WorldWideScience

Sample records for incinerator fly ashes

  1. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g....../kg for zinc, 2,4 g/kg for lead, 1,7 g/kg for iron, and 7,9 g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91 mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash....

  3. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g...

  4. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  5. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  6. Biotoxicity evaluation of fly ash and bottom ash from different municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jing-Dong; Wey, Ming-Yen; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2009-08-30

    Different types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly and bottom ash were extracted by TCLP and PBET procedures. The biotoxicity of the leachate of fly ash and bottom ash was evaluated by Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. The results indicate the following: (1) The optimal solid/liquid ratio was 1:100 for PBET extraction because it had the highest Pb and Cu extractable mass from MSWI fly ash. (2) The extractable metal mass from both fly ash and bottom ash by PBET procedure was significantly higher than that by TCLP procedure. (3) The metal concentrations of fly ash leachate from a fluidized bed incinerator was lower than that from mass-burning and mass-burning combined with rotary kiln incinerator. (4) The TCLP and PBET leachate from all MSWI fly ash samples showed biotoxicity. Even though bottom ash is regarded as a non-hazardous material, its TCLP and PBET leachate also showed biotoxicity. The pH significantly influenced the biotoxicity of leachate.

  7. Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash before and after electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which has been treated electrodialytically for the removal of heavy metals, may have changed characteristics compared to untreated fly ash. In this study, MSWI fly ash was characterized with respect to leaching properties (pH static leaching...

  8. Dioxin and fly ash free incineration by ash pelletization and reburning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylecki, R P; Ohira, K; Ito, I; Fujiwara, N; Horio, M

    2001-11-01

    Dioxins (DXNs) in municipal waste incinerator fly ash were effectively reduced by pelletizing the mixture of ash, cement, and sodium phosphate and reburning the pellets in a laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) furnace. Three types of pellets--A, B and C, of various sizes and compositions were used in the experiments. The efficiency of DXN reduction in the pellet matrix was proportional to the incineration time, temperature, and degree of pellet incineration. At 700 degrees C and incineration time sufficient for a complete burnout, the efficiency of DXN reduction in the pellets of type A and C was found to be 99.9% and 99.7%, respectively. Correspondingly, the DXN concentration in the pellets decreased from 862 ng TEQ/kg to 0.9 ng TEQ/kg for pellets A and 2.2 ng TEQ/kg for pellets C. The residual concentration of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) was below 0.2 ng TEQ/kg and 0.4 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. Assuming a tortuosity factor of tau = 3 and the reaction rate constants of 0.013 m/s (at 700 degrees C) and 0.025 m/s (at 800 degrees C), the experimental pellet incineration times were reasonably predicted by using the shrinking core model. Possible DXN evaporation from the pellets was also studied. The amount of DXNs in the flue gas captured by an impinger trap was less than 3% when the reactor was operated at 700 and 800 degrees C. The described method of fly ash pelletization and reburning seems to be a relatively easy and inexpensive way to reduce both the emission of DXNs and the amount of fly ash.

  9. Optimized Metal Recovery from Fly Ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Switzerland plays a pioneering role in sustainable waste management with a long tradition of waste incineration and the prohibition to landfill unburnt municipal solid waste since 2000. In recent years, the focus has been laid on further reduction of pollutants from incineration residues because the revised Swiss Waste Ordinance prescribes the recovery of metals from fly ash starting in 2021. Fly ash collected in the heat recovery section and the electrostatic precipitator contains high conce...

  10. Acidic extraction and precipitation of heavy metals from biomass incinerator cyclone fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kröppl M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass incineration is increasingly used for the generation of heat and/or electricity. After incineration two ash fractions remain. Bottom ashes (the coarser ash fraction can usually be used as fertilizing agent on fields as it contains valuable elements for soils and plants and only minor concentrations of heavy metals. Fly ashes (the finer ash fraction are in most cases disposed as their heavy metal concentrations are too high for a usage as soil enhancer. In this study highly heavy metal contaminated fly ash has been cleaned through extraction with hydrochloric acid. The heavy metals were removed from the extract by precipitation with sodium hydroxide. After the cleaning procedure the ash can be pelletized and be returned to the soils.

  11. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    content of water soluble, mobile salts and heavy metals. It was shown that the mobility of salts and toxic elements can be significantly reduced by extraction with electrodialysis in stack [1, 2]; and that treated MSWI fly ash may potentially be utilized as a substitute for cement in concrete [3...

  12. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  13. [Correlation of Persistent Free Radicals, PCDD/Fs and Metals in Waste Incineration Fly Ash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-jiao; Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiao-dong

    2016-03-15

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are relatively highly stable and found in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Recent studies have concentrated on model dioxin formation reactions and there are few studies on actual waste incineration fly ash. In order to study EPFRs and the correlation with dioxins and heavy metals in waste incineration fly ash, the spins of EPFRs, concentration of PCDD/Fs and metals in samples from 6 different waste incinerators were detected. The medical waste incineration fly ash from Tianjin, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash from Jiangxi Province, black carbon and slag from municipal solid waste incinerator in Lanxi, Zhejiang Province, all contained EPFRs. Above all the signal in Tianjin sample was the strongest. Hydroxyl radicals, carbon-center radicals and semiquinone radicals were detected. Compared with other samples, Jiangxi fly ash had the highest toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) of dioxins, up to 7.229 4 ng · g⁻¹. However, the dioxin concentration in the Tianjin sample containing the strongest EPFR signals was only 0.092 8 ng · g⁻¹. There was perhaps little direct numeric link between EPFRs and PCDD/Fs. But the spins of EPFRs in samples presented an increasing trend as the metal contents increased, especially with Al, Fe, Zn. The signal strength of radicals was purposed to be related to the metal contents. The concentration of Zn (0.813 7% ) in the Tianjin sample was the highest and this sample contained much more spins of oxygen-center radicals. We could presume the metal Zn had a greater effect on the formation of EPFRs, and was easier to induce the formation of radicals with a longer half-life period.

  14. Influence of ammonia on leaching behaviors of incineration fly ash and its geochemical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Guan, Zhen Zhen; Chen, De Zhen

    2013-01-01

    of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals from incineration fly ash in the pH range of 3.66-12.44 with an active ammonia spike. A geochemical modeling software Visual MINTEQ was adopted to calculate the chemical speciation of metals under the leaching conditions to reveal the mechanism behind the impacts...

  15. Recycling of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by using hydrocyclone separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ming-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Liang; Wei, Pei-Shou

    2013-03-01

    The municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in Taiwan generate about 300,000 tons of fly ash annually, which is mainly composed of calcium and silicon compounds, and has the potential for recycling. However, some heavy metals are present in the MSWI fly ash, and before recycling, they need to be removed or reduced to make the fly ash non-hazardous. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to use a hydrocyclone for the separation of the components of the MSWI fly ash in order to obtain the recyclable portion. The results show that chloride salts can be removed from the fly ash during the hydrocyclone separation process. The presence of a dense medium (quartz sand in this study) is not only helpful for the removal of the salts, but also for the separation of the fly ash particles. After the dense-medium hydrocyclone separation process, heavy metals including Pb and Zn were concentrated in the fine particles so that the rest of the fly ash contained less heavy metal and became both non-hazardous and recyclable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solidification/stabilization of fly and bottom ash from medical waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Christopoulos, Konstantinos; Mousios, Epameinontas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2012-03-15

    In the present work, the stabilization/solidification of fly and bottom ash generated from incinerated hospital waste was studied. The objectives of the solidification/stabilization treatment were therefore to reduce the leachability of the heavy metals present in these materials so as to permit their disposal in a sanitary landfill requiring only a lower degree of environmental protection. Another objective of the applied treatment was to increase the mechanical characteristics of the bottom ash using different amounts of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a binder. The solidified matrix showed that the cement is able to immobilize the heavy metals found in fly and bottom ash. The TCLP leachates of the untreated fly ash contain high concentrations of Zn (13.2 mg/l) and Pb (5.21 mg/l), and lesser amounts of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Ba. Cement-based solidification exhibited a compressive strength of 0.55-16.12 MPa. The strength decreased as the percentage of cement loading was reduced; the compressive strength was 2.52-12.7 MPa for 60% cement mixed with 40% fly ash and 6.62-16.12 MPa for a mixture of 60% cement and 40% bottom ash. The compressive strength reduced to 0.55-1.30 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% fly ash, and to 0.90-7.95 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% bottom ash, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huisheng; Kan Lili

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, surface leaching toxicity and successive leaching concentration of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were studied. And, the relationships between leaching concentrations of heavy metals and leaching time were also discussed. Experimental results showed that immobilization effect of cement on MSWI fly ash is good. Even if MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were damaged, the leaching toxicity is still in a safety range. In early leaching stage, the surface leaching rate is relatively a little high, up to 10 -5 -10 -4 cm d -1 order of magnitude, in the later time of leaching, its rate rapidly declined, down to 10 -7 . Most of leached heavy metals are produced at early ages. The leaching concentration of heavy metals and leaching time has strong positive relationships. In factual utilizing circumstances, heavy metals' leaching from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes is a very slow and gradually diluting process. The leaching toxicity of heavy metals is far lower than that of the National Standard of China, and minimum harmful matters can be contained and released in the environment. Reusing of MSWI fly ash as partial replacement for cement in concrete mixes is potentially feasible.

  18. Leaching for recovery of copper from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash: influence of ash properties and metal speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassesson, Henric; Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    Recovery of metals occurring in significant amounts in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, such as copper, could offer several advantages: a decreased amount of potentially mobile metal compounds going to landfill, saving of natural resources and a monetary value. A combination of leaching and solvent extraction may constitute a feasible recovery path for metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. However, it has been shown that the initial dissolution and leaching is a limiting step in such a recovery process. The work described in this article was focused on elucidating physical and chemical differences between two ash samples with the aim of explaining the differences in copper release from these samples in two leaching methods. The results showed that the chemical speciation is an important factor affecting the release of copper. The occurrence of copper as phosphate or silicate will hinder leaching, while sulphate and chloride will facilitate leaching. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Characterization of Bottom and Fly Ashes Generated Co-incineration of Biomass with Automotive Shredder Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othaman Muhamad Fazli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the viable techniques to reduce land filling of automotive shredder residue is by co-incinerating them with biomass. This study focuses on characterization of bottom and fly ashes produced from the coincineration of the automotive shredded residue with oil palm biomass. The co-incineration was carried out in a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator. The oil palm biomass used was oil palm shell while the automotive shredded residue was obtained from a local recycling company. The characterization was done based on particle size distribution, morphology (SEM analysis and chemical composition (EDS analysis. In term of chemical composition the ashes contain C (Carbon, O (Oxygen, Si (Silicon, K (Potassium, Ca (Calcium and Fe (Ferum.

  20. Geochemical modeling and assessment of leaching from carbonated municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi; Jamro, Imtiaz Ali; Li, Rundong; Li, Yanlong; Li, Shaobai; Luan, Jingde

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes are characterized by high calcium oxide (CaO) content. Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption by MSWI fly ash was discussed based on thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA), minerology analysis, and adapting the Stenoir equation. TG/DTA analysis showed that the weight gain of the fly ash below 440 °C was as high as 5.70 %. An adapted Stenoir equation for MSWI fly ash was discussed. The chloride in MSWI fly ash has a major impact on CO2 adsorption by MSWI fly ash or air pollution control (APC) residues. Geochemical modeling of the critical trace elements copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and antimony (Sb) before and after carbonation was performed using a thermodynamic equilibrium model for solubility and a surface complexation model for metal sorption. Leaching of critical trace elements was generally found to be strongly dependent on the degree of carbonation attained, and their solubility appeared to be controlled by several minerals. Adsorption on ferrum (Fe) and aluminum (Al) colloids was also responsible for removal of the trace elements Cd, Pb, and Sb. We used Hakanson's potential ecological risk index (HPERI) to evaluate the risk of trace element leaching in general. The results demonstrate that the ecological risk showed a V-shaped dependency on pH; the optimum pH of the carbonated fly ash was found to be 10.3-11, resulting from the optimum carbonation (liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio = 0.25, carbonation duration = ∼30-48 h). The dataset and modeling results presented here provide a contribution to assessing the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash under a wide range of conditions.

  1. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...

  2. Studying the melting behaviour of fly ash from the incineration of MSW using viscosity and heated stage XRD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Folkedahl, B.; Frandsen, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study has been to investigate the melting behaviour of fly ashes from the incineration of MSW (municipal solid waste). Four fly ash samples from the Svendborg WtE (waste-to-energy) plant (2nd-3rd pass, super-heater, economizer, ESP), in Denmark, have been investigated...

  3. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted separation method, has previ-ously shown potential for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of MSWI fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent wa...

  4. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted separation method, has previ-ously shown potential for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of MSWI fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent...

  5. Melting of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.-S.; Lin, K.-L.; Lee, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a novel approach for melting municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, based on self-propagating reactions, by using energy-efficient simulated waste-derived thermite. The self-propagating characteristics, the properties of the recycled alloy and slag and the partitioning of heavy metals during the process are also studied. Experimental results demonstrate that the mix ratio of fly ash to the starting mixture of less than 30% supports the development of the self-propagating reaction with a melting temperature of 1350-2200 deg. C. Furthermore, metallic iron (or alloy) and the slag were retrieved after activation of the thermite reactions among the starting mixtures. It was noted that more than 91 wt.% of iron was retrieved as alloy and the rest of non-reductive oxides as slag. During the thermite reactions, the partition of heavy metals to the SFA and flue gas varied with the characteristics of the target metals: Cd was mainly partitioned to flue gas (75-82%), and partition slightly increased with the increasing fly ash ratio; Pb and Zn, were mainly partitioned to the SFA, and the partition increased with increasing fly ash ratio; Cu was partitioned to the SFA (18-31%) and was not found in the flue gas; and moreover stable Cr and Ni were not identified in both the SFA and flue gas. On the other hand, the determined TCLP leaching concentrations were all well within the current regulatory thresholds, despite the various FA ratios. This suggests that the vitrified fly ash samples were environmental safe in heavy metal leaching. The results of this study suggested that melting of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reactions was a feasible approach not only energy-beneficial but also environmental-safe

  6. A new method for municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash inertization, based on colloidal silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, E; Zacco, A; Borgese, L; Gianoncelli, A; Ardesi, R; Depero, L E

    2010-11-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a straightforward way to manage waste, however the disposal of process byproducts, mainly bottom and fly ash, is still a problem, because of their hazardous contents. Fly ash is a byproduct of many other processes that involve combustion to produce energy. In this paper we present and discuss a new method for MSWI fly ash inertization, mainly based on the use of colloidal silica as a stabilization agent for metals. In the patented procedure, fly ash of different provenance can be used to produce an inert and non-hazardous material, that can be reused. In fact to make the recovery process more efficient, landfilling should be totally avoided. For this reason, to enhance the possibility of reuse, a washing process, for salts recovery, is proposed as a final step of the inertization procedure. The obtained inert material is called COSMOS (COlloidal Silica Medium to Obtain Safe inert), and it is composed of calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, silicon oxide and a wide quantity of non-soluble amorphous compounds. COSMOS does not contain any corrosive salts. This makes it extremely interesting for cement industry applications with several other advantages, and environmental benefits. The new proposed inertization procedure appears very promising, because it allows MSWI fly ash to be considered a valuable resource. Thanks to the obtained results, a demonstration project, in the frame of LIFE+, has been funded by the European Commission (LIFE+ 2008 project ENV/IT/000434, ).

  7. Chemical associations and mobilization of heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Schlumberger, Stefan; Mäder, Urs K

    2017-04-01

    This study focusses on chemical and mineralogical characterization of fly ash and leached filter cake and on the determination of parameters influencing metal mobilization by leaching. Three different leaching processes of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland comprise neutral, acidic and optimized acidic (+ oxidizing agent) fly ash leaching have been investigated. Fly ash is characterized by refractory particles (Al-foil, unburnt carbon, quartz, feldspar) and newly formed high-temperature phases (glass, gehlenite, wollastonite) surrounded by characteristic dust rims. Metals are carried along with the flue gas (Fe-oxides, brass) and are enriched in mineral aggregates (quartz, feldspar, wollastonite, glass) or vaporized and condensed as chlorides or sulphates. Parameters controlling the mobilization of neutral and acidic fly ash leaching are pH and redox conditions, liquid to solid ratio, extraction time and temperature. Almost no depletion for Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd is achieved by performing neutral leaching. Acidic fly ash leaching results in depletion factors of 40% for Zn, 53% for Cd, 8% for Pb and 6% for Cu. The extraction of Pb and Cu are mainly limited due to a cementation process and the formation of a PbCu 0 -alloy-phase and to a minor degree due to secondary precipitation (PbCl 2 ). The addition of hydrogen peroxide during acidic fly ash leaching (optimized acidic leaching) prevents this reduction through oxidation of metallic components and thus significantly higher depletion factors for Pb (57%), Cu (30%) and Cd (92%) are achieved. The elevated metal depletion using acidic leaching in combination with hydrogen peroxide justifies the extra effort not only by reduced metal loads to the environment but also by reduced deposition costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of PCDD/Fs distribution in fly ash, ash deposits, and bottom ash from a medical waste incinerator in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzhe; Jin, Yuqi; Lu, Shengyong; Peng, Zheng; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Over the past decades in China, the number of medical waste incinerators (MWIs) has been rising rapidly, causing emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In this study, samples of fly ash, ash deposits, and bottom ash from typical MWIs were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and their distribution characteristics. Results showed international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ) values in the range of 6.9-67 ng I-TEQ/g in fly ash and ash deposits, whereas the concentration in bottom ash was extremely low (only 1.33 pg I-TEQ/g), yet the generation of PCDD/Fs was mostly de novo synthesis in fly ash and ash deposits according to the ratio of PCDFs to PCDDs; the major distribution differences of PCDD/Fs in fly ash was manifested by the content of toxic furan 2,3,7,8-TCDF but other toxic PCDD/Fs showed similar distribution. Other findings are that 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF had the most contribution to TEQ concentration, and that the most abundant toxic furan congener is 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between PCDD/Fs concentration and several other physical and chemical parameters. This paper is of interest because it presents the emission performances of PCDD/Fs in ash from medical waste incineration in China. PCDD/F contents in fly ash and ash deposits vary between 6.9 and 67.3 ng I-TEQ/g. However, the concentration in bottom ash was extremely low (only 1.33 x 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/g). The fingerprints of PCDD/Fs in fly ash are almost similar, except for 2,3,7,8-TCDF. There is no marked correlation between PCDD/Fs and other physicochemical properties.

  9. Sulfidation treatment of molten incineration fly ashes with Na2S for zinc, lead and copper resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study focuses on the conversion of heavy metals involved in molten incineration fly ashes to metal sulfides which could be thereafter separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was carried out for five molten incineration fly ashes (Fly ash-A to Fly ash-E) by contacting each fly ash with Na(2)S solution for a period of 10 min to 6h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Me(2+) was adjusted to 1.20. The conversion of heavy metals to metal sulfides was evaluated by measuring the S(2-) residual concentrations using an ion selective electrode. The formation of metal sulfides was studied by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In the case of Fly ash-A to Fly ash-D, more than 79% of heavy metals of zinc, lead and copper was converted to metal sulfides within the contacting period of 0.5h owing to a fast conversion of metal chlorides to metal sulfides. By contrast, the conversion of about 35% was achieved for Fly ash-E within the same contacting period, which was attributed to a high content of metal oxides. Further, the S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio was reduced to 1.00 to minimize Na(2)S consumption and the conversions obtained within the contacting period of 0.5h varied from 76% for Fly ash-D to 91% for Fly ash-C. Finally, soluble salts such as NaCl and KCl were removed during the sulfidation treatment, which brought about a significant enrichment in metals content by a factor varying from 1.5 for Fly ash-D to 4.9 for Fly ash-A.

  10. Monitoring of radioactive nuclides in incinerator fly ash and adsorption of Cs in simulated and actual eluate of the fly ash onto clay and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahana, Yuki; Koike, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive nuclides in the incinerator fly ash of municipal solid waste was determined and monitored. For leaching radioactive Cs from incinerating fly ash in reclaimed land, a modified No. 13 elution test and adsorption with stable Cs onto andosol were performed. The activity concentration of radioactive nuclides in incinerator fly ash was constant within the range of the activity concentration before the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity concentration ratio was almost equal to 1, corresponding to 137 Cs existing in environment before the accident. 40% of 137 Cs in incinerator fly ash eluted with the modified No. 13 elution test, and adsorption ratio of Cs + onto the andosol showed 90% as being the primary concentration was equal to or more than 5000 μg L −1 . In addition, the desorption results used for 5 types of solvent showed that desorption ratio of adsorbed Cs + from the soil was 3.6% at the maximum. Hence, it is anticipated that using a soil that is similar in composition to the andosol suppresses the leaching out of radioactive Cs from reclaimed land. (author)

  11. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewelina; Konieczny, Tomasz; Bobik, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction) were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  12. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  13. Reuse of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ashes in concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Sorlini, Sabrina

    2002-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of concrete production using stabilized m.s.w. (municipal solid waste) incineration fly ashes in addition to natural aggregates. The tested fly ashes were washed and milled, then stabilized by a cement-lime process and finally were reused as a "recycled aggregate" for cement mixture production, in substitution of a natural aggregate (with dosage of 200-400 kg m(-3)). These mixtures, after curing, were characterized with conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, traction, flexure, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage). In samples containing 200 kg(waste) m(-3)(concrete), a good compressive strength was achieved after 28 days of curing. Furthermore, concrete leaching behavior was evaluated by means of different leaching tests, both on milled and on monolithic samples. Experimental results showed a remarkable reduction of metal leaching in comparison with raw waste. In some cases, similar behavior was observed in "natural" concrete (produced with natural aggregates) and in "waste containing" concrete.

  14. Effect of COSMOS technologies in detoxifying municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Elsa; Lasagni, Marina; Collina, Elena; Bonaiti, Stefania; Bontempi, Elza

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of technologies for heavy metal stabilization on the concentration of PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDF), abbreviated PCDD/F, in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash. We determined the variation of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and PCDD/F concentration between raw and stabilized material. The technologies, that already proved to be very promising for heavy metal entrapment, showed encouraging results also for PCDD/F detoxification. This result could be very impacting on the management of MSWI fly ash: at the best of our knowledge, there are no methods, in literature, that can provide good results in stabilization of heavy metals, and abatement of chlorinated organic pollutants contained in the same matrix.

  15. Relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes from typical municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the alkalinity and high concentration of potentially hazardous heavy metals, fly ash from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator is classified as hazardous waste, which should be of particular concern. Physical and chemical characterizations of the contrasted fly ashes were investigated to explore the relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes. The results showed that CaClOH, NaCl, Ca(OH) 2 , KCl and SiO 2 were primary mineral compositions in the MSWI fly ashes, and the particle size distribution of fly ash ranged between 10 μm and 300 μm. The smaller the particle size distribution of fly ash, the larger the BET-specific surface area, which was beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. As a result of various pores, it easily accumulated heavy metals as well. The leaching tests exhibited a high leachability of heavy metals and the leaching concentration of Pb in almost all of the fly ash samples went far beyond the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste. Thereupon, it is necessary to establish proper disposal systems and management strategies for environmental protection based on the characteristics of MSW incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China.

  16. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    of the concrete. The Cl content in MSWI fly ash is also too high and will cause corrosion problems in reinforced concrete. The possibility of removing some of the unwanted heavy metals (Cu and Pb) together with Cl from an MSWI fly ash suspended in water using an electrodialytic separation method was investigated......The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...... that is least soluble. Hence electrodialytic treatment of the ash suspended in water is not a solution to improve the ash quality in terms of Pb. The water-soluble Cl content per unit weight of the original ash was 12.4%. The removal of water-soluble Cl was efficient and >98% of Cl was removed (calculated...

  17. Leaching behavior of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from the fly ash and bottom ash of a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The leaching behavior of dioxins from landfill containing bottom ash and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration has been investigated by leaching tests with pure water, non-ionic surfactant solutions, ethanol solutions, or acetic acid solutions as elution solvents for a large-scale cylindrical column packed with ash. Larger amounts of dioxins were eluted from both bottom ash and fly ash with ethanol solution and acetic acid solution than with pure water. Large quantities of dioxins were leached from fly ash but not bottom ash by non-ionic surfactant solutions. The patterns of distribution of the dioxin congeners in the leachates were very similar to those in the bottom ash or fly ash from which they were derived.

  18. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  19. High temperature co-treatment of bottom ash and stabilized fly ashes from waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Mogensen, E.P.B.; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Bottom ashes from two Danish municipal solid waste incineration plants were heated at 900 degreesC with iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues at actual mass flow ratios (9:1), simulating a treating method for the residues. The two residues were cotreated, producing one combined...... stream that may be utilized as a secondary road construction material. Scanning electron microscope analysis and grain size distribution analysis indicated that sintering of the particles did not occur. Batch leaching tests at liquid/solid 10 I/kg at a range of pH-values (6-10) quantified with respect...

  20. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Cieślik Ewelina; Konieczny Tomasz; Bobik Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures ...

  1. Stabilization/solidification of a municipal solid waste incineration residue using fly ash-based geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Galiano, Y; Fernández Pereira, C; Vale, J

    2011-01-15

    The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn or Ba by means of geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolin, metakaolin and ground blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of MSWI waste with these kinds of geopolymeric materials and class F coal fly ash used as silica and alumina source have been processed to study the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. To this end, the effects of curing conditions and composition have been tested. S/S solids are submitted to compressive strength and leaching tests to assess the results obtained and to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. Compressive strength values in the range 1-9 MPa were easily obtained at 7 and 28 days. Concentrations of the metals leached from S/S products were strongly pH dependent, showing that the leachate pH was the most important variable for the immobilization of metals. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classical Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modified fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as catalyst support for Mn-Ce composite oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiongbo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Ying; Ren, Tingyan; Pan, Lang; Fang, Ping; Chen, Dingsheng; Cen, Chaoping

    2017-08-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration was modified by hydrothermal treatment and used as catalyst support for Mn-Ce composite oxides. The prepared catalyst showed good activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3. A NO conversion of 93% could be achieved at 300 °C under a GHSV of 32857 h-1. With the help of characterizations including XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and TPR, it was found that hydrothermal treatment brought a large surface area and abundant mesoporous to the modified fly ash, and Mn-Ce composite oxides were highly dispersed on the surface of the support. These physical and chemical properties were the intrinsic reasons for the good SCR activity. This work transformed fly ash into high value-added products, providing a new approach to the resource utilization and pollution control of fly ash.

  3. A feasibility study of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash utilisation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hakan; Frey, Ruedi; Voronova, Viktoria; Koroljova, Arina

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO 2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation. Two carbonation options were developed. Option 1 is to use carbonated FA in any other processes based on the waste-to-product principle. Option 2 is to send carbonated FA to the non-hazardous landfill in Tallinn, Estonia. Important parameters, such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Break Even Point (BEP), have been calculated for carbonation options and the current case. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to examine its robustness. The results showed that the best option is carbonation Option 1 with NPV of 9,209,662 EUR, IRR of 43%, BCR of 2.63 and BEP between 2018 and 2019. Both Options 1 and 2 constitute more sustainable and environmentally friendly management options compared to the current situation. It can be concluded that this preliminary feasibility study showed that running a carbonation plant may be profitable and sustainable for Estonia. Currently, there is no treatment technology for MSW incineration FA in Estonia and FA is sent to a neighbouring country for further utilisation. This is the first study to demonstrate FA management options with economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Solidification and Biotoxicity Assessment of Thermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Deng, Yi; Yang, Yuanyi; Tan, Swee Ngin; Liu, Qianni; Yang, Weizhong

    2017-06-10

    In the present work, thermal treatment was used to stabilize municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which was considered hazardous waste. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that, after the thermal process, the leaching concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn decreased from 8.08 to 0.16 mg/L, 0.12 to 0.017 mg/L and 0.39 to 0.1 mg/L, respectively, which well met the limits in GB5085.3-2007 and GB16689-2008. Thermal treatment showed a negative effect on the leachability of Cr with concentrations increasing from 0.1 to 1.28 mg/L; nevertheless, it was still under the limitations. XRD analysis suggested that, after thermal treatments, CaO was newly generated. CaO was a main contribution to higher Cr leaching concentrations owing to the formation of Cr (VI)-compounds such as CaCrO₄. SEM/EDS tests revealed that particle adhesion, agglomeration, and grain growth happened during the thermal process and thus diminished the leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn, but these processes had no significant influence on the leaching of Cr. A microbial assay demonstrated that all thermally treated samples yet possessed strong bactericidal activity according to optical density (OD) test results. Among all samples, the OD value of raw fly ash (RFA) was lowest followed by FA700-10, FA900-10, and FA1100-10 in an increasing order, which indicated that the sequence of the biotoxicity for these samples was RFA > FA700-10 > FA900-10 > FA1100-10. This preliminary study indicated that, apart from TCLP criteria, the biotoxicity assessment was indispensable for evaluating the effect of thermal treatment for MSWI fly ash.

  5. Irradiation effect on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► No research has been done to examine effect of electron beam irradiation on leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash. ► Electron beam irradiation on fly ash had significant effect on heavy metal leaching. ► Leaching potential of heavy metals in fly ash differed among metal species tested (Pb, Zn, Cu). ► Metal forms in the ash were analyzed to explain the difference. ► The difference could be explained by metal form change. - Abstract: Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is commonly classified as hazardous waste. High-energy electron beam irradiation systems have gained popularity recently as a clean and promising technology to remove environmental pollutants. Irradiation effects on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash have not been investigated in any significant detail. An electron beam accelerator was used in this research. Electron beam irradiation on fly ash significantly increased the leaching potential of heavy metals from fly ash. The amount of absorbed dose and the metal species affected leaching behavior. When electron beam irradiation intensity increased gradually up to 210 kGy, concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased linearly as absorbed dose increased, while that of Cu underwent no significant change. Concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased up to 15.5% (10.7 mg/kg), and 35.6% (9.6 mg/kg) respectively. However, only 4.8% (0.3 mg/kg) increase was observed in the case of Cu. The results imply that irradiation has significant effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash, and the effect is quite different among the metal species tested in this study. A commonly used sequential extraction analysis which can classify a metal species into five forms was conducted to examine any change in metal form in the irradiated fly ash. Notable change in metal form in fly ash was observed when fly ash was irradiated. Change in Pb form was much greater than that of

  6. Bioleaching of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration using kitchen waste saccharified solution as culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.; Juan, W.; Qunhui, W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Reduced sugar in saccharified solution from kitchen waste was used as the carbon source. Domesticated A. niger AS 3.879C , which can withstand 20% of kitchen waste, was used as the inoculum in the bioleaching process of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The effect of reduced sugar concentration, fly ash concentration, and medium volume on the heavy metal extraction and yield of fly ash as well as the optimum bioleaching conditions; the inoculation amount of AS 3 .879C 1% (v/v), reduced sugar concentration of 80 g/l, fly ash concentration of 20 g/l, medium volume of 200 ml, and the addition of fly ash (20 g/l) after culturing for 4 days at 30 degree C and 140 r/min were obtained. Under the optimum condition, the extraction yield of the seven tested heavy metals are in the order of Cd > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Fe; the extraction yield of Cd and Zn reached 88.7% and 73.1% respectively. Fly ash satisfied the Standard for Pollution Control on the Security Landfill Site for Hazardous Wastes (GB 18598-2001) after heavy metal extraction. (author)

  7. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction. Monolithic products have been obtained with both MSWI fly ash as received and after the partial removal of chloride and sulfate by water washing. The polycondensation products have been characterized qualitatively by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively, through the determination of the volume of reacted water and silicate. Furthermore, the heavy metals and chloride releases together with the physico-mechanical properties have been evaluated on the hardened products. In conclusion, considering the technological and environmental performances of the obtained geopolymers, they could be suitable for many non-structural applications, such as backfilling of abandoned quarries, decorative materials or brick fireplaces, hearths, patios, etc.

  8. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Santoro, Luciano; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-08-12

    In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA) have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction. Monolithic products have been obtained with both MSWI fly ash as received and after the partial removal of chloride and sulfate by water washing. The polycondensation products have been characterized qualitatively by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively, through the determination of the volume of reacted water and silicate. Furthermore, the heavy metals and chloride releases together with the physico-mechanical properties have been evaluated on the hardened products. In conclusion, considering the technological and environmental performances of the obtained geopolymers, they could be suitable for many non-structural applications, such as backfilling of abandoned quarries, decorative materials or brick fireplaces, hearths, patios, etc.

  9. Production of lightweight aggregates from mining residues, heavy metal sludge, and incinerator fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.-C. [Department of Atomic Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, F.-C. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: d90541003@ntu.edu.tw; Lo, S.-L. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, M.-Y. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-F. [Department of Atomic Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-D. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-01

    In this study, artificial lightweight aggregate (LWA) manufactured from recycled resources was investigated. Residues from mining, fly ash from an incinerator and heavy metal sludge from an electronic waste water plant were mixed into raw aggregate pellets and fed into a tunnel kiln to be sintered and finally cooled rapidly. Various feeding and sintering temperatures were employed to examine their impact on the extent of vitrification on the aggregate surface. Microstructural analysis and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were also performed. The results show that the optimum condition of LWA fabrication is sintering at 1150 deg. C for 15 min with raw aggregate pellets fed at 750 deg. C. The rapidly vitrified surface envelops the gas produced with the increase in internal temperature and cooling by spraying water prevents the aggregates from binding together, thus forming LWA with specific gravity of 0.6. LWA produced by sintering in tunnel kiln shows good vitrified surface, low water absorption rate below 5%, and low cylindrical compressive strength of 4.3 MPa. In addition, only trace amounts of heavy metals were detected, making the LWA non-hazardous for construction use.

  10. Cylindrical Electrolyser Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zhou, Lulu; Tao, Junjun; Liu, Longfei

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses enhancement and efficiency of removing spiked heavy metal (HM) contaminants from the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes in the cylindrical electrolyser device. The characterization parameters of the electrolyte solution pH, electric current, electrical conductivity, voltage gradient were discussed after the experiment. The chemical speciation of HMs was analysed between the original samples and remediated ones by BCR sequential extraction. The detoxification efficiencies of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in the column-uniform device were compared with that in the traditional rectangular apparatus. The pH value changed smoothly with small amplitude of oscillation in general in cathode and anode compartments except the initial break. The electrical current rapidly increased on the first day of the experiment and steadily declined after that and the electrical conductivity presented a clear rising trend. The residual partition of detoxified samples were obviously lifted which was much higher than the analysis data of the raw materials. The pH and the electrical conductivity in sample region were distributed more uniformly and the blind area was effectively eliminated in the electrolytic cells which was indirectly validated by the contrastive detoxification result of the spiked HMs between the rectangular and cylindrical devices.

  11. Carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration electrostatic precipitator fly ashes in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boom, Aurore; Aubert, Jean-Emmanuel; Degrez, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Carbonation was applied to a Pb- and Zn-contaminated fraction of municipal solid waste incineration electrofilter fly ashes in order to reduce heavy metal leaching. Carbonation tests were performed in solution, by Na2CO3 addition or CO2 bubbling, and were compared with washing (with water only). The injection of CO2 during the washing did not modify the mineralogy, but the addition of Na2CO3 induced the reaction with anhydrite, forming calcite. Microprobe analyses showed that Pb and Zn contamination was rather diffuse and that the various treatments had no effect on Pb and Zn speciation in the residues. The leaching tests indicated that carbonation using Na2CO3 was successful because it gave a residue that could be considered as non-hazardous material. With CO2 bubbling, Pb and Zn leaching was strongly decreased compared with material washed with water alone, but the amount of chromium extracted became higher than the non-hazardous waste limits for landfilling.

  12. Physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from Swiss waste incineration plants and determination of the ash fraction in the nanometer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buha, Jelena; Mueller, Nicole; Nowack, Bernd; Ulrich, Andrea; Losert, Sabrina; Wang, Jing

    2014-05-06

    Waste incineration had been identified as an important source of ultrafine air pollutants resulting in elaborated treatment systems for exhaust air. Nowadays, these systems are able to remove almost all ultrafine particles. However, the fate of ultrafine particles caught in the filters has received little attention so far. Based on the use of engineered nano-objects (ENO) and their transfer into the waste stream, it can be expected that not only combustion generated nanoparticles are found in fly ashes but that many ENO finally end up in this matrix. A more detailed characterization of the nanoparticulate fraction of fly ashes is therefore needed. Physical and chemical characterizations were performed for fly ashes from five selected waste incineration plants (WIPs) with different input materials such as municipal waste, wood and sewage sludge. The intrinsic densities of the fly ashes were in the range of 2.7-3.2 g/cm(3). When the fly ash particle became airborne, the effective density depended on the particle size, increasing from 0.7-0.8 g/cm(3) for 100-150 nm to 2 g/cm(3) for 350-500 nm. The fly ash samples were fractionated at 2 μm, yielding fine fractions (2 μm). The size distributions of the fine fractions in the airborne form were further characterized, which allowed calculation of the percentage of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. We found the highest mass-based percentage was about 0.07%; the number percentage in the fine fraction was in the range of 4.8% to 22%. Comparison with modeling results showed that ENO may constitute a considerable part of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. Chemical analyses showed that for the municipal waste samples Ca and Al were present in higher concentrations in the coarse fraction; for the mixed wood and sludge sample the P concentration was higher in the coarse fraction; for most other samples and elements they were enriched in the fine fraction. Electron microscopic images of fly ashes showed a wide range of

  13. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight aggregate (LWA production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution.

  14. Leachability of heavy metals from lightweight aggregates made with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na

    2015-05-07

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China's regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution.

  15. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  16. Improved cement mortars by addition of carbonated fly ash from solid waste incinerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Zaldívar, O.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research developing high performance cement mortars with the addition of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA stabilized as insoluble carbonates. The encapsulation of hazardous wastes in mortar matrixes has also been achieved. The ashes present high concentrations of chlorides, Zn and Pb. A stabilization process with NaHCO3 has been developed reducing 99% the content of chlorides. Developed mortars replace 10% per weight of the aggregates by treated MSWIFA. Physical/mechanical properties of these mortars have been studied. Presence of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd has been also analyzed confirming that leaching of these heavy metal ions is mitigated. Conclusions prove better behavior of CAC and CSA mortars than those of CEM-I and CEM-II cement. Results are remarkable for the CAC mortars, improving reference strengths in more than 25%, which make them a fast-curing product suitable for the repair of structures or industrial pavements.Este artículo presenta los resultados del desarrollo de morteros mejorados con la incorporación de cenizas volantes de residuos sólidos urbanos inertizadas en forma de carbonatos. Además se consigue la encapsulación de un residuo peligroso. Las cenizas presentan una alta concentración de cloruros, Zn y Pb. Se ha desarrollado un proceso de estabilización con NaHCO3 reduciendo en un 99% el contenido de cloruros. Los morteros reemplazan un 10% en peso del árido por cenizas tratadas. Se han analizado sus propiedades físico/mecánicas y la presencia de Zn, Pb, Cu y Cd. Se demuestra un mejor comportamiento de los morteros de CAC y CSA que los de CEM-I y CEM-II y se mitiga el lixiviado de metales pesados. Los resultados son significativos en los morteros CAC al mejorar las resistencias de los de referencia en un 25%. Los morteros desarrollados son de curado rápido adecuados para la reparación de estructuras o soleras industriales.

