M4 earthquake was associated with the operations of an injection well. Public meetings were undertaken focused on educating many local inhabitants related to oil and gas operations, hydraulic fracturing, injection wells, and seismicity. Trainings for new and existing staff were regularly done especially for field inspection, data management and technology advancements. Considering the existing seismic stations that are few and distant related to sites of the injection wells, additional seismic stations were installed to gather baseline data and monitor for earthquakes within the injection area(s). Furthermore, to assess if the sites of the injection wells are safe from active structures, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern portion of state oriented NE-SW. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR had made a significant leap not only in the improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also in its

  7. Characterization and hazard evaluation of bottom ash produced from incinerated hospital waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Petrantonaki, Maria; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2009-12-30

    The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash from incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in many countries causes significant scale damage, since it contaminates the soil as well as surface and underground waters, putting both the environment and the public health at risk. In view of the above, a study of bottom ash produced at a hospital medical waste incinerator (HMWI) in Greece was conducted, in order to detect the presence of heavy metals and therefore assess its toxicity; this led to conclusions on the possible contamination of the soil as well as surface and underground waters as a result of its disposal in landfills. The study was conducted at a typical general hospital with 500-bed capacity. About 880 kg of infectious waste coming from a general hospital with all medical departments are pyrolyticly incinerated at the HMWI every day. International literature contains many references to research that characterizes bottom ash as either dangerous, not dangerous, or inert, in an effort to diagnose its proper management and disposal. For this reason, this study focuses on the characterization of bottom ash. Samples were collected from a combustion chamber, over a period of 1 year, and a series of tests were conducted, including an analysis of particle size distribution, morphology, mineralogical and chemical composition, heavy metal leaching behavior and PCDD/F.

  8. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. Methods: VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. Results: There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. Conclusions: There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries. PMID:25000113

  9. Ultrafine particle emission from incinerators: the role of the fabric filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G; Scungio, M; Stabile, L; Tirler, W

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are claimed to be responsible of particle and gaseous emissions: to this purpose Best Available Techniques (BAT) are used in the flue-gas treatment sections leading to pollutant emission lower than established threshold limit values. As regard particle emission, only a mass-based threshold limit is required by the regulatory authorities. However; in the last years the attention of medical experts moved from coarse and fine particles towards ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 0.1 microm), mainly emitted by combustion processes. According to toxicological and epidemiological studies, ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. A further topic to be stressed in the UFP emission from incinerators is the particle filtration efficiency as function of different flue-gas treatment sections. In fact, it could be somehow important to know which particle filtration method is able to assure high abatement efficiency also in terms of UFPs. To this purpose, in the present work experimental results in terms of ultrafine particle emissions from several incineration plants are reported. Experimental campaigns were carried out in the period 2007-2010 by measuring UFP number distributions and total concentrations at the stack of five plants through condensation particle counters and mobility particle sizer spectrometers. Average total particle number concentrations ranging from 0.4 x 10(3) to 6.0 x 10(3) particles cm(-3) were measured at the stack of the analyzed plants. Further experimental campaigns were performed to characterize particle levels before the fabric filters in two of the analyzed plants in order to deepen their particle reduction effect; particle concentrations higher than 1 x 10(7) particles cm(-3) were measured, leading to filtration

  10. An incineration technology for low level radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Mamoru; Nakanishi, Ryota; Noura, Tsuyoshi; Fujitomi, Masashi; Ano, Shintaroh

    2003-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste, mainly consisting of rag paper and cloth, is usually incinerated. However, polymeric waste, including rubber and polyvinyl chloride plastic, is securely stored in view of safe treatment. Kobe Steel has developed a new kind of incinerator which can be used for polymeric waste. It has the following characteristics: (a) A controlled air type furnace with a unique grate design (b) In order to control dioxin emissions, the furnace wall is refractory-lined to maintain furnace temperatures at 900degC or higher (c) Secondary combustion air is injected into the furnace to mix with gas from the primary combustion zone. In this paper, the following non-radioactive test results using an actual incinerator, (feed rate: 130 kg/hr.) are presented: (1) Polymeric waste, including rubber, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride plastic, was incinerated under stable operation; (2) Design specifications including treatment capacity, emission limits were satisfactorily achieved. (author)

  11. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant

  12. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  13. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  14. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  15. Control system for high-temperature slagging incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated in the nuclear generating plants are increasing year by year and to dispose them safely constitutes a big problem for the society. A few years ago, as the means of reducing them to as little volume as possible by incinerating and fusing the wastes, a high-temperature slagging incinerating method was developed, and this method is highly assessed. JGC Corp. has introduced that system technology and in order to prove the capacity of disposal and salubrity of the plant, and have constructed a full-sized pilot plant, then obtained the operational record and performance as they had planned. This report introduces the general processing of the wastes from their incineration and fusion as well as process control technology characteristic to high-temperature slagging incinerator furnaces and sensor technology. (author)

  16. THE ISSUE AND IMPORTANCE OF CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT EXEMPLIFIELD BY THE COLLAPSE OF AMERICAN MORTGAGE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Przenajkowska

    2008-01-01

    The risk is connected to all types of economic activities. It is especially important for the functioning of banks, which are institutions based on the trust of the society. The most common risk banks have to face is the credit risk. The first part of the paper refers to the reasons, classification and consequences of its appearance. Serious negative effects of credit risk existence force banks to design programs of this type of risk management. The credit risk management is founded on the ba...

  17. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Mudgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  18. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  19. Method for controlling incineration in combustor for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoku, Y.; Uehara, A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for controlling incineration in a combustor for low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, it relates to a method for economizing in the consumption of supplemental fuel while maintaining a stable incineration state by controlling the amount of fuel and of radioactive wastes fed to the combustor. The amount of fuel supplied is determined by the outlet gas temperature of the combustor. (L.L.)

  20. Design considerations for incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has established a development program to evaluate alternate production-level (100-200 lb/hr throughput) volume reduction processes for transuranic-contaminated solid waste. The first process selected for installation and study is based on controlled-air incineration. Design considerations leading to selection of feed preparation, incineration, residue removal, and off-gas cleanup components and their respective radioactive containment provisions will be presented

  1. Consolidated Incineration Facility waste burn test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is Providing technical support for start-up and operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility. This support program includes a series of pilot incineration tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (MF) using surrogate CIF mixed wastes. The objectives for this test program included measuring incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distributions as a function of several operating variables, characterizing kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates, determining heavy metal partition between the kiln bottom ash and incinerator stack gas, and measuring kiln organics emissions (particularly polychlorinated dioxins and furans). These tests were designed to investigate the effect of the following operating parameters: Incineration Temperature; Waste Feed Rate; Waste Density; Kiln Solids Residence Time; and Waste Composition. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three solid waste simulants were burned, two waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and PVC) with one containing spiked toxic organic and metal compounds, and one waste type containing only paper. Secondary Combustion Chamber (SCC) offgases were sampled for particulate loading and size distribution, organic compounds, polychlorinated dibenzo[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, and combustion products. Kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates were characterized to determine the principal elements and compounds comprising these secondary wastes

  2. Experience with radioactive waste incineration at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, V.T.; Beamer, N.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-06-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a nuclear research centre operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. A full-scale waste treatment centre has been constructed to process low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated on-site. A batch-loaded, two-stage, starved-air incinerator for solid combustible waste is one of the processes installed in this facility. The incinerator has been operating since 1982. It has consistently reduced combustible wastes to an inert ash product, with an average volume reduction factor of about 150:1. The incinerator ash is stored in 200 L drums awaiting solidification in bitumen. The incinerator and a 50-ton hydraulic baler have provided treatment for a combined volume of about 1300 m 3 /a of solid low-level radioactive waste. This paper presents a review of the performance of the incinerator during its six years of operation. In addition to presenting operational experience, an assessment of the starved-air incineration technique will also be discussed

  3. Incineration technology for alpha-bearing radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, Friedlich; Pfeiffer, Reinhard

    1997-01-01

    Since 1971 the Karlsruhe Research Center has developed and operated plants for the incineration of radioactive waste. Three incineration plants for pure β/γ solid, α-bearing solid and radioactive liquid waste have been successfully utilized during last two decades. Recently more than 20 year-old β/γ plant was shut down with the economic point of view, mainly due to the recently reduced volume of burnable β/γ waste. Burnable β/γ solid waste is now being treated with α-bearing waste in a α solid incineration plant. The status of incineration technology for α-bearing waste and other radioactive waste treatment technologies, which are now utilized in Karlsruhe Research Center, such as conditioning of incineration ash, supercompaction, scrapping, and decontamination of solid radioactive waste, etc. are introduced in this presentation. Additionally, operational results of the recently installed new dioxin adsorber and fluidized-bed drier for scrubber liquid in α incineration plant are also described in this presentation. (author) 1 tab., 13 figs

  4. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs.

  5. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs

  6. Risk Management for Study Abroad Programs: Issues and Resources to Inform Program Development, Administration, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a practical background to the health and safety risks and challenges for U.S. colleges and universities and other program providers. Potential risks, field-based guidelines, good practices, and resources to support the management of risks by study abroad offices will be covered.

  7. The incineration of absorbed liquid wastes in the INEL's [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] WERF [Waste Experimental Reduction Facility] incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; McFee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of burning absorbed flammable liquids in boxes in the WERF incinerator was evaluated as a waste treatment method. The safety and feasibility of this procedure were evaluated in a series of tests. In the testing, the effect on incinerator operations of burning various quantities of absorbed flammable liquids was measured and compared to normal operations conducted on low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The test results indicated that the proposed procedure is safe and practical for use on a wide variety of solvents with quantities as high as one liter per box. No adverse or unacceptable operating conditions resulted from burning any of the solvents tested. Incineration of the solvents in this fashion was no different than burning LLW during normal incineration. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Innovation in coastal risk management: An exploratory analysis of risk governance issues at eight THESEUS study sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning-Rowsell, E.C.; de Vries, W.S.; Parker, D.J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Simmonds, D.; Trifonova, E.; Hissel, F.; Monbaliu, J.; Lendzion, J.; Ohle, N.; Diaz, P.; Bouma, T.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of coastal risk management is changing, away from an engineering-dominated approach seeking to defend against the sea, to one where risks are managed using a portfolio of measures usually incorporating an acceptance of a finite standards of protection. Inherent in the modern approach is

  9. Did we choose the best one? A new site selection approach based on exposure and uptake potential for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirarslan, K Onur; Korucu, M Kemal; Karademir, Aykan

    2016-08-01

    Ecological problems arising after the construction and operation of a waste incineration plant generally originate from incorrect decisions made during the selection of the location of the plant. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the selection method for the location of a new municipal waste incineration plant can be improved by using a dispersion modelling approach supported by geographical information systems and multi-criteria decision analysis. Considering this aim, the appropriateness of the current location of an existent plant was assessed by applying a pollution dispersion model. Using this procedure, the site ranking for a total of 90 candidate locations and the site of the existing incinerator were determined by a new location selection practice and the current place of the plant was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey tests. This ranking, made without the use of modelling approaches, was re-evaluated based on the modelling of various variables, including the concentration of pollutants, population and population density, demography, temporality of meteorological data, pollutant type, risk formation type by CALPUFF and re-ranking the results. The findings clearly indicate the impropriety of the location of the current plant, as the pollution distribution model showed that its location was the fourth-worst choice among 91 possibilities. It was concluded that the location selection procedures for waste incinerators should benefit from the improvements obtained by the articulation of pollution dispersion studies combined with the population density data to obtain the most suitable location. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The issues of risk, trust, and customer intention: A search for the relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adiwijaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is explaining the relationship between customers trust, perceived risk and online purchase intention. However, we added e-servicescape as the antecedent of customers trust, perceived risk, and purchase intention. The respondents were 120 online shop customers. The data was processed using SmartPLS 2.0. We found e-Servicescape to be an antecedent of both customer trust and perceived risk, and customer trust to be the antecedent of purchase intention. However, we found that the relationship between customer trust and perceived risk, as well as perceived risk and purchase intention to be insignificant. Our findings and managerial implications are discussed.

  11. Use of Monte Carlo methods in environmental risk assessments at the INEL: Applications and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Van Horn, R.

    1996-06-01

    The EPA is increasingly considering the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques as an alternative or refinement of the current point estimate of risk. This report provides an overview of the probabilistic technique called Monte Carlo Analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of implementing a Monte Carlo analysis over a point estimate analysis for environmental risk assessment are discussed. The general methodology is provided along with an example of its implementation. A phased approach to risk analysis that allows iterative refinement of the risk estimates is recommended for use at the INEL

  12. Use of Monte Carlo methods in environmental risk assessments at the INEL: Applications and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G.; Van Horn, R.

    1996-06-01

    The EPA is increasingly considering the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques as an alternative or refinement of the current point estimate of risk. This report provides an overview of the probabilistic technique called Monte Carlo Analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of implementing a Monte Carlo analysis over a point estimate analysis for environmental risk assessment are discussed. The general methodology is provided along with an example of its implementation. A phased approach to risk analysis that allows iterative refinement of the risk estimates is recommended for use at the INEL.