  17. Dechlorination Ability of Municipal Waste Incineration Fly Ash for Polychlorinated Phenols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlková, Leona; Pekárek, Vladimír; Pacáková, V.; Karban, Jindřich; Bureš, M.; Štulík, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2004), s. 935-942 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072206; GA MŠk 1P04OE156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : chlorophenols * de novo synthesis * fly ash Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2004

  18. Dehalogenation Potential of Municipal Waste Incineration Fly Ash. I. General Principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Vladimír; Karban, Jindřich; Fišerová, Eva; Bureš, M.; Pacáková, V.; Večerníková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2003), s. 39-43 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : dechlorination * fly ash * hexachlorobenzene Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2003

  19. Cellular Mutagenicity and Heavy Metal Concentrations of Leachates Extracted from the Fly and Bottom Ash Derived from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Shu; Wun, Min-Jie; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two incinerators in Taiwan have recently attempted to reuse the fly and bottom ash that they produce, but the mutagenicity of these types of ash has not yet been assessed. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the ash with the Ames mutagenicity assay using the TA98, TA100, and TA1535 bacterial strains. We obtained three leachates from three leachants of varying pH values using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (...

  20. Metal leachability, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in fly and bottom ashes of a medical waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Fiotakis, Konstantinos; Gotsis, George

    2008-06-01

    Medical waste from hospitals and other healthcare institutions has become an imperative environmental and public safety problem. Medical waste in Greece has become one of the most urgent environmental problems, because there are 14,000 tons produced annually, of which only a small proportion is incinerated. In the prefecture of Attica there is only one modern municipal medical waste incinerator (started 2004) burning selected infectious hospital waste (5-6 tons day(-1)). Fly and bottom residues (ashes) are collected and stored temporarily in barrels. High values of metal leachability prohibit the landfilling of these ashes, as imposed by EU directives. In the present study we determined quantitatively the heavy metals and other elements in the fly and bottom ashes of the medical waste incinerator, by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Heavy metals, which are very toxic, such as Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn were found in high concentrations in both fly and bottom ashes. Metal leachability of fly and bottom ashes by water and kerosene was measured by ICP and the results showed that toxic metals in both ashes, such as Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn, have high leaching values. These values indicate that metals can become soluble and mobile if ash is deposited in landfills, thus restricting their burial according to EU regulations. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly and bottom ashes showed that their concentrations were very low. This is the first known study in Greece and the results showed that incineration of medical waste can be very effective in minimizing the most hazardous and infectious health-care waste. The presence of toxic metals with high leachability values remains an important draw back of incineration of medical waste and various methods of treating these residues to diminish leaching are been considered at present to overcome this serious technical

  1. Determination of hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in waste incineration fly ash using ultrasonic extraction followed by column cleanup and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Tao; He, Zhiqiao; Huang, Xinwen; Chen, Jianmeng; Song, Shuang

    2018-03-01

    Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was listed as a new controlling persistent organic pollutant in the Stockholm Convention because of its wide industrial applications and potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. However, only limited information exists on the release of HCBD from unintentional sources, such as waste incineration. Identification and quantification of HCBD in fly ash, one of the major outputs of waste incineration, is imperative. This work presents a simple method for determining HCBD in waste incineration fly ash based on ultrasonic extraction coupled with a silica gel-Florisil column cleanup followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Two typical persistent organic pollutants, pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured simultaneously. The parameters that influence the extraction efficiency and the quality of instrument detection were studied. Under the optimum experimental conditions, high sensitivity (detection limit 0.25-0.53 ng g -1 ), acceptable recoveries (64.0-71.4%) at spiking levels of 5-500 ng g -1 , and good repeatability [relative standard deviation (n = 3) of 14% or less] were achieved for all target analytes. The validation of this method was performed by analysis of six real fly ash samples from different waste incinerators in eastern China. The concentrations of HCBD detected in these samples (1.39-97.6 ng g -1 ) were comparable to those of PeCB (1.22-150 ng g -1 ) and HCB (0.82-120 ng g -1 ), indicating that the residual HCBD as well as PeCB and HCB in waste incineration fly ash should not be ignored. The results confirm for the first time that waste incineration is an unintentional source of HCBD in China. Graphical abstract An analytical method for hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in fly ash from waste incineration. GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Ph-d10 phenanthrene-d 10 .

  2. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  3. Analysis of trace elements in power plant and industrial incinerator fly ashes by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2008-01-01

    An elemental analysis of fly ash samples from Selangor and Perak coal-fired power plants and an industrial incinerator from Negeri Sembilan were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). All samples were irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency laboratory PUSPATI Reactor for 6 hours and later counted at the Nuclear Science Program, UKM using an HPGe detector with a relative efficiency of 10% and resolution of 1.8 KeV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coal fly ash 1633a reference material (SRM) was used as a standard for quantitative analysis. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Th and U) were determined in all three types of fly ashes. The concentration range of environmentally concern elements, As and Cr in the Selangor coal-fired power plant samples are 11.17 - 23.24 and 160.28 - 867.97 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of radioactive elements U and Th are 4.79 - 10.29 and 14.6 - 61.29 μg.g -1 respectively, and the concentration range of Co, Hf, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce, Ca are 11.88-83.61, 3.24 - 10.48, 30338 - 53885, 16.62 - 28.48, 178.97 - 8491, 127.41 - 217.2 and 10447 -20647 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of As, Cr, U, Th in the Perak samples were found to be 22.16 - 48.38, 44.37 - 74.78, 4.18 - 6.85, 8.71 - 11.43 μg.g -1 respectively, whereas the concentration range of Co, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce and Ca are 23.21 -29.66, 54621 - 71099, 30.9 - 31.77, 100.34 - 116.61 and 11533 -16423 μg.g -1 respectively. Differences exist in the elemental concentrations of both power plant fly ash samples due to the different feed coal and combustion temperature used. The concentration of Cr, Th and Ce in the Selangor fly ash samples was generally higher compared to the samples obtained from the Perak power plant. This study also shows that only As and Ca were detected in the Negeri Sembilan samples with the concentration ranging from 36.66 - 98.67 and 31709.10 - 45606 μg.g -1

  4. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  6. Cellular Mutagenicity and Heavy Metal Concentrations of Leachates Extracted from the Fly and Bottom Ash Derived from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Shu; Wun, Min-Jie; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2016-11-02

    Two incinerators in Taiwan have recently attempted to reuse the fly and bottom ash that they produce, but the mutagenicity of these types of ash has not yet been assessed. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the ash with the Ames mutagenicity assay using the TA98, TA100, and TA1535 bacterial strains. We obtained three leachates from three leachants of varying pH values using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (Taiwan EPA). We then performed the Ames assay on the harvested leachates. To evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of heavy metals and mutagenicity, the concentrations of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the leachates were also determined. The concentrations of Cd and Cr in the most acidic leachate from the precipitator fly ash and the Cd concentration in the most acidic leachate from the boiler fly ash exceeded the recommended limits. Notably, none of the nine leachates extracted from the boiler, precipitator, or bottom ashes displayed mutagenic activity. This data partially affirms the safety of the fly and bottom ash produced by certain incinerators. Therefore, the biotoxicity of leachates from recycled ash should be routinely monitored before reusing the ash.

  7. Cellular Mutagenicity and Heavy Metal Concentrations of Leachates Extracted from the Fly and Bottom Ash Derived from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wen Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two incinerators in Taiwan have recently attempted to reuse the fly and bottom ash that they produce, but the mutagenicity of these types of ash has not yet been assessed. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the ash with the Ames mutagenicity assay using the TA98, TA100, and TA1535 bacterial strains. We obtained three leachates from three leachants of varying pH values using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (Taiwan EPA. We then performed the Ames assay on the harvested leachates. To evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of heavy metals and mutagenicity, the concentrations of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the leachates were also determined. The concentrations of Cd and Cr in the most acidic leachate from the precipitator fly ash and the Cd concentration in the most acidic leachate from the boiler fly ash exceeded the recommended limits. Notably, none of the nine leachates extracted from the boiler, precipitator, or bottom ashes displayed mutagenic activity. This data partially affirms the safety of the fly and bottom ash produced by certain incinerators. Therefore, the biotoxicity of leachates from recycled ash should be routinely monitored before reusing the ash.

  8. Cellular Mutagenicity and Heavy Metal Concentrations of Leachates Extracted from the Fly and Bottom Ash Derived from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Shu; Wun, Min-Jie; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two incinerators in Taiwan have recently attempted to reuse the fly and bottom ash that they produce, but the mutagenicity of these types of ash has not yet been assessed. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the ash with the Ames mutagenicity assay using the TA98, TA100, and TA1535 bacterial strains. We obtained three leachates from three leachants of varying pH values using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (Taiwan EPA). We then performed the Ames assay on the harvested leachates. To evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of heavy metals and mutagenicity, the concentrations of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the leachates were also determined. The concentrations of Cd and Cr in the most acidic leachate from the precipitator fly ash and the Cd concentration in the most acidic leachate from the boiler fly ash exceeded the recommended limits. Notably, none of the nine leachates extracted from the boiler, precipitator, or bottom ashes displayed mutagenic activity. This data partially affirms the safety of the fly and bottom ash produced by certain incinerators. Therefore, the biotoxicity of leachates from recycled ash should be routinely monitored before reusing the ash. PMID:27827867

  9. Predicting the co-melting temperatures of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and sewage sludge ash using grey model and neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Kae-Long; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Tien-Chin; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2011-03-01

    A grey model (GM) and an artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to predict co-melting temperature of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and sewage sludge ash (SSA) during formation of modified slag. The results indicated that in the aspect of model prediction, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPEs) were between 1.69 and 13.20% when adopting seven different GM (1, N) models. The MAPE were 1.59 and 1.31% when GM (1, 1) and rolling grey model (RGM (1, 1)) were adopted. The MAPEs fell within the range of 0.04 and 0.50% using different types of ANN. In GMs, the MAPE of 1.31% was found to be the lowest when using RGM (1, 1) to predict co-melting temperature. This value was higher than those of ANN2-1 to ANN8-1 by 1.27, 1.25, 1.24, 1.18, 1.16, 1.14 and 0.81%, respectively. GM only required a small amount of data (at least four data). Therefore, GM could be applied successfully in predicting the co-melting temperature of MSWI fly ash and SSA when no sufficient information is available. It also indicates that both the composition of MSWI fly ash and SSA could be applied on the prediction of co-melting temperature.

  10. The calcination process in a system for washing, calcinating, and converting treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash into raw material for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-07-01

    Calcination is the second step in a washing-calcination-conversion system in which treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and bottom ash can be reused as raw material in the cement industry and can decompose or stabilize hazardous compounds, reduce residue amounts, and alter residue characteristics. In this research, only fly ash is discussed. Chloride reduction is important if treated fly ash is to be reused in cement; however, the relationship between washed fly ash properties and chloride reduction by calcination is not well understood. This study used washed residues of three types of fly ash-raw fly ash (RFA) from the boiler or economizer of an incineration system, fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) for acid removal (CaFA), and fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) for acid removal (NaFA)-in calcination experiments with varying temperature (400-1100 degrees C) and atmosphere (100% nitrogen [N2] at 25 mL/min or 10% oxygen [O2] [90% N2] at fluxes of 25, 50, and 75 mL/min). From the perspective of chloride reduction, heating to 1000 degrees C with 1-hr heating time, 1-hr holding time, and an atmosphere of 10% O2/90% N2 was most suitable for calcination. Under these conditions, chloride levels were reduced by 91, 52, and 96% in washed residues of RFA, CaFA, and NaFA, respectively. Among the washed residues, the weight of the washed residue of NaFA decreased the most.

  11. Mercury Levels In Fly Ash And Apc Residue From Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Before And After Electrodialytic Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8 to 10 h. The original residues and the treated material were analysed for mercury (Hg......) in order to assess the influence of the electrodialytic treatment on the concentrations of this element. Mercury levels varied with the MSWI residue, ranging from 0.41 mg kg−1 in FA sample from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to 8.38 mg kg−1 in MSWI residues from a semi-dry system with lime and activated...... carbon. Two distinct behaviours were observed for mercury as a result of the electrodialytic treatment. This element became enriched in the MSWI residues from the semi-dry system with activated carbon, whereas it decreased in ESP’s and cyclone’s FA. This work presents for the first time information about...

  12. Reductive solidification/stabilization of chromate in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by ascorbic acid and blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian; Zhou, Min; Wu, Xian; Han, Yi; Geng, Junjun; Wang, Teng; Wan, Sha; Hou, Haobo

    2017-09-01

    Fly ash is a hazardous byproduct of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). Cementitious material that is based on ground-granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) has been tested and proposed as a binder to stabilize Pb, Cd, and Zn in MSWI fly ash (FA). Cr, however, still easily leaches from MSWI FA. Different reagents, such as ascorbic acid (VC), NaAlO 2 , and trisodium salt nonahydrate, were investigated as potential Cr stabilizers. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that VC significantly improved the stabilization of Cr via the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). VC, however, could interfere with the hydration process. Most available Cr was transformed into stable Cr forms at the optimum VC content of 2 wt%. Cr leaching was strongly pH dependent and could be represented by a quintic polynomial model. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis revealed that hollow spheres in raw FA were partially filled with hydration products, resulting in the dense and homogeneous microstructure of the solidified samples. The crystal structures of C-S-H and ettringite retained Zn and Cr ions. In summary, GGBFS-based cementitious material with the low addition of 2 wt% VC effectively immobilizes Cr-bearing MSWI FA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  14. Enrichment and distribution of 24 elements within the sub-sieve particle size distribution ranges of fly ash from wastes incinerator plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclavská, Helena; Corsaro, Agnieszka; Hartmann-Koval, Silvie; Juchelková, Dagmar

    2017-12-01

    The management of an increasing amount of municipal waste via incineration has been gaining traction. Fly ash as a by-product of incineration of municipal solid waste is considered a hazardous waste due to the elevated content of various elements. The enrichment and distribution of 24 elements in fly ash from three wastes incinerators were evaluated. Two coarse (>100 μm and sieve (12-16, 16-23, 23-34, 34-49, and 49-100 μm) particle size fractions separated on a cyclosizer system were analyzed. An enhancement in the enrichment factor was observed in all samples for the majority of elements in >100 μm range compared with sieve particle size ranges. These variations were attributed primarily to: (i) the vaporization and condensation mechanisms, (ii) the different design of incineration plants, (iii) incineration properties, (iv) the type of material being incinerated, and (v) the affinity of elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Agglomeration potential of TiO2in synthetic leachates made from the fly ash of different incinerated wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Mitrano, Denise M; Nowack, Bernd; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; Figi, Renato; Schreiner, Claudia; Bürki, Melanie; Wang, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Material flow studies have shown that a large fraction of the engineered nanoparticles used in products end up in municipal waste. In many countries, this municipal waste is incinerated before landfilling. However, the behavior of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the leachates of incinerated wastes has not been investigated so far. In this study, TiO 2 ENPs were spiked into synthetic landfill leachates made from different types of fly ash from three waste incineration plants. The synthetic leachates were prepared by standard protocols and two types of modified procedures with much higher dilution ratios that resulted in reduced ionic strength. The pH of the synthetic leachates was adjusted in a wide range (i.e. pH 3 to 11) to understand the effects of pH on agglomeration. The experimental results indicated that agglomeration of TiO 2 in the synthetic landfill leachate simultaneously depend on ionic strength, ionic composition and pH. However, when the ionic strength was high, the effects of the other two factors were masked. The zeta potential of the particles was directly related to the size of the TiO 2 agglomerates formed. The samples with an absolute zeta potential value < 10 mV were less stable, with the size of TiO 2 agglomerates in excess of 1500 nm. It can be deduced from this study that TiO 2 ENPs deposited in the landfill may be favored to form agglomerates and ultimately settle from the water percolating through the landfill and thus remain in the landfill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of pH dynamics on solidification/stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Yahaya; Zhou, Jun; Ping, Duan; Shu, Zhu; Chen, Yun

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash (FA), a product of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has been classified as a kind of hazardous waste due to its high content of heavy metals. FA may be reused in the construction industry or disposed of at landfill sites, and thus poses threats to both the environment and human health. This study sought to establish a scientific basis for accurate selection of suitable pH storage conditions for the FA. We evaluated the potential of MSWI FA sample from the Xinghuo waste incineration power plant, Wuhan, to solidify/stabilize the heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As and Mn) contents, when leached under different pH conditions. The concentration of a heavy metal in the leachate was assumed to inversely reflect the extent of its solidification/stabilization (S/S). The study findings showed that the raw FA contained higher levels of the heavy metals, which were above the acceptable limits. Extremely acidic conditions favoured heavy metal leaching compared to extremely alkaline conditions. The extent of S/S of heavy metals was generally very low under highly acidic conditions (pH ≤ 4), but increased with increasing pH. All the metals solidified/stabilized in pH media of 5-11, except Zn which was detected in the entire pH range. We conclude that changing landfill conditions which can affect the pH environment, will increase heavy metal leaching when the pH ≤ 4. As a result, waste which was initially classified as non-hazardous may later pose harmful risks to both humans and the environment alike. We propose pH of 5-11 as the optimum pH range for the treatment, reuse, and disposal of the ash sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...... of the treated products for reuse in construction or farming sectors should be explored further, as should the possibility of recycling of valuable, extracted elements in the metallurgical industry....

  18. Multielement and morphological characterization of industrial waste incineration fly ash as studied by ICP-AES/ICP-MS and SEM-EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Eiji; Chiba, Koichi; Shiozawa, Ryuji; Iwata, Seiko; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2002-01-01

    The leachabilities of major-to-ultratrace elements in industrial waste incineration fly ash (IWIFA) were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to characterize IWIFA. The leaching data of about 50 elements in the IWIFA sample could be obtained in the concentration range from mg g -1 to sub-μg g -1 , when HNO 3 and aqua regia were used as the leachants. In addition, morphological observations of IWIFA particles were performed by a scanning electron micro-scope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) before and after the leaching treatment of the IWIFA samples. From the data for the leaching and morphological observations, the chemical states of the elements in IWIFA were elucidated as follows: (1) core materials of fly ashes were mostly composed of stable oxides of major elements such as Si, Al, Ti, and Fe; (2) Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Bi were mainly adsorbed on the surface of fly ash particles in the forms of acid soluble compounds; (3) Mn, Co, Ni, and Pb were partly taken into the core materials of fly ash particles, and partly adsorbed on the fly ash particles; and (4) Sb, Cr, Sn, In, and W were contained as rather stable compounds in IWIFA. (author)

  19. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  20. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  1. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Franchi, Federica; Catina, Daniele; Cioffi, Flavio; Rodella, Nicola; Borgese, Laura; Pasquali, Michela; Depero, Laura E.; Bontempi, Elza

    2015-01-01

    A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project). The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC) was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste. PMID:28793605

  2. Stabilization of lead in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-Pyrophyllite-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Aminuddin, Siti Fatimah; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the stabilization and speciation of lead (Pb) in a composite solid produced from an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA)-pyophyllite-based system. The solid product was synthesized after mixtures of raw materials (dehydrated pyrophyllite, MSWIFA, 14 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate solution) were cured at 105 °C for 24 h. The product could reduce the leaching of Pb and the Pb concentration in the leachate was 7.0 × 10 -3 using the Japanese leaching test and 9.7 × 10 -4  mg/L using toxicity characteristics leaching procedure method, which satisfied the respective test criteria and successfully stabilized Pb in this system. The solid product had a compressive strength of 2 MPa and consisted mainly of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure suggested that Pb was present along with Al, Si, and O, and that the atomic environment around the Pb was similar to that of PbSiO 3 . These results suggest that the alkali-activated MSWIFA-pyrophyllite-based system could be used to stabilize Pb in MSWIFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash before and after electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    metals had been removed from the ash during the electrodialytic treatment, the leachability of several of the residual metals had actually increased. The increased leachability was most probably caused by mineral dissolution and chelating of metals by residual citrate in the ash. Ammonium citrate had...... of the highly soluble minerals sylvite (KCl) and halite (NaCl). Indications of formation of secondary minerals (Ca-sulphates, ettringite) and precipitation of Ca-citrate in the treated ashes were also seen. SEM investigations confirmed a changed morphology in the treated ashes; probably due to crystallization...... of secondary minerals....

  4. Characterization of fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator to explore its using in construction; Caracterizacion de cenizas procedentes de plantas de incineracion de residuos solidos urbanos para su posible utilizacion en construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaejos Gutierrez, M. P.

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerator. The objective is to explore potential applications of this residue in construction products. The results show the no pozzolanic nature of the fly ashes, so its utilization as mineral admixture is discarded. however, the study reveals the expansive character of the fly ashes when are mixed with water. The results of X-ray diffraction confirm the presence of metallic aluminium in the fly ash as the origin of this expansion. This chemical reaction generates a considerable amount of hydrogen, inflammable gas. Three ways to avoid this reaction are proposed. On the other way, the expansive behaviour of the fly ashes allow to explore its possible application to produce cellular mortars, as the traditional production of these mortars have several similarities with the reaction of fly ash and water. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Influence of composition variations on the initial alteration rate of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugier, P; Godon, N; Vernaz, E; Larché, F

    2002-01-01

    Vitrification as a waste stabilization technology has often been considered applicable only to high-level radioactive waste for which, with the use of suitable additives, it yields a vitreous material with excellent chemical durability. It has become apparent in recent years that some waste forms-notably domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues--contain most of the ingredients of a vitrified material, although their composition variations are difficult to control. It is thus important to ensure not only that the materials are suitable for vitrification, but also that the resulting product exhibits acceptable long-term behavior under all circumstances. An initial study showed that, allowing for the compensation changes inherent in the melting process builtby EDF**, the residue collected by a single fly-ash dust separation defines a composition range within which the suitability of the vitrified material can be verified. "Vitrified material" refers to a melted material that contains no unmelted inclusions after cooling, but that may contain a variable fraction of crystallized phases. Five composition parameters were identified for the long-term behavior assessment: the concentrations of the three major elements (silicon, aluminum and calcium), the total alkali metal (sodium and potassium) concentration, and the sum of the concentrations of two toxic elements (zinc and lead). The other elements were assumed constant at molar ratios representative of industrial wastes. The experimentation plan methodology applied to the composition range identified fourteen materials suilable for developing and validating first-order models of the material components. The fly-ash composition had a very significant effect on the degree and kinetics and crystallization in the vitrified material within the experimental composition range; the cooling rate was the determining factor for some of the fourteen materials studied. Two crystailine phases predominated: spinels

  6. Distribution of PCDD/Fs in the fly ash and atmospheric air of two typical hazardous waste incinerators in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in the fly ash and atmospheric air of one medical waste incinerator (MWI) and one industrial hazardous waste incinerator (IHWI) plants were characterized. The PCDD/F concentrations of the stack gas (fly ash) produced from MWI and IHWI were 17.7 and 0.7 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm(3) (4.1 and 2.5 ng I-TEQ/g), respectively. For workplace air, the total concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 11.32 and 0.28 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) (819.5 and 15.3 pg/Nm(3)). We assumed that the large differences of PCDD/F concentrations in workplace air were due to the differences in chlorine content of the waste, combustion conditions, and other contamination sources. With respect to the homologue profiles, the concentrations of PCDFs decreased with the increase of the substituted chlorine number for each site. Among all of the PCDD/F congeners, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the most important contributor to the I-TEQ value accounting for ca. 43 % of two sites. The gas/particle partition of PCDD/Fs in the atmosphere of the workplace in the MWI was also investigated, indicating that PCDD/Fs were more associated in the particle phase, especially for the higher chlorinated ones. Moreover, the ratio of the I-TEQ values in particle and gas phase of workplace air was 11.0. At last, the relationship between the distribution of PCDD/Fs in the workplace air and that from stack gas and fly ash was also analyzed and discussed. The high correlation coefficient might be a sign for diffuse gas emissions at transient periods of fumes escaping from the incinerator.

  7. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in fly ash and bottom ash of biomass incineration plants in relation to the operating temperature and unburned carbon content.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košnář, Z.; Mercl, F.; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    563-564, SEP 1 (2016), s. 53-61 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : PAHs * biomass combustion * ashes * incineration temperature * combustibles Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  8. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in blended cement Part 1: Processing and characterization of MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J E; Husson, B; Sarramone, N

    2006-08-25

    This paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the processes applied to MSWI fly ash with a view to reusing it safely in cement-based materials. Part 1 presents two stabilization processes and Part 2 deals with the use of the two treated fly ashes (TFA) in mortars. Two types of binder were used: an Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) containing more than 95% clinker (CEM I 52.5R) and a binary blend cement composed of 70% ground granulated blast furnace slag and 30% clinker (CEM III-B 42.5N). In this first part, two stabilization processes are presented: the conventional process, called "A", based on the washing, phosphation and calcination of the ash, and a modified process, called "B", intended to eliminate metallic aluminum and sulfate contained in the ash. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the two TFA were comparable. The main differences observed were those expected, i.e. TFA-B was free of metallic aluminum and sulfate. The mineralogical characterization of the two TFAs highlighted the presence of large amounts of a calcium aluminosilicate phase taking two forms, a crystalline form (gehlenite) and an amorphous form. Hydration studies on pastes containing mixed TFA and calcium hydroxide showed that this phase reacted with calcium hydroxide to form calcium aluminate hydrates. This formation of hydrates was accompanied by a hardening of the pastes. These results are very encouraging for the reuse of such TFA in cement-based materials because they can be considered as pozzolanic additions and could advantageously replace a part of the cement in cement-based materials. Finally, leaching tests were carried out to evaluate the environmental impact of the two TFAs. The elements which were less efficiently stabilized by process A were zinc, cadmium and antimony but, when the results of the leaching tests were compared with the thresholds of the European landfill directive, TFA-A could nevertheless be accepted at landfills for non

  9. Mineralogy of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Young; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seung [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on mineralogical and chemical characteristics of coal fly ash collected from Boreong, Honam, Samcheonpo, Gunsan, Seocheon power plants. Mineralogical and chemical characters of fly ashes are clarified by experimental studies, using x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, differential thermal analyzer, grain size analyzer and chemical analysis. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The coal fly ashes from the all power plants are mainly consisted with mullite and quartz, and minor quantity of hematite. In particular, fly ash from the Honam power plant is converted into the anorthite under the 1200 degree. According to the result grain size analysis, most of the fly ashes are under the 200 mesh except 66% of fly ashes from the Boreong and Honam, 54% from Seocheon, 83% from Gunsan and 31% from Samcheonpo power plants. The unburned carbon contents are decreased in the small grain size of fly ashes. Under the 200 mesh grain size of Honam fly ashes shows particularly less than 1% content of unburned carbon. Chemical components of fly ashes are found to be 49-80% of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents in the bituminous and anthracite coal ash are 49-69% and 75-80%, respectively. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO concentrations in the bituminous coal ash are higher than anthracite coal ash. The trace elements such as Pb and Zn are higher anthracite coal ash than bituminous coal ash, which is mainly due to the grain size characteristic. The fly ash from Honam power plant with high CaO content can be used potassium silicate fertilizer and raw materials for cements after separation of 200 mesh. Anorthite are formed after 1200 degree heating of bituminous coal ash, which can be utilized as aggregate and bricks. (author). 21 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. The effects of alkaline dosage and Si/Al ratio on the immobilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-based geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yunchun

    2010-04-01

    The present research explored the application of geopolymerization for the immobilization and solidification of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. The influence of alkaline activator dosage and Si/Al molar ratio on the compressive strength and microstructure of MSWI fly ash-based geopolymer was investigated. A geopolymer with the highest strength was identified to occur at an intermediate alkaline activator dosage and Si/Al ratio, and the optimal Na/MSWI fly ash and Si/Al molar ratio was close to 2.8 mol kg(-1) and 2.0, respectively. IR spectra showed that higher alkaline activator dosage enhanced the structural disruption of the original aluminosilicate phases and a higher degree of polymerization of the geopolymer networks. At low Si/Al ratio, there was an increasing number of tetrahedral Al incorporating into the silicate backbone. As the Na/MSWI fly ash ratio increased, the microstructure changed from containing large macropores to more mesopores and micropores, indicating that more geopolymers are formed. Furthermore, the pore volume distribution of geopolymers was observed to shift to larger pores as the Si/Al ratio increased, which suggests that the soluble silicon content serves to reduce the amount of geopolymers. Heavy metal leaching was successfully elucidated using the first-order reaction/reaction-diffusion model. Combining the results from the microstructure of samples with the kinetic analysis, the immobilization mechanism of Cr, Cu, and Zn was inferred in this study. The methodologies described could provide a powerful set of tools for the systematic evaluation of element release from geopolymers. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitrification of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Oorsprong, M; Yang, Y; Voncken, J H L

    2008-01-01

    During incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), various environmentally harmful elements and heavy metals are liberated either into bottom ash, or carried away with the off-gases and subsequently trapped in fly-ash. If these minor but harmful elements are not properly isolated and immobilized, it can lead to secondary environmental pollution to the air, soil and water. The stricter environmental regulations to be implemented in the near future in The Netherlands require a higher immobilization efficiency of the bottom ash treatment. In the present study, MSW incinerator bottom ash was vitrified at higher temperatures and the slag formed and metal recovered were examined. The behaviour of soluble elements that remain in the slag is evaluated by standard leaching test. The results obtained can provide a valuable route to treat the ashes from incinerators, and to make recycling and more efficient utilization of the bottom ash possible.

  12. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Four different fly ashes are characterized in the present paper. The ashes differ in the original fuel type and were sampled at distinct plants. The investigation includes two different ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (with and without sorbents addition), a straw ash and an ash from...

  13. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied ...

  14. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  15. The mineral phase evolution behaviour in the production of glass-ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jingde; Chai, Meiyun; Li, Rundong; Yao, Pengfei; Khan, Agha Saood

    2016-01-01

    High energy consumption was the major obstacle to the widespread application of melting technology in the treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Aiming to lower the ash-melting temperature (AMT) for energy-saving, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the relations between AMT and the mineral evolution. The results indicated that the change of AMT was determined by the types and the contents of mineral crystals. The transition from refractory minerals to fluxing minerals was the key. The transition of the main crystalline phase from pseudowollastonite (Ca3(Si3O9)) to wollastonite (CaSiO3) played a significant role in AMT reduction. A quantum chemistry calculation was carried out to investigate the effect of crystal reaction activity on AMT. In the chemical reaction, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital played a more important role than any other orbits. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) were apt to enter into the crystal lattice of wollastonite and gehlenite mainly through Si (3), O (1), Si (6), O (10) and Al (2), O (10), and broke the covalent bonds of Si (3)-O (7), Al (1)-O (9) and Al (1)-O (15), respectively. This deconstruction behaviour provided convenient conditions for restructuring and promoted the formation of fluxing minerals. In melts, the excess SiO2 monomers which existed in the form of cristobalite and quartz caused AMT increase.

  16. A full-scale study on thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and its secondary air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Yan, Dahai; Huang, Qifei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d -1 ) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution. The toxic equivalent quantity values of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased to solid waste incinerator economiser, and then co-processed in the air pollution control system. The degradation furnace released relatively large amounts of cadmium, lead and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans compared with the municipal solid waste incinerator, but the amounts emitted to the atmosphere did not exceed the Chinese national emission limits. Thermal degradation can therefore be used as a polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran abatement method for municipal solid waste incinerator source in China.

  17. A summary of the National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program ash characterization and solidification studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawell, S.E.; Constable, T.W.; Klicius, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, Environment Canada established the National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP) to examine the potential impact of municipal solid waste incineration on the environment. As a part of NITEP, the Wastewater Technology Center (WTC) evaluated the chemical properties and leachability of different types of ashes from various types of MSW incinerators using a battery of laboratory procedures. This paper presents a summary of results generated from the NITEP ash program. Emphasis is placed on the variability of ash characteristics based on ash type, incinerator technology and incinerator operating conditions, as well as major trends in leaching, such as the effect of pH on metal solubility. In addition, the results will be placed in context with the current Canadian federal guidelines and provincial regulations for ash disposal. Finally, the feasibility of solidification as a treatment technique for fly ash will also be discussed

  18. Utilization of Coal Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    T1 Thallium Br Bromine U Uranium C Carbon V Vanadium Ca Calcium W Tungsten Cd Cadmium Zn Zinc Ce Cerium Cl Chlorine Co Cobalt Cr Chromium Cu Copper...2933 (1987). £ 46 I A 3 Christensen, J., L. Kryger, and N. Pind, "The Determination of Traces of Cadmium, Lead, and Thallium in Fly Ash by...Elements and Radioactivity in Fly Ashes, Adsorption of Elements by Cabbage Grown in Fly Ash-Soil Mixtures," Environmental Science and Technology, v.11

  19. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals and chloride from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and air pollution control residue in suspension - test of a new two compartment experimental cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Magro, Cátia; Guedes, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues such as fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues are classified as hazardous waste and disposed of, although they contain potential resources. The most problematic elements in MSWI residues are leachable heavy metals and salts. For reuse...... of MSWI residues in for instance concrete, the aim of remediation should be reduction of the heavy metal leaching, while at the same time keeping the alkaline pH, so the residue can replace cement. In this study a MSWI residues were subjected to electrodialytic remediation under various experimental...

  20. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  1. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  2. Properties of municipal solid waste incineration ashes with respect to their separation temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppert, M.; Pavlík, Z.; Tydlitát, V.; Volfová, P.; Švarcová, Silvie; Šyc, Michal; Černý, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2012), s. 1041-1048 ISSN 0734-242X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : bottom ash * fly ash * municipal solid waste incinerator * pozzolanic activity * hydration heat * separation temperature * building industry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2012

  3. EFFECT OF FLY ASH FROM THE INCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE STRENGTH AND FROST RESISTANCE OF FINE-GRAINED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rutkowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the data of Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS, 526,000 Mg. of sludge solids were produced in 2010 in Poland. Moreover, it is expected in the National Program of Municipal Wastes Treatment that the quantity of sludge in 2015 will grow till 662000 Mg. of sludge solids. It is the effect of dynamic development of the sewerage system in Poland. One of the possibilities of the recycling such ashes is their application in the production of building materials, such as grained concrete. Such solution gives ecological and economical advantages. The paper presents the results of investigations of properties (consistency, compressive strength and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing, frost of grained concretes as well as the concretes containing various quantity of fly-ashes produced in the thermal recycling of municipal sludge. Concrete with addition of fly-ashes was produced in four versions. In the two ones, the quantity of ashes equal 15% and 20% of the cement mass was added and in the another two versions 15% and 20% mass of the cement was replaced by the ashes. After the investigations it was stated that the applied admixture improves the properties of the grained concrete, hence, reduces the costs of its production.

  4. A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2005-01-01

    It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes ...

  5. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes

  6. Study of slag content and properties after plasma melting of incineration ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Seo

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents the investigation of plasma melting of the mixed bottom and fly incineration ash at various mixing ratios of the components. Chemical compound of the bottom and fly ash as well as the slag after its melting was analyzed by different methods, and the content of toxic components in them was determined. It is demonstrated that the direct disposal of the fly and bottom incineration ash may cause dioxin and heavy metal contamination of the environment. The influence of melted ash basicity on the resulting slag compound was studied. The mass balance of the melting process was defined. The tests were performed to determine the heavy-metals leaching from the ash and slag. It is also shown that the slag after plasma melting is dioxin-free and environmentally friendly.

  7. Effects of chemical composition of fly ash on efficiency of metal separation in ash-melting of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2013-03-01

    In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  9. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M.; Esena, R.; Fosu-Mensah, B.; Yirenya-Tawiah, D.

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  11. The rare earth elements in municipal solid waste incinerators ash and promising tools for their prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Vigliotti, Luigi [Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)—National Research Council, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The REE concentrations of bottom and fly ashes from municipal incinerators are investigated. • First attempt toward discriminating the magnetic signature (susceptibility) of ashes from incinerators. • New methods and parameters for REE prospecting, which can be determined quickly and with limited costs, are provided. - Abstract: Bottom and fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are hazardous products that present concern for their safe management. An attractive option to reduce their impact both on the environment and the financial commitment is turning MSWI ashes into secondary raw materials. In this study we present the REE content and distribution of bottom and fly ashes from MSWI after a highly effective digestion method and samples analysis by ICP–MS. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns of MSWI bottom and fly ash are comparable with that of crustal averages, suggesting a main geogenic source. Deviations from typical crustal pattern (e.g., Eu, Tb) disclose a contribution of likely anthropogenic provenance. The correlation with major elements indicates possible sources for REE and facilitates a preliminary resource assessment. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility measurements can be a useful prospecting method in urban ores made of MSWI ashes. The relationship between REE and some influencing parameters (e.g., Pricing Influence Factor) emphasises the importance of MSWI ash as alternative source of REE and the need of further efforts for REE recovery and purification from low concentrations but high flows waste.

  12. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  13. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fly ash (FA) is a coal product generated from coal fired thermal power stations. ... million tons during 2001–2010 AD (Muraka et al 1987;. Satyanarayan and Pushpalata 1991). Disposal of FA and bottom ash are today's burning problems as they have .... Muraka I P, Boyd R H and Harbert H P 1987 Solid waste disposal and ...

  14. A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2005-01-01

    It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes...... in controlied landfills and the feasibility of use of the ash by the phosphate and fertilizer industries. We assumed that all specified risk material (SRM) and MBM produced in Denmark would be incinerated in this gas-fired power plant. Based on observations in 2001, we assumed that, on average, six (range: 0...

  15. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    -moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases......Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected...

  16. Leaching studies of inorganic and organic compounds from fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, F.; Swart, K.; Morabito, R.; Brunori, C.; Balzamo, S.; Slobodnik, J.; Korenkova, E.; Janos, P.; Wildnerova, M.; Hlavay, J.; Polyak, K.; Fodor, P.; Muntau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Fly ash is produced in massive quantities by fossil fuel based power plants and waste incinerators, and contains high levels of potentially toxic chemicals. Various leaching tests exist to determine the available fractions, but the outcome is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions, and

  17. Chemical properties of heavy metals in typical hospital waste incinerator ashes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Wang, Kaisheng; Zhu, Jianxin

    2009-03-01

    Incineration has become the main mechanism for hospital waste (HW) disposal in China after the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In the present study, 22HW ash samples, including 14 samples of bottom ash and eight samples of fly ash, were collected from four typical HW incineration plants located across China. Chemical analysis indicated that the HW ashes contained large amounts of metal salts of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na with a concentration range of 1.8-315gkg(-1). Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Sb, Sn, Sr, Zn with a vast range of 1.1-121,411mgkg(-1), with higher concentrations found in the fly ash samples. Sequential extraction results showed that Ba, Cr, Ni and Sn are present in the residual fraction, while Cd existed in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. As, Mn, Zn existed in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, Pb was present in the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions, and Cu was present in the organic matter fraction. Furthermore, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that leached amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb from almost all fly ash samples exceeded the USEPA regulated levels. A comparison between the HW ashes and municipal solid waste (MSW) ash showed that both HW bottom ash and fly ash contained higher concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ti, and Zn. This research provides critical information for appropriate HW incineration ash management plans.