  13. Research paper 2000-B-1: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directive (89/429) in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucht, S.

    2000-07-01

    This paper constitutes a contribution to the project 'IMPOL - The Implementation of EU Environmental Policies: Efficiency Issues'. The paper deals with the implementation of the EU Directives directed at atmospheric emissions from new (89/369/EEC) and existing (89/429/EEC) municipal waste incineration plants in France. The goal of this paper is twofold: a historic review of the implementation processes and their evaluation following economic criteria of environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency. The focus is on the implementation of the Directives' requirements towards existing municipal waste incineration plants, i.e. those plants having received their operation licence after December 1, 1990. For France we find a general picture of poor compliance. This result has to be differentiated, though: the current compliance rate of plants of a capacity above 6 t/h is almost 100% (although compliance often came late) while the majority of smaller plants does not comply with the Directive's requirements. With a waste incineration park of about 250 plants currently, many of which are very small plants and only treat weak amounts of waste, France constitutes an exception compared to other European countries. A further specific characteristic of France is the high share of waste incineration in total waste treatment (especially in the big cities) which amounts to almost 40%. The outline of the paper is the following: chapter two gives some context information on the French municipal waste incineration plant park and its structure, on the development of waste quantities, on the legal framework and on available subsidy schemes. Chapter three assesses environmental effectiveness, i.e. goal attainment and factors explaining the results. Chapter four comprises the assessment of cost efficiency. Chapter five contains the historic review, i.e. a characterisation of the implementation process, and chapter six concludes, linking the characterisation of

  14. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  15. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting. Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers. Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined. Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  16. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytomining of valuable metals from waste incineration residues using hyperaccumulator plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide the availability of primary sources of certain economically important metals is decreasing, resulting in high supply risks and increasing prices for this materials. Therefore, an alternative way of retrieving these high valuable technical metals is the recycling and use of anthropogenic secondary sources, such as waste incineration residues. Phytomining offers an environmentally sound and cheap technology to recover such metals from secondary sources. Thus, the aim of our research work is to investigate the potential of phytomining from waste incineration slags by growing metal hyperaccumulating plants on this substrates and use the metal enriched biomass as a bio-ore. As a first stage, material from Vienna's waste incineration plants was sampled and analyzed. Residues from municipal wastes as well as residues from hazardous waste incineration and sewage sludge incineration were analyzed. In general, the slags can be characterized by a very high pH, high salinity and high heavy metal concentrations. Our work is targeting the so-called critical raw materials defined by the European Commission in 2014. Thus, the target metal species in our project are amongst others cobalt, chromium, antimony, tungsten, gallium, nickel and selected rare earth elements. This elements are present in the slags at moderate to low concentrations. In order to optimize the substrate for plant growth the high pH and salt content as well as the low nitrogen content in the slags need to be controlled. Thus, different combinations of amendments, mainly from the waste industry, as well as different acidifying agents were tested for conditioning the substrate. Washing the slags with diluted nitric acid turned out to be effective for lowering the pH. The acid treated substrate in combination with material from mechanical biological waste treatment and biochar, is currently under investigation in a greenhouse pot experiment. The experimental setup consists of a full factorial design

  18. Legal Issues for Orientation and Mobility Specialists: Minimizing the Risks of Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Ruth Ann; Hartmeister, Fred; Griffin-Shirley, Nora

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the potential negligence-based liability risks that orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists often face when assisting students with visual impairments with independent travel in uncontrolled environments. It also presents strategies that may minimize the risks of O&M training for both students and specialists. (Contains…

  19. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); M.J. van Veen (Mieke); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGrowing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed

  20. Risk Management Issues - Doing Things Safely with Words: Rules and Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to the discussion of the integration of scientific knowledge into regulatory decision making as seen on the background of experiences gained from research on industrial risk management in a dynamic society. Risk management involves several levels of decision makers...

  1. Legal and Policy Issues for LGBT Patients with Cancer or at Elevated Risk of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean R

    2018-02-01

    To understand the major legal and policy issues for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients. LGBT health policy research. Major policy issues include discrimination, lack of cultural competency and clinically appropriate care, insurance coverage, family recognition, and sexual orientation and gender identity data collection. Nurses play a major role in providing affirming and competent care to LGBT cancer patients. Using correct names and pronouns with transgender patients, and collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data can send an affirming message to LGBT patients, as well as inform decision support and preventive screenings, and improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Displacement and Suicide Risk for Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmar, Jeff M.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between suicide behaviors and displacement, as defined by out-of-home placement, in a sample of juvenile-justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Participants included boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 who were enrolled in a juvenile justice diversion program for children with mental or…

  3. [Chemical risk assessment in the construction industry: principles and critical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, M

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment (RA) represents the first step to ensure the protection of the workers' health in all work sectors, production and services included. For this reason RA has become a legal duty for the occupational physician in his/her professional activity. The basic concepts of RA have been developed as a formal procedure for the management of chemical risks but they are currently applied to protect human health against all types of occupational and environmental risk factors. In the construction industry, in particular, chemical risk assessment is specially difficult due to the complexity of the working condition, and the variability and multiplicity of exposure. The critical aspects of RA in the construction industry will be discussed here, in the attempt to highlight how the occupational physician, making use of traditional and new tools, including biological monitoring, can address and partly overcome them.

  4. Conceptual and Statistical Issues Regarding the Probability of Default and Modeling Default Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia TITAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rapidly evolving financial markets, risk management offers different techniques in order to implement an efficient system against market risk. Probability of default (PD is an essential part of business intelligence and customer relation management systems in the financial institutions. Recent studies indicates that underestimating this important component, and also the loss given default (LGD, might threaten the stability and smooth running of the financial markets. From the perspective of risk management, the result of predictive accuracy of the estimated probability of default is more valuable than the standard binary classification: credible or non credible clients. The Basle II Accord recognizes the methods of reducing credit risk and also PD and LGD as important components of advanced Internal Rating Based (IRB approach.

  5. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 88 ± 36 g CH 4 ton -1 , and 69 ± 16 g N 2 O ton -1 , while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH 4 ton -1 and 259.76 g N 2 O ton -1 , and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 43.44 g CH 4 ton -1 and 401.21 g N 2 O ton -1 , respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for A facility and 11,082 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 for A facility and 32,916 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 , indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 , while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 . The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and

  6. Let God protect us in this. Theological and ethical deliberations on the risk issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselm, R.

    1993-01-01

    After a short historical review the author expresses his conviction that the risks involved in large industrial plants are only justified ehtically if the potential sufferers are informed about the relevant factors and give their genuine consent in a democratic procedure. Christian principles laid down in the Bible and the tenets of the democratic expression of will both demand that earnest communication about the risks must take place. (DG) [de

  7. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  8. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longoni Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  9. Hazardous waste incineration in context with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tim; Richers, Ulf; Suchomel, Horst

    2008-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 demands an emission reduction of climate-affecting gases in various industrial sectors. In this context CO2 is one of the relevant gases and waste management is one of the relevant sectors. Referring to the situation in Europe, waste incineration is one of the major sources of CO2 in the waste management sector. The Kyoto Protocol, however, only covers CO2-emissions originating from fossil fuels, whereas the incineration of renewable materials, e.g. wood, is considered to be climate-neutral since it does not make any net contribution to the CO2 inventory of the atmosphere. Unlike the situation with municipal waste, there is little if any information on the CO2-emissions caused by the incineration of hazardous waste in specialized plants, and the renewable fraction in these materials. The present paper focuses on this gap of knowledge. Taking the full-scale hazardous waste incineration plant in Biebesheim, Germany, as an example, a carbon balance was set up for the whole-plant taking into account all other material flows. Afterwards the determination of the proportion of renewable materials in the hazardous waste incinerated by means of the radiocarbon method (14C) is reported. On the basis of the results, optimization potentials are discussed.

  10. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia.

  11. Processing of combustible radioactive waste using incineration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestas, E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Member countries numerous incineration concepts are being studied as potential methods for conditioning alpha-bearing and other types of combustible radioactive waste. The common objective of these different processes is volume reduction and the transformation of the waste to a more acceptable waste form. Because the combustion processes reduce the mass and volume of waste to a form which is generally more inert than the feed material, the resulting waste can be more uniformly compatible with safe handling, packaging, storage and/or disposal techniques. The number of different types of combustion process designed and operating specifically for alpha-bearing wastes is somewhat small compared with those for non-alpha radioactive wastes; however, research and development is under way in a number of countries to develop and improve alpha incinerators. This paper provides an overview of most alpha-incineration concepts in operation or under development in OECD/NEA Member countries. The special features of each concept are briefly discussed. A table containing characteristic data of incinerators is presented so that a comparison of the major programmes can be made. The table includes the incinerator name and location, process type, capacity throughput, operational status and application. (author)

  12. Operation of a pilot incinerator for solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.; Warren, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory-scale incinerator (0.5 kg waste/hr) was built and operated for more than 18 months as part of a program to adapt and confirm technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid wastes, which are contaminated with about 0.3 Ci/kg of alpha-emitting transuranium (TRU) nuclides (Slide 1). About 4000 packages of simulated nonradioactive wastes were burned, including HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters, resins, and other types of solid combustible waste from plutonium finishing operations. Throughputs of more than 3 kg/hr for periods up to 4 hours were demonstrated. The incinerator was oerated at temperatures above 750 0 C for more than 7700 hours during a period of 12 months, for an overall availability of 88%. The incinerator was shut down three times during the year: once to replace the primary combustion chamber electrical heater, and twice to replace oxidized electrical connectors to the secondary chamber heaters. Practical experience with this pilot facility provided the design basis for the full-size (5 kg waste/hr) nonradioactive test incinerator, which began operation in March 1979

  13. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  14. The selection, licensing, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Dalton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group has just completed the selection, procurement, licensing, and start-up of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator. This incinerator is the only commercial radioactive waste incinerator in the US and was licensed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Tennessee, the City of Oak Ridge, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. This incinerator has a thermal capacity of 13,000,000 BTUs and can burn approximately 1,000 pounds per hour of typical radioactive waste. Waste to be incinerated is sorted in a new waste sorting system at the SEG facility. The sorting is essential to assure that the incinerator will not be damaged by any unexpected waste and to maintain the purity of the incinerator off-gas. The volume reduction expected for typical waste is approximately 100:1. After burning, the incinerator ash is compacted or vitrified before shipment to burial sites

  15. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

    2014-02-01

    For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Nuno; Vandensteendam, Colette; Baronnet, Jean Marie

    2006-01-01

    Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium…) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization.

  17. Bioavailability as an issue in risk assessment and management of food cadmium: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Philip G.; Chaney, Rufus L.

    2008-01-01

    The bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) from food is an important determinant of the potential risk of this toxic element. This review summarizes the effects of marginal deficiencies of the essential nutrients zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) on the enhancement of absorption and organ accumulation and retention of dietary Cd in laboratory animals. These marginal deficiencies enhanced Cd absorption as much as ten-fold from diets containing low Cd concentrations similar to that consumed by some human populations, indicating that people who are nutritionally marginal with respect to Zn, Fe, and Ca are at higher risk of Cd disease than those who are nutritionally adequate. Results from these studies also suggest that the bioavailability of Cd is different for different food sources. This has implications for the design of food safety rules for Cd in that if the dietary source plays such a significant role in the risk of Cd, then different foods would require different Cd limits. Lastly, the importance of food-level exposures of Cd and other potentially toxic elements in the study of risk assessment are emphasized. Most foods contain low concentrations of Cd that are poorly absorbed, and it is neither relevant nor practical to use toxic doses of Cd in experimental diets to study food Cd risks. A more comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry involved in the bioavailability of Cd from foods would help resolve food safety questions and provide the support for a badly needed advance in international policies regarding Cd in crops and foods

  18. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Rynes; Trond Bjornard

    2011-07-01

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  19. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  20. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M.; Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Dickerson, K.

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO x , SO x , and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers

  1. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  2. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  3. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  4. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2010-10-15

    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitrification of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Oorsprong, M; Yang, Y; Voncken, J H L

    2008-01-01

    During incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), various environmentally harmful elements and heavy metals are liberated either into bottom ash, or carried away with the off-gases and subsequently trapped in fly-ash. If these minor but harmful elements are not properly isolated and immobilized, it can lead to secondary environmental pollution to the air, soil and water. The stricter environmental regulations to be implemented in the near future in The Netherlands require a higher immobilization efficiency of the bottom ash treatment. In the present study, MSW incinerator bottom ash was vitrified at higher temperatures and the slag formed and metal recovered were examined. The behaviour of soluble elements that remain in the slag is evaluated by standard leaching test. The results obtained can provide a valuable route to treat the ashes from incinerators, and to make recycling and more efficient utilization of the bottom ash possible.