  18. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative status compared in workers at a bottom ash recovery plant and fly ash treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, I-Ju; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Fly ash and ambient emissions of municipal solid waste incinerators contain polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), other organic compounds, metals, and gases. Hazardous substances such as PCDD/Fs, mercury vapors and other silicates, and the components of bottom ash and fly ash elevate the oxidative damage. We compared oxidative damage in workers exposed to hazardous substances at a bottom ash recovery plant and 3 fly ash treatment plants in Taiwan by measuring their levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Significantly higher MDA levels were found in fly ash treatment plant workers (3.20 microM) than in bottom ash plant workers (0.58 microM). There was a significant association between MDA levels in workers and their working environment, especially in the fly ash treatment plants. Levels of 8-OH-dG varied more widely in bottom ash workers than in fly ash workers. The association between occupational exposure and 8-OH-dG levels may be affected by the life style of the workers. Because more dioxins and metals may leach from fly ash than from bottom ash, fly ash treatment plant workers should, as much as possible, avoid exposing themselves to fly ash.

  19. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  20. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funari, Valerio; Meisel, Thomas; Braga, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and 187 Os/ 188 Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of 187 Os/ 188 Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m 2 /a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m 2 /a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  1. Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2015-10-01

    Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Sb>As>Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in >50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    fly ash were measured through N2 adsorption at 77 K using a TRISTAR-3000 surface area and porosity analyzer (Micromeritics). Surface morphology of fly ash was characterized by a SM-. 6700F field emission scanning electron microscope. Table 2. Chemical composition of fly ash. Oxide of metal. Percentage composition.

  4. Evaluation of fly ash quality control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Many entities currently use fly ash in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and structures. Although the body of knowledge is : great concerning the use of fly ash, several projects per year are subject to poor performance where fly ash is named ...

  5. Fly ash: Chemical-physical and mineralogical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, L.; Diociaiuti, M.; Ziemacki, G.; Viviano, G.; Gianfagna, A.

    1992-01-01

    Fly ash from fossil fuel power plants, municipal waste incinerators and refuse fueled boilers is now being utilized as road construction material. With the aim of facilitating health risk assessments of this practice by providing a sound basis for thorough toxicological examinations, this paper reports on a study in which the crystalline and amorphous constituents of fly ash, according to type of combustion plant and fuel, were identified and analyzed by the use of various analytical techniques which included: scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and absorption, X-ray, and energy loss spectroscopy

  6. Composition profiles and health risk of PCDD/F in outdoor air and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration and adjacent villages in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Dong, Han; Sun, Jie; Nie, Jihua; Zhang, Shuyu; Tang, Jinshun; Chen, Zhihai

    2016-11-15

    In present study, composition profiles and health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in outdoor air and fly ash from domestic waste treatment center (DWTC) were studied. In addition, the composition profiles and health risk of PCDD/F in outdoor air from adjacent villages were researched and used to quantitatively analyze the difference between onsite workers and adjacent villagers. Moreover, the difference between old intake method and new inhalation dosimetry method in the process of assessing the health risk of PCDD/Fs in outdoor air was quantitatively compared and analyzed. The results of this study were summarized as follows. (1) The 95th percentile carcinogenic risk (CR) and non-carcinogenic risk (non-CR) for onsite workers and adjacent villagers were much lower than the threshold values of 10(-6) and 1.0, respectively, suggesting no potential health risk. (2) The 95th percentile CR for onsite workers was 1.27×10(-8) and was 64.8 times higher than that of adjacent villagers (1.99×10(-10)). (3) The 95th percentile non-CR for onsite workers and adjacent villagers were 1.37×10(-4) and 1.31×10(-7), respectively. (3) Accidental ingestion of fly ash was the largest contributor to CR and non-CR for onsite workers, contributing 62.98% and 64.04% to CR and non-CR, respectively. (4) The CR and non-CR of PCDD/Fs in outdoor air for onsite workers and adjacent villagers which calculated by old intake method was much higher than the results from new inhalation dosimetry method. The results quantitatively showed the levels and potential risks of PCDD/Fs posed by a DWTC site, which can be helpful to predict the influence from DWTC sites and promote the management of DWTC in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  8. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  9. Strength Properties of Processed Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Anandan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the mechanical treatment of fly ash for improving the delayed reactivity of fly ash with the hydration product of cement. Grinding of fly ash was carried out in a ball mill for different time durations and processing time was optimized for maximum fineness. Concrete mixes were prepared using various proportions of processed and unprocessed fly ash replacement in cement (25% and 50%. The influence of steel fiber addition on the mechanical properties of the concrete was studied for different curing periods. The test results on pozzolanic activity and lime reactivity indicate that the processed fly ash exhibited a higher strength gain than the unprocessed fly ash, with a maximum increase in compressive strength of up to 12%. Improved pozzolanic properties were noticed due to the increase in fineness of the fly ash particles.

  10. Characterization of bottom ash in municipal solid waste incinerators for its use in road base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forteza, R; Far, M; Seguí, C; Cerdá, V

    2004-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) produces by-products which can be broadly classified as bottom and fly ashes. Since MSW incineration started, possibilities other than landfilling the incineration residues have been sought; most initiatives in this sense tend to use these residues as aggregate substitute in pavements and other road construction elements. The main goal of the present work is the physical and chemical characterization of the local incineration bottom ash towards its eventual re-utilization. The study includes not only the specific aspects regarding its role as pavement element, but also the assessment of the environmental effects. Therefore, together with the determination of physical (moisture content, apparent and bulk densities, crystallinity, etc.) and engineering properties (particle size distribution, abrasion and impact resistance, etc.), full chemical characterization of the bottom ash and the study of leaching as a function of aging time have been undertaken. The results obtained indicate that the metal content of both the raw bottom ash and its leachates fulfill the environmental regulations provided that the bottom ash is stored for at least one month. Engineering properties of the bottom ash are close to those of natural aggregates and, thus, road-construction use of these residues seems to be feasible.

  11. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribé, V; Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M

    2014-10-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox® toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna

  12. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  13. Treatment of MSW fly ashes using the electrodialytic remediation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2004-01-01

    separating chambers III and IV and the dissolution of a large percentage of sample during the treatment. 39% of zinc, 14% of lead, 18% of copper and 60% of cadmium were removed from fly ash using the electrodialytic technique and these results are compared with previously reported experiments on similar......In the present work the electrodialytic remediation technique is applied for the treatment of fly ash, a hazardous by-product resulting from the incineration of municipal solid waste. Results are presented for an experiment conducted for 40 days at 38 mA, with a continuously stirred cell....... Experimental parameters monitored include voltage drop, pH and electrolyte's volumes. Evolution of heavy metal concentration with time in the different compartments is analysed. The performance of sodium gluconate for heavy metals extraction from fly ash in different pH conditions is evaluated in batch...

  14. Stabilize ash using Clemson's sintering process (Part 1 - Phase 1 results): Mixed waste fly ash stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Incineration of applicable Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes has produced a secondary waste stream of radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous fly ash that also requires treatment before land disposal. Unlike bottom ash, fly ash usually contains constituents making efficient stabilization difficult. For example, fly ash from the DOE Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains volatile metals, metal salts, high concentrations of zinc, and unburned organic residues. All of these constituents can effect the stabilization process. The Department of Energy, and in particular the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of EM-50, has stated the need for improved stabilization methods would accept a higher ash waste loading while meeting waste form disposal criteria. These alternative stabilization technologies should include delivery systems to minimize worker exposure and minimize secondary waste generation, while maximizing operational flexibility and radionuclide containment. Currently, the standard practice for stabilizing ash is mixing with Portland cement at room temperature. This standard practice produces a significant increase of waste material volume or has difficulty in adequately stabilizing the components in the fly ash to ensure regulatory requirements are consistently satisfied. To address these fly ash stabilization shortcomings, the MWFA, a DOE/EM-50 program, invested in the development of several fly ash stabilization alternatives, including the Clemson University sintering method

  15. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  16. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  17. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... would teach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete stab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still...... modest. These experiments suggest that FGA from waste incineration after Ferrox-treatment could be re-used in CTB without compromising the strength and teaching from the base layer....

  18. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues; Influence des variations de composition des vitrifiats de refiom - residus d'epuration des fumees d'incineration d'ordures menageres - sur leur comportement a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

  19. Chemical kinetics of Cs species in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and pyrophyllite-based system using Cs K-edge in situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi; Ina, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    We conducted in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (in situ XAFS) analysis at the Cs K-edge to investigate the chemical kinetics of Cs species during reaction in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) and pyrophyllite-based system. Understanding the kinetics of Cs is essential to the design of appropriate conditions for Cs stabilization. In situ XAFS analysis of four pastes, prepared from NaOHaq, sodium silicate solution, pyrophyllite, and MSWIFA with the addition of CsCl, was conducted in custom-built reaction cells at four curing temperatures (room temperature, 60 °C, 80 °C, 105 °C) for approximately 34 h. The results indicated that the change in Cs species during reaction at room temperature was small, while changes at higher temperatures were faster and more extreme, with the fastest conversion to pollucite occurring at 105 °C. Further analysis using a leaching test and a simple reaction model for Cs species during reaction showed that the pollucite formation rate was dependent on the curing temperature and had a significant negative correlation with Cs leaching. The activation energy of pollucite formation was estimated to be 31.5 kJ/mol. These results revealed that an important change in the chemical state of Cs occurs during reaction in the system.

  20. MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, M; Katsumi, T; Sano, Y

    2000-09-15

    The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength tests, leachate tests, and soaking tests. The behavior of soluble salts contained in the MSW fly ash significantly affects strength development, soaking durability, and the hardening reaction of the stabilized MSW fly ash mixtures. The cement stabilization of the MSW fly ash does not have enough effect on strength development and soaking durability. The addition of cement only contributes to the containment of heavy metals due to the high level of alkalinity. When using FCA as a stabilizing agent for MSW fly ash, the mixture exhibits high strength and durability. However, the Cd leachate cannot be prevented in the early stages of curing. Using a combination of cement and FCA as a MSW fly ash stabilizer can attain high strength, high soaking durability, and the containment of heavy metals. The stabilized MSW fly ash with cement and FCA can be practically applied to embankments.

  1. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals.

  2. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  3. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  4. [Patterns of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs homologues in fly ash from cement kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Yu-Wen; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Ji-Ping

    2009-02-15

    The concentrations and toxic equivalent (TEQ) values of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in fly ash collected from three types of cement kilns (vertical shaft kiln, wet-process rotary kiln and dry-process rotary kiln) and two types of waste incinerators were determined, and the patterns of homologues and congeners were compared. The results showed that the total TEQ of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in cement kiln fly ash, which were in the range of 4.0-62, 0.069-3.9 and 0.47-2.8 ng x kg(-1) respectively, were much lower than that of fly ash from waste incinerators. In cement kiln fly ash, the predominating PCDD/Fs homologues were TCDFs, and the chief 2, 3, 7, 8-PCDD/Fs congeners were OCDD, 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDF and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8-HpCDF. The patterns of PCBs homologues in cement kiln fly ash were similar to those of waste incinerators in which TeCB were predominating homologues. PCB77, PCB105, PCB118 were at higher concentrations than other co-polar PCBs. Different types of cement kiln fly ash presented similar PCNs homologue patterns. The predominant homologues were TeCN, whereas OcCN were not detected. PCN 66/67 which has dioxin like toxity was the most abundant congener in all fly ash.

  5. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  6. Physical and chemical characterization of ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Jin, Limei; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-07-01

    In this study we analyzed the characteristics of bottom and fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator in China. The physical properties of particle size distribution and morphology were evaluated. At the chemical level, the chemical composition, heavy metal leaching behavior and BCR sequential extraction procedure (the Community Bureau of Reference, now the European Union 'Measurement and Testing Programme') were determined. The main mineralogical crystalline phases in raw and leached bottom and fly ashes were also identified. For the bottom ashes, the concentration of heavy metals showed a slight decrease with an increase in particle size, and most of the heavy metal concentrations in fly ashes were higher than those in bottom ashes. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure indicated that, among the metals, the concentrations of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in fly ash leachate exceeded thresholds, while the concentrations of studied heavy metals in bottom ash leachate were all below the regulatory limit. The BCR results indicated that more easily mobilized forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for cadmium and zinc; in contrast, the largest amount of Pb, Cu and manganese were associated with iron/manganese oxide, organic matter/sulfide fractions, or were residual.

  7. Continuous CO2 capture and MSWI fly ash stabilization, utilizing novel dynamic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianguo; Du Xuejuan; Chen Maozhe; Zhang Chang

    2009-01-01

    Novel dynamic equipment with gas in and out continuously was developed to study the capture capacity of CO 2 . Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash has a high capture rate of CO 2 in CO 2 -rich gas. Fly ash can sequester pure CO 2 rapidly, and its capacity is 16.3 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with no water added and 21.4 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with 20% water added. For simulated incineration gas containing 12% CO 2 , the capture rate decreased and the capacity was 13.2 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with no water added and 18.5 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with 20% water added. After accelerated carbonation, the C and O contents increased, indicating CO 2 capture in the fly ash; CO 2 combines with Ca(OH) 2 to form CaCO 3 , which increased the CaCO 3 content from 12.5 to 54.3%. The leaching of Pb markedly decreased from 24.48 to 0.111 mg/L. - Novel dynamic equipment designed to capture CO 2 by fly ash is more suitable for engineering application.

  8. Leaching characteristics of slag from the melting treatment of municipal solid waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K L; Chang, C T

    2006-07-31

    This study investigated the composition and leaching characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash and slag. The modified slags were characterized after the melting of MSWI ash mixtures at 1400 degrees C for 30 min. The ash mixtures were composed of different types of MSWI ash, including cyclone ash, scrubber ash and bottom ash, in various proportions. The results indicate that the Cd leaching concentration of the cyclone ash and the Pb leaching concentration of the scrubber ash reached 1.82 and 8.7 mg/L, respectively, which exceeds the ROC EPA's current regulatory thresholds, and can thus be classified as hazardous. The results of the analysis of the metal content and the leaching behavior of heavy metals, showed high concentrations of Cu and Zn, but a low leaching ratio of these metals. Concerning the characteristics of the modified slags, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the MSWI fly ash slag showed that it contained large amounts of glass. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leaching concentrations of the target metals of all the slags, met the ROC EPA's regulatory thresholds. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals in the F- and B1-slag were lower than those in the cyclone and the bottom ash, because there was a high amount of SiO(2), which formed a net-like structure in the bottom ash.

  9. Effect of grinding process on the level of leachability of the contaminants from the fly ashes from combustion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pawluk Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The most commonly used renewable energy source in Polish energy production companies is solid biomass which is used both as a separate fuel or as a component co-incinerated together with (mostly) hard coal. During its incineration the biomass generates by-products with diverse and variable physicochemical properties. The most of the waste from production of electricity and/or heat are fly ashes. The fly ashes from combustion of biomass are a particular kind of waste distinguished by high leve...

  10. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  11. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  12. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m{sup 2}/a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m{sup 2}/a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  13. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    disposal or to minimize the environmental impact. One of the approaches is the conversion of fly ash to zeolites, which have wide applications in ion exchange, as mole- cular sieves, catalysts, and adsorbents (Breck 1974). The present study is concerned with the synthesis of zeolite from coal fly ash and its characterization ...

  14. Chemistry of fly ash and cyclone ash leachate from waste materials and effects of ash leachates on bacterial growth, nitrogen-transformation activity, and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mio; Kawahata, Hodaka; Gupta, Lallan P; Itouga, Misao; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ohta, Hidekazu; Komai, Takeshi; Ono, Yoshiro

    2009-06-15

    The effects of waste ash leachates on soil microorganism were evaluated along with a chemical characterization of ash leachates. Thirty fly ash samples and cyclone ash samples obtained from the incineration of municipal solid waste, plastic waste, and construction waste were used. Twenty-one and 22 samples inhibited N transformation activity of soil microorganism and growth of Bacillus subtilis, respectively. On the other hand, 11 and 18 samples stimulated bacterial activity and growth, respectively, at low concentrations. Generally, cyclone ash contained a smaller amount of toxic metals than fly ash. Our results suggest that cyclone ash can be further studied for reuse, perhaps as a soil amendment. Pb was found to be highly accumulated in B. subtilis cells, and should be carefully monitored when waste ash is reused in the environment.

  15. Wet-Treated MSWI Fly Ash Used as Supplementary Cementitious Material

    OpenAIRE

    Keppert, Martin; Siddique, Jamal Akhter; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a common technique in treatment of domestic waste. This technique annually produces approximately 25 Mt solid residues (i.e., bottom and fly ash) worldwide which is also a major issue in current research. In this research we are concerned with reusing the fly ash (FA) as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete. Such application solves the problem with heavy metal immobilization as well. To remove the high content of undesired soluble ...

  16. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  17. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  18. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in clay bricks-effect of washing and electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Klupsch, Ewa; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2017-01-01

    (Reijnders 2005). Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) is one technique for MSWI fly ash treatment (Ferreira et al. 2005), where an electric DC field is applied to an ash-water suspension to extract and separate heavy metal by migration towards anode or cathode through ion exchange membranes. Ferreira et al......Fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a hazardous waste due to presence and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants (e.g. dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). In 2000, approximately 25 Mt/year of fly ash was generated in USA, Japan and EU....... (2008) observed that in MSWI ash treated by water washing and EDR, metals were mainly in the strongly bonded and residual phases, indicating a reduction in the ash’s environmental risk. Belmonte et al. (2016) made Greenlandic bricks (∼2 g discs) containing 20% and 40% of EDR treated MSWI fly ash...

  19. Occupational exposure and DNA strand breakage of workers in bottom ash recovery and fly ash treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chen, I-Ju; Chia, Tai-Pao

    2010-02-15

    Various environmental hazards and metals are liberated either into bottom ash or carried away with gases and subsequently trapped in fly ash. Many studies have reported an increase of DNA damage is related to hazardous exposure of municipal waste incinerators. By detecting DNA damage, we compared the DNA migration imposed in workers potentially exposed to hazardous substances, including PCDD/Fs, metals, and silica particles, at a bottom ash recovery plant and fly ash treatment plants in Taiwan. Higher tail moment (TMOM) was found in workers at fly ash treatment plants (7.55) than in the workers in bottom ash plants (2.64), as well as those in blue collar was higher than in white collar workers (5.72 vs. 3.95). Meanwhile, the significantly higher DNA damage was also shown in workers with high integrated exposure score than those with low. The air samplings for particle mass, Cr, and Al concentrations also showed the higher levels in fly ash treatment plants than in the workers in bottom ash plants. Meanwhile, the air samplings inside the two plants suggested that the particle size might be important to affect the workers inhaling the metal into the human body and finally caused to their DNA damage. The data concluded that an elevated DNA damage may be expected in workers at fly ash treatment plants than those at bottom ash plants; however, the occupational hazards in both types of plants, especially at different particle size interval, need more thorough assessment in future studies.

  20. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... weeks. Cylinders (diameter 100 mm, length 150 mm) were drilled from these cubes for tank leaching experiments. Duplicate specimens were subject to compression strength testing and to tank leaching experiments. The compressive strength of the CTB fulfilled the Danish requirements for CTB, i.e. strength...... more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals...

  1. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  2. The rare earth elements in municipal solid waste incinerators ash and promising tools for their prospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Vigliotti, Luigi; Meisel, Thomas; Braga, Roberto

    2016-01-15

    Bottom and fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are hazardous products that present concern for their safe management. An attractive option to reduce their impact both on the environment and the financial commitment is turning MSWI ashes into secondary raw materials. In this study we present the REE content and distribution of bottom and fly ashes from MSWI after a highly effective digestion method and samples analysis by ICP-MS. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns of MSWI bottom and fly ash are comparable with that of crustal averages, suggesting a main geogenic source. Deviations from typical crustal pattern (e.g., Eu, Tb) disclose a contribution of likely anthropogenic provenance. The correlation with major elements indicates possible sources for REE and facilitates a preliminary resource assessment. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility measurements can be a useful prospecting method in urban ores made of MSWI ashes. The relationship between REE and some influencing parameters (e.g., Pricing Influence Factor) emphasises the importance of MSWI ash as alternative source of REE and the need of further efforts for REE recovery and purification from low concentrations but high flows waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solidification/stabilization of ash from medical waste incineration into geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakos, Konstantinos; Mimilidou, Aliki; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Stratakis, Antonis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, bottom and fly ash, generated from incinerated medical waste, was used as a raw material for the production of geopolymers. The stabilization (S/S) process studied in this paper has been evaluated by means of the leaching and mechanical properties of the S/S solids obtained. Hospital waste ash, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate solution and metakaolin were mixed. Geopolymers were cured at 50°C for 24h. After a certain aging time of 7 and 28 days, the strength of the geopolymer specimens, the leachability of heavy metals and the mineralogical phase of the produced geopolymers were studied. The effects of the additions of fly ash and calcium compounds were also investigated. The results showed that hospital waste ash can be utilized as source material for the production of geopolymers. The addition of fly ash and calcium compounds considerably improves the strength of the geopolymer specimens (2-8 MPa). Finally, the solidified matrices indicated that geopolymerization process is able to reduce the amount of the heavy metals found in the leachate of the hospital waste ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bonding material containing ashes after domestic waste incineration for cementation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.A.; Varlakov, A.P.; Gorbunova, O.A.; Arustamov, A.E.; Barinov, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that cement minerals hydration is accompanied with heat emission. Heat of hardening influences formation of a cement compound structure and its properties. It is important to reduce the heat quantity at continuous cementation of waste and filling of compartments of a repository or containers by a cement grout. For reduction of heating, it is necessary to use cement of mineral additives (fuel ashes, slag and hydraulic silica). Properties of ashes after domestic waste incineration can be similar to ones of fly fuel ashes. However, ash after domestic waste incineration is toxic industrial waste as it contains toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn). Utilization of secondary waste (slag and ash) of combustion plants is an important environmental approach to solving cities' issues. Results of the research have shown that ashes of combustion plants can be used for radioactive waste conditioning. Co-processing of toxic and radioactive waste is ecologically and economically effective. At SIA 'Radon', experimental batches of cement compositions are used for cementation of oil containing waste. (authors)

  5. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  6. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  7. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Conditioning of incinerator ash at the CEN, Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.; Courtois, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Cadarache Nuclear Research Centre (CEN) has several stocks of incinerator ash resulting from the treatment of low and medium level wastes. The ash is at present in temporary storage awaiting conditioning which would allow it to be stored as a surface site. Laboratory studies have been carried out to test various embedding matrices, such as hydraulic binders, bitumen, thermosetting plastic (epoxy) and, finally, a composite matrix of cement and epoxy resin. The cement-resin composite matrix has several advantages, including compatibility with the various types of ash tested, unlike cement alone, whose composition must be adapted to the nature of the ash (problems with phosphated ash resulting from incineration of tributyl phosphate), or epoxy resin, which may require pretreatment of the wastes. A characterization programme has been produced for the embedded ash in the cement-resin composite in order to obtain Andra approval for surface storage of the packages produced. The guiding principles of the programme are the characterization criteria defined in the Basic Safety Regulations and the Andra minimum characterization programme; it includes laboratory scale tests and a series of tests to be carried out on real packages (100 L drums). A pilot plant for embedding on a scale appropriate to the quantities of stored ash requiring conditioning is being set up. It is being commissioned for two purposes: (1) as an industrial tool, it will facilitate the resorption of existing and future stocks of ash; (2) as an R and D tool, it is designed to facilitate a change in embedding matrix by substitution of the cement-resin compound for epoxy resin or cement alone. This makes it possible to manufacture industrial embedded materials in three different matrices at a single installation. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  9. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  10. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  11. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    fly ashes was studied. Four fly ashes were investigated, originating from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. One of the straw ashes had been pre-washed and was obtained suspended in water, the other ashes were obtained naturally dry...

  12. Preliminary Study of Fly Ash Ceramic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herry-Poernomo; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary study of ceramic production process from two components ofwhich are fly ash and feldspar has been done. Aluminosilicate substancecontained in the fly ash is a basic material a former ceramic body, if itfired at the temperature of 1000 o C forms mullite (3Al 2 O 3 .2SiO 2 ). Mulliteis a refractory material which is very stable at the temperature changing.This experiment studies the ceramic production process of two componentsnamely fly ash with particle size of o C.Steps of processes are making paste of fly ash and feldspar, making of greenpellets, and firing of pellets, physical analysis of ceramic including volumedecrease, lost ignition, porosity, density, water sorption, compressivestrength. The experiment result at firing temperature of 1000 o C were shownthat best composition at the weight ratio of fly ash to feldspar are 60/40and 50/50. It physical characteristic respectively are decrease of volume0.54 and 0.69 %, lost ignition = 11.98 and 11.78 %, porosity = 0.159 and0.155, density = 2.05 and 2.06 g/cm 3 , water sorption = 18.96 and 18.36 %,compressive strength = 24.82 and 24.79 kN/mm 2 . (author)

  13. Extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash using hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A; Hummel, Wolfgang; Schlumberger, Stefan; Klink, Waldemar; Fisch, Martin; Mäder, Urs K

    2018-03-17

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration contains a large potential for recyclable metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. The Swiss Waste Ordinance prescribes the treatment of fly ash and recovery of metals to be implemented by 2021. More than 60% of the fly ash in Switzerland is acid leached according to the FLUWA process, which provides the basis for metal recovery. The investigation and optimization of the FLUWA process is of increasing interest and an industrial solution for direct metal recovery within Switzerland is in development. With this work, a detailed laboratory study on different filter cakes from fly ash leaching using HCl 5% (represents the FLUWA process) and concentrated sodium chloride solution (300 g/L) is described. This two-step leaching of fly ash is an efficient combination for the mobilization of a high percentage of heavy metals from fly ash (Pb, Cd ≥ 90% and Cu, Zn 70-80%). The depletion of these metals is mainly due to a combination of redox reaction and metal-chloride-complex formation. The results indicate a way forward for an improved metal depletion and recovery from fly ash that has potential for application at industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  15. Formation and degradation of PCDD/F in waste incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lisa

    2007-11-01

    The disposal of combustible wastes by incineration is a controversial issue that is strongly debated by both scientists and environmental activists due to the resulting emissions of noxious compounds, including (inter alia) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), heavy metals and acid gases like sulfur dioxide. Currently available air pollution control devices are capable of effectively cleaning flue gases, and PCDD/F emissions to air from modern municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are low. However, the PCDD and PCDF end up in ash fractions that, in Sweden, are usually deposited in landfills. The European Union has recently set a maximum permitted total concentration of 15 μg TEQ/kg for PCDD/F species in waste. Fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration containing PCDD/Fs at concentrations above this limit will have to be remediated to avoid disposing of them in landfills; an expensive and environmentally unfriendly option. Therefore, effective, reliable and cost-effective methods for degrading PCDD/F in fly ash are required, and a better understanding of the behavior of PCDDs and PCDFs during thermal treatment will be needed to develop them. In the studies this thesis is based upon both the formation and degradation of PCDDs and PCDFs in ashes from MSW incineration were studied. The main findings of the investigations regarding PCCD/F formation were: The concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in fly ash increased with reductions in the temperature in the post-combustion zone. The homologue profile in the ash changed when the temperature in the post-combustion zone changed. The final amounts of PCDD and PCDF present were affected by their rates of both formation and degradation, and the mechanisms involved differ between PCDDs and PCDFs. The main findings from the degradation studies were: The chemical composition of ash has a major impact on the degradation potential of PCDD and PCDF. The presence of oxygen during thermal

  16. Fly ash utilization to ecology purpose products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasae, T.; Kinugawa, M. (En-Tech Research Institute Inc. (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Fly ash contains many elements necessary for plant growth. En-Tech Research Institute has a 100 ton/month fly ash granulation plant which produces 0.5-10mm diameter granules which are used in the cultivation of approximately 15,000 Onsidumu and Denpharae orchids in a 3,000 m[sup 2] greenhouse and as a soil improver for a 1,600m[sup 2] test lawn. The granules are also used as agricultural chemical adsorbents for drainage of the test lawn. Orchids cultivated using the fly ash granules are shipped to market as cut flowers regularly. There they fetch the same price or a higher price than orchids cultivated in the usual way. Good results have also been achieved with the soil improvement test and the adsorption test. Tests to obtain design data are being carried out on two golf courses in the Kumamoto Prefecture. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 7 photos.

  17. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  18. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  19. Combining sieving and washing, a way to treat MSWI boiler fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ashes contain some compounds that could be extracted and valorised. A process based on wet sieving and washing steps has been developed aiming to reach this objective. Such unique combination in MSWI fly ash treatment led to a non-hazardous fraction from incineration fly ashes. More specifically, MSWI Boiler Fly Ash (BFA) was separately sampled and treated. The BFA finer particles (13wt%) were found to be more contaminated in Pb and Zn than the coarser fractions. After three washing steps, the coarser fractions presented leaching concentrations acceptable to landfill for non-hazardous materials so that an eventual subsequent valorisation may be foreseen. At the contrary, too much Pb leached from the finest particles and this fraction should be further treated. Wet sieving and washing permit thus to reduce the leachability of MSWI BFA and to concentrate the Pb and Zn contamination in a small (in particle size and volume) fraction. Such combination would therefore constitute a straightforward and efficient basis to valorise coarse particles from MSWI fly ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Leaching of solidified TRU-contaminated incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Leach rate and cumulative fractional releases of plutonium were determined for a series of laboratory-scale waste forms containing transuranic (TRU) contaminated incinerator ash. The solidification agents from which these waste forms were produced are commercially available materials for radioactive waste disposal. The leachants simulate groundwaters with chemical compositions that are indiginous to different geological media proposed for repositories. In this study TRU-contaminated ash was incorporated into waste forms fabricated with portland type I cement, urea-formaldehyde, polyester-styrene or Pioneer 221 bitumen. The ash was generated at the dual-chamber incinerator at the Rocky Flats Plant. These waste forms contained between 1.25 x 10 -2 and 4.4 x 10 -2 Ci (depending on the solidification agent) of mixed TRU isotopes comprised primarily of 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Five leachant solutions were prepared consisting of: (1) demineralized water, (2) simulated brine, (3) simplified sodium-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaCl/liter), (4) simplified calcium-dominated groundwater (30 meq CaCl 2 /liter), and (5) simplified bicarbonate-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaHCO 3 /liter). Cumulative fractional releases were found to vary significantly with different leachants and solidification agents. In all cases waste forms leached in brine gave the lowest leach rates. Urea-formaldehyde had the greatest release of radionuclides while polyester-styrene and portland cement had approximately equivalent fractional releases. Cement cured for 210 days retained radionuclides three times more effectively than cement cured only 30 days

  1. Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Sustainable Composites Based on Recycled and Stabilized Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Besco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results on the use of an innovative inert, based on stabilized fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as a filler for polypropylene. The starting material, which contains large quantities of leachable Pb and Zn, was stabilized by means of an innovative process using rice husk ash as a waste silica source, together with other fly ashes, such as coal fly ash and flue gas desulfurization residues. The use of all waste materials to obtain a new filler makes the proposed technology extremely sustainable and competitive. The new composites, obtained by using the stabilized material as a filler for polypropylene, were characterized and their mechanical properties were also investigated. A comparison with a traditional polypropylene and calcium carbonate based compound was also done. This research activity was realized in the frame of the COSMOS-RICE project, financed by the EU Commission.

  2. Sintering of MSW fly ash for reuse as a concrete aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialardi, T

    2001-10-12

    The sintering process of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash was investigated in order to manufacture sintered products for reuse as concrete aggregates. Four types of fly ash resulting from different Italian MSW incineration plants were tested in this study. A modification of the chemical composition of MSW fly ash--through a preliminary four-stage washing treatment of this material with water--was attempted to improve the chemical and mechanical characteristics of sintered products.The sintering treatment of untreated or washed fly ash was performed on cylindrical compact specimens (15 mm in diameter and 20mm in height) at different compact pressures, sintering temperatures and times.The sintering process of untreated MSW fly ashes proved to be ineffective for manufacturing sintered products for reuse as a construction material, because of the adverse chemical characteristics of these fly ashes in terms of sulfate, chloride, and vitrifying oxide contents.A preliminary washing treatment of MSW fly ash with water greatly improved the chemical and mechanical characteristics of sintered products and, for all the types of fly ash tested, the sintered products satisfied the Italian requirements for normal weight aggregates for use in concretes having a specified strength not greater than 12 and 15N/mm(2), when measured on cylindrical and cubic specimens, respectively.A compact pressure of 28 N/mm(2), a sintering temperature of 1140 degrees C, and a sintering time of 60 min were the best operating conditions for manufacturing sintered products of washed MSW fly ash.

  3. Pengaruh Kombinasi Fly Ash dan Bottom Ash sebagai Bahan Substitusi pada Campuran Beton terhadap Sifat Mekanis

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Tengku Tantoni; Kurniawandy, Alex; Djauhari, Zulfikar

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash were waste that generated from the power plant burning coal process. Fly ash and bottom ash has the potential to be developed as a basic ingredient in concrete composites. This research aimed to obtain the properties of fresh concrete and hard concrete of the combined effect of fly ash and bottom ash as a substitute ingredient in composite concrete. This research has examined the influence of a combination of waste fly ash and bottom ash to the compressive strength of a...

  4. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  5. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  6. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  7. Development of Mitsui/Juelich Incineration System and hydro-thermal ash solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kamada, S.; Nakamori, Y.; Katakura, M.; Yamazaki, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developing program for Mitsui/Juelich Incinerated System combined with Hydrothermal ash solidification. The system is an integrated one and capable for volume reduction of various kind of radioactive waste and safe disposal of residual incinerator ash. The system also has an advantage of reducing construction and operation cost. An outline of the incineration plant is also presented in this paper

  8. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Martínez, M.; Fernández, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A concrete formulation was optimized using Bottom Ash and APC ash. ► 10% of APC ash achieves good compromise between economic and performance aspects. ► The crushed concrete was evaluated as secondary building granular material. ► The environmental behavior allows its use as secondary material. ► The abrasion resistance is not good enough for its use as a road sub-base material. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured

  9. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuboňová, L; Langová, Š; Nowak, B; Winter, F

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050°C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200°C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms contributing to the thermal analysis of waste incineration bottom ash and quantification of different carbon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Stefania; van Zomeren, André; Costa, Giulia; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J; Lombardi, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The focus of this study was to identify the main compounds affecting the weight changes of bottom ash (BA) in conventional loss on ignition (LOI) tests and to obtain a better understanding of the individual processes in heterogeneous (waste) materials such as BA. Evaluations were performed on BA samples from a refuse derived fuel incineration (RDF-I) plant and a hospital waste incineration (HW-I) plant using thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products. Results of TG-MS analysis on RDF-I BA indicated that the LOI measured at 550°C was due to moisture evaporation and dehydration of Ca(OH)(2) and hydrocalumite. Results for the HW-I BA showed that LOI at 550°C was predominantly related to the elemental carbon (EC) content of the sample. Decomposition of CaCO(3) around 700°C was identified in both materials. In addition, we have identified reaction mechanisms that underestimate the EC and overestimate the CaCO(3) contents of the HW-I BA during TG-MS analyses. These types of artefacts are expected to occur also when conventional LOI methods are adopted, in particular for materials that contain CaO/Ca(OH)(2) in combination with EC and/or organic carbon, such as e.g. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom and fly ashes. We suggest that the same mechanisms that we have found (i.e. in situ carbonation) can also occur during combustion of the waste in the incinerator (between 450 and 650°C) demonstrating that the presence of carbonate in bottom ash is not necessarily indicative for weathering. These results may also give direction to further optimization of waste incineration technologies with regard to stimulating in situ carbonation during incineration and subsequent potential improvement of the leaching behavior of bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Explosibility boundaries for fly ash/pulverized fuel mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastidar, A G; Amyotte, P R

    2002-05-27

    Incomplete combustion and subsequent fuel contamination of a waste stream can pose a serious explosion hazard. An example of this type of incident is the contamination of fly ash with unburned pulverized coal. The coal, if present in sufficient quantities in the mixture, can act as a fuel source for a potential explosion. Experiments were conducted in a 20l Siwek explosibility test chamber to determine the minimum fuel contamination of fly ash required to form an explosible mixture. A sample of fly ash from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) (Ont., Canada) was artificially contaminated with Pittsburgh pulverized coal dust (the surrogate used to represent unburned fuel dust). Additionally, the influence of fly ash particle size on the amount of fuel contaminant required to form an explosible mixture was examined. Fine and coarse size fractions of fly ash were obtained by screening the original sample of OPG fly ash. The results show that at least 21% Pittsburgh pulverized coal (or 10% volatile matter) was required to form an explosible mixture of the original fly ash sample and coal dust. The results also illustrate that fly ash particle size is important when examining the explosibility of the mixture. The fine size fraction of fly ash required a minimum of 25% coal dust (12% volatile matter) in the mixture for explosibility, whereas the coarse fly ash required only 10% coal dust (7% volatile matter). Thus, the larger the particle size of the inert fly ash component in the mixture, the greater the hazard.

  12. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: A case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be quite cumbersome to handle. Some ash fractions contain organic pollutants, such as dioxins, as well as toxic metals. Additionally, some of the metals have a high value and are considered as critical to the industry. Recovery of copper, zinc and lead from MSWI ashes, for example, will not only provide valuable metals that would otherwise be landfilled but also give an ash residue with lower concentrations of toxic metals. In this work, fly ash and bottom ash from an MSWI facility was used for the study and optimization of metal leaching using different solutions (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and parameters (temperature, controlled pH value, leaching time, and liquid/solid ratio). It was found that hydrochloric acid is relatively efficient in solubilizing copper (68.2±6.3%) and zinc (80.8±5.3%) from the fly ash in less than 24h at 20°C. Efficient leaching of cadmium and lead (over 92% and 90% respectively) was also achieved. Bottom ash from the same combustion unit was also characterized and leached using acid. The metal yields were moderate and the leachates had a tendency to form a gelatinous precipitate, which indicates that the solutions were actually over-saturated with respect to some components. This gel formation will cause problems for further metal purification processes, e.g. solvent extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  14. Alkali ash material: a novel fly ash-based cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Rostami; William Brendley [Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2003-08-01

    The United States generates 110 million t of coal ash annually. Approximately 70 million t of this coal ash is fly ash, of which 27% is recycled and the remaining 73% is landfilled. Disposal of such a huge quantity of ash poses a significant environmental problem. A new cementitious material has been developed, called alkali ash material (AAM), which is used to produce concrete for construction. AAM can be used to create a variety of concrete strengths and could revolutionize the concrete product manufacturing industry due to its economic advantage. AAM contains 40-95% Class F fly ash and is used as cement to bind sand, stone, and fibers creating concrete. AAM concrete has been tested for strength, durability, mechanical properties, and, most importantly, economic viability. AAM concrete is economically and technically viable for many construction applications. Some properties include rapid strength gain (90% of ultimate in 1 d), high ultimate strengths (110 MPa or 16 000 psi in 1 d), excellent acid resistance, and freeze-thaw durability. AAM's resistance to chemical attack, such as sulfuric (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), nitric (HNO{sub 3}), hydrochloric (HCl), and organic acids, is far better than portland cement concrete. AAM is resistant to freeze-thaw attack based on ASTM C-666 specifications. Potential immediate applications of AAM are blocks, pipe, median barriers, sound barriers, and overlaying materials. Eventual markets are high strength construction products, bridge beams, prestressed members, concrete tanks, highway appurtenances, and other concrete products. 28 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl(2), and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl(2) decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al(2)O(3).CaCl(2)) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl(2). Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl(2). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier

    2013-01-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  17. Recycling MSWI bottom and fly ash as raw materials for Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jill R; Huang, Chihpin; Kuo, Jung-Jen; Lin, Sheng-Huan

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash is rich in heavy metals and salts. The disposal of MSWI ash without proper treatment may cause serious environmental problems. Recently, the local cement industry in Taiwan has played an important role in the management of solid wastes because it can utilize various kinds of wastes as either fuels or raw materials. The objective of this study is to assess the possibility of MSWI ash reuse as a raw material for cement production. The ash was first washed with water and acid to remove the chlorides, which could cause serious corrosion in the cement kiln. Various amounts of pre-washed ash were added to replace the clay component of the raw materials for cement production. The allowable limits of chloride in the fly ash and bottom ash were found to be 1.75% and 3.50% respectively. The results indicate that cement production can be a feasible alternative for MSWI ash management. It is also evident that the addition of either fly ash or bottom ash did not have any effect on the compressive strength of the clinker. Cement products conformed to the Chinese National Standard (CNS) of Type II Portland cement with one exception, the setting time of the clinker was much longer.

  18. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  19. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  20. Radioactivity aspects of Indian fly ash for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, V.; Behera, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Fly ash is a major component of solid waste material produced by the coal-fired thermal power plants. In India the total amount of fly ash produced per annum is around 60 million tons. However fly ash has a great potential for utilization in making industrial products such as cement, concrete mix, bricks as well as building materials, besides being used as a soil conditioner and a provider of macro and micro nutrients in agriculture. It can also be used as a material for mine fills. However, given the large amount of fly ash fly that accumulate at thermal power plants, their possible reuse and dispersion and mobilization into the environment of the various elements depend on climate, soils, indigenous vegetation and agriculture practices, hence there is a need to characterize the radioactivity of ash. This paper presents the results of a study of the radioactivity aspects of fly ashes and pond ashes from thermal power plants of India. (author)

  1. Ash chemistry in MSW incineration plants: Advanced characterization and thermodynamic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Flemming J.; Laursen, Karin; Arvelakis, S. (and others)

    2004-07-15

    A number of ash samples where collected at four Danish municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants. Samples of bottom ash/slag, 2nd-3rd pass ashes and ESP/E-filter ash were collected at the plants. The ashes were analyzed by a number of standard chemical analyses, and a number of advanced analytical techniques. The wet chemical analyses of the different ash fractions revealed that residual ash is formed on the grate by interaction of the main ash forming elements, Al, Ca, Fe and Si. Some of this ash is entrained from the grate and carried with the flue gas along the flue gas duct, where volatile species of K, Na, Pb, Zn, Cl and S starts to condense heterogeneously on the fly ash, thereby causing a dilution of the main ash forming elements. When compared plant-by-plant, the ash chemical analyses showed that the plant with the highest S-content in the fly ash is the one with the most often operational problems in relation to deposition, while a high Cl-content is indicative of a high corrosive potential. An existing Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) algorithm was extended with chemical classes covering Pb- and Zn-rich phases. This has made it possible also to analyze MSW-derived ashes by use of CCSEM. Representative samples of 2nd-3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ashes from the four plants have been analyzed by Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis. Only a few crystalline phases were identified: KCl, NaCl, CaSO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3} being the main ones. No crystalline phases containing Pb or Zn were identified by QXRD. A comparison between CCSEM and QXRD revealed the expected surface nature of the CCSEM analysis. Samples of 2nd-3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ash from the four plants where investigated for melting behavior in the Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA). It was shown that it is possible to quantify the melting behavior of these ashes, and that the melting goes on in two steps (salts followed by silicates/oxides). The

  2. Treatment of fly ash from power plants using thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Mayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash from power plants is very toxic because it contains heavy metals. In this study fly ash was treated with a thermal plasma. Before their treatment, the fly ash was analyzed by many technics such as X-ray fluorescence, CHN elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. With these technics, the composition, the chemical and physical proprieties of fly ash are determined. The results obtained by these analysis show that fly ash is mainly composed of carbon, and it contains also sulfur and metals such as V, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, and Rh. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that fly ash particles are porous and have very irregular shapes with particle sizes of 20–50 μm. The treatment of fly ash was carried out in a plasma reactor and in two steps. In the first step, fly ash was treated in a pyrolysis/combustion plasma system to reduce the fraction of carbon. In the second step, the product obtained by the combustion of fly ash was vitrified in a plasma furnace. The leaching results show that the fly ash was detoxified by plasma vitrification and the produced slag is amorphous and glassy.

  3. Fly ash as a liming material for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gene; Dunn, David

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of fly ash from a coal combustion electric power facility on soil acidity in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. Fresh fly ash was applied to a Bosket fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Mollic Hapludalf) soil with an initial soil pH(salt) of 4.8. The fly ash was equivalent to 42 g kg(-1) calcium carbonate with 97% passing through a 60 mesh (U.S. standard) sieve. Fly ash was applied one day before cotton planting in 1999 at 0, 3.4, 6.7, and 10.1 Mg ha(-1). No fly ash was applied in 2000. Within 60 d of fly ash application in 1999, all rates of fly ash significantly increased soil pH above 6.0. Manganese levels in cotton petioles were reduced significantly by 6.7 and 10.1 Mg ha(-1) of fly ash. Soil boron (B) and sodium (Na) concentrations were significantly increased with fly ash. In 1999, B in cotton leaves ranged from 72 to 84 mg kg(-1) in plots with fly ash applications. However, no visual symptoms of B toxicity in plants were observed. In 1999, cotton lint yield decreased on average 12 kg ha(-1) for each Mg of fly ash applied. In 2000, cotton yields were significantly greater for the residual 3.4 and 6.7 Mg fly ash ha(-1) plots than the untreated check. Due to the adverse yield effects measured in the first year following application, fly ash would not be a suitable soil amendment for cotton on this soil at this time.

  4. Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. In the presence of moisture, fly ash reacts with lime at ordinary temperature and forms a compound possessing cementitious properties. The reaction between lime and fly ash produces calcium silicate hydrates, which are respon- sible for development of strength in fly ash–lime in the form of bricks and blocks.

  5. Contaminated biomass fly ashes--Characterization and treatment optimization for reuse as building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudart de la Grée, G C H; Florea, M V A; Keulen, A; Brouwers, H J H

    2016-03-01

    The incineration of treated waste wood generates more contaminated fly ashes than when forestry or agricultural waste is used as fuel. The characteristics of these biomass fly ashes depend on the type of waste wood and incineration process parameters, and their reuse is restricted by their physical, chemical and environmental properties. In this study, four different fly ash types produced by two different incineration plants were analysed and compared to Dutch and European standards on building materials. A combined treatment was designed for lowering the leaching of contaminants and the effect of each treatment step was quantified. A pilot test was performed in order to scale up the treatment. It was found that chlorides (which are the main contaminant in all studied cases) are partly related to the amount of unburnt carbon and can be successfully removed. Other contaminants (such as sulphates and chromium) could be lowered to non-hazardous levels. Other properties (such as particle size, LOI, oxide and mineralogical compositions) are also quantified before and after treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of assisting agents for electrodialytic removal of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr from MSWI fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    Different assisting agents (0.25 M ammonium citrate/1.25 % NH3, 0.25 M Na-citrate, 2.5 % NH3, DI water) have been used as assisting agents for the removal of heavy met-als during electrodialytic treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. In this study, the effectiveness of th...

  7. Acidolysis of coal fly ash by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.; Singh, A.K. (EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Biological Processing Technology)

    1993-12-01

    The kinetics of aluminium extraction were investigated, using as-received and calcined fly ash samples and a pure culture of [ital Aspergillus niger]. This fungus metabolized sucrose to citric and oxalic acids, which were involved in the acidolysis of fly ash. Aluminium extraction from as-received fly ash was only 5-8%, whereas from calcined fly ash it was up to 93.5%. The order of reaction and the overall reaction rate constant were determined by the van't Hoff technique with respect to the concentration of calcined fly ash. A linearized form of a modified Monod expression was applied to the experimental data to assess the kinetic constants for the acidolysis process. Statistically designed experiments were carried out with calcined fly ash and synthetic solutions containing citric and oxalic acids to determine the optimum leaching conditions. The acidolysis reaction mechanism is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Use of Incineration Solid Waste Bottom Ash as Cement Mixture in Cement Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, N. H.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Jin, T. S.; Kadir, A. A.; Tugui, C. A.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Incineration solid waste bottom ash was use to examine the suitability as a substitution in cement production. This study enveloped an innovative technology option for designing new equivalent cement that contains incineration solid waste bottom ash. The compressive strength of the samples was determined at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days. The result was compared to control cement with cement mixture containing incineration waste bottom ash where the result proved that bottom ash cement mixture able achieve its equivalent performance compared to control cement which meeting the requirement of the standards according to EN 196-1. The pozzolanic activity index of bottom ash cement mixture reached 0.92 at 28 days and 0.95 at 90 and this values can be concluded as a pozzolanic material with positive pozzolanic activity. Calcium hydroxide in Portland cement decreasing with the increasing replacement of bottom ash where the reaction occur between Ca(OH)2 and active SiO2.

  9. Effect of incineration temperature on phosphorus availability in bio-ash from manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, A M; Wernberg, O; Skou, E; Sommer, S G

    2011-04-01

    In the near future phosphorus (P) will be a limited resource in high demand. This will increase the incentives for recycling P in animal manure. In this study the dry-matter-rich fraction from slurry separation was incinerated and the P availability of the ash fraction examined. The aim was to adjust incineration temperature to support a high plant-availability of P in ash. The plant-availability of P was approximately halved when the incineration temperature was increased from 400 to 700 degrees C. This decrease in plant-availability was probably due to the formation of hydroxyapatite. Incineration temperatures should therefore be kept below 700 degrees C to ensure a high fertilizer efficiency of P in ash. This may conflict with the energy production, which is optimal at temperatures above 800 degrees C. An alternative to incineration may therefore be thermal gasification of the dry-matter-rich fraction, which can be carried out efficiently at lower temperatures.

  10. Volume reduction and solidification of radioactive waste incineration ash with waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste generated from research institutions and hospitals etc. is packed into a container and is kept. The volume reduced state or the unprocessed state by incineration or compression processing are used because neither landfill sites nor disposal methods have been fixed. Especially, because the bulk density is low, and it is easy to disperse, the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash incinerated for the volume reduction is a big issue in security, safety, stability in the inventory location. A safe and appropriate disposal processing method is desired. When the low temperature sintering method in the use of the glass bottle cullet was examined, volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste incineration ash were verified. The proposed method is useful for the easy treatment of the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash. (author)

  11. Development of the radioactive Cesium decontamination technology from radioactive fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Keita; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki; Nakamura, Hideki; Oomura, Hisao; Makino, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    In March, 2011, The Tokyo Electric Power's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was seriously damaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanied Tsunami. As a result, radioactive materials, mainly Cesium (henceforth, Cs), was emitted into environment, and considerable amount of wastes were contaminated by the radioactive Cs. When the volume of the wastes contaminated by the radioactive Cs is reduced by incineration or melting process, most of the Cs evaporates, and is collected by a bag filter with fly ash (henceforth, radioactive fly ash). Since the Cs in the radioactive fly ash is easily dissolved into the environmental water system, such as rain water, it is a matter of great concern. We are developing a system to decontaminate the radioactive fly ash by rising with water. The Cs dissolved into the water is completely removed by multiple absorption columns. This system enables to concentrate the Cs into very small number of absorption columns for stable storage. We will report a conceptual design of the decontamination system and our experiment results with various kinds of radioactive fly ash, and the system's efficiency to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. (author)

  12. Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  14. Geoenvironmental aspects of coal refuse-fly ash blends

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Allwyn J.

    1994-01-01

    The separate land disposal of coal refuse and fly ash presents difficulties throughout the Appalachian region, both in terms of disposal costs per acre and in terms of its potential environmental impacts on soil, ground water, revegetation, and slope stability. The purpose of this study was to determine how fly ash addition to coal refuse would impact on certain geotechnical properties of the refuse disposal piles, and whether the refuse-fly ash blends would be suitable as co-d...

  15. Thermal stability of nano structured fly ash synthesized by high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to modify the micro sized fly ash into nano structured fly ash using High Energy Ball Mill. The smooth, glassy and an inert surface of the fly ash can be altered to a rough and more reactive state by this technique. Ball milling was carried out for the total duration of 30 hours. The sample ...

  16. A radoilogical evaluation of fly ash in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological consequences of using fly ash as a component of cement are discussed. Measurements of the activity concentrations of emanation coefficients and exhalation rates. The radon exhalation rate was found to be significantly lower in concrete containing fly ash than in ordinary concrete. Dose calculations suggest that the fly ash will contribute to a reduction in effec- tive dose equivalent due to the reduced radon exhalation rate. (Auth)

  17. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...... the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even...... consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted...

  18. Characterisation and management of ash produced in the hospital waste incinerator of Athens, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kougemitrou, Irene [Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El. Venizelou Str., 17671 Athens (Greece); Godelitsas, Athanasios, E-mail: agodel@geol.uoa.gr [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Tsabaris, Christos [Hellenic Center of Marine Research, 19013 Anavyssos (Greece); Stathopoulos, Vassilis [Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, Andreas [CERECO S.A. Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, 34100 Chalkida (Greece); Gamaletsos, Platon [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Economou, George [Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Olympic Village, 13677 Acharnai (Greece); Papadopoulos, Dimitris [APOTEFROTIRAS S.A., Ano Liossia, 19200 Elefsina (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Bottom and fly ash samples (BASH and FASH) from the APOTEFROTIRAS S.A. medical waste incinerator (Athens, Greece) were investigated. Powder-XRD data and geochemical diagrams showed BASH to be an amorphous material, analogous to basaltic glass, and FASH consisting of crystalline compounds (mainly CaClOH). Bulk analyses by ICP-MS and point analyses by SEM-EDS indicated a high content of heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu and Cr, in both samples. However, BASH was highly enriched in Ni while FASH was additionally enriched in Zn and Pb. Gamma-ray measurements showed that the radioactivity of both ash samples, due to natural and artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co), was within the permissible levels recommended by IAEA. According to EN-type leaching tests, BASH was practically inert with regard to the mobility of the hazardous elements in aqueous media. FASH, however, showed a relatively high EN (and TCLP) leachability with regard to Pb and Zn. Finally, the stabilisation method, suggested for the treatment of FASH, included compression of the powder into briquettes using an appropriate machine and embedding the briquettes into pozzolanic cement blocks. After this treatment, TCLP and EN-type tests showed minimal release of Pb and Zn, thereby demonstrating a reliable management of ash waste.

  19. Characterisation and management of ash produced in the hospital waste incinerator of Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kougemitrou, Irene; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Tsabaris, Christos; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Papandreou, Andreas; Gamaletsos, Platon; Economou, George; Papadopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Bottom and fly ash samples (BASH and FASH) from the APOTEFROTIRAS S.A. medical waste incinerator (Athens, Greece) were investigated. Powder-XRD data and geochemical diagrams showed BASH to be an amorphous material, analogous to basaltic glass, and FASH consisting of crystalline compounds (mainly CaClOH). Bulk analyses by ICP-MS and point analyses by SEM-EDS indicated a high content of heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu and Cr, in both samples. However, BASH was highly enriched in Ni while FASH was additionally enriched in Zn and Pb. Gamma-ray measurements showed that the radioactivity of both ash samples, due to natural and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 57 Co), was within the permissible levels recommended by IAEA. According to EN-type leaching tests, BASH was practically inert with regard to the mobility of the hazardous elements in aqueous media. FASH, however, showed a relatively high EN (and TCLP) leachability with regard to Pb and Zn. Finally, the stabilisation method, suggested for the treatment of FASH, included compression of the powder into briquettes using an appropriate machine and embedding the briquettes into pozzolanic cement blocks. After this treatment, TCLP and EN-type tests showed minimal release of Pb and Zn, thereby demonstrating a reliable management of ash waste.

  20. Strength Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Quarry Dust Stabilized Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat; Bidula Bose

    2015-01-01

    Effects of quarry dust and polypropylene fiber on compaction properties, shear strength parameters, and California bearing ratio (CBR) of a fly ash have been discussed in this paper. Quarry dust was added to a fly ash from 0 to 60% at an increment of 10%, compaction and soaked CBR tests were conducted on fly ash-quarry dust mixes and the optimum percentage of quarry dust was found out to be 40%. Polypropylene fiber was added to fly ash stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust, from 0...

  1. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wallah S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The te...

  2. Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A. [Delmarva Power, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  3. Sorption behaviour of some radioactive isotopes on treated fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Raouf, M.W.; El-Dessouky, M.I.; Aly, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    The uptake of the radioactive isotopes 134 Cs, 60 Co and 152 , 1 54 Eu from aqueous solutions on treated fly ash has been investigated in terms of the factors affecting the sorption using the batch method at room temperature (20 1 degree C). The selectivity order for the studied radioisotopes on the treated fly ash was found in accordance with their cationic charges, i.e., Eu 3+ > Co 2+ >> Cs + . Pyrolysis residue of domestic waste was investigated as an alternative sorbent and its sorption capability was compared with that of fly ash. The feasibility of using treated fly ash as a sorbent, has been assessed. 3 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Pre-treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash for utilisation in road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Todorovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash has the potential for utilisation in construction, e.g. as a road base material. Such an utilisation would decrease the amount of bottom ash to be landfilled. However, leachates generated from bottom ash could be concentrated with respect to salts and metals, causing environmental problems. The use of carbonation of as a method to decrease the leaching of inorganic pollutants from MSWI bottom ash has been studied. Field investigations and l...

  5. The Effects of Bottom Ash on Setting Time and Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandhie, B. A.; Kurniasari, P. T.; Darmawan, M. S.; Subekti, S.; Wibowo, B.; Husin, N. A.; Bayuaji, R.; Irawan, S.

    2017-11-01

    This research is to find out the contribution of waste energy utilization of fly ash and bottom ash coal as binding agent of geopolymer concrete. This research methodology uses experimental approach in laboratory by making cylinder paste test object with dimension diameter of 2.5 cm x height 5 cm with some combination of fly ash and bottom ash mix with time setting test (ASTM C 191-04a) and compressive strength (ASTM C 39-04a). The research concludes that the effect of bottom ash on fly ash-based geopolymer paste shows good results in setting time and compressive strength.

  6. Innovative use of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Annika; Teo, Kanniainen; Tapio, Salo; Riina, Rantsi

    2016-07-01

    The utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash has been extensively studied, for example, in the unbound layers of roads and the products of cement and concrete industry. On the other hand, less attention has been given to other innovative utilisation possibilities, such as using the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media of plants. The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash contains useful substances, such as calcium, that can influence plant growth in a positive manner. Therefore, the utilisation of this waste-derived material in the growing media may substitute the use of commercial fertilisers. Since the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash also contains hazardous substances that can be toxic to plants, the main aim of this study was to add different amounts of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in the growing media and to evaluate the effect of this material on plant growth. Based on the obtained results, the concentration of, for example copper and zinc, increased in test plants; ryegrass and barley, when recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was added in their growing media. On the other hand, this did not have a significant effect on plant growth, if compared with the growth of plants in commercially produced growing medium. Furthermore, the replacement of natural sand with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash had a positive liming effect in the growing media. Overall, these findings suggest that the utilisation of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media is possible and, thus, may allow more widespread and innovative use of this waste-derived material. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete Kim H. Pedersen Abstract Industrial utilization of fly ash from pulverized coal combustion plays an important role in environmentally clean and cost effective power generation. Today, the primary market for fly ash utilization...... is as pozzolanic additive in the production of concrete. However, the residual carbon in fly ash can adsorb the air entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete in order to increase its workability and resistance toward freezing and thawing conditions. The problem has increased...... with implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. The present thesis concerns three areas of importance within this field: 1) testing of fly ash adsorption behavior; 2) the influence of fuel type and combustion conditions on the ash adsorption behaviour including full-scale experiments at the power plant...

  8. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  9. A review on the effect of fly ash characteristics and their variations on the synthesis of fly ash based geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattimena, Oswyn K.; Antoni, Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2017-09-01

    There are more than four decades since the last 1970s where geopolymers concrete was first introduced and developed to use as a replacement to conventional concrete material which uses cement as a binder. And since the last two decades, geopolymers which utilized fly ash as aluminosilicate source material, i.e. fly ash based geopolymers, have been investigated. Many researchers present how to produce the best fly ash based geopolymer with a various source of constituent material as well as mixing formula to achieve exceptional concrete performance. Although there is a similar trend towards factors affecting the result of fly ash based geopolymer synthesis, there is still remain a wide range in mixture proportion. The considerable variation in fly ash characteristics as source material in the synthesis can very likely be one of the causes of this problem. This paper attempts to identify the effect of source material variation of geopolymer concrete, particularly which use fly ash as source material and focuses on the variation of its characteristics and the effects to properties of concrete. From the reviews it concluded that different sources (and even the same source, but different batch) of fly ash materials will give some different characteristics of the fly ash, where it would affect the synthesis process of the fly ash based geopolymer concretes.

  10. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Luo, Huan-Lin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4-2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20-30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil.

  11. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Sodium and potassium are the common alkalis present in fly ash. Excessive amounts of fly ash alkalis can cause efflorescence : problems in concrete products and raise concern about the effectiveness of the fly ash to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (...

  12. Comparison of different MSWI fly ash treatment processes on the thermal behavior of As, Cr, Pb and Zn in the ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    To reduce heavy metal leaching and stabilize municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, different methods and combination of methods were tested: water washing, electrodialytic separation and thermal treatment at 1000°C. A comparison of heavy metal concentration and leaching levels of As...... ash were stabilized and immobilized. However, leaching of As and/or Cr was still problematic and did not meet the limit value for the thermally treated ash being recycled in construction work. The removal of Ca and decomposition of Ca oxides and minerals during EDS was linked to the leaching patterns...

  13. Effect of incinerator bottom-ash composition on the mechanical behavior of backfill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Liang; Weng, Meng-Chia; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2012-12-30

    This study explores the influence of the chemical composition (SiO(2), CaO, Fe(2)O(3), and Al(2)O(3)) of incinerator bottom ash on its friction angle. Direct shear tests were performed to measure the strength of bottom ash with two distinctly different compositions. Then, an empirical equation was regressed to determine the correlation between each composition and the friction angle. The experimental results showed that the main constituent material of the incinerator bottom ash from general municipal wastes is SiO(2), and the friction angle is 48.04°-52.66°. The bottom ash from incineration plants treating both municipal wastes and general industrial wastes has a high content of iron-aluminum oxides, and its friction angle is 44.60°-52.52°. According to the multivariate regression analysis result, the friction angle of bottom ash of any composition is influenced mainly by the Fe(2)O(3) and Al(2)O(3) contents. This study used the friction angle of the bottom ash from four different incineration plants to validate the empirical equation, and found that the error between actual friction angles and the predicted values was -1.36% to 5.34%. Therefore, the regressed empirical equation in this study can be employed in engineering applications to preliminarily identify the backfill quality of incinerator bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Chimenos, J M; Martínez, M; Fernández, A I

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization and leaching of coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J. (University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Physical characteristics, chemical composition and leaching behaviour of a waste fly ash from a coal-fired power station are reported. Particle size distribution was studied by the following techniques; sedimentation in a liquid medium; sedimentation in an air flow; and Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser beam. Results obtained by the different methods are in good agreement. Mineralogical content and chemical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, electronic microprobe and X-ray fluorescence. Acid leaching of the samples was investigated, using the following strong acids in sequence: HCl+HNO[sub 3], H[sub 2]F[sub 2], HClO[sub 4]. Analysis of leachat by atomic absorption shows trace metals In, Tl, Ge, Cu, Ga, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Zn, Cr. In this work, fly ashes from a Spanish power plant are characterized according to the type of particles, size distribution and chemical composition by means of physical methods. Three particle size fractions are leached by acids and analysis of trace elements in the leaching liquor is carried out. The concentration of trace metals is somewhat higher in the particles of smallest size. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Fundamental study of low-NOx combustion fly ash utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives

  17. Kaliophilite from fly ash: synthesis, characterization and stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    hydrogen production, ammonia synthesis and catalytic combustion of diesel soot (Juntgen 1985). As for the syn- thesis, kaliophilite was mostly synthesized using flint clay or sodalite (Juntgen 1985) as raw materials and syn- thesis from fly ash has not been reported yet. Fly ash is a by-product derived from the combustion of.

  18. Dynamic response of fly ash reinforced functionally graded rubber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamic analysis of jute-epoxy sandwiches with fly ash reinforced functionally gradient (FG) flexible, compliant rubber core is presented. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified by weight method. An attempt is made to study the influence of fly ash weight ...

  19. Reclaimed fly ash as select fill under PCC pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    With the support of the Iowa Fly Ash Affiliates, research on reclaimed fly ash for use as a : construction material has been ongoing since 1991. The material exhibits engineering : properties similar to those of soft limestone or sandstone and a ligh...

  20. Phosphorus removal from wastewater by fly ash ceramsite in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the fly ash ceramsite with higher P adsorption capacity was applied in a constructed wetland as a substrate to continuously treat wastewater. It is noteworthy that the adoption of fly ash ceramsite in such an environment significantly improved P removal from wastewater: the total P and dissolved orthophosphate ...

  1. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  2. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  3. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  5. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  6. Chemical and Physical Characterization of Fly Ash as Geopolymer Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risdanareni Puput

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on finding suitable cement substitute material becomes massive due to environmental effect. Geopolymer as inorganic material is potential to be the smart solution to overcome global warming issue. Fly ash is a waste material rich in silica and alumina becomes popular raw material to produce geopolymer. The best properties ofgeopolymer paste come from the high quality of fly ash. Therefore, it is important to investigate various types of fly ash and geopolymer properties. Their chemical and physical properties characterized by XRF, pH value, XRD and SEM. The results showed that type of fly ash depended on amount of Si-based of Ca-based compound which consisted of spherical morphology. Geopolymer paste produced from the ash with different compound has bulky and irregular shape morphology. The pH value of each ash has also a correlation with the setting time of fresh paste.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  8. Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Nizar Ismail; Kamaruddin Hussin; Mohd Sobri Idris

    2007-01-01

    Fly ash is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating plants. Fly ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in size from 2 μm to 10 μm. They consist mostly of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Fly ash like soil contains trace concentrations of the following heavy metals: nickel, vanadium, cadmium, barium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, zinc and lead. The chemical compositions of the sample have been examined and the fly ash are of ASTM C618 Class F. (Author)

  9. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal. Volume 1 contains the dissertation of Ghosal which covers the characterization of fly ash and the measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  10. Evaluation of fly ash in water reduced paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Fly ash was used to replace 15% of the cement in C3WR and C6WR concrete : paving mixes containing ASTM C494 Type A water reducin9 admixtures. Two Class : C ashes and one Class F ash from Iowa approved sources were examined in each : mix. When Class C...

  11. Anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by fly ash particles and carbon black in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diabate, Silvia; Plaumann, Diana; Uebel, Caroline; Weiss, Carsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bergfeldt, Britta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles as constituents of ambient particulate matter have been shown to induce adverse health effects due to inhalation. However, the components inducing these effects as well as the biological mechanisms are still not fully understood. The fine fraction of fly ash particles collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal solid waste incinerator was taken as an example for real particles with complex composition released into the atmosphere to study the mechanism of early biological responses of BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells. The studies include the effects of the water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the fly ash and the well-studied carbon black nanoparticles were used as a reference. Fly ash induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the total cellular glutathione (tGSH) content. Carbon black also induced ROS generation; however, in contrast to the fly ash, it decreased the intracellular tGSH. The fly ash-induced oxidative stress was correlated with induction of the anti-oxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and increase of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Carbon black was not able to induce HO-1. ROS generation, tGSH increase and HO-1 induction were only induced by the insoluble fraction of the fly ash, not by the water-soluble fraction. ROS generation and HO-1 induction were markedly inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine which confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress. Both effects were also reduced by the metal chelator deferoxamine indicating a contribution of bioavailable transition metals. In summary, both fly ash and carbon black induce ROS but only fly ash induced an increase of intracellular tGSH and HO-1 production. Bioavailable transition metals in the solid water-insoluble matrix of the fly ash mostly contribute to the effects. (orig.)

  12. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-03-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  15. Pemanfaatan Bottom Ash Dan Fly Ash Tipe C Sebagai Bahan Pengganti Dalam Pembuatan Paving Block

    OpenAIRE

    Klarens, Kevin; Indranata, Michael; Antoni, Antoni; Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2016-01-01

    PT. PLTU Paiton menghasilkan 7.5 ton fly ash dan 2.5 ton bottom ash setiap jam. Pemanfaatan bottom ash masih sangat minimal, sehingga mengakibatkkan timbunan bottom ash yang semakin meningkat, dan cendrung mencemari lingkungan dan kesehatan. Berdasarkan alasan tersebut maka perlu adanya USAha untuk memanfaatkan limbah batu bara, salah satunya melalui pembuatan paving block. Sampel tahap pertama terbuat dari campuran semen dan bottom ash (lolos ayakan 2 atau 5 mm) dengan perbandingan massa 1:3...

  16. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  17. Dewatering to stabilize fly ash disposal ponds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, B.T.; Cluen, G.J.; Floess, C.

    1985-05-01

    The required removal of an inactive fly ash pond at the Seward Generating Station posed three related problems to Pennsylvania Electric Company. The saturated, unstable fly ash was difficult to excavate, to transport and to place on the disposal pile at slopes steep enough to be contained within the limited available storage area. This report describes: the performance of a limited field testing using a vacuum wellpoint dewatering system; the extrapolation of the test data into an overall dewatering scheme; the testing and monitoring performed on the fly ash and dewatering system during ash removal; and the recommended procedures to be used for applying the methods described to other fly ash ponds. The wellpoint system utilized at this site was capable of improving the condition of the fly ash to the extent that excavation of the ash could easily be performed with a tire mounted front end loader operating from the natural clay bottom of the pond. Of the initial twelve-foot average thickness of ash, the residual unstable material after dewatering was less than one foot thick. Hauling and disposal problems were also improved since the ash would no longer flow when being bumped. 21 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallah S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The test method followed the procedures applied for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC concrete. Test results show that fly ash-based geopolymer concrete undergoes low creep which is generally less than that of OPC concrete. After one year of loading, the results for specific creep of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete in this study ranges from 15 to 29 microstrain for concrete compressive strength 67–40 MPa respectively. From the test results, it is also found out that the creep coefficient of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is about half of that predicted using Gilbert’s Method for OPC concrete.

  19. Impacts of fly-ash on soil and plant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dharmendra K; Rai, Upendra N; Tripathi, Rudra D; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2002-12-01

    Coal combustion produces carbon dioxides, SO x, NO x and a variety of byproducts, including fly-ash, flue gas and scrubber sludge. Fly-ash consists of minute glass-like particles and its deposition on leaves inhibits the normal transpiration and photosynthesis of plants. Fly-ash also affects the physicochemical characteristics of soil because it is generally very basic, rich in various essential and non-essential elements, but poor in both nitrogen and available phosphorus. The massive fly-ash materials have been a potential resource for the agricultural activities as well as the other industrial purposes. Practical value of fly-ash in agriculture as an 'effective and safe' fertiliser or soil amendment can be established after repeated field experiments. Here remains to be disclosed the biological processes and interactions due to 'lack and excess' of the fly-ash exposures along with abiotic and biotic factors. These may involve the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen and the biological extraction of metals following immobilisation of toxic heavy metal ions, as well as other neutralisation and equilibration processes during weathering. Nitrogen-fixing plants with an apparent heavy metal-tolerance can be helpful as the early colonisers of fly-ash dumps and nearby areas.

  20. Development of Classified Fly Ash as a Pozzolanic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    This research studies the potential for using classified fly ash from Mae Moh power plant in Thailand as a pozzolanic material. Three different fly ash finenesses viz., coarse Original Fly Ash (OFA), Medium Fly Ash (MFA) and Fine Fly Ash (FFA) were used for the study. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was partially replaced with fly ash at 20 and 40% by weight of binder. The water to binder ratio was kept constant at 0.5 and the flow of mortar was maintained at 110±5% with the aid of superplasticizer (SP). Compressive strength, carbonation depth and porosity test of mortars were determined. FFA has a high potential to be used as a good pozzolanic material. The use of FFA produces mortars with good strength and low porosity. The resistance to carbonation of mortar improves with partial replacement of FFA in comparison with the normal coarse fly ash. The use of FFA results in a strong and dense mortar which is due to better dispersion and filling effect as well as an increase in the pozzolanic reaction.

  1. PENGARUH FLY ASH TERHADAP SIFAT PENGEMBANGAN TANAH EKSPANSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Setiawan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Swell and shrink behavior of expansive clays raise significant problem in the field of civil engineering. This paper presents the laboratory experiment of expansive soil stabilization using fly ash (FA. The amount of fly ash used in this experiment ranges from 10% to 25% of dry weight of soil. The results show that the addition of fly ash reduces the specific gravity (Gs, increases the plasticity index (PI, increases the dry density, decreases swelling potentials, and increases strength of soil. This experiment also shows that the increase of strength and the decrease of swelling potential were influenced by the curing time. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sifat kembang susut tanah expansif merupakan salah satu kendala yang cukup rumit dalam rekayasa bidang teknik sipil. Makalah ini mempresentasikan penelitian laboratorium tentang stabilisasi tanah expansif dengan menggunakan fly ash (FA. Kandungan fly ash yang ditambahkan bervariasi antara 10% sampai 25% dari berat kering tanah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan fly ash ke dalam tanah dapat menurunkan specific gravity (Gs, meningkatkan indeks plastisitas (PI, meningkatkan berat volume kering (dry density, menurunkan potensi pengembangan (swelling potential, dan menaikkan kekuatan tanah. Sedangkan pengaruh curing menunjukkan bahwa, lamanya curing dapat menurunkan potensi pengembangan dan meningkatkan kekuatan. Kata kunci: tanah expansif, stabilisasi tanah, fly ash.

  2. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  3. Cytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator ash wastes toward mammalian kidney cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tsai, Jia-Lin; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2008-05-01

    In this study, three municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash wastes-bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash-were extracted using a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractant. These so-called final TCLP extracts were applied to African green monkey kidney cells (Vero), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21), and pig kidney cells (PK-15), multi-well absorption reader analysis was performed to test how the cytotoxicity of the incineration ashes would affect the digestive systems of animals. Ion-coupled plasma analyses indicated that the baghouse ash extract possessed the highest pH and heavy metal concentration, its cytotoxicity was also the highest. In contrast, the bottom ash and the scrubber residue exhibited very low cytotoxicities. The cytotoxicities of mixtures of baghouse ash and scrubber residue toward the three tested cell lines increased as the relative ratio of the baghouse ash increased, especially for the Vero cells. The slight cytotoxicity of the scrubber residue arose mainly from the presence of Cr species, whereas the high cytotoxicity of the baghouse ash resulted from its high content of heavy metals and alkali ions. In addition, it appears that the dissolved total organic carbon content of these ash wastes can reduce the cytotoxicity of ash wastes that collect in animal cells.

  4. Wet-Treated MSWI Fly Ash Used as Supplementary Cementitious Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Keppert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI is a common technique in treatment of domestic waste. This technique annually produces approximately 25 Mt solid residues (i.e., bottom and fly ash worldwide which is also a major issue in current research. In this research we are concerned with reusing the fly ash (FA as supplementary cementitious material (SCM in concrete. Such application solves the problem with heavy metal immobilization as well. To remove the high content of undesired soluble salts, number of washing treatments has been applied. Chemical composition of FA has been examined before and after treatments. The impact of cement substitution by FA in concrete was evaluated by measurement of its compressive strength and durability.

  5. Formation of cement mortar with incineration municipal solid waste bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ng Hooi; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Jin, Tan Soo

    2017-04-01

    Product of incineration municipal solid waste bottom ash was substitute to Portland cement in construction industry. This study investigated the changes of bottom ash in Portland cement by chemical and mineralogical testing. Various substitution of bottom ash (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) to Portland cement was investigated. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the cement mortar with bottom ash particles. The result indicated that the chemical and mineralogical of the cement mortar incorporating bottom ash was not significantly changed with the substitution of 10-40% bottom ash. However, the use of bottom ash minimizes the main composition of cement mortar. Overall, it was found that there is significant potential to increase the utilization of bottom ash.

  6. Effect of leachate solutions from fly ash bottom ash on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsick, D.A.; Angino, E.E.

    1981-12-01

    Leaching experiments on fly ash and bottom ash for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb indicated a potential for contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. Due to the variability in chemical composition of coals, it is difficult to make generalizations concerning the chemistry of leachate solutions from the ashes of the coals. A decrease in concentration with time of leaching was observed for all elements, except for Ca which was released at a constant rate. Fly ash from a Missouri coal generated a leachate enriched in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Cd, reflective of the high Pb-Zn mineralization present in the surrounding area. With a pH of 3.0 this ash has the greatest potential for groundwater contamination. Conversely, leachates from Wyoming fly and bottom ashes exhibited low trace-metal concentrations. These same solutions were high in K, Na, Ca and Mg, and also showed strong pozzolanic behaviour, which will reduce the leachability of these ashes. In most instances, fly and bottom ash from Kentucky and Illinois coals yielded leachates intermediate in elemental composition to leachates of Missouri and Wyoming coal ashes. Leaching experiments indicate that it is not valid to predict the chemistry of leachates from fly and bottom ash based solely on the chemical composition of the ash. (16 refs.)