  6. Disposal of waste or excess high explosives. Final report. [Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ''Disposal of Waste or Excess High Explosives'' project began January 1971. Various methods of disposal were investigated with the conclusion that incineration, at major ERDA facilities, would be the most feasible and safest method with the least cost and development time required. Two independent incinerator concepts were investigated: a rotary type for continuous processing and an enclosed pit type for batch processing. Both concepts are feasible; however, it is recommended that further investigations would be required to render them acceptable. It is felt that a larger effort would be required in the case of the rotary incinerator. The project was terminated (December 1976) prior to completion as a result of a grant of authority by the Texas Air Control Board allowing the ERDA Pantex Plant to continue indefinitely outdoor burning of explosives.

  7. Radiation safety for incineration of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryuzhs'kij, Yu.V.; Gryin'ko, O.M.; Tokarevs'kij, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Problems in the treatment of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium nuclides are considered in the paper. Chornobyl experience in the management of contaminated soil and contaminated forests is analyzed in relation to the accident at Fukushima-1. The minimization of release of cesium aerosols into atmosphere is very important. Radiation influence of inhaling atmosphere aerosols polluted by cesium has damage effect for humans. The research focuses on the treatment of forests contaminated by big volumes of cesium. One of the most important technologies is a pyro-gasification incineration with chemical reactions of cesium paying attention to gas purification problems. Requirements for process, physical and chemical properties of treatment of radioactive waste based on the dry pyro-gasification incineration facilities are considered in the paper together with the discussion of details related to incineration facilities. General similarities and discrepancies in the environmental pollution caused by the accidents at Chornobyl NPP and Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan are analyzed

  8. Economic sensitivity of DAW incineration to PVC content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmassler, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Economic analyses of the volume reduction of low level radwaste, including the incinerator of Dry Active Waste (DAW), spent resins and filter sludges, are performed using the microcomputer code VOLREDUCER. Based on BWR and PWR data taken from previous EPRI work, the sensitivity of incinerator economics to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) content in DAW is examined. An annual cost penalty associated with the presence of PVC in the waste is formulated, and the sensitivity of this penalty to a variety of parameters is determined. The alternative of sorting out PVC from the rest of the waste is compared to incineration with regard to this annual cost penalty. These penalties may range as high as $100,000 annually depending on the waste characteristics and percent of PVC

  9. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  10. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  11. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of sewage sludge incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  12. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Radioactive waste incineration studies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A controlled-air incinerator, based upon commercially available equipment and technology, was modified for radioactive service and was successfully tested and demonstrated with contaminated waste. Demonstration of the production-scale unit was completed in May 1980 with the incineration of 272 kg of waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. Weight and volume reduction factors for the demonstration run were 40:1 and 120:1, respectively

  14. Incineration of tyres, radioactive and photographic industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1977-01-01

    In the list every day longer of 'industrial' wastes, there is a special place for combustible waste usually presenting a solution for their elimination, i. e. incineration with or without calory recovery. Three categories are well-known as they concern the general public. The overall data of the problem are first considered, then three incineration plants in three different fields are described: motor-car tyres, nuclear industry, photographic industry. In the last field, well-conducted recovery processes may result in surprising results as to the damping of the plant cost, which finally is both pleasant and useful [fr

  15. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  16. Radioactivity partitioning of oil sludge undergoing incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1997-01-01

    Oil sludge waste is a controlled item under the Atomic Energy Act (Act 304) 1984 of which the radioactivity content shall be subjected to analysis. Apart from that the treatment method also shall be approved by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). Thus, an analysis of the oil sludge for MSE fluidized incinerator was conducted to comply with above requirements using various techniques. Further screening analysis of fly ash as well as bed material were done to study the effect of incinerating the sludge. This paper highlights the analysis techniques and discusses the results with respect to the radioactivity level and the fate of radionuclides subjected to the processing of the waste

  17. Making decisions about liability and insurance a special issue of the journal of risk and uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kunreuther, Howard

    1993-01-01

    Two related trends have created novel challenges for managing risk in the United States. The first trend is a series of dramatic changes in liability law as tort law has expanded to assign liability to defendants for reasons other than negligence. The unpredictability of future costs induced by changes in tort law may be partly responsible for the second major trend known as the `liability crisis' - the disappearance of liability protection in markets for particularly unpredictable risks. This book examines decisions people make about insurance and liability. An understanding of such decision making may help explain why the insurance crisis resulted from the new interpretations of tort law and what to do about it. The articles cover three kinds of decisions: consumer decisions to purchase insurance; insurer decisions about coverage they offer; and the decisions of the public about the liability rules they prefer, which are reflected in legislation and regulation. For each of these three kinds of decisions, no...

  18. Policy issues and risk-benefit trade-offs of 'safer surfacing' for children's playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David J

    2004-07-01

    The case for the universal application of 'safer surfacing' in playgrounds is assessed in terms of absolute risk, cost-benefit, and qualitative factors, and found to be open to question on each front. In parallel, it is noted that members of the child welfare and play communities are increasingly of the view that playgrounds are losing their appeal for children, which in turn has its own health, safety and developmental consequences. In part, this loss of attractiveness may have linkages with the recent concern over play safety and the imposition of measures such as 'safer surfacing'. It is proposed that the drive for play safety, which has existed for some 20 years, should be succeeded by a more holistic approach which, rather than considering play safety in isolation, acknowledges the importance of all attributes of play including child safety both on and off playgrounds, potential beneficial aspects of childhood risk exposure, adventure, and play value.

  19. Global research, practice, and policy issues on the care of infants and young children at risk: the articles in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B; Groark, Christina J; Rygaard, Niels P

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue includes articles that contribute to (a) the global research base pertaining to the development of infants and toddlers at risk, primarily those who are institutionalized in lower resource countries; (b) interventions in institutions and to promote family alternatives to institutionalization; and (c) attempts to create modern child welfare systems emphasizing family care in entire states and countries. This introduction places these articles into the broader contexts of the literature in these three domains of interest. Across the world, urbanization, migration, armed conflict, epidemics, and famine disrupt families. Add poverty, abuse, neglect, and parental incapacity due to substance abuse and mental health problems, and the result is millions of children without parental care who come under governmental responsibility, often to be reared in institutions, and at risk for long-term developmental deficiencies and problems. Over the last 2 decades and especially recently, national and international governments and nongovernment organizations have increased efforts to help such children, especially those in low-resource countries. Two types of efforts have been made: one to improve the quality of care provided by institutions and the other to minimize the use of institutions and promote family residential care alternatives. The latter effort includes preventing family separations in the first place, reunification of children with birth families, and developing systems of kinship care, foster care, and adoption. This Special Issue of IMHJ is devoted to reports pertaining to issues in the research knowledge base, program practices, and countrywide policies for infants and young children at risk. We attempt in this introduction to place these reports in the broader context of this field, identify their unique contributions, and highlight lessons learned that can contribute to improved care practices and better child welfare systems. © 2014 Michigan

  20. Uncertainties in Amazon Hydropower Development: Risk Scenarios and Environmental Issues around the Belo Monte Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Cabral de Sousa Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region is the final frontier and central focus of Brazilian hydro development, which raises a range of environmental concerns. The largest project in the Amazon is the planned Belo Monte Complex on the Xingu river. If constructed it will be the second biggest hydroelectric plant in Brazil, third largest on earth. In this study, we analyse the private and social costs, and benefits of the Belo Monte project. Furthermore, we present risk scenarios, considering fluctuations in the project’s feasibility that would result from variations in total costs and power. For our analysis, we create three scenarios. In the first scenario Belo Monte appears feasible, with a net present value (NPV in the range of US$670 million and a rate of return in excess of the 12% discount rate used in this analysis. The second scenario, where we varied some of the project costs and assumptions based on other economic estimates, shows the project to be infeasible, with a negative NPV of about US$3 billion and external costs around US$330 million. We also conducted a risk analysis, allowing variation in several of the parameters most important to the project’s feasibility. The simulations brought together the risks of cost overruns, construction delays, lower-than-expected generation and rising social costs. The probability of a positive NPV in these circumstances was calculated to be just 28%, or there is a 72% chance that the costs of the Belo Monte dam will be greater than the benefits. Several WCD recommendations are not considered in the project, especially those related to transparency, social participation in the discussion, economic analysis and risk assessment, and licensing of the project. This study underscores the importance of forming a participatory consensus, based on clear, objective information, on whether or not to build the Belo Monte dam.

  1. Drug use as a driver of HIV risks: re-emerging and emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Shaw, Stacey A; Dasgupta, Anindita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-03-01

    We reviewed the studies published in 2012-2013 that focused on re-emerging and emerging injection and noninjection drug use trends driving HIV risk behaviors and transmission in some parts of the world. Although HIV incidence has declined in many countries, HIV epidemics remain at troubling levels among key drug-using populations, including females who inject drugs (FWIDs), FWIDs who trade sex, sex partners of people who inject drugs, young people who inject drugs, and people who use noninjection drugs in a number of low-income and middle-income countries such as in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa. HIV epidemics occur within the contexts of global economic and political forces, including poverty, human rights violations, discrimination, drug policies, trafficking, and other multilevel risk environments. Trends of injection and noninjection drug use and risk environments driving HIV epidemics in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa call for political will to improve HIV and substance use service delivery, access to combination HIV prevention, and harm reduction programs.

  2. Drug use as a driver of HIV Risks: Re-emerging and emerging issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Shaw, Stacey A.; Dasgupta, Anindita; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review We reviewed papers published in 2012–2013 that focused on re-emerging and emerging injection and non-injection drug use trends driving HIV risk behaviors and transmission in some parts of the world. Recent Findings While HIV incidence has declined in many countries, HIV epidemics remain at troubling levels among key drug using populations including females who inject drugs (FWID), FWID who trade sex, sex partners of people who inject drugs (SP-PWID), young PWID, and people who use non-injection drugs in a number of low- and middle- income countries such as in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa. Summary HIV epidemics occur within contexts of global economic and political forces, including poverty, human rights violations, discrimination, drug policies, trafficking, and other multi-level risk environments. Trends of injection and non-injection drug use and risk environments driving HIV epidemics in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa call for political will to improve HIV and substance use service delivery, access to combination HIV prevention, and harm reduction programs. PMID:24406532

  3. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  4. Issues raised in the limitation, control and measurement of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years a consistent set of quantities for ionising radiation measurements in radiological protection have been defined. The efforts being made by those concerned with radiation dosimetry to ensure the universal adoption and use of these quantities are now threatened by further developments in risk concepts. The most serious threats arise from changed perceptions about the quality factors appropriate for different radiations due to improved biological information about relative biological effectiveness, and the increased importance to be given to the cancer risk estimates derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors following the revised dose estimates. A change in the basis of quality factor specification will require careful consideration if it is not to produce further problems in obtaining agreement on the conceptual basis for radiological protection metrology. The change is primarily for adoption in the calculation of the risk quantity, effective dose equivalent. Some of the possible options for taking account of the change in regard to the measurement quantities are examined. (author)

  5. Ancient Greek view of perinatal risk issues: from myth to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatology is a new medical discipline, originating in the 1960s, and aiming to prevent, diagnose and treat problems to the mother, fetus and neonate, prior, during and after delivery.  As above issues, applying to perinatology, are diachronically present, it is of interest to explore how they were previously viewed and coped with, particularly in ancient times.Ancient Greece is considered the cradle of Western medicine. Thus, the reasonable question arises, what did Ancient Greeks think about unusual conditions, encountered around delivery, like premature birth, small for gestational age babies, twin pregnancy, as well as inability to give birth vaginally, and thus to apply what we nowadays call an emergency cesarean section.

  6. Key issues for the development and application of the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model for ecological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Fu-Liu; Li, Yi-Long; Wang, Yin

    2015-01-01

    The species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model is one of the most commonly used methods for ecological risk assessment based on the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of and the combined PAF (msPAF) as quantitative indicators. There are usually four steps for the development of SSD models...... fractions (msPAFs) for the joint ecological risk assessment of multiple pollutants. Among the above mentioned four steps, the first two steps are paramount. In the present study, the following six key issues are discussed: (1) how to select the appropriate species, (2) how to preprocess the toxicity data...... for invertebrates. The concentration addition or response addition were discussed to calculate msPAF according to the toxic model of action (TMoA). The uncertainties of the SSD models for five heavy metals and for eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed. The comparison of the coefficients...

  7. [Chapter 1. From the study of risks to the translation of the ethical issues of Big Data in Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, J

    2017-10-27

    Big Data substantially disrupt the medical microcosm up to challenge the paradigms of Medicine Hippocrates as we previously know. Therefore, a reflection on the study of risks associated with ethical issues around personal health data is imposed on us. Our study is based on many field surveys, interviews targeted at different actors, as well as a literature search on the subject. This work led to the realization of an innovative method of alignment of concepts of ontology of the risks to those of ontology of ethical objectives requirements of Big Data in Health. The aim is to make sense and recommendations to realization, implementation and use of personal data in order to better control it.

  8. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  9. Burns as child abuse: risk factors and legal issues in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanaike, Sharmila; Wishnew, Jenna; Rahimi, Maham; Zhang, Yan; Hester, Cynthia; Griswold, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to describe risk factors for child abuse from burns and examine prosecution and conviction rates after case discussions at a multidisciplinary conference Retrospective cohort study of all pediatric burns admitted between 2001 and 2006 was performed. Registry data on age, sex, mechanism, location, and size of burn were recorded. Registry data were verified against nursing documentation for accuracy. All cases were reviewed at the multidisciplinary "care conference" to gather insight from various perspectives to make a final determination of abuse or neglect. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with child abuse. Prosecution rates were determined by contacting child protective services and district attorney's offices. A total of 457 children were included in the analysis. Most of the children were boys (70%) and were of Hispanic origin (57%), with 30% white and 10% black. Hundred cases were suspicious for abuse after review at care conference. Younger age was a significant risk factor (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.65-0.82), with the mean age of abused children being 1 (3/4) years compared with 5 (1/2) years for accidental injuries. Girls were at higher risk for abuse (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.06-2.91).Torso injuries were significantly more common in abused children, an unusual finding possibly reflecting a different abuse pattern in infants compared with toddlers. Suspected abuse resulted in longer hospital stays (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07). Prosecution rates and conviction rates in the authors region are low, at only 26 and 11% of suspicious cases, respectively. Young age and female sex were positively correlated with child abuse. Prosecution and conviction rates are remarkably low, despite using a multidisciplinary care conference to review all cases and obtaining early involvement of child protective services and law enforcement.

  10. Risk Issues in Developing Novel User Interfaces for Human-Computer Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Klinker, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights are reserved. When new user interfaces or information visualization schemes are developed for complex information processing systems, it is not readily clear how much they do, in fact, support and improve users\\' understanding and use of such systems. Is a new interface better than an older one? In what respect, and in which situations? To provide answers to such questions, user testing schemes are employed. This chapter reports on a range of risks pertaining to the design and implementation of user interfaces in general, and to newly emerging interfaces (3-dimensionally, immersive, mobile) in particular.

  11. Waste wood incineration: long-lasting, environment-friendly and CO2-neutral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The economic aspects of energy production from waste wood are evaluated. Heating systems based on the incineration of wood have been considerably improved recently. Several aspects of the incineration of waste wood are reviewed: the implications with regard to the greenhouse effect, the calorific value of wood, the incineration process, and the cost price calculation of energy production by waste wood incineration. In conclusion is stated that energy production by waste wood incineration is a valuable economic alternative for heat production by oil products, especially in view of the current anti-pollution taxes in Belgium. (A.S.)

  12. Exposure dose evaluation of worker at radioactive waste incineration facility on KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kim, Youn Hwa; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    An incineration treatment of inflammable radioactive wastes leads to have a reduction effect of disposal cost and also to contribute an enhancement of safety at a disposal site by taking the advantage of stabilization of the wastes which is accomplished by converting organic materials into inorganic materials. As it was required for an incineration technology, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed a pilot incineration process and then constructed a demonstration incineration facility having based on the operating experiences of the pilot process. In this study, worker exposure doses were evaluated to confirm safety of workers before the demonstration incineration facility will commence a commercial. (author)

  13. Issues in the assessment of congenital health risks from mercury in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Clean Coal Technology Program

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic assessment of congenital neurological risks associated with consumption of fish and shellfish containing MeHg and the effects that local coal combustion might have on those risks. Two scenarios were considered with this model: the ``baseline`` scenario (MeHg from fish consumption without local impacts), and the ``impact`` scenario (baseline plus local power-plant impact on freshwater fish). In this paper, we describe the framework and application of the model, including parameters and statistical linkages, the distributions used to represent the parameters, and the statistical methods used to characterize the inherent variability in each individual`s diet and the distribution of individuals within a hypothetical population. These factors define the baseline, which is then compared to observations of MeHg in hair in order to demonstrate the model`s validity. The incremental effect of local coal combustion is represented by augmenting the distribution of Hg in local freshwater fish by a prescribed amount, which we refer to as the ``impact factor.`` Conventional air pollution dispersion modeling is then used to relate this factor to an appropriate range of powerplant characteristics.

  14. Four conceptual issues to consider in integrating social and environmental factors in risk and impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domínguez-Gómez, J. Andrés, E-mail: andres@uhu.es

    2016-01-15

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it parallel progress in addressing the main shortcomings of EIA/SIA, i.e. insufficient integration of environmental and social factors into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their analysis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of projects which impact on the environment, and consequently to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argues that, in a sociological context of complexity and dynamism, four conceptual elements should underpin approaches to socio-environmental risk and impact assessment in development projects: a theoretical base in actor–network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized (though not always fulfilled in practice); a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation. - Highlights: • A theoretical foundation in actor–network theory • An ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized, but rarely carried through into practice • A (new) epistemological-scientific base • A methodological foundation in social participation.

  15. Human health risks of formaldehyde indoor levels: An issue of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Roig, Neus; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a carcinogenic substance for humans. Exposure to formaldehyde may also cause eye and respiratory tract irritation, as well as skin sensitization. The main indoor sources of formaldehyde are wood-pressed products, insulation materials, paints, varnishes, household cleaning products and cigarettes, among others. Although this chemical is a well-known indoor pollutant, data on indoor concentrations of formaldehyde are still scarce in some countries. In February 2014, 10 homes in Catalonia, Spain, were randomly selected to collect indoor (bedroom and living room) and outdoor air samples. Ten additional samples were also collected at different workplaces (e.g., offices, shops, classrooms, etc.). Formaldehyde air levels found in homes ranged from 10.7 to 47.7 μg m(-3), from 9.65 to 37.2 μg m(-3), and from 0.96 to 3.37 μg m(-3) in bedrooms, living rooms, and outdoors, respectively. Meanwhile, at workplaces, indoor air levels ranged from 5.86 to 40.4 μg m(-3). These levels are in agreement with data found in the scientific literature. Non-carcinogenic risks were above the threshold limit (HQ > 1), and carcinogenic risks were not acceptable either (>10(-4)). Despite the current study limitations, the results confirm that formaldehyde indoor levels are a matter of health concern, which must be taken into account by policymakers and regulatory bodies.

  16. Four conceptual issues to consider in integrating social and environmental factors in risk and impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Gómez, J. Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it parallel progress in addressing the main shortcomings of EIA/SIA, i.e. insufficient integration of environmental and social factors into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their analysis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of projects which impact on the environment, and consequently to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argues that, in a sociological context of complexity and dynamism, four conceptual elements should underpin approaches to socio-environmental risk and impact assessment in development projects: a theoretical base in actor–network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized (though not always fulfilled in practice); a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation. - Highlights: • A theoretical foundation in actor–network theory • An ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized, but rarely carried through into practice • A (new) epistemological-scientific base • A methodological foundation in social participation

  17. Issues in the assessment of congenital health risks from mercury in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic assessment of congenital neurological risks associated with consumption of fish and shellfish containing MeHg and the effects that local coal combustion might have on those risks. Two scenarios were considered with this model: the ''baseline'' scenario (MeHg from fish consumption without local impacts), and the ''impact'' scenario (baseline plus local power-plant impact on freshwater fish). In this paper, we describe the framework and application of the model, including parameters and statistical linkages, the distributions used to represent the parameters, and the statistical methods used to characterize the inherent variability in each individual's diet and the distribution of individuals within a hypothetical population. These factors define the baseline, which is then compared to observations of MeHg in hair in order to demonstrate the model's validity. The incremental effect of local coal combustion is represented by augmenting the distribution of Hg in local freshwater fish by a prescribed amount, which we refer to as the ''impact factor.'' Conventional air pollution dispersion modeling is then used to relate this factor to an appropriate range of powerplant characteristics

  18. Oil price risk management in the 1990s - issues for producers and lenders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.

    1994-01-01

    Oil prices have exhibited considerable volatility over the past five or ten years and the management of oil price risk has become an important factor in underpinning the viability of many oil producing operations from both a lender's and investor's perspective. Various oil based hedging products are now available to protect against such volatility, ranging from products which fix forward prices to option based arrangements which set a floor price but retain some (or all) of the potential upside. These products have particular relevance for petroleum companies with limited financial resources or who are looking to limit recourse to particular assets/cash flows. There are a number of techniques which can be successfully combined to mitigate oil price volatility and the most relevant of these to a producer are discussed. The recent development of the Tapis swap and option markets, which have provided flexibility to Australasian producers, is also discussed. Oil based financial products can also be used as a method of funding (e.g. for a development or acquisition) as an alternative to traditional cash based borrowing structures, thus creating a natural hedge against oil price movements. It is estimated that the use of such structures, coupled with a well structured revenue hedging program, can enhance a project's attractiveness from a lender's perspective (particularly with respect to protection against down side movements in oil price) and/or provide greater certainty of returns to producers. A case study of a recent commodity risk management based financing is presented. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  19. Bonding material containing ashes after domestic waste incineration for cementation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.A.; Varlakov, A.P.; Gorbunova, O.A.; Arustamov, A.E.; Barinov, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that cement minerals hydration is accompanied with heat emission. Heat of hardening influences formation of a cement compound structure and its properties. It is important to reduce the heat quantity at continuous cementation of waste and filling of compartments of a repository or containers by a cement grout. For reduction of heating, it is necessary to use cement of mineral additives (fuel ashes, slag and hydraulic silica). Properties of ashes after domestic waste incineration can be similar to ones of fly fuel ashes. However, ash after domestic waste incineration is toxic industrial waste as it contains toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn). Utilization of secondary waste (slag and ash) of combustion plants is an important environmental approach to solving cities' issues. Results of the research have shown that ashes of combustion plants can be used for radioactive waste conditioning. Co-processing of toxic and radioactive waste is ecologically and economically effective. At SIA 'Radon', experimental batches of cement compositions are used for cementation of oil containing waste. (authors)

  20. Efficiency of energy recovery from waste incineration, in the light of the new Waste Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Motta, Astrid; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with a key issue related to municipal waste incineration, which is the efficiency of energy recovery. A strong driver for improving the energy performances of waste-to-energy plants is the recent Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives), which allows high efficiency installations to benefit from a status of "recovery" rather than "disposal". The change in designation means a step up in the waste hierarchy, where the lowest level of priority is now restricted to landfilling and low efficiency wastes incineration. The so-called "R1 formula" reported in the Directive, which counts for both production of power and heat, is critically analyzed and correlated to the more scientific-based approach of exergy efficiency. The results obtained for waste-to-energy plants currently operating in Europe reveal some significant differences in their performance, mainly related to the average size and to the availability of a heat market (district heating). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts...

  2. Earthquake and volcanic risks: issues for the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidum, Dr. Renato U.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed re-commissioning of the mothballed Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) has raised objections that include the perceived unsafe siting of the BNPP on Mt. Natib, a potentially active volcano, in an earthquake-prone region. This concern must be evaluated through thorough seismological, paleo-seismic, volcanological and engineering studies. The BNPP sits on Napot Point on the southwest foot slope of Mt. Natib, an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano just 30 kms south of Mt. Pinatubo. Natib's evolution is poorly known, but involved at least 3 explosive summit eruptions that formed a 6 km-diameter coalescent caldera and a younger 2-km diameter caldera. Pyroclastic flows define the cone surface, and available age dating includes a ±27 ka 14C age for a deposit on the eastern flanks and an 11-18 ka relative dating for suspected pyroclastic deposits in Subic Bay (1). Whether these represent the most recent eruptions is uncertain. A detailed magmatic/eruptive history defining magmatic recharge and eruption recurrence rates, from which probabilities for future eruptive activity can be analyzed, will be necessary for quantifying volcanic risk. Furthermore, Natib,Pinatubo and adjacent Mariveles are part of the Luzon Arc and associated with ongoing subduction along the Manila Trench. Subduction earthquakes are common, but apart from these, seismic risk is also being attributted to tectonic structures inland that include reported on site faults inferred from drilling, basin faults seen in reflection profiles (1), the Subic Bay Fault Zone delineated by magmatic studies (2) and various lineaments inferred from satellite imageries. These, plus seismicity in the region are being argued as indicators of earthquake threat. However, much emphasis is given maximum seismic magnitudes rather than peak ground accelerations (PGAs), epicentral rather than focal sources,and the inference of faults/lineaments rather than paleoseismic evidence of recent faulting. Paleoseismic studies of

  3. Current practice of incineration of low-level institutional radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1981-02-01

    During 1972, 142 medical and academic institutions were surveyed to assess the current practice of incineration of low-level radioactive waste. This was one activity carried out by the University of Maryland as part of a contract with EG and G Idaho, Inc., to site a radioactive waste incineration system. Of those surveyed, 46 (approximately 32%) were presently incinerating some type of radioactive waste. All were using controlled-air, multistage incinerators. Incinerators were most often used to burn animal carcasses and other biological wastes (96%). The average size unit had a capacity of 113 kg/h. Disposal of liquid scintillation vials posed special problems; eight institutions incinerated full scintillation vials and five incinerated scintillation fluids in bulk form. Most institutions (87%) used the incinerator to dispose of other wastes in addition to radioactive wastes. About half (20) of the institutions incinerating radioactive wastes reported shortcomings in their incineration process; those most often mentioned were: problems with liquid scintillation wastes, ash removal, melting glass, and visible smoke. Frequently cited reasons for incinerating wastes were: less expensive than shipping for commercial shallow land burial, volume reduction, convenience, and closure of existing disposal sites

  4. Heavy Metal Concentrations around a Hospital Incinerator and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding soils and bottom ash of a hospital incinerator and a municipal dumpsite were carried out in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria from November 2010 to January 2011. Samples were analyzed for Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni using Flame Atomic Absorption ...