  7. Products based on the mixes of fly ashes and fibre sludge (fibre-ashes) for road construction; Produkter baserade paa blandningar av flygaska och fiberslam (fiberaskor) foer vaegbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Maijala Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-03-01

    The project has derived benefits from the earlier Finnish research and development as well as from the experience in the fibre-ash materials for geotechnical applications. The fly ashes used for the project have been taken from the same sources as the fly ashes for the earlier Vaermeforsk project 870: FACE. The project's objective was to develop construction materials based on mixtures of fibre sludge and fly ash for geotechnical applications, and for the final commercialisation of the fibre-ash materials. The mixtures are based on fly ashes from energy production (bark, peat and sludge used for incineration) and on kaolin containing fibre sludge from the paper industry. With help of laboratory tests the project has been searching for fibre ashes with excellent technical characteristics like good frost resistance combined with a good bearing capacity and resilience in geotechnical structures. The project's results has given additional knowledge about alternative road construction materials to construct technically good, sustainable and environmentally friendly roads and other constructions with lower costs than the conventional constructions. The results of laboratory tests have shown that this is possible. However, it has to be verified with help of field tests and pilot constructions. The first tasks of the project were to make choices of the appropriate fibre sludge and fly ashes for the project targets. The laboratory tests have been carried out in the geotechnical laboratory of Ramboll Finland Oy (earlier SCC Viatek Oy, SGT - later in the report SGT). After arrival of all test material in the laboratory the test programme started in order to find out the most optimal fibre-ash mixtures with or without any activator. The most potential mixtures were tested for their geotechnical long-term properties (mainly resistance against climatic load) and for their environmental risk potential. The results comprise of several technically, environmentally and

  8. Mercury Retention by Fly Ashes from Oxy-fuel Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Miranda, Nuria; Villamil Rumayor, Marta; López Antón, María Antonia; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanism of mercury retention in fly ashes, the main solid waste from coal combustion power plants, and to evaluate the interactions between the type of mercury and fly ashes. The work was based on the results of mercury speciation in the gas and the solid fly ash before and after mercury retention. The identification of the mercury species in the gas was performed using previously validated methods, but the speciation of the mercury retained i...

  9. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, J.K. [Mineral Resources Technologies, Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  10. Removal of toxic and alkali/alkaline earth metals during co-thermal treatment of two types of MSWI fly ashes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Qiao, Yu; Jin, Limei; Ma, Chuan; Paterson, Nigel; Sun, Lushi

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to vaporize heavy metals and alkali/alkaline earth metals from two different types of fly ashes by thermal treatment method. Fly ash from a fluidized bed incinerator (HK fly ash) was mixed with one from a grate incinerator (HS fly ash) in various proportions and thermally treated under different temperatures. The melting of HS fly ash was avoided when treated with HK fly ash. Alkali/alkaline earth metals in HS fly ash served as Cl-donors to promote the vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment. With temperature increasing from 800 to 900°C, significant amounts of Cl, Na and K were vaporized. Up to 1000°C in air, less than 3% of Cl and Na and less than 5% of K were retained in ash. Under all conditions, Cd can be vaporized effectively. The vaporization of Pb was mildly improved when treated with HS fly ash, while the effect became less pronounced above 900°C. Alkali/alkaline earth metals can promote Cu vaporization by forming copper chlorides. Comparatively, Zn vaporization was low and only slightly improved by HS fly ash. The low vaporization of Zn could be caused by the formation of Zn2SiO4, ZnFe2O4 and ZnAl2O4. Under all conditions, less than 20% of Cr was vaporized. In a reductive atmosphere, the vaporization of Cd and Pb were as high as that in oxidative atmosphere. However, the vaporization of Zn was accelerated and that of Cu was hindered because the formation of Zn2SiO4, ZnFe2O4 and ZnAl2O4 and copper chloride was depressed in reductive atmosphere. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Unsubstituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in extracts of coal fly ash from the fly ash test cell in Montour, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applequist, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) was used to identify and to quantify trace amounts of selected, unsubstituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in extracts of coal fly ash from the solid waste disposal test cell at Montour, Pennsylvania. Isotope dilution experiments using deuterated analogs of polyaromatic hydrocarbons demonstrated that the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and anthracene were lower than 1 ng/g of fly ash. Isotope dilution experiments demonstrated that benzo[a]pyrene could be detected at concentrations as high as 1 ng/g when an isotopic carrier was used at a concentration of 125 ng/g in the analytical method. Maximum concentrations of fluorene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were conservatively estimated to be 3 ng/g of fly ash, using a 95 percent confidence interval based on analytical precision of ±1 ng/g of fly ash. Concentrations of phenanthrene were found to range from 6 to 38 ng/g of fly ash with a mean concentration of 14 ng/g of fly ash. Two sources of phenanthrene were speculated: incomplete combustion of phenanthrene in the coal furnace and addition of phenanthrene to the fly ash after collection by electrostatic precipitators

  12. APC fly ashes stabilized with Portland cement for further development of road sub-base aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, J.; Giro-Paloma, J.; Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Huete-Hernández, S.; Chimenos, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Although waste-to-energy plants allow reducing the mass and volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated, an average around 30 % of the total content remains as bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) ashes at the end of combustion process. While weathered bottom ash (WBA) is considered a non-hazardous residue that can be revalorized as a secondary aggregate, APC fly ashes generated during the flue gas treatment are classified as hazardous waste and are handled in landfill disposal after stabilization, usually with Portland cement (OPC). However, taking into account the amount of APC residues produced and the disposing cost in landfill, their revalorization is an important issue that could be effectively addressed. As MSW can be incinerated producing bottom ashes (BA) or air pollutant control (APC) residues, the development of a mortar formulated with APC fly ash as secondary building material is a significant risk to the environment for their content of heavy metals. In this way, Design of Experiment (DoE) was used for the improvement of granular material (GM) formulation composed by APC and OPC for further uses as road sub-base aggregate. DoE analysis was successful in the modelling and optimization the formulation as function of the mechanical properties and APC amount. Consequently, an optimal mortar formulation (OMF) of around 50 wt.% APC and 50 wt.% OPC was considered. The OMF leachates and abrasion resistance have been analyzed. These results have demonstrated the viability of OMF as non-hazardous material feasible to be used as secondary aggregate. Moreover, it would be possible to consider the environmental assessment of a GM composed by ≈20 wt.% of OMF and ≈80 wt.% of WBA in order to improve mechanical properties and heavy metals stabilization.

  13. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash is characterized by its pozzolanic properties, as cement is. This predetermines its use in a substitution of cement and cementitious materials. Utilization of sewage sludge ash does not only decrease the consumption of cement, one of the largest cause of CO2 emissions, but also...... it can minimize the need of ash landfill disposal. The objective of this study is to show potential use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), an industrial byproduct, as possible binder in cement-based materials. Chemical and mechanical characteristics are presented and compared with results obtained...

  14. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end......Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated...... dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue.PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g-1, being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent...

  15. Phosphate removal from digested sludge supernatant using modified fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Deng, Tong; Liu, Juntan; Peng, Weigong

    2012-05-01

    The removal of phosphate in digested sludge supernatant by modified coal fly ash was investigated in this study. Modification of the fly ash by the addition of sulfuric acid could significantly enhance its immobilization ability. The experimental results also showed that adsorption of phosphate by the modified fly ash was rapid with the removal percentage of phosphate reaching an equilibrium of 98.62% in less than 5 minutes. The optimum pH for phosphate removal was 9 and the removal percentage increased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The effect of temperature on phosphate removal efficiency was not significant from 20 to 40 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses showed that phosphate formed an amorphous precipitate with water-soluble calcium, aluminum, and iron ions in the modified fly ash.

  16. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na + with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  17. Immobilization of Radioactive Waste in Different Fly Ash Zeolite Cement Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management has been raised from the beginning use of nuclear energy for different purposes. The rad waste streams produced were sufficient to cause dangerous effects to man and its environment. The ordinary portland cement is the material more extensively used in the technologies of solidification and immobilization of the toxic wastes, low and medium level radioactive wastes. The production of portland cement is one of the most energy-intensive and polluting. The use of high energy in the production causes high emission due to the nature and processes of raw materials. The cement industry is responsible for 7% of the total CO 2 emission. Thus, the cement industry has a crucial role in the global warming. The formation of alite (Ca 3 SiO 5 ), which is the main component of the Portland cement clinker, produces a greater amount of CO 2 emission than the formation of belite (Ca 2 SiO 4 ). The proportion of alite to belite is about 3 in ordinary Portland clinker. Therefore, by decreasing this proportion less CO 2 would be emitted. Furthermore, if industrial byproducts such as fly ash from thermal power station or from incineration of municipal solid wastes have the potential to reduce CO 2 used as raw materials and alternative hydrothermal calcination routes are employed for belite clinker production, CO 2 emission can be strongly reduced or even totally avoided. The availability of fly ash will help in reducing the CO 2 emissions and will also help in resolving, to a great extent, the fly ash disposal problem. This thesis is based on focusing on the possibility of using fly ash as raw materials to prepare low cost innovation matrices for immobilization of radioactive wastes by synthesizing new kind of cement of low consuming energy. The synthesis process is based on the hydrothermal-calcination route of the fly ash without extra additions.

  18. KINETICS OF FLY ASH BENEFICIATION BY CARBON BURNOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph N.D. Dodoo; Dr. Joseph M. Okoh

    2000-11-01

    Surface area analyses performed on fly ash samples reveal that the surface area is controlled by carbon content. The higher surface areas found in large particles are due to the presence of highly porous carbonaceous particles. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and t-plots of fly ash samples indicate that fly ash is porous. BJH Adsorption/Desorption pore size analysis reveal that pore diameters are independent of sieve size. They appear to be dependent only on the nature of the material which confers porosity. Based on the results of Brown and Dykstra (41) it is reasonable to assume that calculations of reaction rates at temperatures above 550 C were confounded by weight losses from processes other than carbon oxidation and, therefore, are not useful in determination of the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. The results of the present study indicate that temperatures below 550 C should be used for future studies in order to satisfactorily assess the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. Furthermore, it is also advisable that percent carbon determinations be performed on fly ash samples after the oxidation reactions to determine whether all carbon present in fly ash is oxidized. This will ensure that reaction rates are representative of the complete oxidation of carbon. An inverse relationship was determined between reaction rates and oxygen concentration for this study. As discussed, this may be due to volatilization of volatiles from fly ash and ease of transport of products away from the reaction sites by the action of the vacuum applied to the samples. A more accurate determination of oxygen dependence of carbon oxidation can be accomplished by the use of specialty gases containing different concentrations of oxygen which could eliminate the need to apply vacuum to the samples.

  19. Effect of Alkali Concentration on Fly Ash Geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah Azzahran Abdullah, Siti; Yun-Ming, Liew; Bakri, Mohd Mustafa Al; Cheng-Yong, Heah; Zulkifly, Khairunnisa; Hussin, Kamarudin

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the effect of NaOH concentration on fly ash geopolymers with compressive up to 56 MPa at 12M. The physical and mechanical on fly ash geopolymer are investigated. Test results show that the compressive strength result complied with bulk density result whereby the higher the bulk density, the higher the strength. Thus, the lower water absorption and porosity due to the increasing of NaOH concentration.

  20. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone pow...

  1. Using locally available fly ash for modifying concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, S.A.; Toor, S.R.; Ahmad, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper suggests the possible use of fly ash, a bye-product produced in our thermal power plants operating on coal as fuel for improvement of concrete quality. In the present investigation, locally available finely divided fly ash has been used for modification Presently, it is being used extensively in concrete in modem countries and is considered as waste material in general. Behavior of fly ash modified concrete in comparison to normal concrete having same mix proportions, aggregates, net water-cement ratio and similar curing conditions has been studied in short terms up to the age of 56 days during which the specimens were subjected to normal water curing method. Tests were carried out for compressive strength at 3, 7, 14,28 and 56 days, 24 hours % age water absorption at the age of 56 days and durability (resistance of concrete against N/2 solutions of both nitric acid and hydrochloric acid for one month) of concrete were also carried out at the age of 56 days. It was seen that the compressive strength of concrete modified with the available type of fly ash was less than the normal concrete. But so. far as the durability and % age water absorption are concerned, fly ash plays an important role here. 24 hours % age water absorption decreases with increase in fly ash content an admixture and as a cement replacement in concrete. But so far as durability is concerned, 20% replacement of fly ash with cement appears to be more effective than it is with 40%. The purpose of investigation was to introduce the use of fly ash in concretes to the Engineers and Architects in Pakistan. (author)

  2. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  3. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals-sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significant (Ppercentage (%), tail length (mum), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  4. Fly Ash in Civil Engineering Stage 1: Inventory/Application; Flygaska i geotekniska anlaeggningar Etapp 1: Inventering/Tillaemplighet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Svedberg, Bo; Lenstroemer, Stina; Nilsson, Thomas [Scandiaconsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The project presented below is the first phase of a broader project named FACE 'Fly Ash in Civil Engineering'. The objective of the project is to identify environmentally friendly products based on fly ash to be used in geotechnical applications such as road bases etc. In this phase of the project, named 'Inventory/Applicability', different fly ashes have been grouped according to their technical properties and potential applications. The objective of grouping fly ashes is to identify key-properties in order to make future investigations less extensive and also to make it easier to assess potential applications in the future. A total of nine different fly ashes from incineration of bio fuels (Heating Plants and Forest Industry Boilers) were investigated. The investigated fly ashes were all fresh and dry apart from two which originated from landfill. Properties such as grain-size distribution, water content, void-ratio, loss on ignition, compaction properties, increase of shear strength, have been investigated. Analyses of the results indicate that fly ashes can be divided into three main groups A, B and C, where: Group A fly ashes have poor curing properties and need stabilisation agents such as other fly ashes with higher curing capacity or cement (Portland cement, Merit 5000 etc.). Fly ash which has been stored in landfill and has a low content of quick lime is also part of this group. These fly ashes are not appropriate for use without addition of stabilising agent if they are to be used in applications where percolating water and frost-thaw cycles occur. After stabilisation with fresh fly ash and cement, fly ashes from this group can be used in sub-base in roads. Group B fly ashes have medium-high to high content of quick lime and good development of shear strength. These fly ashes can be used without being stabilised with cement. In fact, adding cement can reduce properties of compaction thus reducing the strength of a construction. The

  5. Phosphate removal from aqueous solution using slag and fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Ragheb

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of low cost materials in wastewater treatment has recently attracted great interest; fly ash and slag have improved high performance as a low cost material and have been used as a potential adsorbent for removal of phosphate, heavy metals and organic pollutants in wastewater treatment. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in order to evaluate phosphate removal efficiency of slag and fly ash. The effect of various operating variables, i.e. initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorption time of phosphate using the slag and fly ash, has been studied. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium has been reached at 30 min contact time and the maximum removal percentage was achieved at an adsorbent loading weight of 0.5 gm/100 ml. Phosphate removal ratio using slag and fly ash was 93% and 95%, respectively, under the batch test conditions. The overall uptake for the slag was maximum at pH 5 and at pH 7 for fly ash. The sorption data were represented using Freundlich and Langmuir parameters, where the sorption data were better represented by the Freundlich isotherm than by the Langmuir. The optimized method was applied for phosphate removal from wastewater of Proctor and Gamble (P&G Company for household products. The achieved phosphate removal efficiency was 96.15% and 96.9% using slag and fly ash respectively.

  6. [Study on mercury re-emissions during fly ash utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Wang, Shu-Xiao

    2012-09-01

    The amount of fly ash produced during coal combustion is around 400 million tons per year in China. About 65%-68% of fly ash is used in building material production, road construction, architecture and agriculture. Some of these utilization processes include high temperature procedures, which may lead to mercury re-emissions. In this study, experiments were designed to simulate the key process in cement production and steam-cured brick production. A temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method was used to study the mercury transformation in the major utilization processes. Mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization in China was estimated based on the experimental results. It was found that mercury existed as HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2), HgS and HgO in the fly ash. During the cement production process, more than 98% of the mercury in fly ash was re-emitted. In the steam-curing brick manufacturing process, the average mercury re-emission percentage was about 28%, which was dominated by the percentage of HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2). It is estimated that the mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization have increased from 4.07 t in 2002 to 9.18 t in 2008, of which cement industry contributes about 96.6%.

  7. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability. PMID:28793518

  8. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  9. Wear Resistance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFA intended for pavement applications is presented in this paper. In India, yearly production of fly ash is more than 100 million tons. Majority of fly ash is of Class F type. Out of which 20-25% is being utilized in cement-based materials. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out for its large scale utilization. Concrete mixtures were prepared by replacing cement with 40, 50, and 60% of fly ash. Experiments were conducted for fresh concrete properties, compressive strength and wear resistance. Test results indicated that wear resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 40% was comparable to the normal concrete. Beyond 40% fly ash content, concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to wear in relation non-fly ash concretes. There is very good correlation between wear resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.8482 and 0.9787 depending upon age.

  10. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-08-21

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  11. Screening coal combustion fly ashes for application in geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Sarabér, A.J.; Fischer, H.R.; Nugteren, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Driven by cost and sustainability, secondary resource materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and bottom ash are increasingly used for alternative types of concrete binders, such as geopolymers. Because secondary resources may be highly variable from the perspective of geopolymers, it is

  12. Washing of fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste using water as leachant; Vattentvaett av flygaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Zhao, Dongmei

    2010-03-15

    Ashes from combustion of municipal solid waste contain a large amount of minerals, salts and other metal compounds that are more or less soluble in water. The metal salts are often enriched in the fly ash which leads to a classification of the ash as hazardous waste. This makes ash management complicated and costly. Many stabilisation methods for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been developed and most of them are based on a removal of chloride and sulfate in addition to a binding of metals in less soluble forms. The aim is to avoid the common situation that the ash does not comply to leaching limit values due to release of harmless salts. The aim of this project was to investigate if a simple washing with water can remove enough of the fly ash content of chloride and sulphate so that the ash can be landfilled in a simpler and less costly way than today. The project was focused on fly ashes from the MSWI units owned by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB and Renova AB Goeteborg, i.e. a electro filter ash from grate fired boilers at Renova and a cyclone ash from a fluid bed boiler at Boraas. The results show that the main part of the chloride content of the ashes can be removed easily, but the washing with water is less effective in the removal of sulphate. A water-to-ash ratio of 1-2 l/kg removes about 100% of chloride but only 8-16% of the sulphate content. In many cases, the leachability of sulphate increases after the washing step. This is due to the rather complex sulphate chemistry with several possible reactions taking place in the ash-water system. For both the tested ashes the high level of chloride leaching is an important factor that prevents admittance on a landfill for hazardous waste without treatment.. The leaching of certain metals, such as Pb, is also high from both ashes but in the case of the Renova fly ash this is dealt with by treatment of the ash according to the Bamberg method. After a water washing with L/S 1-2 (L/kg dry ash

  13. Multitechnique multielemental analysis of coal and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    The coal sample is first ashed with high temperature ashing or with RF plasma low temperature ashing. The coal ash or fly ash can be analyzed for major ash elements by fusing with lithium tetraborate in an automatic fusion device, the Claisse Fluxer. The ash samples are also dissolved in a Parr bomb in a mixture of aqua regia and HF. Subsequently, the solutions are analyzed for eight major (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, and Ti) and 20 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V, and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Mercury in coal and fly ash is determined on a separate aliquot by the cold vapor atomic absorption technique. Fluorine and chlorine in the samples are determined by fusing with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and Eschka mixture, respectively, and then measuring the two ions in solution with specific ion electrodes. Oxygen in the samples can be determined rapidly and nondestructively by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis. These methods have been tested by analyzing several NBS coal and fly ash standards with good accuracy and reproducibility. 10 tables.

  14. Multitechnique multielemental analysis of coal and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    The coal sample is first ashed with high temperature ashing or with RF plasma low temperature ashing. The coal ash or fly ash can be analyzed for major ash elements by fusing with lithium tetraborate in an automatic fusion device, the Claisse Fluxer. The ash samples are also dissolved in a Parr bomb in a mixture of aqua regia and HF. Subsequently, the solutions are analyzed for eight major (Al,Ca,Fe,K,Mg,Na,Si and Ti) and 20 trace elements (As,B,Ba,Be,Cd,Co,Cr,Cu,Li, Mn,Mo,Ni,P,Pb,Sb,Se,Sr,U,V,and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Mercury in coal and fly ash is determined on a separate aliquot by the cold vapor atomic absorption technique. Fluorine and chlorine in the samples are determined by fusing with Na2CO3 and Eschka mixture, respectively, and then measuring the two ions in solution with specific ion electrodes. Oxygen in the samples can be determined rapidly and nondestructively by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis. These methods have been tested by analyzing several NBS coal and fly ash standards with good accuracy and reproducibility.

  15. Incineration of a typical LWR combustible waste and analysis of the resulting ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Lokken, R.O.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    In this study 4540 kg (10,000 lb) of simulated nuclear power plant combustion wastes were burned in a controlled-air incinerators. The purpose of this work was to generate ashes suitable for solidification, the products of which will be analyzed to determine if they are suitable for disposal. Two different types of waste were burned: resin and simulated crud, and general trash (paper, plastics, wood, rubber, and cloth). Volume-reduction ratios (unburned waste: ash) were 13:1 and 22:1, respectively. Approximately 20% of the ash was lost due to adherence to incinerator walls and entrainment in the off-gas stream. Losses of the volatile species cesium and iodine were 79% and 100%, respectively. The ashes were not hygroscopic, but they exhibited a pH of 4.6 to 5.0 when water was added. Corrosion of mild steel drums would occur within this pH range. The ashes contained a significant quantity of clinkers haveing lengths as great as 20 cm (8 in.). Most of the clinkers were fully incinerated and easy to crush, suggesting that standard comminuting equipment should be effective in reducing the size of clinkers to allow their solidification with the fine ashes

  16. "De Novo"-synthesis of chlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins in the fly ash catalyzed reaction of toluene with hydrochloric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, E.W.B. de; Lexmond, R.J.; Zeeuw, M.A. de

    1989-01-01

    Toluene is converted into benzaldehyde and halogenated aromatic oxidation products in an air atmosphere at 425 °C with fly ash from a municipal waste incineration plant as the catalyst. Several halogenated products such as chlorinated and brominated benzenes, biphenyls and traces of PCDDs/PCDFs

  17. Reduction of metal leaching in brown coal fly ash using geopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankowski, P.; Zou, L.; Hodges, R.

    2004-01-01

    Current regulations classify fly ash as a prescribed waste and prohibit its disposal in regular landfill. Treatment of the fly ash can reduce the leach rate of metals, and allow it to be disposed in less prescribed landfill. A geopolymer matrix was investigated as a potential stabilisation method for brown coal fly ash. Precipitator fly ash was obtained from electrostatic precipitators and leached fly ash was collected from ash disposal ponds, and leaching tests were conducted on both types of geopolymer stabilised fly ashes. The ratio of fly ash to geopolymer was varied to determine the effects of different compositions on leaching rates. Fourteen metals and heavy metals were targeted during the leaching tests and the results indicate that a geopolymer is effective at reducing the leach rates of many metals from the fly ash, such as calcium, arsenic, selenium, strontium and barium. The major element leachate concentrations obtained from leached fly ash were in general lower than that of precipitator fly ash. Conversely, heavy metal leachate concentrations were lower in precipitator fly ash than leached pond fly ash. The maximum addition of fly ash to this geopolymer was found to be 60 wt% for fly ash obtained from the electrostatic precipitators and 70 wt% for fly ash obtained from ash disposal ponds. The formation of geopolymer in the presence of fly ash was studied using 29Si MAS-NMR and showed that a geopolymer matrix was formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the interaction of the fly ash with the geopolymer, which was related to the leachate data and also the maximum percentage fly ash addition

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous silica materials from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Huang, Chun-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Incinerator bottom ash contains a large amount of silica and can hence be used as a silica source for the synthesis of mesoporous silica materials. In this study, the conditions for alkaline fusion to extract silica from incinerator bottom ash were investigated, and the resulting supernatant solution was used as the silica source for synthesizing mesoporous silica materials. The physical and chemical characteristics of the mesoporous silica materials were analyzed using BET, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and solid-state NMR. The results indicated that the BET surface area and pore size distribution of the synthesized silica materials were 992 m2/g and 2-3.8 nm, respectively. The XRD patterns showed that the synthesized materials exhibited a hexagonal pore structure with a smaller order. The NMR spectra of the synthesized materials exhibited three peaks, corresponding to Q(2) [Si(OSi)2(OH)2], Q(3) [Si(OSi)3(OH)], and Q(4) [Si(OSi)4]. The FTIR spectra confirmed the existence of a surface hydroxyl group and the occurrence of symmetric Si-O stretching. Thus, mesoporous silica was successfully synthesized from incinerator bottom ash. Finally, the effectiveness of the synthesized silica in removing heavy metals (Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Cr2+) from aqueous solutions was also determined. The results showed that the silica materials synthesized from incinerator bottom ash have potential for use as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in relation to facilitated metal leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    The release of inorganic and organic contaminants from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is controlled to a large extent by the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and in particular by the reactive humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) subfractions of DOC. The properties of

  20. Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2013-01-01

    Ashes from mono-incineration of sewage sludge (ISSA) generally contain high concentrations of phosphorous (P) and can be regarded as secondary P resources. ISSA has no direct value as fertilizer as P is not plant available. The present paper experimentally compares P extraction in acid from two d...

  1. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich...

  2. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P......Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich....... A product with lower level of metallic impurities and comparable to wet process phosphoric acid (WPA) was eventually obtained from gasification SSA. Thus, gasification becomes an interesting alternative to incineration also in terms of P separation....

  3. Leaching behaviour, mechanical and durability properties of mortar containing municipal incineration bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Hernandez, Maria B.

    The review of municipal solid waste (MSW) management scheme has indicated that the amount of MSW sent to incineration plants will increase in the UK in coming years. Therefore, the amount of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues generated will increase significantly. MSWI residues are divided into MSWI fly ash (MSWI-FA) and MSWI bottom ash (MSWI-BA). MSWI-FA is classified as hazardous residue thereby requires special treatment before disposal. MSWI-BA is mostly disposed in landfill sites. MSWI-BA fraction with particle size diameter below approximately 2mm has low engineering properties and may have an adverse effect on the environment due to its high porosity, solubility and leachability of possible toxic compounds. This research programme has investigated new potential uses and leaching behaviour of mortar containing MSWI-BA with particle size diameters below 2.36mm. Fraction of MSWI-BA with particle size diameters (φ) below 2.36 mm (φ <2.36) was divided into different sub-fractions to evaluate their influence on compressive strength of concrete when used as partial replacement of cement or sand. MSWI-BA fraction with φ <212mum (fine fraction) and 212mum < φ2.36mm (coarse fraction) used as partial replacement of cement and sand respectively, showed higher compressive strength compared with the other fractions examined. In addition, replacing sand with the coarse fraction of MSWI-BA exhibited similar or higher strength than the reference mix. Examination of physical and chemical properties of the fine and coarse fractions of MSWI-BA unbound indicated that both fractions had potential to be used as replacement of cement or sand. However, the evaluation of their leaching behaviour suggested that they should be bound in cement-based systems to avoid leaching of potential toxic elements. Evaluation of physical, mechanical and sulfate resistance properties of mortars containing 15% of the fine fraction of MSWI-BA as a partial replacement of cement and

  4. Corrosion Studies of Fly Ash and Fly Ash-Slag Based Geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, F. F.; Amli, S. F. M.; Hussin, K.; Rahmat, A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract This paper presents the results of corrosion studies between Fly Ash Geopolymer (FG) paste and Fly Ash-Slag Geopolymer (FSG) paste. Geopolymer was made from aluminosilicate inorganic polymers mixed with the alkaline activator in order to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) to the ecosystem. Samples then were cured at 60ºC for 24 hours in the oven. Reinforcement bar is placed at the center of the paste. The samples were examined after 7, 14 and 28 days in terms of Open Circuit Potential (OCP) test, phase analysis and morphology analysis. The potential values regarding OCP test for FSG paste from 7 days until 28 days are 0.464 V, 0.474 V and 0.498 V more positive than FG paste which the potential values are 0.087 V, 0.133 V and 0.206 V respectively. From the Pourbaix diagram, all the potential values for FG paste and FSG paste were located in the same Fe2O3, passivity region. Passive layer which is the oxide form exists in this region to protect the reinforcement bar from corrosion agents. It can be proved from phase analysis results which iron oxide hydroxide (FeOOH), hematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) peaks exist. The differences of morphological structures of these pastes were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It shows that FSG paste had good corrosion resistance and low corrosion rate compared to FG paste.

  5. Adsorption of indigo carmine from aqueous solution using coal fly ash and zeolite from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho de, T.E.M.; Fungaro, D.A.; Magdalena, C.P.; Patricia Cunico

    2011-01-01

    Coal fly ash, a waste generated at the Figueira coal-fired electric power plant located in Brazil, was used to synthesize zeolite by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution at 100 deg C for 24 h. The fly ash (FA) and this synthesized zeolite (ZM) that was characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite were used as adsorbents for anionic dye indigo carmine from aqueous solutions. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for the determination of As, Co, Fe, La, Mo, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, U and Zn. Effects of contact time and initial dye concentration were evaluated in the adsorption processes. The kinetics studies indicated that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetics and that surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion were involved in the adsorption mechanism for both the adsorbents. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best correlation of the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 1.48 mg L -1 for FA and 1.23 mg L -1 for ZM. Laboratory leaching and solubilization tests conducted to classify this ZM as if was a waste residue according to the Brazilian regulation classified it as a residue non-hazardous and non-inert. (author)

  6. Comparative leaching of six toxic metals from raw and chemically stabilized MSWI fly ash using citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huawei; Fan, Xinxiu; Wang, Ya-Nan; Li, Weihua; Sun, Yingjie; Zhan, Meili; Wu, Guizhi

    2018-02-15

    The leaching behavior of six typical toxic metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Cu and Ni) from raw and chemically stabilized (phosphate and chelating agent) municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash were investigated using citric acid. Leaching tests indicated that phosphate stabilization can effectively decrease the leaching of Zn, Cd and Cr; whereas chelating agent stabilization shows a strong ability to lower the release of Pb, Cd and Cu, but instead increases the solubility of Zn and Cr at low pH conditions. Sequential extraction results suggested that the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cd in both the stabilized MSWI fly ash samples led to the decrease in Fe/Mn oxide fraction and the increase in exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The leaching of Cr was due to the decrease in exchangeable, carbonate and Fe/Mn oxide fractions in phosphate-stabilized and chelating agent-stabilized MSWI fly ash. The leaching of Cu in both stabilized MSWI fly ash was greatly ascribed to the decrease in Fe/Mn oxide and oxidisable fractions. Moreover, predicted curves by geochemical model indicated that both stabilized MSWI fly ash have the risk of releasing toxic metals under strong acid environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reactivity of fly ashes in a spray dryer FGD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.T.; Reed, G.D.

    1983-05-01

    During the period 1981-1982, a study was performed to determine the ability of various fly ashes to retain sulfur dioxide in a pilot plant spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas desulfurization system. This knowledge would provide design engineers with the necessary data to determine whether the fly ash from a particular utility could be used as an effective supplement or substitute for slaked lime in a spray dryer system. The study commenced with the collection of 22 fly ashes from lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous eastern and western coals. The ashes were contacted with the flue gas entering the pilot plant by two different techniques. In the first, the ashes were slurried in water and injected into the spray dryer through a spinning disk atomizer. In the second, the ashes were injected as a dry additive into the flue gas upstream of the spray dryer. Analyses were conducted to determine the ability of each ash to retain sulfur dioxide in the system followed by statistical correlations of the sulfur retention with the physical/chemical properties of each ash. 17 references, 32 figures, 19 tables.

  8. Speciation of zinc in secondary fly ashes of municipal solid waste at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Meijuan; Chu, Wangsheng; Chen, Dongliang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Tian, Shulei [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Wang, Qi [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing (China); Wu, Ziyu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China). National Synchrotron Radiation Lab.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities

    2009-07-15

    The evaporation aerosols produced during the vitrification process of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) fly ash represent a potential environmental risk owing to their high content of heavy metals. In this research, high-temperature heating processes were carried out on fly ashes collected from bag houses in a Chinese MSWI plant and the secondary fly ashes (SFA) were separately collected at three high temperatures (1273 K, 1423 K and 1523 K) below the melting range. Elemental analysis showed that high contents of both zinc and chlorine were present in these SFA samples and, according to the standard of the heavy metals industrial grade of ore, SFAs can be re-used as metallurgical raw materials or rich ore. Moreover, as shown by XAS analysis and for different high temperatures, zinc environments in the three SFA samples were characterized by the same local structure of the zinc chloride. As a consequence, a zinc recycling procedure can be easily designed based on the configuration information. (orig.)

  9. Speciation of zinc in secondary fly ashes of municipal solid waste at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Meijuan; Chu, Wangsheng; Chen, Dongliang; Wu, Ziyu; Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2009-01-01

    The evaporation aerosols produced during the vitrification process of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) fly ash represent a potential environmental risk owing to their high content of heavy metals. In this research, high-temperature heating processes were carried out on fly ashes collected from bag houses in a Chinese MSWI plant and the secondary fly ashes (SFA) were separately collected at three high temperatures (1273 K, 1423 K and 1523 K) below the melting range. Elemental analysis showed that high contents of both zinc and chlorine were present in these SFA samples and, according to the standard of the heavy metals industrial grade of ore, SFAs can be re-used as metallurgical raw materials or rich ore. Moreover, as shown by XAS analysis and for different high temperatures, zinc environments in the three SFA samples were characterized by the same local structure of the zinc chloride. As a consequence, a zinc recycling procedure can be easily designed based on the configuration information. (orig.)

  10. Cs and Cl penetration estimation in mortar from fly ash of MSWI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Hosokawa, Y.; Haga, K.; Osako, M.

    2015-01-01

    By the Fukushima Daiichi accident, radioactive Cs was scattered widely in East Japan. From the viewpoint of radionuclide contaminated wastes management, water soluble Cs in the fly ash of incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSWI-FA) is the most serious problem. When final disposal of MSWI-FA contaminated by radioactive Cs in concrete pit is considered, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of MSWI-FA and Cs penetration behavior into concrete. In this study, the expected solution generated from MSWI-FA is analyzed and immersion test of mortar in this model solution was carried out for several kinds of cement and sand types. Cs showed similar penetration profiles with Cl regardless of cement and sand types. By using fly ash cement, the penetration depth of Cs decreased less than half compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Clay mineral in sand did not affect the penetration of Cs possible because of the competing effect of potassium for Cs adsorption. Assuming a diffusion equation considering non-linear binding, from the measured profiles, diffusion coefficient and parameters of binding were obtained by fitting. Then, the Cs and Cl profiles after 30 years are estimated and penetration depths of Cs and Cl were only 15 mm for fly ash mortar. (authors)

  11. Waste or substrate for metal hyperaccumulating plants - The potential of phytomining on waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Phytomining could represent an innovative low-cost technology for the selective recovery of valuable trace elements from secondary resources. In this context the potential of phytomining from waste incineration bottom ash was tested in a pot experiment. Fresh bottom ash was acidified, leached to reduce salinity and amended with organic material to obtain a suitable substrate for plant growth. Two hyperaccumulator species, Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum and Sedum plumbizincicola as well as three metal tolerant species, Brassica napus, B. juncea and Nicotiana tabacum were tested for their phytomining potential on the pre-treated and amended bottom ashes from municipal solid waste and hazardous waste incineration. The hyperaccumulators had severe difficulties to establish on the bottom ash and to produce sufficient biomass, likely due to salinity and Cu toxicity. Nevertheless, concentrations of Ni in A. serpyllifolium and Zn in S. plumbizincicola were high, but total metal removal was limited by the low biomass production and was clearly less than on metalliferous soils. The Brassica species proved to be more tolerant to salinity and high Cu concentrations and produced considerably higher biomass, but total metal removal was limited by rather low shoot concentrations. The observed limitations of the phytomining process along with currently low market prices of Ni and Zn suggest that further optimisation of the process is required in order to make phytomining economically feasible on the tested waste incineration bottom ashes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aluminium recovery from waste incineration bottom ash, and its oxidation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The recovery of aluminium (Al) scraps from waste incineration bottom ash is becoming a common practice in waste management. However, during the incineration process, Al in the waste undergoes oxidation processes that reduce its recycling potential. This article investigates the behaviour of Al scraps in the furnace of two selected grate-fired waste-to-energy plants and the amount recoverable from the bottom ash. About 21-23% of the Al fed to the furnace with the residual waste was recovered and potentially recycled from the bottom ash. Out of this amount, 76-87% was found in the bottom ash fraction above 5 mm and thus can be recovered with standard eddy current separation technology. These values depend on the characteristics and the mechanical strength of the Al items in the residual waste. Considering Al packaging materials, about 81% of the Al in cans can be recovered from the bottom ash as an ingot, but this amount decreases to 51% for trays, 27% for a mix of aluminium and poly-laminated foils and 47% for paper-laminated foils. This shows that the recovery of Al from the incineration residues increases proportionally to the thickness of the packaging.

  13. Fluorination of incinerator ash by hydrofluorination or ammonium bifluoride fusion for plutonium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.D.; Gray, J.H.; Kent, S.J.; Apgar, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Incinerator ash containing small quantities of plutonium has been accumulating across the defense complex for many years. Although the total Pu inventory is small, the ash is a nondiscardable residue which presents storage and accountability difficulties. The work discussed here is the result of a joint exploratory effort between members of Savannah River Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory to compare two proposed pyrochemical pretreatments of incinerator ash prior to aqueous processing. These experiments attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of hydrofluorination and ammonium bifluoride fusion as head-end operations for a two step aqueous recovery method. The two pretreatments are being considered as possible second generation enhancements for the New Special Recovery Facility nearing operation at Savannah River Plant. Experimental results and potential engineering concerns are discussed. 3 figs.

  14. Understanding biotoxicity for reusability of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2006-11-02

    This feasibility study using Escherichia coli DH5alpha as a reporter microorganism tended to disclose toxicity ranking of various ashes of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in comparison with typical toxic chemicals for reusability in further applications. Previous study indicated that growth inhibition to bacterial cells occurred at concentrations above 0.156, 0.625 and 0.0195g/L for bottom ash (BA), cyclone ash (CA), scrubber ash (SA), respectively, suggesting the toxicity ranking of SA>BA>CA. This follow-up study clearly stated that compared to cadmium(II) and chromium(II) SA seemed to be the most toxic species to DH5alpha. Large amounts of supplemented lime (CaO) were used for neutralization of acid gas in incinerator, SA was thus contained high-levels of sulfate, chloride and nitrate salts. Therefore, compared to other ashes a marked increase in toxicity was observed in SA. Regarding soluble cations and anions in ashes, nitrite ion seemed to stimulate instead of repress cell growth. In contrast, nitrate ion showed so-called "sufficient challenge" characteristics for growth enhancement and inhibition at low and high concentration, respectively. Low solubility of metallic ions (e.g., Pb(II) and Cu(II)) in ashes likely resulted in low mobility in the environment and low risk to humans. The findings showed that toxicity attenuation of SA will be inevitably required as SA is even more toxic than Cr(II) and Cd(II).