  5. Controlled-air incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Neuls, A.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    A controlled-air incinerator and an associated high-energy aqueous off-gas cleaning system are being installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Transuranic Waste Treatment Development Facility (TDF) for evaluation as a low-level transuranic-contaminated (TRU) solid waste volume reduction process. Program objectives are: (1) assembly and operation of a production scale (45 kg/hr) operation of ''off-the-shelf'' components representative of current incineration and pollution control technology; (2) process development and modification to meet radioactive health and safety standards, and (3) evaluation of the process to define the advantages and limitations of conventional technology. The results of the program will be the design specifications and operating procedures necessary for successful incineration of TRU waste. Testing, with nonradioactive waste, will begin in October 1976. This discussion covers commercially available incinerator and off-gas cleaning components, the modifications required for radioactive service, process components performance expectations, and a description of the LASL experimental program

  6. Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper would firstly examine solid waste management currently experienced in Malaysia with special concentration given to waste incineration. Its function and benefits entailed from this system shall then be identified. This paper attempts to emphasize this notion within the Islamic perspective, stressing on the needs to ...

  7. Design, construction and test operation of a thermal incinerator for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Montfort type intermittent incinerator for combusting medical wastes were the waste types, fuel, chimney size, and flue gas residence time. The design analysis was based on flue gas flow rate of 0.13 m3/s, maximum primary chamber ...

  8. Initial emission assessment of hazardous-waste-incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, E.S.; Holton, G.A.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Health and Safety Research Division, sponsored by EPA, conducted a study to quantify emission factors from stacks, spills, fugitives, storage, and treatment for a typical hazardous waste incinerator facility. Engineering participated in preparing flowsheets and providing calculations for fugitive emissions. Typical block-flow diagrams were developed two types of hazardous waste incinerators (rotary kiln and liquid-injector) and for three capacities (small: 1 MM Btu/hr, median: 10 MM Btu/hr, and large: 150 MM Btu/hr). Storage reqirements and support services were determined in more detail. Using the properties of a typical waste, fugitive emissions were determined, including emissions from pump leaks, valve leaks, flange leaks, and tank vents. An atmospheric dispersion model was then employed to calculate atmospheric concentration and population exposure estimates. With these estimates, an assessment was performed to determine the percentage of concentrations and exposure associated with selected emissions from each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source both in terms of public health and pollution control requirements

  9. Development of gas boy medical incinerator as a substitute for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stench that emanates from the burial of placentas, limbs etc especially after rainfall, are unbearable and awful within most hospital environments. A solution has been found in the engineering of all-in-one medical gas boy incinerator with quick rise in temperature and even distribution of heat, with drying and firing cycles ...

  10. The impact of incinerators on human health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Ratika; Sharma, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Of the total wastes generated by health-care organizations, 10%-25% are biomedical wastes, which are hazardous to humans and the environment and requires specific treatment and management. For decades, incineration was the method of choice for the treatment of such infectious wastes. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste, which leads to health deterioration and environmental degradation. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, metals, acid gases, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. The major impact on health is the higher incidence of cancer and respiratory symptoms; other potential effects are congenital abnormalities, hormonal defects, and increase in sex ratio. The effect on the environmental is in the form of global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone or smog formation, eutrophication, and human and animal toxicity. Thus, there is a need to skip to newer, widely accepted, economical, and environment-friendly technologies. The use of hydroclaves and plasma pyrolysis for the incineration of biomedical wastes leads to lesser environmental degradation, negligible health impacts, safe handling of treated wastes, lesser running and maintenance costs, more effective reduction of microorganisms, and safer disposal.

  11. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, F.

    1998-01-01

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactors offers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of incinerators in the management of medical wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and Objectives Medical waste incinerators release into the air a host of pollutants that have serious adverse consequences on public health and the environment. This study aimed at determining ... Questionnaires, researcher observation and laboratory investigations of ash samples were used in data collection.

  13. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  14. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATERIALS AND METHODS. These new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators are designed in the round with various locally manufactured special bricks for maximum stability and with minimal use of angle irons except for the doors since they are susceptible to rusting. The four fire boxes apart from allowing the ...

  15. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO2, TiO2, SiO2) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 - 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm.

  16. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO 2 , TiO 2 , SiO 2 ) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO 2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 – 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm. (paper)

  17. Design and Fabrication of a Domestic Incinerator *1OMOREGIE, MJ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    JASEM https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i5.27. Keywords: Incinerator, wastes, combustion, scrubber, lagging, conductivity ... Combustion Process: Waste material is burnt in the combustion chamber using a proportionate air/ ... pipe, r1= internal radius of the pipe, r2 = external radius of the pipe; Rf = thermal resistance of ...

  18. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration in a packed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Guanyi; Gu, Tianbao; He, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Grate-firing is the most commonly used technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration for heat and power generation, in which MSW undergoes thermochemical conversion (e.g., drying, devolatilization, char gasification and oxidation) in the fuel bed on the grate while the combustible gases...

  19. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that

  1. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribé, V; Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M

    2014-10-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox® toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna

  3. Risk assessment strategies for nanoscale and fine-sized titanium dioxide particles: Recognizing hazard and exposure issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, David B; Donner, E Maria

    2015-11-01

    The basic tenets for assessing health risks posed by nanoparticles (NP) requires documentation of hazards and the corresponding exposures that may occur. Accordingly, this review describes the range and types of potential human exposures that may result from interactions with titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles or NP - either in the occupational/workplace environment, or in consumer products, including food materials and cosmetics. Each of those applications has a predominant route of exposure. Very little is known about the human impact potential from environmental exposures to NP - thus this particular issue will not be discussed further. In the workplace or occupational setting inhalation exposure predominates. Experimental toxicity studies demonstrate low hazards in particle-exposed rats. Only at chronic overload exposures do rats develop forms of lung pathology. These findings are not supported by multiple epidemiology studies in heavily-exposed TiO2 workers which demonstrate a lack of correlation between chronic particle exposures and adverse health outcomes including lung cancer and noncancerous chronic respiratory effects. Cosmetics and sunscreens represent the major application of dermal exposures to TiO2 particles. Experimental dermal studies indicate a lack of penetration of particles beyond the epidermis with no consequent health risks. Oral exposures to ingested TiO2 particles in food occur via passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with studies indicating negligible uptake of particles into the bloodstream of humans or rats with subsequent excretion through the feces. In addition, standardized guideline-mandated subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats demonstrate very low toxicity effects with NOAELs of >1000 mg/kg bw/day. Additional issues which are summarized in detail in this review are: 1) Methodologies for implementing the Nano Risk Framework - a process for ensuring the responsible development of products containing nanoscale

  4. Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    An effective process reducing volume of radioactive wastes is incineration of combustible wastes. Appropriate design of the off-gas treatment system is necessary to ensure that any releases of airborne radionuclides into the environment are kept below acceptable limits. In many cases, the off-gas system must be designed to accommodate chemical constituents in the gas stream. The purpose of this publication is to provide the most up-to-date information regarding off-gas treatment as well as an account of some of the developments so as to aid users in the selection of an integrated system for a particular application. The choice of incinerator/off-gas system combination depends on the wastes to be treated, as well as other factors, such as regulatory requirements. Current problems and development needs are discussed. Following comprehensive discussions of the various factors affecting a choice, various incinerator and off-gas treatment systems are recommended for the various types of wastes that may be treated: low PVC content solid, high PVC content solid, organic liquid and resins. The economics or costs of the off-gas system and an evaluation of the overall cost effectiveness of incineration or direct burial is not discussed in detail. This publication is specifically directed toward technical aspects and addresses: incineration types and origin, sources and characteristics of off-gas streams; descriptions of available technologies for off-gas treatment; basic component design requirements and component description; operational experience of plants in active operation and their current practices; legal aspects and safety requirements; remaining problems to be solved and development trends in plant design and component structure. This report seeks to broaden and enhance the understanding of the developed technology and to indicate areas where improvements can be made by further research and development. 110 refs

  5. Incineration and flue gas cleaning in China - a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Xuguan; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2010-01-01

    Waste incineration is rapidly developing in China. Different technologies are proposed for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Hazardous Waste (HW), and Medical Waste (MW). The required technologies are either imported, or developed locally. Some data are cited to illustrate these rapid developments. Incinerator flue gas arises at rather limited scale (10,000-100,000 Nm 3 /h), compared to power generation, yet the number of pollutants to be counted with is huge: dust and grit, acid gases, NO x , selected heavy metals, aerosols and nanoparticles, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and dioxins. Major options in flue gas cleaning can be derived from Best Available Technologies (BAT), as were developed in the European Union. Hence, E.U. practice is analyzed in some detail, by considering the present situation in selected E.U. countries (Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium). A comparison is made with China. Also, the situation in Japan is examined. Based on this wide experience, a number of technical suggestions regarding incineration, flue gas cleaning, and emission control are formulated. Also, the possibility of co incineration is considered. Starting from the particular experience of Zhejiang University (as a designer of Fluid Bed and Rotary Kiln plant, with large experience in Fluid Bed processes, coal firing, gasification and pyrolysis, and actively monitoring thermal units throughout China) some specific Case Studies are examined, e.g., a fluidized bed incinerator and its gas cleaning system (MSWI and HWI from ITPE). Some attention is paid to the potential threats in China from uncontrolled combustion sources. As a conclusion, some recommendations are formulated regarding flue gas cleaning in Developing Nations at large and in China in particular. (author)

  6. System of the incineration for the liquid scintillation garbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi

    1981-12-01

    In Japan from 1980 the incineration of the used scintillation liquid has been permitted according to the safety guide regulation of Japan Scientific Technology Agency. This incineration method would disperse the radioactivity in local site and destroy the chemicals at the same time. This system are consist of three parts. (1) Filtration and pH. adjustment of liquid garbage. (2) Bubbling vaporization in closed cycle. The temperature of the solution inside vessel is kept from 65 0 C to 85 0 C and the solution is bubbled with nealy 4 0 C circulated air. After the end of distillation, water layer is separated from the organic chemical layer and put it down the drain according to the regulation. (3) The residue is mixed with only the distilled organic chemicals according to the next classification, thereafter incineration is carried out. (a) For under the radioactive concentration of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, the mixed scintillation liquid are burned up in specially designed incinerator. (b) For over the level of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, only the distilled organic chemicals are burned up and the residue will be sent to the Waste Disposal Site. (c) For under the water content of 5% these liquid garbage can be directly are burned up without distillation The residue seemed to be suitable for the combustion of the dried carcased animals as the auxiliary fuels. This incinerator will be able to use as room heater or water heater for the bath without radioactive contamination inside of install room. (author)

  7. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  8. A working procedure for identifying emerging food safety issues at an early stage: Implications for European and international risk management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.; Frewer, L.J.; Cope, S.F.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Rowe, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for early identification of emerging food safety issues in order to prevent them from developing into health risks. In this paper, various existing methods and procedures which can be used for early identification of safety issues are reviewed, including the monitoring of the

  9. Environmental risk of mesothelioma in the United States: An emerging concern-epidemiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Carbone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Despite predictions of decline in mesothelioma following the ban of asbestos in most industrial countries, the incidence is still increasing globally, particularly in women. Because occupational exposure to asbestos is the main cause of mesothelioma, it occurs four- to eightfold more frequently in men than women, at a median age of 74 years. When mesothelioma is due to an environmental exposure, the M:F sex ratio is 1:1 and the median age at diagnosis is ~60 years. Studying environmental risk of mesothelioma is challenging because of the long latency period and small numbers, and because this type of exposure is involuntary and unknown. Individual-based methods cannot be used, and new approaches need to be found. To better understand the most recent trends of mesothelioma in the United States, all mesothelioma deaths reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 1999-2010 were analyzed. Among all mesothelioma deaths in the United States, the 1920s birth cohort significantly predominated, and the proportion of younger cohorts constantly decreased with time, suggesting a decline in occupational exposure in these cohorts. The M:F mesothelioma sex ratio fell with time, suggesting an increased proportion of environmental cases. Environmental exposures occur in specific geographic areas. At the large scale of a state, mesotheliomas related to environmental exposure are diluted among occupational cases. The spatial analysis at a smaller scale, such as county, enables detection of areas with higher proportions of female and young mesothelioma cases, thus indicating possible environmental exposure, where geological and environmental investigations need to be carried out.

  10. Issues concerning the landslide risk management: the case of Capo Noli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupputi Schinosa, Francesca De Luca; Falco, Renato; Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the problems frequently encountered in the hydrogeological risk management related to landslides characterized by a certain degree of predictability. In particular, it focuses on the case of the Capo Noli, which is located along the S.S. 1 "Aurelia", in the Province of Savona and in recent decades has been affected by numerous landslides of diverse entities, but attributable to the same mechanisms of instability: 1. May 1989: at entrance of Capo Noli gallery, West side, large rock-fall closed for the long term viability always in the Capo Noli - Malpasso. 2. July 1994: at the Hotel Capo Noli, placed East area investigated, the presence of boulders on the roadway - without sensitive interruption traffic. 3. November 1997: at entrance of Capo Noli gallery, West side, falling rocks and stones on the road - without sensitive interruption traffic. 4. December 2000: at the entrance of the same gallery, two events with falling rubble and stones. 5. May 2002: large rock fall at Malpasso with interruption of the road a few days and the consequent intervention of the utmost urgency. 6. January 2008 and March 2009: large rock fall on the roadway in the Capo Noli with interruption of the road a few months and the consequent intervention of consolidation slope. The events above described are attributable to landslides like Rock Fall: the only fortuitous coincidence has avoided that during the events were involved cars or road users, taking into account that the road Aurelia at the point in question often reach very high values of traffic, well over three million vehicles per year. In this paper we analyze the costs and the inconvenience caused in the twenty years under analysis, focusing on what could have been done to contain these discomforts and such expenses in view of the fact that the disasters that are repeated over time , given the cyclical nature of the events, could largely be predicted.

  11. Ethical issues: the multi-centre low-risk ethics/governance review process and AMOSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Geraldine; Pollock, Wendy; Peek, Michael J; Knight, Marian; Ellwood, David; Homer, Caroline S; Pulver, Lisa Jackson; McLintock, Claire; Ho, Maria T; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-01

    The Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS) conducts surveillance and research of rare and serious conditions in pregnancy. This multi-centre population health study is considered low risk with minimal ethical impact. To describe the ethics/governance review pathway undertaken by AMOSS. Prospective, descriptive study during 2009-2011 of the governance/ethical review processes required to gain approval for Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) maternity units with more than 50 births per year (n = 303) to participate in AMOSS. Review processes ranged from a single application for 24 NZ sites, a single application for eligible hospitals in two Australian states, full Health Research Ethics Committee (HREC) applications for individual hospitals, through simple letters of support. As of September 2011, 46 full/expedited ethics applications, 131 site governance applications and 136 letters of support requests were made over 33 months, involving an estimated 3261 hours by AMOSS staff/investigators, and an associated resource burden by participating sites, to obtain approval to receive nonidentifiable data from 291 hospitals. The AMOSS research system provides an important resource to enhance knowledge of conditions that cause rare and serious maternal morbidity. Yet the highly variable ethical approval processes required to implement this study have been excessively repetitive and burdensome. This process jeopardises timely, efficient research project implementation, without corresponding benefits to research participants. The resource burden to establish research governance for AMOSS confirms the urgent need for the Harmonisation of Multi-centre Ethical Review (HoMER) to further streamline ethics/governance review processes for multi-centre research. © 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. [Current Status and Issues of Electronic Information Provision for Risk Minimization: Coordination between Electronic Medicine Notebook and Patient Drug Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orii, Takao

    2018-01-01

     In the collaboration between community pharmacies and hospitals or clinics, the use of electronic medicine notebook may allow information sharing, including among out-of-network hospitals, clinics, and community pharmacies. For risk minimization, mobile or smart phones, which patients always carry with them, should be used as a tool allowing drug information to be accessed at any time. An advantage of the electronic conversion of patient drug information is that it allows patients not only to obtain round-the-clock information on drugs, etc. that they are receiving but also to check patient-oriented information selected and made easier to understand by pharmacists. In the collaboration between community pharmacies and hospitals or clinics, if, for example, patient discharge summaries are conveyed to community pharmacies via electronic medicine notebook, patients will feel reassured about the medical alliance and place more trust in pharmacists overall. This can improve patient drug awareness, thus contributing effectively to risk minimization. Drug information in electronic medicine notebook with 24-h access requires not only patients but also pharmacists to be proactive in its use. In addition, a system to facilitate the proactive use of that information needs to be established. For the electronic conversion of patient drug information and the establishment of a system promoting electronic medicine notebook use, the current status and issues need to be thoroughly examined from the viewpoint of risk communication.

  13. Innovative solidification/stabilization of lead contaminated soil using incineration sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangshan; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-04-01

    The proper treatment of lead (Pb) contaminated soils and incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) has become an environmental concern. In this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blended OPC containing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) were used to solidify/stabilize (S/S) soils contaminated with different concentrations of Pb. After curing for 7 and 28 d, the S/S soils were subjected to a series of strength, leaching and microscopic tests. The results showed that replacement of OPC by ISSA significantly reduced the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of S/S soils and leached Pb. In addition, the leaching of Pb from the monolithic samples was diffusion controlled, and increasing the ISSA addition in the samples led to a lower diffusion coefficient and thus an increase in the feasibility for "controlled utilization" of S/S soils. Furthermore, the proposed S/S method significantly decreased the amount of Pb associated with carbonates and increased the amount of organic and residual Pb in S/S soils, reflecting that the risk of Pb contaminated soils can be effectively mitigated by the incorporating of ISSA. Overall, the leachability of Pb was controlled by the combined effect of adsorption, encapsulation or precipitation in the S/S soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of bottom ash from two hospital waste incinerators in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali, Meriem E L; Bahri, Meriem; Gmouh, Said; Jaddi, Hassan; Bakkali, Mohammed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mzibri, Mohammed E L

    2013-12-01

    The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash generated by the incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in developed countries are the main cause of significant damage, such as contamination of the soil, as well as surface and underground waters, which may put both the environment and public health at risk. In Morocco, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In this study, 16 hospital waste ash samples were collected from the incinerators of the two main hospitals in Rabat: Ibn Sina and Cheikh Zayd. A series of tests was conducted, including particle size distribution, mineralogical and chemical composition, and heavy metal leaching behaviour. The results showed that the samples were composed mainly of P2O5 (18%), SiO2 (17%), Na2O (16%), CaO (14%) and SO3 (10%). Moreover, chemical analysis clearly demonstrated that medical waste (MW) contains large amounts of waste generated by domestic activities in the hospital, with a lack of sorting system in the monitoring of MW. Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, chromium and nickel with a vast range of 0.5-25071 mg/kg. Leaching tests showed that the extracted amounts of all the heavy metals were lower, with concentrations metal concentrations with the limit values set by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC allowed us to conclude that bottom ashes meet the waste acceptance criteria regarding these heavy metals.

  15. Understanding biotoxicity for reusability of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2006-11-02

    This feasibility study using Escherichia coli DH5alpha as a reporter microorganism tended to disclose toxicity ranking of various ashes of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in comparison with typical toxic chemicals for reusability in further applications. Previous study indicated that growth inhibition to bacterial cells occurred at concentrations above 0.156, 0.625 and 0.0195g/L for bottom ash (BA), cyclone ash (CA), scrubber ash (SA), respectively, suggesting the toxicity ranking of SA>BA>CA. This follow-up study clearly stated that compared to cadmium(II) and chromium(II) SA seemed to be the most toxic species to DH5alpha. Large amounts of supplemented lime (CaO) were used for neutralization of acid gas in incinerator, SA was thus contained high-levels of sulfate, chloride and nitrate salts. Therefore, compared to other ashes a marked increase in toxicity was observed in SA. Regarding soluble cations and anions in ashes, nitrite ion seemed to stimulate instead of repress cell growth. In contrast, nitrate ion showed so-called "sufficient challenge" characteristics for growth enhancement and inhibition at low and high concentration, respectively. Low solubility of metallic ions (e.g., Pb(II) and Cu(II)) in ashes likely resulted in low mobility in the environment and low risk to humans. The findings showed that toxicity attenuation of SA will be inevitably required as SA is even more toxic than Cr(II) and Cd(II).

  16. The integration of the risk in the governance of urban projects: a key issue for a resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, E.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2012-04-01

    Despite a severe regulation concerning the building in flooding areas, 80% of these areas are already built in the Greater Paris (Paris, Val-de-Marne, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis). The land use in flooding area is presented as one of the main solutions to solve the ongoing real estate pressure. For instance some of the industrial wastelands located along the river are currently in redevelopment and residential buildings are planned. So landuse in the flooding areas is currently a key issue in the development of the Greater Paris area. Tools and measures, structural or non-structural such as warning systems, barriers, etc do exist and could be a smart way to improve the resilience of the new urbanised areas. The technical solutions are available and efficient, but we notice that these tools are not much implemented. There is a lack of flood risk concern among the stakeholders and the inhabitants1. How landuse stakeholders could integrate the flood risk in the decision making process throughout the implementation of the urban project? Which type of governance favours an efficient development of good flood risk policy including prevention, protection and the management of the crisis? What is the "good" governance of the urban project e.g. enabling to take into account or not to forget the flood risk and to empower the (future) inhabitants? This inhabitants' empowerment includes the improvement of awareness (i.e. inhabitants being aware that they live in a flooded area) and the improvement of concern (i.e. inhabitants adopting the "right" behaviour when the risk occurs). In order to investigate how flood risk is or could be integrated in the project governance, we interviewed stakeholders (elected representatives, architects, property developers, etc.) and observed the integration or the vanishing of the risk throughout the project. In order to develop this topic we rely on a case study. The "Ardoines" is a project aiming at redeveloping an industrial site

  17. Leaching behaviour of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: From granular material to monolithic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the leaching behaviour of the bottom ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used in concrete production. In particular, the release of pollutants was evaluated by the application of different leaching tests, both on granular materials and monolithic samples (concrete mixtures cast with bottom ash). The results confirmed that, according to Italian regulations, unwashed bottom ashes present critical issues for the use as alternative aggregates in the construction sector due to the excessive release of pollutants; instead, the leachate from washed bottom ashes was similar to natural aggregates. The concentration of pollutants in the leachate from concrete mixtures was lower than regulation limits for reuse. The crushing process significantly influenced the release of pollutants: this behaviour was due both to the increase in surface area and the release of contaminants from cement. Moreover, the increase in contact time (up to 64 days) involved more heavy metals to be released.

  18. Ready, set,...quit exclamation point A review of the controlled-air incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) has had a long and productive past as a research and development tool. It now appears that use of the CAI to treat LANL legacy and other wastes under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act is no longer viable due to numerous programmatic problems. This paper will review the history of the CAI. Various aspects associated with the CAI and how those aspects resulted in the loss of this Department of Energy asset as a viable waste treatment option will also be discussed. Included are past missions and tests-CAI capabilities, emissions, and permits; Federal Facility Compliance Act and associated Agreement; National Environmental Policy Act coverage; cost; budget impacts; public perception; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combustion Strategy; Independent Technical Review open-quotes Redclose quotes Team review; waste treatment alternative technologies; the New Mexico Environment Department; and future options and issues

  19. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with changing patterns of exposure to the emissions of a municipal waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Werler, Martha M; Filippini, Tommaso; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Astolfi, Gianni; Teggi, Sergio

    2018-03-22

    Municipal solid waste incinerators emissions contain pollutants that, despite their low concentration, might adversely affect reproductive health. In the present study, we examined rates of miscarriage and birth defects among women who resided or were employed in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator plant from 2003 to 2013. In 2009, a progressive shutdown of the old incineration lines and operation of a new line caused considerably higher atmospheric release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly of dioxins, due to these irregular operating conditions, technological renovation, and increased capacity. We used dioxin emission levels, based on a dispersion model, to define exposure status of the residing population to air pollutants emitted by the waste incinerator. In women who resided in areas characterized by higher emission exposures compared with a referent area, the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.32) based on 62 cases overall, with little evidence of a dose-response relation. RRs were similarly null for both 2003-2008 and 2010-2013 periods (RR 1.12 (95% CI 0.80-1.53) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.63-1.48), respectively). Concerning birth defects in the offspring of women residing in the exposed area, no evidence of increased risk emerged, since the prevalence ratio at birth was 0.64 (95% CI 0.29-1.26), with comparable results in the 2003-2008 and 2010-2013 period. Corresponding analyses carried out in municipal residents who worked in the exposed area confirmed these findings. We also did not detect abnormally high rates of miscarriage and birth defects in the exposed cohorts in the single year 2009. Overall, these results do not suggest an effect of exposure to the emissions of the municipal solid waste incinerator we investigated on two indicators of reproductive health. However, the limited statistical stability of the estimates and the absence of individual-based information on some potential

  20. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Feo, Giovanni; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians

  1. Exploration study on mortality trends in the territory surrounding an incineration plant of urban solid waste in the municipality of Vercelli (Piedmont, Italy) 1988-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, C; Marciani, P; Barasolo, E; Fossale, P G; Panella, M; Palin, L A

    2015-01-01

    The places, where the incinerators are located, often present problems of heterogeneous people having different environmental factors. It becomes important to evaluate the possible etiologic role of various environmental risk factors and try to quantify as they affect in the excess epidemiological. This study considers the ISTAT index mortality due to all causes occurred from 1988 to 2009 referred to ten municipalities at south of Vercelli (Piedmont, North Western Italy) placed nearby the active incinerator from 1977 (10 latent years). The risks were calculated considering this area at risk versus the municipalities placed at North of Vercelli and versus the Vercelli. Some significant statically excesses emerged in the South area such as neoplasia of nervous system, liver and total of tumours. The study presents some drawbacks, but it is a work creditable of widening by specific research ad hoc such as cohort and/or control where it is possible to verify various environmental, occupational and occasional factors.