  15. Synthesis of mesoporous silica materials from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Huang, Chun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal alkaline agent for the extraction of silica from bottom ash was Na 2 CO 3 . • The pore sizes for the mesoporous silica synthesized from bottom ash were 2–3.8 nm. • The synthesized materials exhibited a hexagonal pore structure with a smaller order. • The materials have potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: Incinerator bottom ash contains a large amount of silica and can hence be used as a silica source for the synthesis of mesoporous silica materials. In this study, the conditions for alkaline fusion to extract silica from incinerator bottom ash were investigated, and the resulting supernatant solution was used as the silica source for synthesizing mesoporous silica materials. The physical and chemical characteristics of the mesoporous silica materials were analyzed using BET, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and solid-state NMR. The results indicated that the BET surface area and pore size distribution of the synthesized silica materials were 992 m 2 /g and 2–3.8 nm, respectively. The XRD patterns showed that the synthesized materials exhibited a hexagonal pore structure with a smaller order. The NMR spectra of the synthesized materials exhibited three peaks, corresponding to Q 2 [Si(OSi) 2 (OH) 2 ], Q 3 [Si(OSi) 3 (OH)], and Q 4 [Si(OSi) 4 ]. The FTIR spectra confirmed the existence of a surface hydroxyl group and the occurrence of symmetric Si–O stretching. Thus, mesoporous silica was successfully synthesized from incinerator bottom ash. Finally, the effectiveness of the synthesized silica in removing heavy metals (Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Cr 2+ ) from aqueous solutions was also determined. The results showed that the silica materials synthesized from incinerator bottom ash have potential for use as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions

  16. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  17. Influence of Fly Ash, Bottom Ash, and Light Expanded Clay Aggregate on Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invention of new methods in strengthening concrete is under work for decades. Developing countries like India use the extensive reinforced construction works materials such as fly ash and bottom ash and other ingredients in RCC construction. In the construction industry, major attention has been devoted to the use of fly ash and bottom ash as cement and fine aggregate replacements. In addition, light expanded clay aggregate has been introduced instead of coarse aggregate to make concrete have light weight. This paper presents the results of a real-time work carried out to form light weight concrete made with fly ash, bottom ash, and light expanded clay aggregate as mineral admixtures. Experimental investigation on concrete mix M20 is done by replacement of cement with fly ash, fine aggregate with bottom ash, and coarse aggregate with light expanded clay aggregate at the rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% in each mix and their compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete were discussed for 7, 28, and 56 days and flexural strength has been discussed for 7, 28, and 56 days depending on the optimum dosage of replacement in compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete.

  18. Density and morphology studies on bottom ash and fly ash geopolymer brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, Laila Mardiah; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Ming, Liew Yun; Hussin, Kamarudin

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies the finding density and morphology analysis of geopolymer bricks using bottom ash and fly ash as a geopolymer raw material. The study has been conducted to produce bottom ash and fly ash geopolymer bricks by varying the ratio of fly ash/bottom ash, ratio solid/liquid and ratio sodium silicate (Na2SiO3)/ sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in the mix design. The compressive strength range between 3.8-4.5 Mpa was obtained in theprevious study [9]. The density and morphology analysis are done based on the optimum ratio selected from bottom ash/fly ash, solid/liquidand Na2SiO3/NaOH which is 1:2, 2.0 and 4.0 respectively for non-loading application brick. The morphology analysis of the bricks is closely related to the density recorded. The highest density shows the highest value of compressive strength and a denser microstructure of morphology.

  19. High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

    2011-08-01

    Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solidification on fly ash, Yugoslav experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D. [Mining Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Popov, S.; Salatic, D. [Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    A study was performed on ashes produced in the combustion process of coal from the Kosovo coal basin, in order to determine the potential and conditions of ash self-solidification. Investigations showed that the ash properties allows for the transformation into a solid mass through a controlled mixing with water. The optimal concentration of ash is 50 percent and the hydro-mixture is behaving as a Bingham plastic fluid. Solidification is obtained in a relatively short period (within 3 to 5 days) without additives. The resulting solidified mass is very consistent and stable

  1. Relative solubility of cations in Class F fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann G; Kazonich, George; Dahlberg, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Coal utilization byproducts (CUB), such as fly ash, contain cations that may be released during exposure to fluids such as acid rain or acid mine drainage. Researchers at the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) have conducted a long-term column leaching study of 32 Class F fly ash samples from pulverized coal (PC) combustion, and quantified the release of 19 cations in four leachants with a pH between 1.2 and 12. The relative solubility (M(L/T)) of each cation was defined as the total mass leached (M(L)) relative to the concentration (M(T)) of that element in the fly ash sample. A frequency distribution of relative solubility values was computed with ranges defined as insoluble, slightly soluble, moderately soluble, and very soluble. On the basis of this sample set, Ba, Cd, Fe, Pb, Sb, and Se in PC fly ash are insoluble. The elements Al, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn are slightly to moderately acid soluble. Only Ca and Na are water soluble; As and Ca are soluble in the basic solution, The results of this study indicate that the extent to which cations in Class F PC fly ash can be leached by naturally occurring fluids is very limited.

  2. Technical progress review of extraction of uranium from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Renxi; Gao Junning; Wu Qingming; Chen Gang; Wan Hongjin; Zhang Ziyue

    2014-01-01

    The increasing of fly ash in coal-fired power plants at home and abroad year by year and the potential impacts to the environment attracted media attention. Although the extraction of uranium from the fly ash in coal-fired power plants had optional process from technique aspect and sufficient preliminary researches, but considering the low grade of the uranium in fly ash and particularity of the mineral composition, it is easy to have a high cost of extraction. As a consequence, it is not included in the development plan of uranium mining and metallurgy. The present applications of fly ash are only building materials, building roads and pit valley backfill, the resource utilization rate was low and was still in its early stages of development and application. In view of this, the research advances and the latest development trends of extraction of uranium from fly ash at home and abroad were introduced from the technical aspect, and the beneficial analyzes of the prospect and advices to this industry were given. (authors)

  3. The utilisation of fly ash in CO2 mineral carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschik Jolanta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fixation of CO2 in the form of inorganic carbonates, also known as mineral carbonation, is an interesting option for the removal of carbon dioxide from various gas streams. The captured CO2 is reacted with metal-oxide bearing materials, usually naturally occurring minerals. The alkaline industrial waste, such as fly ash can also be considered as a source of calcium or magnesium. In the present study the solubility of fly ash from conventional pulverised hard coal fired boilers, with and without desulphurisation products, and fly ash from lignite fluidised bed combustion, generated by Polish power stations was analysed. The principal objective was to assess the potential of fly ash used as a reactant in the process of mineral carbonation. Experiments were done in a 1 dm3 reactor equipped with a heating jacket and a stirrer. The rate of dissolution in water and in acid solutions was measured at various temperatures (20 - 80ºC, waste-to-solvent ratios (1:100 - 1:4 and stirrer speeds (300 - 1100 min-1. Results clearly show that fluidised lignite fly ash has the highest potential for carbonation due to its high content of free CaO and fast kinetics of dissolution, and can be employed in mineral carbonation of CO2.

  4. Evaluation and Treatment of Coal Fly Ash for Adsorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    Full Text Available Many researchers had investigated fly ash as an adsorbent for the uptake of organic compounds from petrochemical waste effluents. The availability, inexpensive and its adsorption characteristic had made it an alternative media for the removal of organic compounds from aqueous solution. The physical property of South African Coal Fly Ash (SACFA was investigated to determine its adsorption capability and how it can be improved. Chemical treatment using 1M HCl solution in the ratio of (1 g fly ash to (2 ml of acid was used and compared with untreated heat-treated samples. The chemically treated fly ash has a higher specific surface area of 5.4116 m2/g than the heat-treated fly ash with 2.9969 m2/g. More attention had to be given to the utilization of SACFA for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds through the application of Liquid phase adsorption process that was considered as an inexpensive and environmentally friendly technology.

  5. Moessbauer Studies of Thermal Power Plant Coal and Fly Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneja, S. P.

    2004-01-01

    Iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic studies were carried out at room temperature on samples of coal, slag (bottom ash) and mechanical ash collected from Bhatinda (India) thermal power plant. Hyperfine parameters such as isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and total internal magnetic field of 57 Fe nuclei were used to characterize various iron-bearing minerals. The observed parameters indicate the presence of pyrite, siderite and ankerite in coal sample while magnetic fractions of mechanical ash and slag samples show the formation of hematite and Al-substituted magnesio-ferrite. The non-magnetic fraction of slag ash shows the dominance of Fe 2+ phases while that of mechanical ash demonstrates the formation of both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ phases. These findings are compared with Moessbauer and magnetic susceptibility studies on fly ash samples of Panipat (India) thermal power plant reported earlier.

  6. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting initiatives for these elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P...... extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter...

  8. Stabilization of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash using silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinying; Chen, Quanyuan; Zhou, Yasu; Tyrer, Mark; Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The stabilization of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash was investigated. • The addition of silica fume effectively reduced the leaching of Pb and Cd. • The relation of solid phase transformation and leaching behavior of heavy metals was discussed. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of silica fume on stabilizing heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. In addition to compressive strength measurements, hydrated pastes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal-analyses (DTA/TG), and MAS NMR ( 27 Al and 29 Si) techniques. It was found that silica fume additions could effectively reduce the leaching of toxic heavy metals. At the addition of 20% silica fume, leaching concentrations for Cu, Pb and Zn of the hydrated paste cured for 7 days decreased from 0.32 mg/L to 0.05 mg/L, 40.99 mg/L to 4.40 mg/L, and 6.96 mg/L to 0.21 mg/L compared with the MSWI fly ash. After curing for 135 days, Cd and Pb in the leachates were not detected, while Cu and Zn concentrations decreased to 0.02 mg/L and 0.03 mg/L. The speciation of Pb and Cd by the modified version of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) extractions showed that these metals converted into more stable state in hydrated pastes of MSWI fly ash in the presence of silica fume. Although exchangeable and weak-acid soluble fractions of Cu and Zn increased with hydration time, silica fume addition of 10% can satisfy the requirement of detoxification for heavy metals investigated in terms of the identification standard of hazardous waste of China

  9. Stabilization of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash using silica fume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinying; Chen, Quanyuan [School of Environment Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhou, Yasu [School of Environment Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Tyrer, Mark [Mineral Industry Research Organisation, Solihull B37 7HB (United Kingdom); Yu, Yang [School of Environment Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The stabilization of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash was investigated. • The addition of silica fume effectively reduced the leaching of Pb and Cd. • The relation of solid phase transformation and leaching behavior of heavy metals was discussed. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of silica fume on stabilizing heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. In addition to compressive strength measurements, hydrated pastes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal-analyses (DTA/TG), and MAS NMR ({sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si) techniques. It was found that silica fume additions could effectively reduce the leaching of toxic heavy metals. At the addition of 20% silica fume, leaching concentrations for Cu, Pb and Zn of the hydrated paste cured for 7 days decreased from 0.32 mg/L to 0.05 mg/L, 40.99 mg/L to 4.40 mg/L, and 6.96 mg/L to 0.21 mg/L compared with the MSWI fly ash. After curing for 135 days, Cd and Pb in the leachates were not detected, while Cu and Zn concentrations decreased to 0.02 mg/L and 0.03 mg/L. The speciation of Pb and Cd by the modified version of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) extractions showed that these metals converted into more stable state in hydrated pastes of MSWI fly ash in the presence of silica fume. Although exchangeable and weak-acid soluble fractions of Cu and Zn increased with hydration time, silica fume addition of 10% can satisfy the requirement of detoxification for heavy metals investigated in terms of the identification standard of hazardous waste of China.

  10. Development of chloride-resisting concrete using fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; Jones, M.R. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering, Concrete Technology Unit

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how low-lime fly ash can be used to develop chloride-resistant concrete by improving both its physical resistance to the ingress of chloride and binding capacity of these ions in the cover zone. This includes optimizing the fly ash content, reducing the water/binder ratio of the concrete, processing fly ash to improve its particulate characteristics and, finally, using ternary blends with silica fume or metakaolin. This last method is shown to provide the highest degree of chloride resistance. A tentative classification of chloride-bearing environments together with recommendations for the specification of concrete for structures exposed to these environments, is proposed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Behaviour of Onobrychis Viciifolia Growing on Fly Ash Experimental Parcels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to identify a treatment method for upper layers of fly ash to cover them with vegetation. Fixing plant layer acts against erosion/washes of fly ash deposits. Studies emphasized the need of use of an organic fertilizer mixed with inorganic materials such as volcanic tuff and, also, the need of selecting a plant species compatible with the treated culture medium. The use of an amended variant of compost and modified volcanic tuff of fly ash layers shows that the selected leguminous species, Onobrychis viciifolia, installs itself quickly on the third level of Braun - Blanquet scale. The reduction of toxic heavy metals bioaccumulation from the aerial plant tissues such as lead and nickel of 72-79%, and copper and zinc of 50-68%, respectively, allows obtaining of a safe biomass for wildlife visiting the area.

  12. Existence of Cl in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and dechlorination effect of thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-02-28

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is widely used in Japan, through which large amount of incineration residues are produced. The recycle/reuse of the incineration residues is troubled by many factors. This paper studied the MSWI bottom ash with the principal focus on Cl. Both bulk analysis and microanalysis methods have been carried out. The bulk analysis disclosed a particle-size dependent pattern of the Cl content in the bottom ash and the insoluble Cl is essentially in the form of Friedel's salt (3CaO·Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)·10H(2)O). The microanalysis revealed that Cl preferentially exists in the quench phase of the individual bottom ash particle. Since Friedel's salt and the other quench products are thermally unstable, a series of thermal treatments were carried out to decompose such Cl-bearing phases. The experimental results showed the total Cl content in the MSWI bottom ash was reduced by 55.46% after a 4-h heating process at 1000°C. The removal of the soluble Cl (originally as alkali salts) by the thermal process was found to be more effective. However, the insoluble Cl content in the heated sample was barely lowered owing to the formation of calcium chlorocalumite (11CaO·7Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)) in the course of heating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and hazard evaluation of bottom ash produced from incinerated hospital waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Petrantonaki, Maria; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2009-12-30

    The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash from incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in many countries causes significant scale damage, since it contaminates the soil as well as surface and underground waters, putting both the environment and the public health at risk. In view of the above, a study of bottom ash produced at a hospital medical waste incinerator (HMWI) in Greece was conducted, in order to detect the presence of heavy metals and therefore assess its toxicity; this led to conclusions on the possible contamination of the soil as well as surface and underground waters as a result of its disposal in landfills. The study was conducted at a typical general hospital with 500-bed capacity. About 880 kg of infectious waste coming from a general hospital with all medical departments are pyrolyticly incinerated at the HMWI every day. International literature contains many references to research that characterizes bottom ash as either dangerous, not dangerous, or inert, in an effort to diagnose its proper management and disposal. For this reason, this study focuses on the characterization of bottom ash. Samples were collected from a combustion chamber, over a period of 1 year, and a series of tests were conducted, including an analysis of particle size distribution, morphology, mineralogical and chemical composition, heavy metal leaching behavior and PCDD/F.

  14. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  16. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C., E-mail: taylorlanges@utexas.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Juenger, Maria C.G. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, 35 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ± 5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling. - Highlights: • Fly ash or metakaolin SCMs can neutralize or reduce concrete emanation fractions. • The specific activity of constituents is a poor predictor of the concrete emanation fraction. • Exhalation from fly ash concretes represents a small fraction of the total indoor radon concentration.

  17. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.; Juenger, Maria C.G.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ± 5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling. - Highlights: • Fly ash or metakaolin SCMs can neutralize or reduce concrete emanation fractions. • The specific activity of constituents is a poor predictor of the concrete emanation fraction. • Exhalation from fly ash concretes represents a small fraction of the total indoor radon concentration

  18. Optimising Ambient Setting Bayer Derived Fly Ash Geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Evan; Kealley, Catherine S.; van Riessen, Arie; Hart, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The Bayer process utilises high concentrations of caustic and elevated temperature to liberate alumina from bauxite, for the production of aluminium and other chemicals. Within Australia, this process results in 40 million tonnes of mineral residues (Red mud) each year. Over the same period, the energy production sector will produce 14 million tonnes of coal combustion products (Fly ash). Both industrial residues require impoundment storage, yet combining some of these components can produce geopolymers, an alternative to cement. Geopolymers derived from Bayer liquor and fly ash have been made successfully with a compressive strength in excess of 40 MPa after oven curing. However, any product from these industries would require large volume applications with robust operational conditions to maximise utilisation. To facilitate potential unconfined large-scale production, Bayer derived fly ash geopolymers have been optimised to achieve ambient curing. Fly ash from two different power stations have been successfully trialled showing the versatility of the Bayer liquor-ash combination for making geopolymers. PMID:28773513

  19. Optimising Ambient Setting Bayer Derived Fly Ash Geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Evan; Kealley, Catherine S; van Riessen, Arie; Hart, Robert D

    2016-05-19

    The Bayer process utilises high concentrations of caustic and elevated temperature to liberate alumina from bauxite, for the production of aluminium and other chemicals. Within Australia, this process results in 40 million tonnes of mineral residues (Red mud) each year. Over the same period, the energy production sector will produce 14 million tonnes of coal combustion products (Fly ash). Both industrial residues require impoundment storage, yet combining some of these components can produce geopolymers, an alternative to cement. Geopolymers derived from Bayer liquor and fly ash have been made successfully with a compressive strength in excess of 40 MPa after oven curing. However, any product from these industries would require large volume applications with robust operational conditions to maximise utilisation. To facilitate potential unconfined large-scale production, Bayer derived fly ash geopolymers have been optimised to achieve ambient curing. Fly ash from two different power stations have been successfully trialled showing the versatility of the Bayer liquor-ash combination for making geopolymers.

  20. Optimising Ambient Setting Bayer Derived Fly Ash Geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Jamieson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bayer process utilises high concentrations of caustic and elevated temperature to liberate alumina from bauxite, for the production of aluminium and other chemicals. Within Australia, this process results in 40 million tonnes of mineral residues (Red mud each year. Over the same period, the energy production sector will produce 14 million tonnes of coal combustion products (Fly ash. Both industrial residues require impoundment storage, yet combining some of these components can produce geopolymers, an alternative to cement. Geopolymers derived from Bayer liquor and fly ash have been made successfully with a compressive strength in excess of 40 MPa after oven curing. However, any product from these industries would require large volume applications with robust operational conditions to maximise utilisation. To facilitate potential unconfined large-scale production, Bayer derived fly ash geopolymers have been optimised to achieve ambient curing. Fly ash from two different power stations have been successfully trialled showing the versatility of the Bayer liquor-ash combination for making geopolymers.

  1. Temporal and spatial variations in fly ash quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, 40511 Lexington, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Mining and Mineral Resources Building, University of Kentucky, 40506 Lexington, KY (United States)

    2001-10-05

    Fly ash quality, both as the amount of petrographically distinguishable carbons and in chemistry, varies in both time and space. Temporal variations are a function of a number of variables. Variables can include variations in the coal blend organic petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry; variations in the pulverization of the coal, both as a function of the coal's Hardgrove grindability index and as a function of the maintenance and settings of the pulverizers; and variations in the operating conditions of the boiler, including changes in the pollution control system. Spatial variation, as an instantaneous measure of fly ash characteristics, should not involve changes in the first two sets of variables listed above. Spatial variations are a function of the gas flow within the boiler and ducts, certain flow conditions leading to a tendency for segregation of the less-dense carbons in one portion of the gas stream.Caution must be applied in sampling fly ash. Samples from a single bin, or series of bins, may not be representative of the whole fly ash, providing a biased view of the nature of the material. Further, it is generally not possible to be certain about variation until the analysis of the ash is complete.

  2. Chromium removal from tannery wastewater by using of flying ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil P, E.; Saldarriaga M, C.

    1998-01-01

    A simple and economic method to chromium removal from tannery wastewater by means of flying ash is presented. The chromium removal operation is a discontinuous process that involve the mass of flying ash, time of contact and temperature or ph as variables, their which are optimized through Box-Wilson type experimental design. The results were successful: From an initial fluid whit chromium concentration of 1850m ppm, final concentrations of 0.008 ppm and 0.5 ppm of Cr+3 and Cr+6 respectively were achieved. These post-treatment concentrations are into the approved range definite by Government's Laws to this waste type

  3. Influence of fly-ashes on properties of ordinary concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of fly-ashes on properties of ordinary concretes. Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. The construction and building materials industry has the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of selected properties (consistency, water absorbability, compressive strength and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing, depth of penetration of ordinary concretes and concretes containing fly-ashes - calcareous and siliceous ash − in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R and natural aggregate with graining of 0-16 mm were used. The concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in three lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 15, 20 and 30% of the cement mass. After the tests, it was stated that the fly-ash admixture does not increase the air content in the mix, it increases the compressive strength in time and the siliceous ash improves the splitting tensile strength.

  4. Updating Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Fly Ash for Use in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-22

    When incorporated in concrete mixtures, fly ashes are known to influence both its fresh and hardened properties. An accurate and quick technique to predict the extent of this influence based on the characteristics of fly ash would be highly beneficia...

  5. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the test methods used to determine the : alkali content of fly ash. It also evaluated if high-alkali fly ash : exacerbates alkali-silica reaction in laboratory tests and field : concrete.

  6. Evaluation of the distribution patterns of Pb, Cu and Cd from MSWI fly ash during thermal treatment by sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jing-Dong; Wey, Ming-Yen; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2009-03-15

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was frequently classified as hazardous materials as the metals' concentration of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) exceeded regulations. Many studies have focused on reducing the concentration of TCLP using thermal treatment and increasing the application of thermally treated slag. However, the metal patterns in MSWI fly ash with or without thermal treatment have seldom been addressed. The main objective of this study was evaluation of the distribution patterns of Pb, Cu and Cd from MSWI fly ash during thermal treatment by sequential extraction procedure. The experimental parameters included the form of pretreatment, the proportion of bottom ash (bottom ash/fly ash, B/F=0, 0.1 and 1) and the retention time. The results indicated that (1) In comparison to raw fly ash, the distribution patterns of Pb, Cu and Cd become stable in thermally treated slag. (2) Washing pretreatment caused the Pb pattern to become stable, while the influence on Cu and Cd were not significant. (3) The distribution patterns of Pb, Cu, and Cd became more stable as the retention time increased. (4) Adding bottom ash could make the distribution patterns of Pb and Cd more stable.

  7. Recycling of MSWI fly ash by means of cementitious double step cold bonding pelletization: Technological assessment for the production of lightweight artificial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2015-12-15

    In this work, an extensive study on the recycling of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by means of cold bonding pelletization is presented. The ash comes from an incineration plant equipped with rotary and stoker furnaces, in which municipal, hospital and industrial wastes are treated. Fly ash from waste incineration is classified as hazardous and cannot be utilized or even landfilled without prior treatment. The pelletization process uses cement, lime and coal fly ash as components of the binding systems. This process has been applied to several mixes in which the ash content has been varied from 50% (wt.%) up to a maximum of 70%. An innovative additional pelletization step with only cementitious binder has been performed in order to achieve satisfactory immobilization levels. The obtained lightweight porous aggregates are mostly suitable for recovery in the field of building materials with enhanced sustainability properties. Density, water absorption and crushing strength ranged from 1000 to 1600 kg/m(3), 7 to 16% and 1.3 to 6.2 MPa, respectively, and the second pelletization step increased stabilization efficiency. The feasibility of the process has been analyzed by testing also concrete specimens containing the artificial aggregates, resulting in lightweight concrete of average performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J.Alam; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  9. Recovery Potential of Bottom Ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Kameníková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present the composition of bottom ash determined in samples obtained from MSWI plant in Prague. The samples were first screened into fractions of grain sizes 0–2 mm, 2–4 mm, 4–6 mm, 6–8 mm, 8–10 mm, 10–15 mm, 15–20 mm and >20 mm. Each fraction, with the exception of fines bellow 2 mm, is manually sorted into glass, ceramics, magnetic particles, non-ferrous metals, unburned organics and the residual mineral fraction. It was found that the bottom ash contains in average 15–20 % ...

  10. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  11. Biogas--municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash interactions: sulphur compounds removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducom, Gaëlle; Radu-Tirnoveanu, Daniela; Pascual, Christophe; Benadda, Belkacem; Germain, Patrick

    2009-07-30

    This study focuses on a new way of reusing municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash: landfill gas purification before energetic valorisation. A pilot plant was designed and operated on a landfill site located in France (Loire). One kilogram bottom ash is able to sequestrate more than 3.0 g of hydrogen sulphide, 44 mg of methyl mercaptan, and 86 mg of dimethyl sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide retention is probably due to acid-basic reactions conducting to sulphur mineralisation under the form of low solubility metal sulphides. The reaction medium is hydration water. The retention mechanism for methyl mercaptan is probably similar but dimethyl sulphide is most likely retained by physical adsorption. As methane is not retained by bottom ash, the landfill gas energetic content will not be lowered. There seems to be no appreciable difference in these results whether bottom ash is fresh or carbonated. These results are encouraging in the perspective of a field scale application of this biogas treatment process.

  12. Leaching behaviour of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: From granular material to monolithic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the leaching behaviour of the bottom ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used in concrete production. In particular, the release of pollutants was evaluated by the application of different leaching tests, both on granular materials and monolithic samples (concrete mixtures cast with bottom ash). The results confirmed that, according to Italian regulations, unwashed bottom ashes present critical issues for the use as alternative aggregates in the construction sector due to the excessive release of pollutants; instead, the leachate from washed bottom ashes was similar to natural aggregates. The concentration of pollutants in the leachate from concrete mixtures was lower than regulation limits for reuse. The crushing process significantly influenced the release of pollutants: this behaviour was due both to the increase in surface area and the release of contaminants from cement. Moreover, the increase in contact time (up to 64 days) involved more heavy metals to be released.

  13. Study of Fly Ash Geopolymer Based Composites with Polyester Waste Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Sotiriadis; Olesia Mikhailova

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, fly ash geopolymer based composites including polyester (PES) waste were studied. Specimens of three compositions were prepared: (a) fly ash geopolymer with 5% PES waste; (b) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 5% PES waste; (c) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 6.25% PES waste. Compressive and bending strength measurements, water absorption test and determination of thermal conductivity coefficient were performed. The results showed that the addition of sand...

  14. The future resources for eco-building materials: II. Fly ash and coal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Li; Delong Xu [Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an (China). China State key Laboratory of Western Architecture & Technology

    2009-08-15

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively, the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed, such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation, removal of carbon remains and fine comminution, calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology, and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  15. Experimental Study on Durability Improvement of Fly Ash Concrete with Durability Improving Admixture

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Hong-zhu; Kasami, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the durability of fly ash concrete, a series of experimental studies are carried out, where durability improving admixture is used to reduce drying shrinkage and improve freezing-thawing resistance. The effects of durability improving admixture, air content, water-binder ratio, and fly ash replacement ratio on the performance of fly ash concrete are discussed in this paper. The results show that by using durability improving admixture in nonair-entraining fly ash concrete,...

  16. Towards the comprehension of the role of copper and iron in MSWI fly ash carbon degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandesso, E.; Arosio, C.; Collina, E.; Lasagni, M.; Pitea, D. [Universita Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Fermo, P. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The formation of PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and PolyChlorinated DibenzoFurans (PCDF) from many anthropogenic sources has been noticed since the 1970s. In particular, municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) are a source of PCDD/F and their formation has been proposed to occur by various homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms. In the low temperature range (200-600 C) two mechanisms generally are accepted: (i) heterogeneous reactions on the fly ash surface involving gas-phase or adsorbed precursors such as chlorinated phenols, chlorinated benzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls and (ii) the formation, eventually catalysed, from fly ash carbon, chlorine and oxygen. In the latter, usually termed the de novo synthesis, contradictory conclusions are provided about the key parameters and their role. Apart from temperature and reaction time, these parameters include: the amount and structure of carbon in the fly ash; the chlorine speciation together with the relative importance of gas-phase inorganic chlorine with respect to extractable organic chlorine, ash-bound chlorine, inorganic chlorides such as metal chloride or water-soluble earth metal chloride; the oxygen percentage in the reaction atmosphere. As for the metal chlorides, copper(II) chloride has proven to be very active in promoting PCDDs/Fs formation even if less efficiently, iron(III) chlorides participates in or promotes formation via de novo synthesis. In a previous paper we reported the CO{sub 2} evolution curves from MSWI fly ash and model systems studied by means of the TG-FTIR technique. Model systems consisted of physically ground mixtures of active carbon, C, a silica, SiO{sub 2}, matrix, and CuCl{sub 2} or CuO or CuSO{sub 4}. It was shown that the number of peaks in the curves depended on the system studied. Thus it was possible to conclude that low temperature carbon oxidation was highly dependent on the catalyst added to the model mixtures as well as on the metals already present in

  17. Recovery of municipal waste incineration bottom ash and water treatment sludge to water permeable pavement materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Ho, Hsiu-Mai

    2006-01-01

    Water treatment plant sludge and municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash are non-hazardous residues, and they can be reprocessed to produce useful materials for city public works. In this study, an effort was endeavored to investigate the properties of water permeable bricks made of water treatment sludge and bottom ash without involving an artificial aggregate step. The water treatment plant sludge was dried and ground, and the bottom ash was subjected to magnetic separation to remove ferrous metals. Both sludge and bottom ash were ground and sieved to a size of bottom ash and the blocks were molded under a pressure of 110 kg/cm2. Thereafter, the molded blocks were sintered at temperatures of 900-1200 degrees C for 60-360 min. The compressive strength, permeability and water absorption rate of the sintered brick were examined and compared to relevant standards. The amount of bottom ash added in the mixture with water treatment sludge affects both the compressive strength and the permeability of the sintered bricks. The two effects are antonymous as higher bottom ash content will develop a beehive configuration and have more voids in the brick. It is concluded that a 20% weight content of bottom ash under a sintering condition of 1150 degrees C for 360 min can generate a brick with a compressive strength of 256 kg/cm2, a water absorption ratio of 2.78% and a permeability of 0.016 cm/s.

  18. Conditioning of alpha incinerator ash by means of embedding in different matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.; Biagini, A.

    1990-01-01

    The programme of conditioning alpha incinerator ash coming from a MOX fuel fabrication plant - MELOX project - has several steps. The first one is the fabrication of embedding formulation representative ash. The following step is an embedding formulation study at laboratory scale, with a comparison between three embedding matrices i.e. cement, thermosetting epoxide resin, and an epoxide cement compound. To establish the confinment behavior, a study was done including leaching test and radiolysis of 238 Pu doped samples. At the industrial scale a polyvalent pilot plant called 'PICC' was put in service. The qualification of the polymer cement process is shown

  19. Characterization of bottom ash from two hospital waste incinerators in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali, Meriem E L; Bahri, Meriem; Gmouh, Said; Jaddi, Hassan; Bakkali, Mohammed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mzibri, Mohammed E L

    2013-12-01

    The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash generated by the incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in developed countries are the main cause of significant damage, such as contamination of the soil, as well as surface and underground waters, which may put both the environment and public health at risk. In Morocco, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In this study, 16 hospital waste ash samples were collected from the incinerators of the two main hospitals in Rabat: Ibn Sina and Cheikh Zayd. A series of tests was conducted, including particle size distribution, mineralogical and chemical composition, and heavy metal leaching behaviour. The results showed that the samples were composed mainly of P2O5 (18%), SiO2 (17%), Na2O (16%), CaO (14%) and SO3 (10%). Moreover, chemical analysis clearly demonstrated that medical waste (MW) contains large amounts of waste generated by domestic activities in the hospital, with a lack of sorting system in the monitoring of MW. Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, chromium and nickel with a vast range of 0.5-25071 mg/kg. Leaching tests showed that the extracted amounts of all the heavy metals were lower, with concentrations metal concentrations with the limit values set by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC allowed us to conclude that bottom ashes meet the waste acceptance criteria regarding these heavy metals.

  20. Study on Strength Behavior of Organic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayshakhi Deb Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of fly ash on the consistency, compactness, acidic properties, and strength of organic soil. The presence of organic content in the soil has detrimental impacts on the physical and strength behavior of soil. To investigate the effectiveness of fly ash in the stabilization of organic soil, two types of fly ashes (Type I and Type II at different percentages were used. It is found that fly ash significantly reduces the plasticity index of the organic soil, whereas the liquid and plastic limits increase. The dry density of the fly ash-soil mixture increases significantly, while the water requirement reduces due to the addition of fly ash. The increase of dry density compromises higher strength. The increase of qu with the increase of fly ash content is mainly due to the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, although the reduction in water content results from the addition of dry fly ash solid. Moreover, Type I fly ash contributes a higher value of qu compared to Type II fly ash. This is attributed to the characteristics of fly ash including CaO and CaO/SiO2 ratio.

  1. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ashes in larger scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    The paper presents results from the project: "Electrochemical removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ashes in larger scale and evaluation of the possibilities of reusing the treated ashes in concrete".......The paper presents results from the project: "Electrochemical removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ashes in larger scale and evaluation of the possibilities of reusing the treated ashes in concrete"....

  2. UASB Treatment of Methanolic Pulp Wastewater with Addition of Waste Starch and Incinerated Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Kobaysashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You; Harada, Hideki

    The pulp wastewater consists mainly of methanol. It is expected to treat using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process. Paper manufactories also produce waste starch and incinerated ash. The integrated treating for these wastes is desirable. In this study, two UASB reactors were operated to treat pulp wastewater with addition of waste starch and with addition of incinerated ash, receptively. Continuous operations of a UASB reactor treating pulp wastewater with addition of waste starch (PS reactor) and a UASB reactor treating pulp wastewater with addition of incinerated ash (PA reactor) , were investigated at mesophilic conditions. The PS reactor performed well with an average 93.7% total CODCr and 97.3% soluble CODCr removal efficiency in average at a maximum volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 16.0 kgCOD/m3/d. The PA reactor was also successfully operated with an average 95.3% total CODCr and 97.5% soluble CODCr removal efficiency in average at a maximum VLR of 14.6 kgCOD/m3/d. Successfully developed granules were obtained after over 140 days of operation in both reactors, and the granules were 1 to 2 mm in mean diameter. Microbial analysis revealed the genus Methanomethylovorans was predominant in the granules of both reactors.

  3. Preparation and damping properties of fly ash filled epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jian; Wu Gaohui; Zhang Qiang

    2007-01-01

    With the purpose of characterizing the high damping properties of the promising low density epoxy/fly ash composites, a series of epoxy composites filled with fly ash of different volume fraction are prepared in this work. Damping tests of cured epoxy composites are performed in the temperature range from -40 to 150 deg. C and in the frequency range from 10 to 800 Hz by using a tension-compression mode. The results show that the values of tangent delta (tan δ) reach their peak values at the glass transition temperatures for the composites with 30-50 vol.% fly ash, and the tan δ values attenuate slowly with the increase of frequency, which indicates that the damping properties of such composites are better than those of other composites. Scanning electron microscopy is used to observe the fractured surfaces of the composites and clarify the dispersion and distribution of fly ash particulates in the matrix. In addition, the thermogravimetric curves are also employed to characterize the heat-resistant performance of the composites

  4. Leaching of nutrient salts from fly ash from biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  5. Possible Use of Fly-Ash in Road Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krlièková Edita

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning the use of waste from industrial and other productions have been dealt with at out workplace for several years. The reason is not only a lack of natural material resources but mainly economical and environmental aspects. Current research at our workplace has been aimed at finding solutions to problems concerning the use of fly-ash in road building.

  6. Coal fly ash utilization: low temperature sintering of wall tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Navin; Sharma, Priya; Pashkov, G L; Voskresenskaya, E N; Amritphale, S S; Baghel, Narendra S

    2008-01-01

    We present here a study of the sintering of fly ash and its mixture with low alkali pyrophyllite in the presence of sodium hexa meta phosphate (SHMP), a complex activator of sintering, for the purpose of wall tile manufacturing. The sintering of fly ash with SHMP in the temperature range 925-1050 degrees C produces tiles with low impact strength; however, the incremental addition of low alkali pyrophyllite improves impact strength. The impact strength of composites with >or=40% (w/w) pyrophyllite in the fly ash-pyrophyllite mix satisfies the acceptable limit (19.6 J/m) set by the Indian Standards Institute for wall tiles. Increasing the pyrophyllite content results in an increase in the apparent density of tiles, while shrinkage and water absorption decrease. The strength of fly ash tiles is attributed to the formation of a silicophosphate phase; in pyrophyllite rich tiles, it is attributed to the formation of a tridymite-structured T-AlPO(4) phase. Scanning electron micrographs show that the reinforcing rod shaped T-AlPO(4) crystals become more prominent as the pyrophyllite content increases in the sintered tiles.

  7. Compressive strength and hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Irena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of geopolymerization involves the reaction of solid aluminosilicate materials with highly alkaline silicate solution yielding an aluminosilicate inorganic polymer named geopolymer, which may be successfully applied in civil engineering as a replacement for cement. In this paper we have investigated the influence of synthesis parameters: solid to liquid ratio, NaOH concentration and the ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH, on the mechanical properties and hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers in distilled water, sea water and simulated acid rain. The highest value of compressive strength was obtained using 10 mol dm-3 NaOH and at the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 1.5. Moreover, the results have shown that mechanical properties of fly ash based geopolymers are in correlation with their hydrolytic stability. Factors that increase the compressive strength also increase the hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers. The best hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers was shown in sea water while the lowest stability was recorded in simulated acid rain. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172054 i Nanotechnology and Functional Materials Center, funded by the European FP7 project No. 245916

  8. Native Chromium Resistant Staphylococci Species from a Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-six chromium-resistant Staphylococci species belonging to S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. arlettae were previously isolated from a chromium-polluted Fly ash (FA) dumping site in South Africa. However the genetic mechanisms responsible for chromium resistance were not known. Polymerase chain ...

  9. Mineralogical study of Brazilian fly ashes; origin, characteristics and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-one fly ash samples from the five main Brazilian coal-powered thermoelectric plants were subjected to gravimetric chemical analysis, complexometry, flame photometry, X-ray diffractometry, thermodifferential and thermogravimetric analysis, transmitted and reflected light microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and transmited and scanning electron microscopy. (Author) [pt

  10. Stability and leaching of cobalt smelter fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vítková, Martina; Hyks, Jiri; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The leaching behaviour of fly ash from a Co smelter situated in the Zambian Copperbelt was studied as a function of pH (5–12) using the pH-static leaching test (CEN/TS 14997). Various experimental time intervals (48h and 168h) were evaluated. The leaching results were combined with the ORCHESTRA ...