  2. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushulak, Bd; Weekers, J; Macpherson, Dw

    2009-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  3. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1986-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  4. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1985-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  5. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  6. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  7. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A two-year demonstration facility was constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to incinerate suspect contaminated solid and low-level solvent wastes. Since startup in January 1984, 4460 kilograms and 5300 liters of simulated (uncontaminated) solid and solvent waste have been incinerated to establish the technical and operating data base for the facility. Combustion safeguards have been enhanced, process controls and interlocks refined, some materials handling problems identified and operating experience gained as a result of the 6 month cold run-in. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid and 25:1 for solvent waste have been demonstrated. Stack emissions (NO 2 , SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were only 0.5% of the South Carolina ambient air quality standards. Radioactive waste processing is scheduled to begin in July 1984. 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Fluidized bed incineration of a slurry waste from caprolactam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarota, A.; D' Amore, M.; Donsi, G.; Massimilla, L.

    1980-08-01

    Caprolactam tails are a slurry waste produced in the SNIA process for the synthesis of caprolactam. They contain about 65% water, 25% ash and 10% combustible matter. The ashes are low melting, due to the presence of sodium compounds. The incineration of this waste is carried out at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C in beds of silica sand, using a laboratory scale apparatus with a 40 mm ID fluidization column. Variables investigated include sand particle size, slurry flow rate, bed temperature, bed height. The concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and CO are determined continuously in the flue gases. Bed solids are sampled periodically to determine the carbon content. Results of experiments show that the low temperature incineration on a bed of inert solids is a useful technique for the disposal of caprolactam tails. 8 refs.

  9. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Using bench scale apparatus, asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth were evaluated as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80% to less than 1%. To collect the same quantity of fly ash, less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co, counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1% at moderate pressure drop

  10. MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Centre - experience and challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu

    2005-01-01

    MIREC is the acronym for MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Centre which was established in the year 2000 to carry out research and provide services on matters related to incineration technology and renewable energy. Throughout this period, many challenges and experiences has been faced by MIREC. Three research contracts with the value of nearly RM 1 million have been signed. Four laboratory scale burners have been designed and fabricated. Three mathematical models have been developed. Three programs on enhancement image have been published. Three papers have been published in the international journal. In order to achieve all these, many obstacles were faced by MIREC. This paper will discuss on the experiences and challenges that could be shared together with MINT staff. (Author)

  11. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  12. Design of a Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.; McCampbell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a 238 Pu incinceration process is being cold-tested at SRL. The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986

  13. Review of organic nitrile incineration at the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) operates the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly called the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, where uranium was enriched under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, ETTP missions include environmental management, waste management (WM), and the development of new technologies. As part of its WM mission, ETTP operates the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Incinerator (TSCAI) for treatment of hazardous waste and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with low-level radioactivity. Beginning in the autumn of 1995, employees from diverse ETTP buildings and departments reported experiencing headaches, fatigue, depression, muscle aches, sleeplessness, and muscle tremors. These symptoms were judged by a physician in the ETTP Health Services Department to be consistent with chronic exposures to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was called in to perform a health hazard evaluation to ascertain whether the employees' illnesses were in fact caused by occupational exposure to HCN. The NIOSH evaluation found no patterns for employees' reported symptoms with respect to work location or department. NIOSH also conducted a comprehensive air sampling study, which did not detect airborne cyanides at the ETTP. Employees, however, expressed concerns that the burning of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have produced HCN as a combustion product. Therefore, LMES and DOE established a multidisciplinary team (TSCAI Technical Review Team) to make a more detailed review of the possibility that combustion of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have either released nitriles or created HCN as a product of incomplete combustion (PIC)

  14. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of incinerated pig head in dental identification simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berketa, John; James, Helen; Langlois, Neil; Richards, Lindsay

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exercise was to simulate a disaster victim identification scenario to allow training in documentation of postmortem incinerated remains and reconciliation of dental data. Varying number of restorations were placed in ten pig heads. The teeth and restorations were charted, with the restorations radiographed and documented, creating an ante-mortem data set. The following day the heads were cremated. Following cooling and recording they were transported for a post-mortem examination by trained specialist odontologists who were not involved in the initial antemortem phase. Recordings included the charting of teeth, restorations, lost teeth, and radiographs to simulate a post-mortem examination. A reconciliation of postmortem to antemortem information was attempted. There was an unacceptable amount of error in the postmortem examination of the heads. The errors related mainly to avulsed teeth and incorrect opinion of which charted surfaces the restorations were placed upon. Also noted were a considerable number of root fractures occurring beneath the crestal bone. This observation does not mimic the evidence observed in human incinerated teeth where the crowns tend to fracture off the roots at the dentin-enamel junction. The use of incinerated pig (Sus Scrofa) heads is not an ideal model for forensic odontology training in disaster victim identification. Differences in both anatomy and behavior following exposure to heat were shown to hamper documentation and subsequent comparison to antemortem data.

  16. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and processes for immobilization of wastes generated at nuclear facilities are undergoing development. After minor piping modifications to eliminate dust collecting points, a pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator run of 225 continuous hours was successfully completed in a demonstration of component reliability. Vitrification of incinerator ash and other wastes is now being accomplished using a pilot scale unit developed as a continuous flow process

  17. Incineration of hazardous and low-level radioactive waste by a small generator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, C.C.

    1984-10-01

    The results from Arizona State University's study of the feasibility of a small generator incinerating low-level radioactive waste in a pathological incinerator are reported. The research included various aspects of environmental impact, public relations, cost versus benefit, and licensing procedures. Three years of work resulted in a license amendment authorizing the University to incinerate certain hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. 13 references, 6 figures, 16 tables

  18. Development of Mitsui/Juelich Incineration System and hydro-thermal ash solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kamada, S.; Nakamori, Y.; Katakura, M.; Yamazaki, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developing program for Mitsui/Juelich Incinerated System combined with Hydrothermal ash solidification. The system is an integrated one and capable for volume reduction of various kind of radioactive waste and safe disposal of residual incinerator ash. The system also has an advantage of reducing construction and operation cost. An outline of the incineration plant is also presented in this paper

  19. Dampak Pengolahan Limbah Padat Medis pada Petugas Incinerator di RSUP H. Adam Malik Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin

    2016-01-01

    Adam Malik Central General Hospital causes some complaints from the incinerator operators such as wounded by spuit needles, wounded by broken glasses, and difficult to breathe because they inhale incinerator smoke or gas in the medical solid waste. Therefore, job safety and health in the hospital, especially in managing medical solid waste should be done. The research was qualitative which was aimed to analyze the effect of K3 (Job safety and health) n incinerator operators at H. Adam ...

  20. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade. This report presents a compilation of technical data on waste incineration that serve...... as background for a model of incineration processes to be used in the inventory analysis of LCA....

  1. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of co...... political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China.......The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  2. Operational testing of an electrically fired Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, H.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated from normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. An electrically fired, two-stage incineration process is being developed to use incineration to process and recovery plutonium from the waste. A prototype incinerator is being tested to assess its capability to be remotely operated and maintained. Technical development is focusing on continuous feeding, vacuum control, remote operability and mechanical integrity of the system, ash burnout, and life of the belt in the primary incinerator chamber. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Opportunities for artificial intelligence application in computer- aided management of mixed waste incinerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.L.; Ferrada, J.J.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. It is designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This facility, known as the TSCA Incinerator, services seven DOE/OR installations. This incinerator was recently authorized for production operation in the United States for the processing of mixed (radioactively contaminated-chemically hazardous) wastes as regulated under TSCA and RCRA. Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. These requirements impact the characteristics and disposition of incinerator residues, limits the quality of liquid and gaseous effluents, limit the characteristics and rates of waste feeds and operating conditions, and restrict the handling of the waste feed inventories. This incinerator facility presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. Demonstrated computer-aided management systems could be transferred to future mixed waste incinerator facilities

  4. Design of municipal solid waste incinerator for use in semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Oumarou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the design of a municipal solid waste incinerator suited to the semiarid regions with northern Nigeria and Niger Republic in West Africa as the study area. Proximate and ultimate analyses results from the solid waste were used as basis for calculations, using standard formulas and correlations. The calorific value of the solid waste samples in the study area is not high enough to sustain an incineration process and it ranges from 5.024 MJ/kg to 5.867 MJ/kg. For these types of low calorific value fuels, the parallel flow concept was found to be the appropriate type of incinerator. The solid waste to be fed in the incinerator needs to be mixed with 50% of supplementary fuel in the form of readily available bagasse to make it up to the required lower calorific value. Major characteristics of the designed municipal solid waste incinerator were: total volume of incinerator chamber: 82.5 m3, length of the incinerator bed: 11m; width of the incinerator bed: 3m and height of the incinerator chamber: 2.5 m, while the suitable adiabatic flame temperature was found to be 1,587 K.

  5. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination at CFAD Dundurn Resulting from Small-Arms Ammunition Incineration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiboutot, S

    2001-01-01

    .... The safety concerns associated with these pollutants are so serious that the United Kingdom requires stringent environmental licensing of ammunition incineration facilities, and several US states...

  6. State of art in incineration technology of radioactive combustible solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1984-01-01

    The features of incineration treatment as the method of treating radioactive wastes are the effect of volume reduction and inorganic stabilization (change to ash). The process of incineration treatment is roughly divided into dry process and wet process. But that in practical use is dry incineration by excess air combustion or suppressed combustion. The important things in incineration techniques are the techniques of exhaust gas treatment as well as combustion techniques. In Europe and USA, incineration has been practiced in laboratories and reprocessing plants for low level combustible solids, but the example of application in nuclear power stations is few. In Japan, though the fundamental techniques are based on the introduction from Europe, the incineration treatment of combustible solids has been carried out in laboratories, reprocessing plants, nuclear fuel production facilities and also nuclear power stations. The techniques of solidifying ash by incineration and the techniques of incinerating spent ion exchange resin are actively developed, and the development of the treatment of radioactive wastes in the lump including incineration also is in progress. (Kako, I.)

  7. Mixed incineration of RAIW and liquid scintillator waste after storage for decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, K.; Nakazato, K.; Kataoka, K.

    1993-01-01

    Most medical radioactive waste is combustible after radioactive decay. Moreover mixed incineration of LLW with biomedical radioactive waste will lessen radiation exposure to the public. This paper describes the total system flowsheet for the processing of liquid scintillator wastes and radioimmunoassay tube wastes containing iodine 125 (after a two-year storage for decay). The process was tested with a 60 kg/hr capacity incinerator from 1987 to 1991; this has been upgraded to a 150 kg/hr incinerator which is used for nonradioactive biomedical waste incineration as well

  8. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  9. Volume reduction of low- and medium-level waste by incineration/calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear installations generate large quantities of low- and medium-level radwaste. This waste comes from various installations in the fuel cycle, reactor operation, research institute, hospitals, nuclear plate dismantling, etc.. TECHNICATOME did the project development work for the incineration plant of PIERRELATE (France) on behalf of COGEMA (Compagnie Generale des d'Etudes Technique). This plant has been in active service since November 1987. In addition, TECHNICATOME was in charge of the incinerator by a turnkey contract. This incinerator was commissioned in 1992. For a number of years, TECHNICATOME has been examining, developing and producing incineration and drying/calcination installations. They are used for precessing low- and medium-level radwaste

  10. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration on a travelling bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y B; Goh, Y R; Zakaria, R; Nasserzadeh, V; Swithenbank, J

    2002-01-01

    The rising popularity of incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) calls for detailed mathematical modelling and understanding of the incineration process. In this paper, governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer for both solid and gaseous phases in a moving bed in a solid-waste incineration furnace are described and relevant sub-models are presented. The burning rates of volatile hydrocarbons in the moving bed of solids are limited not only by the reaction kinetics but also the mixing of the volatile fuels with the under-fire air. The mixing rate is averaged across a computation cell and correlated to a number of parameters including local void fraction of the bed, gas velocity and a length scale comparable to the particle size in the bed. A correlation equation is also included to calculate the mixing in the freeboard area immediately next to the bed surface. A small-scale fixed bed waste incinerator was built and test runs were made in which total mass loss from the bed, temperature and gas composition at different locations along the bed height were measured. A 2-D bed-modelling program (FLIC) was developed which incorporates the various sub-process models and solves the governing equations for both gases and solids. Thermal and chemical processes are mainly confined within a layer about 5-9 times in thickness of the averaged particle size in the burning bed. For a large part of the burning process, the total mass loss rate was constant until the solid waste was totally dried out and a period of highly rising CO emission followed. The maximum bed temperature was around 1200 K. The whole burning process ended within 60 min. Big fluctuations in species concentration were observed due to channelling and subsequent 'catastrophic' changes in the local bed conditions. Reasonably good agreement between modelling and measurements has been achieved. Yet the modelling work is complicated by the channelling phenomenon in the bed. Numerical simulations

  11. Plasma-thermal processing and incineration of wastes in a shaft incinerator with a combustible filtering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitko, V. A.; Mossé, A. L.