  11. SCC with high volume of fly ash content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrakh Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is a very perspective building material. It provides great benefits during the construction of heavily reinforced buildings. SCC has outstanding properties such as high flowability, dense structure and high strength due to specific quality of aggregates, fillers, their proportion in mix, use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Main disadvantages of SCC are high price and the difficulty of obtaining a proper mix. Use of fillers, such as fly ash type F, is a way to make SCC cheaper by replacing part of cement. Fly ash also provides some technological and operating advantages. In this paper the influence of high volume (60% from cement fly ash type F on the properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete is investigated. The result of the work shows the possibility of reduction the cost of SCC using ordinary fillers and high amount of fly ash. The investigated SCC has low speed of hardening (7-day compressive strength at the range of 41.8 MPa and high volume of entrained air content (3.5%.

  12. Upshot of Elevated Temperature on Performance Facet of Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cube specimens were cast, cured in water at ambient laboratory temperature and subjected to different temperature regimes before testing. A mix design of 25N/mm2 was adopted for this investigation. The laterite content in the fine aggregate was varied from 0 to 30% at 10% interval with the introduction of Fly ash at 10%, ...

  13. Synthesis of high ion exchange zeolites from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, N.; Alastuey, A.; Juan, R.; Andres, J.M.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Ayora, C.; Medinaceli, A.; Valero, A. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    This study focuses on the synthesis at a pilot plant scale of zeolitic material obtained from the coal fly ashes of the Teruel and Narcea power plants in Spain. After the optimisation of the synthesis parameters at laboratory scale, the Teruel and Narcea fly ashes were selected as low and high glass fly ashes. The pilot plant scale experiments were carried out in a 10 m{sup 3} reactor of Clariant SA (Barcelona, Spain). The results allowed obtaining 1.1 and 2.2 tonnes of zeolitic material with 40 and 55% of NaP1 content, in two single batch experiments of 24 and 8 hours, for Teruel and Narcea fly ashes, respectively. The cation exchange capacities (CEC) of the final product reached 2.0 and 2.7 meq g{sup -1} for Teruel and Narcea zeolitic material, respectively, which are very close to the usual values reached by the high quality natural zeolitic products. Finally, with the aim of testing possible applications of the commercial NaP1-IQE and pilot plant NaP1-Narcea zeolitic products in water decontamination, efficiency for metal uptake from waste waters from electroplating baths was investigated.

  14. Separation of ultrafine particles from class F fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrafine particles were recovered from Çatalağzı (CFA and Sugözü (SFA thermal power plant fly ashes using a specific hydraulic classification technology. Since fly ashes have a high tendency to be flocculated in water, settling experiments were first designed to determine the more effective dispersant and the optimum dosage. Two different types of the superplasticizers (SP polymers based on sulphonate (NSF, Disal and carboxylate (Glenium 7500 were used as the dispersing agents in these settling experiments. Hydraulic classification experiments were then conducted to separate ultrafine fractions from the fly ash samples on the basis of the settling experiments. According to the settling experiments, better results were achieved with the use of Disal for both CFA and SFA. The classification experiments showed that the overflow products with average particle sizes of 5.2 μm for CFA and 4.4 μm for SFA were separated from the respective as-received samples with acceptable yields and high enough recoveries of -5 μm (ultrafine particles. Overall results pointed out that the hydraulic classification technology used provided promising results in the ultrafine particle separations from the fly ash samples.

  15. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Botswana, it is being produced at the rate of more than 300 t per day at Morupule Power Station. Almost 70% of this production is disposed off as a waste and only 30% is being used in making cement. Few limited studies suggest that a fly ash containing low unburnt carbon (LOI) may exhibit self hardening property even ...

  16. Water Diffusion Modelling of CFB Fly Ash Thermoset Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Ralph P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shift in coal-fired power plants from pulverized coal (PC boiler technology into the greener circulating fluidized bed (CFB boiler technology resulted into a major deviation in the properties of the waste fly ash generated making it less suitable for its previous application as additives for construction materials. A new market for CFB fly ash had to be found for it not to end up as a zero value by-product. Using CFB fly ash as filler for thermoset composites is a new and remarkable application. Only a few studies, however, have been done to characterize the properties of this new material. Further experimentation and analysis may be costly and time-consuming since common procedures are material destructive. A computer-aided modeling of the composite’s water sorption behavior was done. The effect of particle loading, size and shape were considered. These properties were varied and the resulting overall diffusivities were compared to previous experimental studies. The comparison of the model and experimental diffusivity values showed satisfactory results. This model may then provide a cheaper and more time-efficient method for the characterization of the water sorption properties of CFB fly ash thermoset composites. In the future, this may lead to further studies on its application as a green material.

  17. Integrated acid mine drainage management using fly ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vadapalli, VRK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly Ash (FA) from a power station in South Africa was investigated to neutralise and remove contaminants from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). After this primary treatment the insoluble FA residue namely solid residue (SR) was investigated as a suitable...

  18. Gehlenite and anorthite formation from fluid fly ash

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Šupová, Monika; Hanzlíček, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1157, April (2018), s. 476-481 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Phase changes * Fluid fly ash * Aluminosilicate * Gehlenite * Anorthite * Infrared analysis Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2016

  19. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2010-10-15

    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clay formation and metal fixation during weathering of coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevenbergen, C.; Bradley, J.P.; Reeuwijk, L.P. Van; Shyam, A.K.; Hjelmar, O.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The enormous and worldwide production of coal fly ash cannot be durably isolated from the weathering cycle, and the weathering characteristics of fly ash must be known to understand the long-term environmental impact. The authors studied the weathering of two coal fly ashes and compared them with published data from weathered volcanic ash, it's closest natural analogue. Both types of ash contain abundant aluminosilicate glass, which alters to noncrystalline clay. However, this study reveals that the kinetics of coal fly ash weathering are more rapid than those of volcanic ash because the higher pH of fresh coal fly ash promotes rapid dissolution of the glass. After about 10 years of weathering, the noncrystalline clay content of coal fly ash is higher than that of 250-year-old volcanic ash. The observed rapid clay formation together with heavy metal fixation imply that the long-term environmental impact of coal fly ash disposal may be less severe and the benefits more pronounced than predicted from previous studies on unweathered ash. Their findings suggest that isolating coal fly ash from the weathering cycle may be counterproductive because, in the long-term under conditions of free drainage, fly ash is converted into fertile soil capable of supporting agriculture

  1. Mössbauer characterization of feed coal, ash and fly ash from a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A.; Moreno Gutiérrez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was apply 57 Fe Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy at room temperature in order to study the occurrence of iron-containing mineral phases in: 1) feed coal; 2) coal ash, obtained in different stages of the ASTM D3174 standard method; and 3) fly ash, produced when coal is burned in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant localized in Boyacá, Colombia. According to obtained results, we can conclude the occurrence of pyrite and jarosite in the feed coal; Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ crystalline paramagnetic phases, superparamagnetic hematite and hematite in coal ash; Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ noncrystalline and crystalline phases, magnetite and hematite in fly ash. Precisely, for a basic understanding, this work discusses some the possible transformations that take place during coal combustion

  2. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment including water absorption, sieve analysis, and fineness modulus. Highvolume fly ash (HVFA mortar specimens were made and the compressive strength and flowability test using bottom ash after treatment are compared with that of the sand specimen. Low water to cementitious ratio was used to ensure higher strength from the cementitious paste and superplasticizer demand was determined for each treatment. The result showed that bottom ash can be used as fine aggregate replacement material. Sieve separation of the bottom ash could produce 75% of the compressive strength compared with the control sand specimen, whereas pounded bottom ash could have up to 96% of the compressive strength of the control specimen. A 28-day compressive strength of 45 MPa was achievable with 100% replacement of fine aggregate with bottom ash.

  3. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  4. Elastic properties of fly ash-stabilized mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Dimter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stabilized mixes are used in the construction of bearing layers in asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Two nondestructive methods: resonant frequency method and ultrasonic pulse velocity method, were used for estimation of elastic properties of fly ash–stabilized mixes. Stabilized mixes were designed containing sand from the river Drava and binder composed of different share of cement and fly ash. The aim of the research was to analyze the relationship between the dynamic modulus of elasticity determined by different nondestructive methods. Data showed that average value of elasticity modulus obtained by the ultrasound velocity method is lower than the values of elasticity modulus obtained by resonant frequency method. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of elastic properties of fly ash stabilized mixes, see Dimter et al. [1].

  5. Influence of carbonation under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas on the leachability of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Xiong, Zhuo; Tian, Chong; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the high cost of pure CO 2 , carbonation of MSWI fly ash has not been fully developed. It is essential to select a kind of reaction gas with rich CO 2 instead of pure CO 2 . The CO 2 uptake and leaching toxicity of heavy metals in three typical types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated with simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas under different reaction temperatures, which was compared with both pure CO 2 and simulated air combustion flue gas. The CO 2 uptake under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas were similar to that of pure CO 2 . The leaching concentration of heavy metals in all MSWI fly ash samples, especially in ash from Changzhou, China (CZ), decreased after carbonation. Specifically, the leached Pb concentration of the CZ MSWI fly ash decreased 92% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, 95% under pure CO 2 atmosphere and 84% under the air combustion flue gas. After carbonation, the leaching concentration of Pb was below the Chinese legal limit. The leaching concentration of Zn from CZ sample decreased 69% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, which of Cu, As, Cr and Hg decreased 25%, 33%, 11% and 21%, respectively. In the other two samples of Xuzhou, China (XZ) and Wuhan, China (WH), the leaching characteristics of heavy metals were similar to the CZ sample. The speciation of heavy metals was largely changed from the exchangeable to carbonated fraction because of the carbonation reaction under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas. After carbonation reaction, most of heavy metals bound in carbonates became more stable and leached less. Therefore, oxy-fuel combustion flue gas could be a low-cost source for carbonation of MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of bacterial inoculants on phytomining of metals from waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kidd, Petra; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2018-03-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is considered a secondary resource for valuable trace elements (TE), which is currently neglected in most European countries. Phytomining could potentially recover valuable TE from such waste materials but is still at an exploratory stage with many challenges. The use of bioaugmentation to improve plant growth and TE accumulation of metal-tolerant high biomass plants growing on waste incineration bottom ash was evaluated. Bacterial strains that were previously isolated from rhizosphere, roots and contaminated soil were selected according to their plant growth promoting characteristics and tolerance to the bottom ash substrate. Those selected bacterial strains were tested for their beneficial effects on Nicotiana tabacum and Salix smithiana with regards to phytomining. The rhizobacterial strain Rhodococcus erythropolis P30 enhanced the shoot dry weight of N. tabacum by on average 57% compared to the control plants. Several bacterial inoculants enhanced biomass production and the nutritional status of S. smithiana. Moreover, those bacterial strains previously described to enhance biomass production of N. tabacum and members of the Salicaceae on TE-contaminated soils, also enhanced biomass production of these species on bottom ash. However, bacterial inoculants could not enhance trace element accumulation in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 10 8 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +60 0 ) to -30 0 C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  8. AN EXPERIMENT STUDY OF COMPARISON BETWEEN FLY ASH BRICK AND TRADITIONAL RED BRICKS

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Joshi, Swastik Bhatnagar, Akshay Rawat, Sharad Chauhan, Shaurya Rawat; Mr. A. K. Sharma

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, effort have been made to study the different proportion percentage of fly ash bricks and been compared with traditional red bricks. Various test such as tolerance, water absorption, efflorescence and compressive strength test were conducted both fly ash as well as red bricks. In the experimental study we found that fly ash bricks are much stronger and absorb less water than fly ash bricks. We even have find the optimum percentage of fly ash to be used in a composition to get go...

  9. The influence of sugarcane bagasse ash as fly ash on cement quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, N.; Damayanti, M. C.; Pratama, S. W. I.

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash often is used as the third material for cement. The fly ash from sugarcane bagasse is usually considered as industrial waste material that can be added to the base material of cement (clinker, trash, gypsum and lime stone) for economic and environment reason. The amount of fly ash usually up to 30 % of cement material, but in this research the percentage of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is added to cement material is up to 15% total weight. Then the x-rays fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine its chemical composition of raw material and cement samples. The physical properties of cement such as fineness, setting time, expansion, and compressive strength were measured using Automatic Blaine, Vicat, Autoclave, respectively. The result show that the percentage of sugarcane bagasse ash influences the quality of cement and concrete, and this is confirmed with Indonesia National Standard (SNI). It is showed that the sugarcane bagasse ash could be use as material to improve the quality of cement and will solve the environment waste material

  10. Glass-ceramic from mixtures of bottom ash and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Dinh Hieu; Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Hsing; Nam, Bui Xuan; Bac, Bui Hoang

    2012-12-01

    Along with the gradually increasing yield of the residues, appropriate management and treatment of the residues have become an urgent environmental protection problem. This work investigated the preparation of a glass-ceramic from a mixture of bottom ash and fly ash by petrurgic method. The nucleation and crystallization kinetics of the new glass-ceramic can be obtained by melting the mixture of 80% bottom ash and 20% fly ash at 950 °C, which was then cooled in the furnace for 1h. Major minerals forming in the glass-ceramics mainly are gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) & akermanite (Ca(2)MgSiO(7)) and wollastonite (CaSiO(3)). In addition, regarding chemical/mechanical properties, the chemical resistance showing durability, and the leaching concentration of heavy metals confirmed the possibility of engineering and construction applications of the most superior glass-ceramic product. Finally, petrurgic method of a mixture of bottom ash and fly ash at 950 °C represents a simple, inexpensive, and energy saving method compared with the conventional heat treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fly ash zeolite catalyst support for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campen, Adam

    This dissertation research aimed at evaluating a fly ash zeolite (FAZ) catalyst support for use in heterogeneous catalytic processes. Gas phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) over a fixed-bed of the prepared catalyst/FAZ support was identified as an appropriate process for evaluation, by comparison with commercial catalyst supports (silica, alumina, and 13X). Fly ash, obtained from the Wabash River Generating Station, was first characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, particle size, and nitrogen sorption techniques. Then, a parametric study of a two-step alkali fusion/hydrothermal treatment process for converting fly ash to zeolite frameworks was performed by varying the alkali fusion agent, agent:flyash ratio, fusion temperature, fused ash/water solution, aging time, and crystallization time. The optimal conditions for each were determined to be NaOH, 1.4 g NaOH: 1 g fly ash, 550 °C, 200 g/L, 12 hours, and 48 hours. This robust process was applied to the fly ash to obtain a faujasitic zeolite structure with increased crystallinity (40 %) and surface area (434 m2/g). Following the modification of fly ash to FAZ, ion exchange of H+ for Na+ and cobalt incipient wetness impregnation were used to prepare a FTS catalyst. FTS was performed on the catalysts at 250--300 °C, 300 psi, and with a syngas ratio H2:CO = 2. The HFAZ catalyst support loaded with 11 wt% cobalt resulted in a 75 % carbon selectivity for C5 -- C18 hydrocarbons, while methane and carbon dioxide were limited to 13 and 1 %, respectively. Catalyst characterization was performed by XRD, N2 sorption, TPR, and oxygen pulse titration to provide insight to the behavior of each catalyst. Overall, the HFAZ compared well with silica and 13X supports, and far exceeded the performance of the alumina support under the tested conditions. The successful completion of this research could add value to an underutilized waste product of coal combustion, in the form of catalyst supports in heterogeneous catalytic processes.

  12. Soluble salt removal from MSWI fly ash and its stabilization for safer disposal and recovery as road basement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, F; Cioffi, R; Montagnaro, F; Santoro, L

    2012-06-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) is classified as hazardous in the European Waste Catalogue. Proper stabilization processes should be required before any management option is put into practice. Due to the inorganic nature of MSWI fly ash, cementitious stabilization processes are worthy of consideration. However, the effectiveness of such processes can be severely compromised by the high content of soluble chlorides and sulphates. In this paper, a preliminary washing treatment has been optimized to remove as much as possible soluble salts by employing as little as possible water. Two different operating conditions (single-step and two-step) have been developed to this scope. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that stabilized systems containing 20% of binder are suitable for safer disposal as well as for material recovery in the field of road basement (cement bound granular material layer). Three commercially available cements (pozzolanic, limestone and slag) have been employed as binders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Granulation of coal fly ash by using different types of granule agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusta, H.; Nisya, F. N.; Iman, R. N.; Bilad, D. B. C.

    2017-05-01

    The use of coal produces about 5% solid pollutant in the form of ash (fly ash and bottom ash). Of the total ash produced, about 10-20% is bottom ash and 80-90% is fly ash. This study was aimed at obtaining a type of adhesive which could be used as a fly granulation material for soil conditioner. The study was conducted at the pilot plant of Surfactant and Bioenergy Research Center (SBRC) LPPM IPB from April to August 2016. The fly ash used in this study was obtained from Kalimantan. A pan granulator was used in fly ash granule making process. Granule agent materials were diluted in the concentration of 5, 10, and 15%. Different types of granule agents, namely SBRC-M, SBRC-T, and SBRC-SC were used. The formed fly ash granules were then analyzed for their physical properties including particle density, fly ash granule pH, fly ash granule durability, and fly ash granule water holding capacity. Results showed that fly ash granules made from 15% of SBRC-M had the highest particle density (0.75 g/cm3). Fly ash granules made with SBRC-M had higher pH (10) than those made by using SBRC-SC adhesive (9.3) and SBRC-T (9). SBRC-T was found as the granule agent material which produced fly ash granules with the highest durability levels on average. In this study, the use of SBRC-M granule agent resulted in higher water holding capacity (WHC) (40.62%) than did SBRC-SC (38.79%) and SBRC-T (36.85%). As a granule agent, compared to SBRC-SC and SBRC-T, SBRC-M could produce fly ash granules with highest particle density, highest pH, good durability, and best water holding capacity.

  14. Mineralogy of Indian coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.; Sahu, K.C.; Powell, M.A.; Hart, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of ash obtained from a number of Indian thermal plants, from various points of collection have been chemically analysed and their stoichiometric mineral compositions have been calculated. Mineralogical constituents have also been determined by X-ray analysis as well as observed under optical microscope. The results have been compared. Formation of various mineral phases have been discussed and their environmental implication in solid waste disposal has been pointed out. (author). 22 refs

  15. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  16. Selective mobilization of critical elements in incineration ashes; Selektiv mobilisering av kritiska element hos energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Malin; Herrmann, Inga; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [TEKEDO AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    In the project SMAK, the selective mobilization of critical elements in ashes was studied. Non-hazardous bottom ash from Daava kraftvaermeverk, Umeaa, and hazardous fly ash from Hoegdalenverket, Stockholm, line P6 were investigated. Sb, Mo, Cu, Cr and Cl{sup -} were identified as critical elements in the bottom ash since these elements exceeded the limit values for acceptance on landfills as inert waste according to the Council decision on acceptance criteria at landfills. Critical elements in the fly ash were Cr, Se, Pb and Cl{sup -}, these elements exceeded the limit values for acceptance on landfills as non-hazardous waste. The mobilization of the critical elements was studied in experiments performed according to a reduced 2{sup 6-1} factorial design with three centerpoints. Factors in the experiments were ultrasonic pre-treatment, pre-treatment with carbonation, L/S-ratio, pH, time and temperature. Empirical models of the mobilization were used to identify the optimal factor setting ensuring sufficient mobilization of critical elements, i.e. to achieve a solid residue meeting non-hazardous and inert landfill criteria for fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. No ultrasonic treatment, pre-treatment with carbonation, L/Sratio 5, pH 12, time 2h and temperature at 20 deg C were identified as optimal factor setting for the bottom ash. For the fly ash, no ultrasonic treatment, no pre-treatment with carbonation, L/S-ratio 5, pH 7, time 2h and temperature at 20 deg C were identified as optimal factor setting. The treatment with optimal factor settings did not change the classification according to the Council decision on acceptance criteria at landfills of neither ash. For the bottom ash, Sb, Mo and Cr exceeded the limit values for landfilling as inert waste according to the Council decision on acceptance criteria at landfills. Only Cr exceeded the limit value for landfilling the fly ash as non-hazardous waste. According to the Waste Decree (Avfallsfoerordningen) both

  17. Heavy metal behavior in "Washing-Calcination-Changing with Bottom Ash" system for recycling of four types of fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Xiong, Yiqun; Wang, Yingying; Wei, Xiang; Zhu, Xuemei; Yan, Fawei

    2018-01-30

    The Washing-Calcination-Changing with Bottom Ash (WCCB) system, effective at reducing chloride, was proposed to treat fly ash (FA) from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) before recycling FA in cement kiln as raw material. This study analyzed the behavior of heavy metals in four types of FA during WCCB treatment via Tessier and X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES) method. One FA was from the bag filter of a typical MSWI in Beijing, China (CFA), and the other three were from Japan (RFA, CaFA, and NaFA). All the metals were reduced especially Pb, Cd, and Hg (38.4-82.4%, 21.8-34.7%, and 100%, respectively). Besides Cr almost all heavy metals were stabilized according to Tessier analysis. Cr should be given more attention in WCCB as the formation of exchangeable Cr in the final residue. XANES result indicated that PbCl 2 could be the main species of Pb in FA, while CaFA contains some PbO. The treated FAs contain PbCO 3 and PbO besides PbCl 2 . The Tessier results of Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu showed that NaFA was better at heavy metal stabilization than the other FA, so NaHCO 3 is a more suitable neutralizer in WCCB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined use of MSWI bottom ash and fly ash as aggregate in concrete formulation: environmental and mechanical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginés, O; Chimenos, J M; Vizcarro, A; Formosa, J; Rosell, J R

    2009-09-30

    This paper reports the experimental results obtained after casting concrete formulated with different mix proportions of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) by-products, bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control fly ash (APCFA), as aggregates. Several tests were performed to determine the properties of the mixed proportions. Mechanical properties of the formulations, such as compressive strength, were also determined, and two different leaching tests were performed to study their environmental effects. Some suitable concrete formulations were obtained for the 95/5 and 90/10 BA/APCFA mix proportions. These formulations showed the highest compressive strength test results, above 15 MPa, and the lowest amount of released trace metals in reference to the leaching test. The leaching mechanisms involved in the release of trace metals for the best formulations were also studied, revealing that the washing-off process may play an important role. Given the experimental data it can be concluded that these concrete mix proportions are suitable for use as non-structural concrete.

  19. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  20. Geo-environmental application of municipal solid waste incinerator ash stabilized with cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of soluble salts contained in the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI ash significantly affects the strength development and hardening reaction when stabilized with cement. The present study focuses on the compaction and strength behavior of mixed specimens of cement and MSWI ash. A series of indices such as unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, California bearing ratio (CBR and pH value was examined. Prior to this, the specimens were cured for 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d. The test results depict that the maximum dry density (MDD decreases and the optimum moisture content (OMC increases with the addition of cement. The test results also reveal that the cement increases the strength of the mixed specimens. Thus, the combination of MSWI ash and cement can be used as a lightweight filling material in different structures like embankment and road construction.

  1. Replacement of 5% of OPC by fly ash and APC residues from MSWI with electrodialytic pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magro, Cátia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Guedes, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and air pollution control (APC) residues are waste products from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI). They are classified as hazardous waste due to the content of leachable heavy metals (HM), salts and/or dioxins. An electrodialytic (ED) process was applied to FA and APC residues...... in the ash were not leached to the same extent as in the original ash. In mortar 5% of Ordinary Portland Cement was replaced by FA and APC residues (raw and ED upgraded). The studied parameters: compressive strength, HM leachability, and Cl content. The ED pre-treatment resulted in a decrease in both...... leaching of HM and the Cl content. The compressive tests presented comparable values to the reference mortars. This study suggests that the characteristics of FA and APC residues from MSWI after pre-treatment allows them to be reused in building materials, giving a new edge to waste management....

  2. Simple Mechanical Beneficiation Method of Coarse Fly Ash with High LOI for Making HVFA Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni ,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on the effect of milling of fly ash obtained from four different sources on the properties of high volume fly ash (HVFA mortar. Two fly ash samples with low loss-on-ignition (LOI were taken from a coal-fired power plant, while the other two with high LOIs were obtained from a textile factory and from a paper mill, respectively. Milling was performed using a rod mill at a certain period of time. The workability of HVFA mortar with constant water to cementitious ratio was controlled by adjusting the superplasticizer content. The results show that the specific gravity of fly ash increases after milling. Utilizing milled fly ash ends up with significant strength increase of HVFA mortar, especially those utilizing high LOI fly ash. This shows that milling is an excellent fly ash beneficiation technique, especially on the one with high LOI value.

  3. Effect of addition of bottom ash on the rheological properties of fly ash slurry at varying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, M.; Garg, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    Presently, fly ash is transporting through slurry pipeline in the thermal power plant. Aim of the present investigation is to examine the rheological behaviour of finer particle (fly ash) slurry suspension with and without addition of coarser particles (bottom ash). Mixture of fly and bottom ash is taken with proportion of 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3 (by weight). The temperature of slurry suspension is varying from 25 to 40°C at solid concentration 30 % (by weight). Rheological tests are conducted with the variation of shear rate from 100 to 300 sec-1 for all slurry samples. Addition of coarse particles of bottom ash in finer particles of fly ash slurry, leads to improve the rheological characteristics of slurry suspension. The addition of bottom ash can result substantial saving in energy consumption with reduction in relative viscosity.

  4. Copper speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachates; Kopparformer i lakvatten fraan energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna; Gustafsson, Jon Petter [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Schaik, Joris van; Berggren Kleja, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Hees, Patrick van [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The formation of copper (Cu) complexes with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may increase the total amount of Cu released but at the same time reduce its toxicity. In this study, DOC in a MSWI bottom ash leachate was characterized and the Cu-binding properties of different DOC fractions in the ash leachate and in a soil solution were studied. This knowledge may be used for improved environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash in engineering applications. The Cu{sup 2+} activity at different pH values was measured potentiometrically using a Cu-ion selective electrode (Cu-ISE). Experimental copper complexation results were compared to speciation calculations made in Visual MINTEQ with the NICA-Donnan model and the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM). The MSWI bottom ash leachate contained a larger proportion of hydrophilic organic carbon than the investigated soil solution and other natural waters. The hydrophilic fraction of both samples showed Cu{sup 2+} binding properties similar to that of the bulk, cation-exchanged, leachate. For the ash leachate, the pH dependence of the Cu activity was not correctly captured by neither the SHM nor the NICA-Donnan model, but for the soil solution the model predictions of Cu speciation were in good agreement with the obtained results. The complex formation properties of the ash DOC appears to be less pH-dependent than what is assumed for DOC in natural waters. Hence, models calibrated for natural DOC may give inconsistent simulations of Cu-DOC complexation in MSWI bottom ash leachate. A Biotic Ligand Model for Daphnia Magna was used to provide an estimate of the copper concentrations at LC50 for a simulated bottom ash leachate. It was concluded that the Cu concentrations in certain bottom ash leachates are high enough to pose an ecotoxicological risk; however, after dilution and soil sorption, the risks for neighboring water bodies are most likely negligible. Three processes were

  5. Effect of leaching behaviour by quenching of bottom ash from MSW incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Franco; Genon, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Bottom ashes (BA) obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, have shown different pH and lead concentrations in leachate for different lines. In order to explain this behaviour, combustion tests were performed concerning the lines and the effect of the type of wastes. The BA obtained from the same waste has shown the same raw chemical composition, but different leachate characteristics for the different lines. The bottom ash from different wastes burned on the same line instead showed very similar leachate behaviour. The results suggest that the quality of leach ate depends on the plant and process conditions (in particular the ash quenching phase) and not on the composition of the waste. During ash quenching, the formation and dissolution of soluble alkalis depends on the washing ratio and on the residence time. A different washing degree leads to a different residual alkalinity in the bottom ash, and consequently to a different value of leachate pH with different metal releases. Therefore, with the practical aim of establishing the best conditions for the final disposal of bottom ash, a careful planning of this phase could be proposed as an alternative to a weathering process.

  6. Ash deposit characterisation in a large-scale municipal waste-to-energy incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongphiphat, Awassada; Ryu, Changkook; Finney, Karen N; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim

    2011-02-15

    The deposition of ash - combustion residues - on superheaters and heat exchanger surfaces reduce their efficiency; this phenomenon was investigated for a large-scale waste-to-energy incineration facility. Over a period of six months, ash samples were collected from the plant, which included the bottom ash and deposits from the superheater, as well as flyash from the convective heat exchanger, the economiser and fabric filters. These were analysed for particle size, unburned carbon, elemental composition and surface morphology. Element partitioning was evident in the different combustion residues, as volatile metals, such as cadmium, antimony and arsenic, were found to be depleted in the bottom ash by the high combustion temperatures (1000+°C) and concentrated/enriched in the fabric filter ash (transferred by evaporation). Non-volatile elements by contrast were distributed equally in all locations (transported by particle entrainment). The heat exchanger deposits and fabric filter ash had elevated levels of alkali metals. 82% of flyash particles from the fabric filter were in the submicron range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microstructure Development and Transport Properties of Portland Cement-fly Ash Binary Systems : In view of service life predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of burning coal in electric power generating plants. It is commonly known that owing to its pozzolanic properties fly ash is widely used as a partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete. The use of fly ash in concrete not only reduces the landfill costs of fly ash,

  8. Properties of fly ashes in wet environment; Flygaskors egenskaper i vaat miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broemssen, M. von; Lindstroem, N.; Hedman, K.; Svensson, M.

    2009-03-15

    This report describes how inorganic elements are mobilised from fly ashes that are placed under water, i.e. what are the properties and processes that governs the mobilisation. This knowledge may serve as basic data for decision making when fly ashes from e.g. bio-, industrial- and municipal solid wastes are to be used in civil engineering applications in wet environments. The composition of ashes varies in a vide range of concentrations and depends on the fuel and the type of incinerator. The main contents of fly ashes are calcium oxide, silicic acid and aluminium compounds. Several environmental hazardous elements are also present in varying concentrations. The pH of fishily is often very high. A number of chemical processes occur when flyashes is mixed with water. When the pH-value increases, mainly due to hydratisation of calcium oxide (CaO), many metals will precipitate as metal hydroxides. The objective of this study was to, within a rather short time period (8 month), describe the processes governing mobilisation of different elements from fly ashes placed under water. The work included chemical equilibrium modelling with PHREEQC, the model was used to determine what minerals may control solubility of different elements. Three fly ashes were used for the study, one flyash from industrial- and municipal waste with no CaO or ammonia added, one flyash from municipal waste with CaO and ammonia added and one fly ash from solid biofuels with chalk added. The fly ashes, ca 300 kg, was mixed with water in 1000 l plastic containers and filled with water. Two batches per flyash were used; i) in the first batch surplus water were not replaced, ii) in the second batch the surplus water was replaced with fresh water five times during the test. Measured pH-values in the batches with industrial and municipal waste were stabilised at a pH-value around 9.5 indicating carbonation is complete. The pH-values in the bio flyash were higher. Four categories of elements were

  9. Fly Ash as a Time Marker for Anthropocene Alluvial Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. A., III; Grimley, D. A.; Anders, A. M.; Bates, B.; Hannan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Human land use has transformed the landscapes, ecosystems and hydrology of the North American Midcontinent. One widespread impact of this transformation is increased runoff and accelerated soil erosion, which, along with direct human channel modifications and artificial drainage, have dramatically altered hydrologic and ecological conditions in streams and rivers with far-reaching results. A legacy of this change in streams and rivers is preserved on floodplains throughout the region in sediment known as post-settlement alluvium (PSA). Documenting the spatial and temporal pattern of historic floodplain sedimentation in the drainage network is part of a larger effort to understand decadal and century-scale sediment routing through the drainage system and the role of floodplain sedimentation in carbon sequestration. Fly ash, a product of high-temperature coal combustion, began to accumulate on the landscape in the early historic period (c.a.1840-1850 in Iowa and Illinois) as coal-burning technology such as steam engines came into use after 1850; prior to which no source of fly ash was present. Release of fly ash from coal burning in power plants and steam locomotives likely peaked in the early-mid 20th century. Fly ash particles (~ 1 to 10 % magnetic) are identified by their spheroidal shape and range in size from coarse clay to silt (~1-63µ). By identifying the percentage of fly ash spheroids in the magnetic separate (10 - 60µ size range) of a soil or sediment profile, the pre-fly ash Historic surface could be discerned. Application of this technique in selected localities in eastern Iowa (Clear Creek drainage) and central Illinois (Sangamon River drainage) resulted in successful demarcation of the PSA contact in areas where the boundary was physically evident. Bolstered by this success we were able to confidently demark the PSA contact in other settings where the boundary was not as physically evident. This relatively easy to implement, inexpensive tool will

  10. Stabilization of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash using silica fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Chen, Quanyuan; Zhou, Yasu; Tyrer, Mark; Yu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of silica fume on stabilizing heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. In addition to compressive strength measurements, hydrated pastes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal-analyses (DTA/TG), and MAS NMR ((27)Al and (29)Si) techniques. It was found that silica fume additions could effectively reduce the leaching of toxic heavy metals. At the addition of 20% silica fume, leaching concentrations for Cu, Pb and Zn of the hydrated paste cured for 7 days decreased from 0.32 mg/L to 0.05 mg/L, 40.99 mg/L to 4.40 mg/L, and 6.96 mg/L to 0.21 mg/L compared with the MSWI fly ash. After curing for 135 days, Cd and Pb in the leachates were not detected, while Cu and Zn concentrations decreased to 0.02 mg/L and 0.03 mg/L. The speciation of Pb and Cd by the modified version of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) extractions showed that these metals converted into more stable state in hydrated pastes of MSWI fly ash in the presence of silica fume. Although exchangeable and weak-acid soluble fractions of Cu and Zn increased with hydration time, silica fume addition of 10% can satisfy the requirement of detoxification for heavy metals investigated in terms of the identification standard of hazardous waste of China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative life cycle assessment of MSWI fly ash treatment and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Laner, David; Fellner, Johann

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash constitutes a hazardous waste. The possibilities for managing this waste comprise disposal at underground deposits or at above-ground landfills after cement stabilisation, application of the FLUREC process, thermal treatment in a dedicated furnace or thermal co-treatment together with combustible hazardous waste. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) study was conducted in order to assess the environmental impact of these five MSWI fly ash disposal options with regard to two different time horizons (100years, indefinite). The uncertainties of the input parameters were propagated by Monte Carlo simulations (MCS). As could be shown by the discernibility analysis, the FLUREC process has the lowest impact in more than 90% of the MCS results. In case long-term emissions (beyond 100years) are neglected, the second lowest impact is caused by thermal co-treatment in more than 90% of the MCS results. Consideration of long-term emissions indicates the disposal at underground deposits as second best option. Furthermore, it is shown that stabilisation with cement has the second highest and thermal treatment in a dedicated furnace has the highest environmental impact, mostly due to high CO 2 emissions. Therefore these two treatment options should be avoided in the future. Besides the comparative evaluation of the different options, it could be shown that uncertainty analysis is useful to determine the relevance of long-term emissions for the ranking of different systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE USE FOR FERTILISATION PURPOSES INCINERATION ASH PELLETS USING GASIFICATION BURNER LESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Gibczyńska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass in system energetics for the purpose of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the overall energy mix by biomass and coal co-combustion is not an optimal solution in the light of previous experience in Poland. It is appropriate to develop local biomass market for energy purposes as a basis for future distributed energy generation based on biomass. This solution facilitates the use of ash from biomass combustion for plant fertilisation. The present paper concerns the assessment of the use of ash from combustion of pellets in an innovative gasifying pellet burner – LESTER type, for soil fertilisation. The paper presents the analysis of the content of macro- and microelements in ash against the chemical composition of pellets in relation to permissible contents in fertilisers. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in bottom and fly ash from combustion of wood pellet and rye straw in LESTER gasifying burner validates the use of this material for soil fertilisation purposes. However, due to low nitrogen content – comparable to that found in soil, the material is not to be considered as fertiliser supplying this macroelement to soil. The analysed bottom ash used for fertilisation meets the conditions set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 9 September 2002. However, fly ash should be used with considerable caution due to high content of iron, zinc and nickel. The yield of bottom ash is several times higher than that of fly ash, therefore the possibility of its use in the form of mixtures in adequate proportions should be considered.

  13. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) and 10M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 degrees C for 48h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of anisotropy and multimorphology in fly ash based geopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M. Irfan, E-mail: mirfanwazir@gmail.com; Azizli, Khairun, E-mail: khairun-azizli@petronas.com.my; Sufian, Suriati, E-mail: suriati@petronas.com.my; Man, Zakaria, E-mail: zakaman@petronas.com.my; Siyal, Ahmer Ali, E-mail: ahmersiyal@gmail.com; Ullah, Hafeez, E-mail: Hafeez-wazir@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, Malaysian coal fly ash-based geopolymers were investigated for its morphology and chemical composition using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-rays (SEM-EDX). Geopolymer was synthesized using sodium hydroxide as activator. SEM studies revealed multiphasous structure of the material, composed of geopolymeric gel, partially reacted fly ashparticles and selectively leached particles. EDX analysis confirmed the chemical composition of different regions. Infra red spectroscopic studies supported the SEM-EDX analysis by confirming presence of unreacted quartzite and mullite in geopolymers. It is concluded that geopolymers possese a non uniform chemistry through out the structure.

  15. Seeding effect on cocomposting wastewater biosolids with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, M.; Wong, J.W.C. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2001-10-01

    The seeding effect on fly ash-amended biosolids composting was evaluated by inoculating a mixture of ash and biosolids with seeding materials before composting. These inocula included thermophilic bacteria (Bacillus. brevis, B. coagulans, and B. licheniformis) isolated from the ash-biosolids compost, a commercial decomposter, and recycled biosolids compost. Although the addition of these microbial additives to the ash-biosolids compost improved the population of thermophilic bacteria at the early stage of composting, the improvement was negligible after 4 days of composting. Inoculation with isolated bacterial culture, milk powder, or the decomposter, only, did not effectively improve the decomposition of organic matter compared with those receiving inoculation of both microbial additives and milk powder together. The isolated Bacillus species was as efficient as the commercial decomposter in accelerating the decomposition rate during ash-amended biosolids composting as indicated by the high amounts of carbon dioxide evolved and cumulative weight loss. Taking into consideration the lower operating cost and acceptable decomposition efficiency, recycled biosolids compost seemed to be a promising additive to ash-amended biosolids compost to improve composting efficiency.

  16. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using

  17. Geopolymer lightweight bricks manufactured from fly ash and foaming agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wan Mastura Wan; Hussin, Kamarudin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the development of lightweight geopolymer bricks by using foaming agent and fly ash. The mix parameters analysed through a laboratory experiment with fix ratio of sodium silicate/sodium hydroxide solution mass ratio 2.5, fly ash/alkaline activator solution mass ratio 2.0, foaming agent/paste mass ratio 1:2 and molarity of sodium hydroxide solution used was 12M. Different curing temperature (Room Temperature, 60, 80) and foaming agent/water mass ratio (1:10 and 1:20) were studied. Compressive strength, density analysis, and water absorption has been investigated. The results show that the foamed geopolymer bricks with a lower foam/water mass ratio (1:10)and high curing temperature (80°C) leading to a better properties. Mixtures with a low density of around 1420 kg/m3 and a compressive strength of around 10 MPa were achieved.