    2000-09-01

    The authors report the basic technological principles and the special features of a method of combined plasma-thermal processing and incineration of harmful wastes in a shaft incinerator under a layer of the charge of such a well-filtering and well-combustible material as wood sawdust, which absorbs up to 99% of the aerosols of waste gases by fixing and concentrating them in the ash. A calculated-analytical estimate of the filtration properties of wood sawdust is obtained as a function of its dispersity, the thickness of the charge layer, and the filtration rate of the waste gases. Determination is made of the optimum design relations and the parameters of charging of a filtering material under different conditions of processing of wastes, including moistening and impregnation of wood sawdust by an aqueous solution of sorbents to absorb harmful metals. The calculated results are compared and demonstrate consistency with the data on the filtration properties of wood sawdust in other technologies, including thermal processing of radioactive wastes in a similar shaft incinerator.

  12. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  13. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  14. Evaluation of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock used in road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lidelöw, Sofia; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash in road construction may possess a risk to the environment due to the release of e.g. salt and heavy metals. In this study, two years of leachate data from a test road built of MSWI bottom ash and crushed rock in northern Sweden were evaluated. It was found that Cu, Cr, Al, Na, and Cl- were leached in higher amounts from the bottom ash, while the release of Zn, Mg, Ba, and Ca was higher from the crushed rock. The difference betwe...

  15. Current issues in ALS epidemiology: Variation of ALS occurrence between populations and physical activity as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J; Logroscino, G; Couratier, P; Marin, B

    2017-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a fatal outcome. This review aims to report key epidemiological features of ALS in relation to the hypothesis of variation between populations, to summarize environmental hypothesis and to highlight current issues that deserve much considerations. Epidemiological ALS studies have shown a variation of incidence, mortality and prevalence between geographical areas and different populations. These data could support the notion that genetic factors, especially populations' ancestries, along with environmental and lifestyle factors, play a significant role in the occurrence of the disease. To date, there is no strong evidence to confirm an association between a particular environmental factor and ALS. Physical activity (PA) has been extensively evaluated. Recent studies support with the best evidence level that PA in general population is not a risk factor for ALS. However, further research is needed to clarify the association of PA in some occupations and some athletic activities. Epidemiological research based on multicenter international collaboration is essential to provide new data on ALS especially in some regions of the world that are to date poorly represented in the ALS literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

  17. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade....

  18. New alloys for high temperature applications in incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinz, H.P.; Koeck, W.

    1993-01-01

    The hot components of incineration plants exposed to temperatures between 800 and 1,200 C like boilers, grates, thermocouple sheaths and nozzles suffer from severe joint slag and hot gas attack. Considering corrosion resistance only, ceramic materials show excellent performance under these conditions. But because of the ceramics' brittleness metallic materials exhibit an overall advantage although being corroded faster. Within the class of suitable metals PM-ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened)-superalloys based on iron or nickel and PM-Cr-base-alloys are among the most promising ones. This can be derived from various laboratory and field tests which were performed up to now. Laboratory oxidation tests indicate that these new alloys can be used at temperatures up to 1,300 C in hot air. High temperature erosion tests with quartz particles show that PM 2,000 (Fe 19,5Cr5,5Al0,5Ti0,5Y 2 O 3 ) and Ducropur (99.7% Cr) have almost the same resistance against particle impact as alumina or zirconia at 900 C. The corresponding laboratory and field tests under typical joint slag and hot gas conditions at temperatures up to 1,200 C show good results for PM 2,000 and already lead to the actual application of boiler components. Extensive testing has been performed in the field of municipal waste incineration. Depending on temperature, slag and hot gas composition selected grades of the PM-ODS and Cr-base-alloy-group give satisfactory results in the field tests. In the pulp industry black liquor, an alkaline solution with high concentrations of organic waste, is incinerated for the recovery of caustic soda. Flame sprayed coatings of Ducrolloy Cr50Ni give a sixfold increase of the lifetime of the burner nozzles compared to unprotected stainless steel

  19. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  20. Recovery and distribution of incinerated aluminum packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Bakker, M C M; de Heij, P G

    2011-12-01

    A study was performed into relations between physical properties of aluminum packaging waste and the corresponding aluminum scraps in bottom ash from three typical incineration processes. First, Dutch municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was analyzed for the identifiable beverage can alloy scraps in the +2mm size ranges using chemical detection and X-ray fluorescence. Second, laboratory-scale pot furnace tests were conducted to investigate the relations between aluminum packaging in base household waste and the corresponding metal recovery rates. The representative packaging wastes include beverage cans, foil containers and thin foils. Third, small samples of aluminum packaging waste were incinerated in a high-temperature oven to determine leading factors influencing metal recovery rates. Packaging properties, combustion conditions, presence of magnesium and some specific contaminants commonly found in household waste were investigated independently in the high-temperature oven. In 2007, the bottom ash (+2mm fraction) from the AEB MSWI plant was estimated to be enriched by 0.1 wt.% of aluminum beverage cans scrap. Extrapolating from this number, the recovery potential of all eleven MSWI plants in the Netherlands is estimated at 720 ton of aluminum cans scrap. More than 85 wt.% of this estimate would end up in +6mm size fractions and were amenable for efficient recycling. The pot furnace tests showed that the average recovery rate of metallic aluminum typically decreases from beverage cans (93 wt.%) to foil containers (85 wt.%) to thin foils (77 wt.%). The oven tests showed that in order of decreasing impact the main factors promoting metallic aluminum losses are the packaging type, combustion temperature, residence time and salt contamination. To a lesser degree magnesium as alloying element, smaller packaging size and basic contaminations may also promote losses. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.J.; Doorn, van W.; Alfen, van A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the

  2. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Ind...... with low maintenance and using "waste heating" from an incineration facility....

  3. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana AGENCY... to control air pollutants from ``Sewage Sludge Incinerators'' (SSI). The Indiana Department of... unit,'' in part, as any device that combusts sewage sludge for the purpose of reducing the volume of...

  5. Characterization of deposits and their influence on corrosion in waste incineration plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    A program has been initiated in Denmark to investigate the aggressive environment in various waste incineration plants. The results described are the preliminary results from one waste incineration plant. Deposits and corrosion products have been removed from various locations in the boiler...

  6. Flaring versus thermal incineration of waste gases in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolarski, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The efficient combustion of waste gases at oil processing plants, battery or well sites is discussed. Several problem situations are examined, field test results are reviewed, and custom design systems are explained including modifications to systems to conserve fuel. It is shown that combustion of waste gases in fuel efficient thermal incinerators is a practical means of disposal, particularly for sour or toxic gas of low heating value. These gases contain noxious compounds that may cause odours or adverse health effects. Results of a field tests of a portable in-situ incinerator show that compared to flaring (to oxide waste gas), incineration is a more efficient form of waste management. Emission tests also prove the superior performance of incineration. The feasibility of incinerating oil storage tank vapours was also demonstrated. Tests were also conducted with a fuel-efficient Glycol Still Off-Gas Incinerator which was developed to control toxic waste emissions. Glycol dehydration removes water vapour from natural gas. The key compounds that are removed by glycol are aromatic hydrocarbons or BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and sulphur compounds. The main design considerations for any incinerator are temperature, turbulence and residence time. An incinerator exit temperature of 760 degrees C is generally needed to reduce sulphur compounds. 2 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  7. The estimation of N2O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N 2 O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N 2 O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N 2 O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N 2 O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N 2 O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N 2 O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N 2 O emissions.

  8. The estimation of N2O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-08-01

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N(2)O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N(2)O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N(2)O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N(2)O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153g-N(2)O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N(2)O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N(2)O emissions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A lysimeter experimental study and numerical characterisation of the leaching of incinerator bottom ash waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Khalid, Hussain A; Ahmed, Ashraf A; Chen, Daoyi

    2010-01-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (IBA) is a residual produced from incinerating municipal solid waste. In the past, IBA presented a big waste disposal problem; however, various recycling approaches have been adopted in recent years to mitigate this problem, as well as to provide a useful alternative to using primary aggregate resources. The use of IBA as an alternative to conventional aggregates in different civil engineering construction applications helps to conserve premium grade aggregate supplies; however, when IBA is in contact with water in the field, as a consequence of precipitation events or changes in water table, elements, such as salts and heavy metals, may be released to the soil and ground water. In this work, IBA waste was mixed with limestone aggregate to produce a blend with acceptable mechanical properties and minimum environmental risks for use as road foundation. The study focused on evaluating potential environmental impacts of some constituents, including sulphate, chloride, sodium, copper, zinc and lead in IBA blends using a lysimeter as a large scale leaching tool. Moreover, a specific scenario simulating field conditions was adopted in the lysimeter to assess the potential impact of changing conditions, such as IBA content in the blend, liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and pH value, on long-term release of heavy metals and salts. Then, numerical modelling was used to predict the release of the aforementioned constituents from IBA based on initial measurement of intrinsic material properties and the kinetic desorption process concept. Experimental results showed that zinc and lead were released in very low concentrations but sodium and sulphate were in high concentrations. The control limestone only blend also demonstrated low release concentrations of constituents in comparison to IBA blends, where constituent concentrations increased with increase in IBA content. Experimental results were compared with numerical results obtained using a non

  10. Formation and degradation of PCDD/F in waste incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lisa

    2007-11-01

    The disposal of combustible wastes by incineration is a controversial issue that is strongly debated by both scientists and environmental activists due to the resulting emissions of noxious compounds, including (inter alia) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), heavy metals and acid gases like sulfur dioxide. Currently available air pollution control devices are capable of effectively cleaning flue gases, and PCDD/F emissions to air from modern municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are low. However, the PCDD and PCDF end up in ash fractions that, in Sweden, are usually deposited in landfills. The European Union has recently set a maximum permitted total concentration of 15 μg TEQ/kg for PCDD/F species in waste. Fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration containing PCDD/Fs at concentrations above this limit will have to be remediated to avoid disposing of them in landfills; an expensive and environmentally unfriendly option. Therefore, effective, reliable and cost-effective methods for degrading PCDD/F in fly ash are required, and a better understanding of the behavior of PCDDs and PCDFs during thermal treatment will be needed to develop them. In the studies this thesis is based upon both the formation and degradation of PCDDs and PCDFs in ashes from MSW incineration were studied. The main findings of the investigations regarding PCCD/F formation were: The concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in fly ash increased with reductions in the temperature in the post-combustion zone. The homologue profile in the ash changed when the temperature in the post-combustion zone changed. The final amounts of PCDD and PCDF present were affected by their rates of both formation and degradation, and the mechanisms involved differ between PCDDs and PCDFs. The main findings from the degradation studies were: The chemical composition of ash has a major impact on the degradation potential of PCDD and PCDF. The presence of oxygen during thermal

  11. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  12. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  13. Incineration of technological waste contaminated with alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, C.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Cartier, R.; Durec, J.P.; Afettouche, R.

    1990-01-01

    A large R and D programme is in progress at the CEA on alpha-bearing waste incineration. The program is developed in the laboratory and a pilot plant including the following aspects: physico-chemical characterization of wastes, study of thermal decomposition of wastes, laboratory study of generated gases (first with inactive then with active wastes), development of an industrial pilot plant with inactive wastes, study of corrosion resistance of material (laboratory and pilot plant), study and qualification of nuclear measurements on wastes, ashes and equipment [fr

  14. Safety and human factors engineering analysis. Heat recovery incinerator installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This report contains a safety and human factors analysis of the Navy's heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems. These requirements were based on current military standards and an evaluation of the HRI's at NAS, Jacksonville and NS, Mayport, Fl. The data collected were used to develop preliminary design criteria for future HRIs. The safety analysis lists specific areas where problems can occur and what should be done to prevent injury to plant personnel. The human factors design criteria section lists steps that can be taken to improve personnel and plant operating efficiency. Finally, specific problems that are occurring at NAS, Jacksonville and NS, Mayport are given.

  15. Metallic materials corrosion in the CRNL radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; McVey, E.G.; Disney, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion coupon evaluation and in-service materials performance for the CRNL waste incinerator has been carried out since 1980. Data are presented to show that types 309, 310 and 446 stainless steel, Alloy 625 and Alloy 333 all perform well in short-term tests in the afterburner environment (850-1000 0 C) but are subject to sigma-phase embrittlement and grain boundary carbide precipitation following long-term exposures. Several alloys performed satisfactorily in the primary chamber (500 0 C), and the material of construction, type 310 stainless steel, continues to provide good service

  16. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  17. High temperature slagging incinerator for alpha contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, N.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the experiences collected by the treatment of plutonium-contaminated wastes, in the High Temperature Slagging Incinerator at the C.E.N./S.C.K. at Mol, with the support of the Commission of the European Communities. The major objective of the exercise is to demonstrate the operability of this facility for the treatment of mixed transuranic (TRU) and beta-gamma solid waste material. The process will substantially reduce the TRU waste volume by burning the combustibles and converting the non-combustibles into a chemically inert and physically stable basalt-like slag product, suitable for safe transport and final disposal. (Auth.)

  18. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...