  18. Leachate and radon production from fly ash autoclaved cellular concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latona, M.C.; Neufeld, R.D.; Vallejo, L.E.; Brandon, D.; Hu, W.; Kelly, C.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental consequences and potential liabilities of autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) use were assessed by aqueous leaching of crushed samples for metals and organic solvent extractions of solid ACC for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also, whole ACC blocks were tested for radon exhalation potential. Results show leachate concentrations were typically 10 times below, and always 100 times below the regulatory threshold of applicable drinking water standards. A Microtox bioassay procedure showed no toxic effects due to leached metals. Organic analysis of solvent extracts indicated no release of hazardous PAHs attributable to the fly ash ingredient of ACC. Measured rates of radon exhalation were too low to cause potentially dangerous buildups in confined air spaces. Fly ash ACC may be characterized as an environmentally green construction material based on these findings

  19. Treatment of MSW fly ashes using the electrodialytic remediation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2004-01-01

    . Experimental parameters monitored include voltage drop, pH and electrolyte's volumes. Evolution of heavy metal concentration with time in the different compartments is analysed. The performance of sodium gluconate for heavy metals extraction from fly ash in different pH conditions is evaluated in batch...... extraction tests and during the electrodialytic treatment. This substance was found to perform well for pH below 6 and above 9, although extractions are better in the acidic region. Other relevant observations include the retention of significant amounts of heavy metals on the cation-exchange membrane...... separating chambers III and IV and the dissolution of a large percentage of sample during the treatment. 39% of zinc, 14% of lead, 18% of copper and 60% of cadmium were removed from fly ash using the electrodialytic technique and these results are compared with previously reported experiments on similar...

  20. Performance of Fly ash Based Geopolymer Mortars in Sulphate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of fly ash based geopolymer mortar specimens inMagnesium Sulphate solution. Specimens were manufactured from low calcium fly ash by activation with a mixture of SodiumHydroxide and Sodium Silicate solution and cured thermally. 10% by weight Magnesium Sulphate solution was usedto soak the specimen up to 24 weeks. Performance of the specimens was evaluated in terms of visual appearance, variationof pH of solution, change in weight, and change in compressive strength over the exposure period. White deposits occurredon the surface of specimen which was initially soft but later converted to hard crystals. pH of solution increased noticeablyduring the initial weeks which indicate migration of alkalis from mortar specimens. At the end of 24 weeks samples experiencedvery little weight gain and recorded a loss of compressive strength by up to 56%.

  1. Radiological and material characterization of high volume fly ash concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, I; Sas, Z; Dragaš, J; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of research presented in this paper was the material and radiological characterization of high volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) in terms of determination of natural radionuclide content and radon emanation and exhalation coefficients. All concrete samples were made with a fly ash content between 50% and 70% of the total amount of cementitious materials from one coal burning power plant in Serbia. Physical (fresh and hardened concrete density) and mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) of concrete were tested. The radionuclide content ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) and radon massic exhalation of HVFAC samples were determined using gamma spectrometry. Determination of massic exhalation rates of HVFAC and its components using radon accumulation chamber techniques combined with a radon monitor was performed. The results show a beneficial effect of pozzolanic activity since the increase in fly ash content resulted in an increase in compressive strength of HVFAC by approximately 20% for the same mass of cement used in the mixtures. On the basis of the obtained radionuclide content of concrete components the I -indices of different HVFAC samples were calculated and compared with measured values (0.27-0.32), which were significantly below the recommended 1.0 index value. The prediction was relatively close to the measured values as the ratio between the calculated and measured I-index ranged between 0.89 and 1.14. Collected results of mechanical and radiological properties and performed calculations clearly prove that all 10 designed concretes with a certain type of fly ash are suitable for structural and non-structural applications both from a material and radiological point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C; Juenger, Maria C G; Siegel, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ±5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling. © 2013.

  3. The starting up of a pilot plant for radioactive incinerator ash conditioning - results of two embedding campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Naud, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    A new pilot plant called 'PICC' designed for radioactive incinerator ash conditioning, by embedding in several matrices, was launched at the Nuclear Research Centre in Cadarache - France - in the middle of 1988. This polyvalent facility can work with the three following embedding products = cement, thermosetting epoxide resin and an epoxide-cement compound. The capacity per day of the plant is two 100 or 200 I drums of solidified ash form. Two embedding campaigns have been carried out on inactive ashes: the first is a cementation campaign, done on phosphated ash coming from incineration of spent tributylphosphate. The second is a polymer cement campaign done on simulated alpha ash coming from technological wastes. Description of the PICC and data on these two campaigns are given

  4. DETERMINING THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL FLY ASH PARTICLES IN INFLUENCING THE VARIATION IN THE OVERALL PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Haider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The properties of fly ashes vary because of the differences in the properties of their individual particles, and the determination of variation in these properties is of interest to the industries which use pulverized raw fly ash in applications, such as in cementitious materials and in the recovery of certain rare elements from raw fly ash. To investigate the differences in individual particles, four pulverized raw fly ashes from thermal power plants of the Czech Republic were used in this research. It was observed from FE-SEM that all four fly ashes consist of glassy hollow spherical, solid spherical, porous spherical, bright spherical, porous slaggy and compact slaggy particles. Box and whisker diagrams were plotted from the data of EDX individual particle analyses, which showed that the data of percentages for the Si, Al, and Fe elements is more scattered as compared to other elements. It was further observed from ternary phase diagrams and pseudo coloured images, that nature of fly ash particles changes from alumino silicate glassy to alumino silicate calcite metallic to pure ferro-metallic,where glassy particles showed high percentages and pure calcite particles were absent in fly ashes. Furthermore, a comparison between the XRF, the EDX total area analyses, showed that the EDX individual particle analysis gives more realistic and reliable data with median, mean, and the standard deviation for percentages of each element present in the fly ashes.

  5. Corrosion of steel drums containing immobilized ion exchange-resins and incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, F.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.M.; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The intermediate radioactive waste consists mostly in spent ionic exchange resins and filters from the nuclear power plants, research reactors and radioisotopes production facilities. The spent resins, as well as the incineration ashes, have to be immobilized before being stored to improve leach resistance of waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability for safety requirements. Generally, cementation processes have been used as immobilization techniques for economical reasons as well as for being a simple operation. The immobilized resins and incineration ashes are thus contained in steel drums that, in turn, can undergo corrosion depending on the ionic content of the matrix. This work is a part of a systematic study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with immobilized cemented exchange-resins with different types and contents of aggressive species and incineration ashes. To this purpose, a special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix are being monitored along time. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species present in nature) and sulphate ions (produced during the radiolysis process of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). Preliminary results show the strong effect of chloride on the corrosion susceptibility of the steel. Monitoring will continue for

  6. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of fly ash-based geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rożek, Piotr; Król, Magdalena; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz

    2018-03-13

    In the present work fly-ash based geopolymers with different contents of alkali-activator and water were prepared. Alkali-activation was conducted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at the SiO 2 /Na 2 O molar ratio of 3, 4, and 5. Water content was at the ratio of 30, 40, and 50wt% in respect to the weight of the fly ash. Structural and microstructural characterization (FT-IR spectroscopy, 29 Si and 27 Al MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction, SEM) of the specimens as well as compressive strength and apparent density measurements were carried out. The obtained geopolymers are mainly amorphous due to the presence of disordered aluminosilicate phases. However, hydroxysodalite have been identified as a crystalline product of geopolymerization. The major band in the mid-infrared spectra (at about 1000cm -1 ) is related to SiO(Si,Al) asymmetric stretching vibrations and is an indicator of the geopolymeric network formation. Several component bands in this region can be noticed after the decomposition process. Decomposition of band at 1450cm -1 (vibrations of CO bonds in bicarbonate group) has been also conducted. Higher NaOH content favors carbonation, inasmuch as the intensity of the band then increases. Both water and alkaline activator contents have an influence on compressive strength and microstructure of the obtained fly-ash based geopolymers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Collection of low resistivity fly ash in an electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jędrusik, M; Świerczok, A; Jaworek, A

    2013-01-01

    Due to increasing restrictions on dust emission limits (IED directive), particularly in the fine particle size range, wider application of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in cleaning the combustion gases from stoker boilers can be anticipated. The objective of the model studies in this paper was to select the optimal construction of the discharge electrode in ESP for obtaining high collection efficiency of fly ash leaving stoker boilers. In these studies a test bench was constructed, which comprised one-stage model ESPs with a set of discharge and collecting electrodes. The main dimensions of the precipitator chamber were as follows: length of electric field 2.0 m; active height 0.45 m and spacing between the collecting electrodes 0.4 m. Four constructions of discharge electrode were tested for fly ash of different fractional sizes and chemical compositions. The aim of the tests was to determine the current-voltage characteristics and the discharge current distribution on the collection electrode so as to find out the optimal construction and ensure the maximal collection efficiency of ESP. The results of the collection efficiency measurements in these tests were compared with those obtained from an ordinary industrial ESP. The comparison shows that it is necessary to optimise the discharge electrode construction for a specific physico-chemical property of fly ash so as to obtain the highest collection efficiency.

  9. Coal fly ash as a resource for rare earth elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franus, Wojciech; Wiatros-Motyka, Małgorzata M; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials.

  10. Photodegradation of phenanthrene on metal oxides and fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesten, H.; Bozicevic, Z.; Klasinc, L.

    1984-10-01

    The photodegradation of phenanthrene adsorbed on the surface of metal oxides, sea sand and fly ashes is investigated in a rotating bed photoreactor emitting simulated solar light. Metal oxides (SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SnO/sub 2/, MgO), which do not absorb the simulated solar light, give rise to a very slow photodegradation of the adsorbed phenanthrene. Metal oxides (TiO/sub 2/, ZnO, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/), which exhibit semiconduction properties, induce a very rapid photodegradation. The two modifications of TiO/sub 2/, rutile and anatase, show different activities in causing the photodegradation of phenanthrene. While in the class of non-solar light absorbing metal oxides the adsorbed phenanthrene is degraded only by direct excitation to its electronic states, photons of band-gap energy in semiconducting metal oxides excite electron-hole pairs at the surface. The quantum yield of the photodegradation of phenanthrene adsorbed on a fly ash of the mullite-quartz of glass type lies between the quantum yields of the two classes of metal oxides investigated. Surprisingly, however, phenanthrene and the very photolabile anthracene are extremely resistant to photodegradation when adsorbed on a fly ash of the spinel type with pig iron content and magnetic properties.

  11. Lauric Acid Hybridizing Fly Ash Composite for Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash includes different mineral phases. This paper reported on the preparation of a novel lauric acid (LA/fly ash (FA composite by vacuum impregnation as a form-stable phase change material (PCM for thermal energy, and especially investigated the effect of the hydrochloric acid-treated fly ash (FAh on the thermal energy storage performance of the composites. The morphology, crystalline structure, and porous textures of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results indicated that hydrochloric acid treatment was beneficial to the increase of loading capacity and crystallinity of LA in the LA/FAh composite, which caused an enhanced thermal storage capacity with latent heats for melting and freezing of LA/FAh (80.94 and 77.39 J/g, higher than those of LA/FA (34.09 and 32.97 J/g, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism of enhanced thermal storage properties was investigated in detail.

  12. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Chloride penetration and corrosion resistance of ground fly ash blended cement mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng [Rajamangala Univ. of Technology (Thailand). Civil Engineering Dept.; Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Sustainable Infrastructure Research and Development Center

    2011-03-15

    This research studies the potential for using ground fly ash from the Mae Moh power plant in Thailand as a pozzolanic material. Three different fly ash finenesses, viz., coarse original fly ash, ground medium fly ash, and ground fine fly ash, were used for the study. Ordinary Portland cement was partially replaced with fly ash at 20% and 40% by weight of the fly ash. The water to binder ratio was kept constant at 0.5 and the flow of mortar was maintained at 110 {+-} 5% with the aid of superplasticizer. Compressive strength, chloride penetration and corrosion resistance of mortars were determined. Fine fly ash has a high potential to be used as a good pozzolanic material. The resistance to chloride penetration and corrosion resistance of mortar improve substantially with partial replacement of Ordinary Portland cement with ground fly ash. The use of finer fly ash results in a stronger and denser mortar which is due to better dispersion and filling effect as well as an increase in the pozzolanic reaction. (orig.)

  14. The fluidity of fly ash-cement paste containing naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipat Termkhajornkit; Toyoharu Nawa [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Division of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering

    2004-06-01

    The zeta potential measurement indicated that the surface potential of fly ash was different from ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in both sign and value. Hence, the Derjaguin-Landau-Verway-Overbeek (DLVO) theory for dispersion-flocculation of heterogeneous particles with different surface potentials was applied to explain the influence of fly ash on the rheology of cement paste containing naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizer. For the fly ash-cement paste without superplasticizer, the sign of zeta potential of fly ash was different from OPC. Thus, the extent of the potential energy barrier between particles was small or even showed negative value, and the change in the rheology of the fly ash-cement paste was mainly dependent on the bulk solid volume of fly ash, which was related to available free water for fluidizing paste. For the fly ash-cement paste with naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizer, fly ash and cement had the same sign and dispersed well due to higher potential barrier. The extent of potential energy barrier depended on the absolute value of surface potential, which was represented by a function of the amount of adsorbed superplasticizer. The bulk solid volume of fly ash also affected the change in flow ability, but the effect of potential energy barrier between particles was superior to that of the bulk solid volume of fly ash.

  15. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  16. A brief review on fly ash and its use in surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhajantri, Vishwanath; Krishna, Prasad; Jambagi, Sudhakar

    2018-04-01

    Fly ash is a by-product obtained from coal power plants. Over the past two decades, handling this industrial waste has been a great challenge for many developing countries. However, this menace can be used in many industrial applications viz., civil, automobile and aerospace applications. In civil industry, the fly ash has been used in concreate to enhance the porosity that increases the curing time of the concrete. The fly ash has been gaining importance these days as a feedstock material for many thermal spray processes. In automobile sector, the fly ash has been used as a thermal barrier coating in IC engines, whereas in aerospace industry, which demands lighter and stronger materials, the fly ash has been used as a reinforcement material. Hence, so far, fly ash has been used as an either single or a composite feed stock material in thermal spray processes. The fly ash with other materials like alumina, titania and red mud have been deposited using thermal spray processes. These coatings have exhibited higher wear, corrosion and erosion resistance as compared to the uncoated specimens. In this paper, a brief review on fly ash and its use, especially its use as a feed stock in thermal spray coating, is presented. Therefore, the use of fly ash has opened a new frontier of research in thermal spray coating area where economically viable coatings can be produced using industrial waste like fly ash.

  17. Research on Adsorbent Using Modified Fly Ash for Campus Domestic Sewage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of extensive sources and low cost industrial waste, fly ash has many features, such as porosity, large surface area, adsorption capacity, chemical activity and weakly alkaline, which seem a wide prospect of application in wastewater treatment. This study proposed the acid modification test on fly ash. The effect of key factors including the particle size, pH, the dosage of fly ash, adsorption time and dosage of the modifier on domestic sewage removal efficiencies were evaluated. The optimum conditions and the corresponding removal efficiency were determined. The results show that the removal efficiency is increased firstly and steady subsequently with the increase of fly ash dosage, increased firstly and decreased subsequently with the increase of adsorption time, and increased firstly and decreased subsequently with the increase of pH value. The removal efficiency can up to 95.19% when 0.7 g fly ash added in 200 mL wastewater when the pH value was adjusted to 5 at the adsorption time of 20 min. And the best particle size of fly ash is 200 meshes, when used 2mol/L hydrochloride as modifier and soaked fly ash for 2h, and the ratio of hydrochloride and fly ash is 1mL / g, the effect is best. It also finds obviously that fly ash can have a better effect on removal efficiency than raw fly ash.

  18. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste using high-calcium fly ash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogburn, C.O.; Hodgson, L.M.; Ragland, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    The feasibility of using calcium-rich fly ash from coal-fired power plants in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was examined. The proposed areas of use were: (1) fly-ash cement as a trench lining material; (2) fly ash as a backfill material; and (3) fly ash as a liquid waste solidifier. The physical properties of fly-ash cement were determined to be adequate for trench liner construction, with compressive strengths attaining greater than 3000 psi. Hydraulic conductivities were determined to be less than that for clay mineral deposits, and were on the order of 10 -7 cm/sec, with some observed values as low as 10 -9 cm/sec. Removal of radioisotopes from acidified solutions by fly ash was good for all elements tested except cesium. The removal of cesium by fly ash was similar to that of montmorillonite clay. The corrosive effects on metals in fly ash environments was determined to be slight, if not non-existent. Coatings at the fly-ash/metal interfaces were observed which appeared to inhibit or diminish corrosion. The study has indicated that high-calcium fly ash appears to offer considerable potential for improved retention of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow land disposal sites. Further tests are needed to determine optimum methods of use. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Magnetic separation of coal fly ash from Bulgarian power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoumkova, Annie S

    2011-10-01

    Fly ash from three coal-burning power plants in Bulgaria: 'Maritza 3', 'Republika' and 'Rousse East' were subjected to wet low-intensity magnetic separation. The tests were performed at different combinations of magnetic field intensity, flow velocity and diameter of matrix elements. It was found that all parameters investigated affected the separation efficiency, but their influence was interlinked and was determined by the properties of the material and the combination of other conditions. Among the fly ash characteristics, the most important parameters, determining the magnetic separation applicability, were mineralogical composition and distribution of minerals in particles. The main factors limiting the process were the presence of paramagnetic Fe-containing mineral and amorphous matter, and the existence of poly-mineral particles and aggregates of magnetic and non-magnetic particles. It was demonstrated that the negative effect of both factors could be considerably limited by the selection of a proper set of separation conditions. The dependences between concentration of ferromagnetic iron in the ash, their magnetic properties and magnetic fraction yields were studied. It was experimentally proved that, for a certain set of separation conditions, the yields of magnetic fractions were directly proportional to the saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic components of the ash. The main properties of typical magnetic and non-magnetic fractions were studied.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum–fly ash nano composites made by ultrasonic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Murthy, I.; Venkata Rao, D.; Babu Rao, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano structured fly ash has been produced by 30 h milling time. ► Al–fly ash nano composites were produced by ultrasonic cavitation route. ► A homogeneous distribution of nano fly ash particles was observed in the matrix. ► No additional contamination in the nano composites from the atmosphere. ► Presence of nano fly ash leads to improvement in the strength of the composites. -- Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to modify the micro sized fly ash into nano structured fly ash using high energy ball mill. Ball milling was carried out for the total duration of 30 h. The sample was taken out after every 5 h of milling for characterizing. The nano structured fly ash was characterized for its crystallite size and lattice strain by using X-ray diffractometer. It was found that a steady decrease in the crystallite size and increased lattice strain was observed with milling time; the crystallite size at 30 h milling time was found to be 23 nm. The fresh fly ash particles are mostly spherical in shape; whereas the shape of the 30 h milled fly ash particles is irregular and the surface morphology is rough. Al–fly ash nano composites were produced by ultrasonic cavitation route successfully. Scanning electron microscopy images of nano composites reveal a homogeneous distribution of the nano fly ash particles in the AA 2024 matrix. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of nano composites reveals that the fabricated nano composite did not contain any additional contamination from the atmosphere. As the amount of nano fly ash is increasing the hardness of the composite also increasing. The nano fly ash addition leads to improvement in the compression strength of the composites.

  1. Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.

    1988-01-01

    One of the methods of destroying organics in radwaste is incineration. This presentation will summarise some of the advantages and problems associated with incineration and will illustrate some of these points by discussing progress in an options study into methods of treating plutonium contaminated material waste, being carried out by British Nuclear Fuels plc. The wastes amenable for treatment, fall into two categories, low-level wastes and intermediate-level wastes. (author)

  2. Geotechnical characterization of a Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash from a Michigan monofill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kabalan, Mohammad; Syal, Sita Marie; Hambright, Matt; Sahadewa, Andhika

    2013-06-01

    A field and laboratory geotechnical characterization study of a Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash disposed of at the Carleton Farms monofill in Michigan was performed. Field characterization consisted of field observations, collection of four bulk samples and performance of shear wave velocity measurements at two locations. Laboratory characterization consisted of basic geotechnical characterization, i.e., grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, specific gravity tests, compaction tests as well as moisture and organic content assessment followed by direct shear and triaxial shear testing. The test results of this investigation are compared to results in the literature. The grain size distribution of the samples was found to be very similar and consistent with the grain size distribution data available in the literature, but the compaction characteristics were found to vary significantly. Specific gravities were also lower than specific gravities of silicic soils. Shear strengths were higher than typically reported for sandy soils, even for MSWI ash specimens at a loose state. Strain rate was not found to impact the shear resistance. Significant differences in triaxial shear were observed between a dry and a saturated specimen not only in terms of peak shear resistance, but also in terms of stress-strain response. In situ shear wave velocities ranged from 500 to 800 m/s at a depth of about 8m, to 1100-1200 m/s at a depth of 50 m. These high shear wave velocities are consistent with field observations indicating the formation of cemented blocks of ash with time, but this "ageing" process in MSWI ash is still not well understood and additional research is needed. An improved understanding of the long-term behavior of MSWI ash, including the effects of moisture and ash chemical composition on the ageing process, as well as the leaching characteristics of the material, may promote unbound utilization of the ash in civil infrastructure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  3. Phosphate stabilization of flue gas ashes from waste incineration; Fosfatstabilisering av roekgasaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullberg, S. [Geodesign AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    1995-05-01

    This study deals with the immobilization of heavy metals and other elements in flue gas ashes from household waste incineration by the addition of phosphates to the ash. It also describes the FUDD-technique (FUnction-adapted Design and Deposition) for deposition of the stabilized ash. In this work, phosphates obtained from phosphoric acid have been added to ash in proportions of 2.8% and 3.7% by weight of ash. Phosphates have also been injected into the flue gases, in this case with proportions of 4.7% and 16.3%. The samples have been studied both in the field and in the laboratory in regard to compaction properties, permeability, chemical solid phase content, HCl in the flue gases, leaching of metals via batch tests, availability tests and column tests. In batch tests, the stabilized samples show an immobilization of most metals except cadmium. Lead has been reduced by 97.0-99.9%. Cadmium has been mobilized by a factor of 2-30 in this experiment. The best results are obtained with addition of phosphates to the flue gases. In the availability tests, with addition of phosphates to flue gases, all environmentally destructive metals except arsenic and nickel have been immobilized to varying degree. The reduction is greatest for lead, aluminium, copper, mercury and zinc. With the addition of phosphates to ash, aluminium, copper and lead have been immobilized. In opposite, arsenic, cobalt and nickel were mobilized. The addition of 4-5% phosphates in the flue gas reactor produced only a marginal effect on the HCl concentration in the flue gases. The use of phosphates increases the HF concentration by about 3 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The cost for phosphate stabilization have been estimated at SEK 110-220 per ton of ash including costs for stabilization equipment. 18 refs, 15 figs, 13 tabs

  4. The High Teperature Influence on Geopolymer Fly Ash Mixture’s Compressisive Strength with Insudtrial Waste Material Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuaji, R.; Wibowo, B.; Subekti, S.; Santoso, S. E.; Hardiyanto, E.; Kaelani, Y.; Mallu, L. L.

    2017-11-01

    This research aimed to figure out the influence of fly ash mixture from the industrial waste at the temperatures of 150°C, 450°C, 750°C viewed from the strength and resistance of geopolymer paste. As a result, cement will be substituted by industrial waste like fly ash. This experimental research was conducted on the mix design of geopolymer concrete which was made by dimension with 2.5 cm in diameter and 5 cm in height from four mixture composition of fly ash and industrial waste i.e. 100% fly ash, 50% fly ash+50% bottom ash, 50% fly ash+50% sandblast, and 50% fly ash+50% carbide waste. Each mixture was tested in terms of porosity and compressive strength. In conclusion, in the mixture of 50% fly ash+50% Sandblast and 50% fly ash+50% bottom ash in 12 molars, 1.5 activator comparison can be used to substitute fly ash at high temperature. Meanwhile, the mixture of 50% fly ash+50% carbide waste in 8 molars, 0.5 activator comparison has very small strength remaining if it is compared to the mixture of fly ash and other industrial waste (Bottom ash and Sandblast). The performance of mixture paste of 50% fly ash+50% carbide waste was very vulnerable after being burnt. Consequently, it cannot be used as the main structure at high temperature.

  5. EFFECT ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE WITH PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH

    OpenAIRE

    V. Alivelu Mangamma

    2016-01-01

    The municipal solid waste incineration ash reduces are worldwide studied topic over the last decades, so that utilize the municipal solid waste is the one of the possibilities is to use MSWI in concrete production as it is done the bottom ash features the most convenient composition in concrete and it is a available in highest amounts among the MSWI ashes the bottom ash was used as partial replacement of cement of cement in concrete strength has to find ,if the prepared concrete will get suff...

  6. Sensor-based control in eddy current separation of incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Abdur; Bakker, M C M

    2013-06-01

    A sensor unit was placed online in the particle stream produced by an eddy current separator (ECS) to investigate its functionality in non-ferrous metals recovery. The targeted feed was the 1-6mm size fraction bottom ash from a municipal waste incinerator. The sensor unit was attached to the ECS splitter, where it counted in real-time metal and mineral particles and accurately measured the grade of the stream in the metals product. Influence of segregation (e.g. due to particle size or density) on the metals concentrate were detected and studied using the sensor data collected at different splitter distances. Tests were performed in the laboratory and in a bottom ash processing plant with two different types of ECS and two sources of bottom ash with different moisture content. The measured metal grades matched the manual analyses with errors 0%, 1.5% and 3.1% for moist, dry and very wet feed, respectively. For very wet feed the ECS metals recovery dropped, which was observed from the strongly reduced particle counts and the large changes in cumulative particle properties. The measured sample proved representative for the whole metals concentrate if it is collected at a representative position within the metals particle trajectory fan produced by the ECS. ECS-performance proved sensitively dependent on splitter distance, since a 10mm shift may result in 10% change in metal recovery and 18% change in grade. The main functionalities of the sensor unit are determined as online quality control and facilitation of automatic control over the ECS splitter distance. These functionalities translate in significant improvements in ECS metals recovery which in turn is linked to economic benefits, increased recycling rate of scrap metals and a further reduction of the ecological drawbacks of incinerator bottom ash. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Solikin Mochamad; Setiawan Budi

    2017-01-01

    High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly ...

  8. Effect of fly ash preliminary calcination on the properties of geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuujin, J; van Riessen, A

    2009-05-30

    The influence of preliminary calcination of fly ashes on the geopolymerisation process has been studied. Preliminary calcination at 500 and 800 degrees C causes decarbonation of the fly ash while it also leads to a decrease of the amorphous content of the fly ashes from 60 to 57%. Geopolymer prepared using raw fly ash exhibited a compressive strength 55.7(9.2)MPa, while for 500 and 800 degrees C calcined samples it reduced to 54(5.8) and 44.4(5.4)MPa, respectively. The decrease in compressive strength of the geopolymers is discussed in terms of partial surface crystallisation of the fly ash particles. Reactivity of the fly ash also has been correlated with the shrinkage rate and presence of efflorescence on the surface of geopolymers.

  9. Physical and Chemical Character of Fly Ash of Coal Fired Power Plant in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triwulan; Priadana, K. A.; Ekaputri, J. J.; Bayuaji, R.

    2017-11-01

    Quality of fly ash is varying widely in the field, it depends on the combustion process and the quality of the basic ingredients, namely coal. It will affect the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete mixtures used. This study used 12 samples of fly ash. The physical and chemical properties and finesse modulus were analyzed. The fly ash was mixed with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) with the proportion of 20% fly ash and 80% OPC. The specimens were form with mortar dimension of 5cm x 5 cm. The test was affected by the correlation of fly ash fineness modulus to compressive strength, correlation density of fly ash to compressive strength, and correlation of carbon content to the compressive strength.

  10. Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fly ash from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.W.; Davis, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a controlled greenhouse experiment in which a native desert plant, the brittlebush was grown on admixtures of desert soils and fly ash. The fly ash is strongly enriched in Sr and the brittlebush is a Sr accumulator. The data demonstrate that the brittlebush isotopically equilibrates with desert soils whose fly ash components are as low as 0.25% by weight, the fly ash Sr is apparently more available to the plant than Sr derived from the soils, and the difference between the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the fly ash (0.70807) and soils (0.71097 to 0.71117) warrants further investigations in the natural environment to determine the practicality of this method as a natural tracer of fly ash in the environment

  11. Characterization of cements and fly ashes from India : phase 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, R.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete

    2004-03-15

    This paper provided details of fly ashes, cements, and admixtures received from India as part of a Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) project. The materials for the first phase of the project included 2 cements and 19 fly ash samples. Specific gravity, Blaine Fineness, and fineness by the 45 {mu}m sieve were determined. Compressive strength tests were conducted on the cements and a strength activity index for the fly ashes was presented. Materials for the second phase of the project included 2 cements; 2 fly ashes; a water-reducing admixture; and a superplasticizer. Data were presented in tabular format and included details of their assigned laboratory reference numbers, and the original weight of the materials as received, and the collection origin of the fly ashes. The results of chemical analyses and physical property tests on the fly ashes and cements were presented. A strength activity index with Portland cement was also included. 10 tabs.

  12. Comparative performance of geopolymers made with metakaolin and fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel L.Y. Kong; Jay G. Sanjayan; Kwesi Sagoe-Crentsil [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Civil Engineering

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of elevated temperatures on geopolymers manufactured using metakaolin and fly ash of various mixture proportions. Both types of geopolymers (metakaolin and fly ash) were synthesized with sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide solutions. The strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer increased after exposure to elevated temperatures (800{sup o}C). However, the strength of the corresponding metakaolin-based geopolymer decreased after similar exposure. Both types of geopolymers were subjected to thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests. The paper concludes that the fly ash-based geopolymers have large numbers of small pores which facilitate the escape of moisture when heated, thus causing minimal damage to the geopolymer matrix. On the other hand, metakaolin geopolymers do not possess such pore distribution structures. The strength increase in fly ash geopolymers is also partly attributed to the sintering reactions of un-reacted fly ash particles.

  13. Effect of Grinding Fineness of Fly Ash on the Properties of Geopolymer Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the development of geopolymer foam prepared from ground F class power station fly ash. The effect of the fly ash fineness on the rheology of the geopolymer paste and the foam properties have been investigated. The raw fly ash was ground in a ball mill for various duration, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. Geopolymer paste was prepared from the raw and ground fly ash with NaOH – sodium silicate mixture as alkaline activator. Geopolymer foam production was made using H2O2 as foaming agent. Additionally, the geopolymer material structure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the foam cell structure was monitored using optical microscopy. The rheological behaviour of the geopolymer paste changed due to the grinding of fly ash (from Bingham plastic to Newtonian liquid. Grinding of fly ash has a significant effect on the physical properties as well as on the cell structure of the geopolymer foam.

  14. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  15. Development of a standard operating procedure for analysis of ammonia concentrations in coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Research was performed to support the development and recommendation of a standard operating : procedure (SOP) for analyzing the ammonia content in fly ash intended for use in concrete. A review : of existing ash producers found that several differen...

  16. Mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash: Results from triaxial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Hung; Abriak, Nor Edine; Binetruy, Christophe; Benzerzour, Mahfoud; Nguyen, Sy-Tuan

    2017-07-01

    Bottom ash resulting from the incineration of various domestic wastes can be viewed as a typical granular material. It is mainly used in civil engineering as a substitute for traditional natural aggregates. The purpose of this paper is to characterize their mechanical behavior and evaluate their mechanical properties for engineering applications. First, results of triaxial tests confirm that bottom ash behaves like dense sand. Second, the deformation and strength characteristics of bottom ash, such as the secant modulus, Poisson ratio, characteristic angle, dilation angle, effective cohesion and effective friction angle, are determined. It is found that these mechanical parameters are in close agreement with those of road aggregates and are influenced by the effective confining pressure. Third, the evolution of the deformation modulus according to the axial strain and the variation of the deviator stress according to the mean effective pressure are analyzed. Finally, a set of points of the yielding state is determined from triaxial tests to represent the shape of the yielding surface of bottom ash. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Carbon speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in relation to facilitated metal leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomeren, André van; Comans, Rob N J

    2009-07-01

    The release of inorganic and organic contaminants from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is controlled to a large extent by the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and in particular by the reactive humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) subfractions of DOC. The properties of organic matter contributing to the release of DOC, HA and FA are, therefore, important for environmental risk assessment. In this study we have quantitatively measured the carbon speciation, and its relation with the leaching of Cu, in three fresh and carbonated MSWI bottom ash samples. Results show that up to only 25% of loss on ignition (LOI) consists of organic carbon (OC), while about 17% of OC in the three samples consists of HA and FA. Up to 50% of DOC in MSWI bottom ash leachates was identified as fulvic acid (FA). This value is substantially higher than previously estimated for these MSWI bottom ash samples and is consistent with the higher recovery of the new method that was applied. The results of this study imply that methods focusing on specific carbon fractions are more appropriate for assessment of environmentally relevant organic carbon species than the measurement of LOI.

  18. Innovative solidification/stabilization of lead contaminated soil using incineration sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangshan; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-04-01

    The proper treatment of lead (Pb) contaminated soils and incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) has become an environmental concern. In this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blended OPC containing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) were used to solidify/stabilize (S/S) soils contaminated with different concentrations of Pb. After curing for 7 and 28 d, the S/S soils were subjected to a series of strength, leaching and microscopic tests. The results showed that replacement of OPC by ISSA significantly reduced the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of S/S soils and leached Pb. In addition, the leaching of Pb from the monolithic samples was diffusion controlled, and increasing the ISSA addition in the samples led to a lower diffusion coefficient and thus an increase in the feasibility for "controlled utilization" of S/S soils. Furthermore, the proposed S/S method significantly decreased the amount of Pb associated with carbonates and increased the amount of organic and residual Pb in S/S soils, reflecting that the risk of Pb contaminated soils can be effectively mitigated by the incorporating of ISSA. Overall, the leachability of Pb was controlled by the combined effect of adsorption, encapsulation or precipitation in the S/S soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New fired bricks based on municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, R; Karamanova, E; Barbieri, L; Atanasova-Vladimirova, S; Andreola, F; Karamanov, A

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the sintering process and technological properties of new fired bricks based on high amount of post-treated municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and refractory clay. In addition, the effect of the minor addition of flux (Na 2 CO 3 ) or reinforce (corundum) was also highlighted. Several methods were used to study the effect of compositions variations on the sintering process, structure and the mechanical characteristics of the test briquettes. Differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and dilatometry techniques were applied to study the thermal behaviour while scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high-temperature X-ray diffraction were used to elucidate the structure and the phase composition. The mechanical characteristics were estimated by micro-indentation, strength and various physical tests (porosity, linear shrinkage and water absorption, etc). The results highlight the possibility to use very high amount of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ashes in the production of new fired bricks with good performances at all levels. It is also shown that the addition of additives managed the final properties, affecting the crystal phase formation, porosity and greatly the strength of the samples.

  20. Removal of Boron from aqueous solutions by adsorption using fly ash, zeolite and demineralized lignite

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Seren; Yuksel, Seren; Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda

    2009-01-01

    In the present study for the purpose of removal of boron from water by adsorption using adsorbents like fly ash, natural zeolite and demineralized lignite was investigated. Boron in water was removed with fly ash, zeolite and demineralized lignite with different capacities. 94% boron was removed using fly ash. Batch experiments were conducted to test removal capacity, to obtain adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. Boron removal by all adsorbents was affected by pH of...

  1. Research on Adsorbent Using Modified Fly Ash for Campus Domestic Sewage Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jinping; Gan Jinhua; Wang Guangkun; Chen Ziwei; Gong Yimin

    2016-01-01

    As a kind of extensive sources and low cost industrial waste, fly ash has many features, such as porosity, large surface area, adsorption capacity, chemical activity and weakly alkaline, which seem a wide prospect of application in wastewater treatment. This study proposed the acid modification test on fly ash. The effect of key factors including the particle size, pH, the dosage of fly ash, adsorption time and dosage of the modifier on domestic sewage removal efficiencies were evaluated. The...

  2. Synthesis and sintering of high-temperature composites based on mechanically activated fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić, Anja; Pavlović, Ljubica; Obradović, Nina; Pavlović, Vladimir B.; Stojanović, J.; Miličić, Lj.; Radojević, Z.; Ristić, Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Amount of fly ash which is and yet to be generated in the coming years highlights the necessity of developing new methods of the recycling where this waste can be reused in significant quantity. A new possibility for fly ash utilization is in high-temperature application (thermal insulators or/and refractory material products). As such, fly ash has to adequately answer the mechanical and thermal stability criteria. One of the ways of achieving it is by applying mechanical activation pro...

  3. Laboratory Investigations on Mechanical Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete and Composite Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindkumar B. Harwalkar; S. S. Awanti

    2013-01-01

    Use of fly ash as a supplementary cementing material in large volumes can bring both technological and economic benefits for concrete industry. In this investigation mix proportions for high volume fly ash concrete were determined at cement replacement levels of 50%, 55%, 60% and 65% with low calcium fly ash. Flexural and compressive strengths of different mixes were measured at ages of 7, 28 and 90 days. Flexural strength of composite section prepared from pavement quali...

  4. The Stabilization of Weathered Dolerite Aggregates with Cement, Lime, and Lime Fly Ash for Pavement Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Okonta, Felix N.; Ojuri, Oluwapelumi O.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental program was performed on weathered dolerite specimens stabilized by adding varying percentages of cement (4, 8, 12, and 16) % and lime (6 and 12) % and a combination of lime and fly ash (6% lime + 12% Fly ash and 12% lime + 12% Fly ash) % by dry weight of soil. The strength was examined under three different curing methods, namely, membrane curing (MBC), alternate moist-air curing (MAC), and water curing (WAC), by conducting unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. Simple ...

  5. Effect of fly ash calcination in geopolymer synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki; Jatiningrum, Mirna; Arisiani, Gresia

    2015-12-01

    Geopolymer, a largely amorphous class of inorganic polymer consisting of aluminosilicate repeat units, is an environmentally attractive engineering material due to its ability to consume aluminosilicate waste as raw materials. This work studies the effect of the calcination temperature of a coal fly ash generated by a low-efficiency boiler on the mechanical strength of geopolymer mortar synthesized using a mixture of the fly ash, potassium hydroxide as the alkali activator, and locally available sand as the filler aggregate. The calcination temperature is varied between 500-700 °C, with a calcination period of 2 hours in an electric furnace. Two sand samples with different particle size distributions are used. The key response variable is the compressive strength at room temperature, measured after curing at 80 °C for 7 and 14 days. Uncalcined ash, with a carbon content of approximately 31.0%, is not amenable for geopolymer synthesis. Analysis of experimental data using the ANOVA method for general factorial design identifies significant main effects for all three experimental variables. Two-way interactions are significant, except that between sand type and curing period. Higher calcination temperature significantly improves the strength of the mortar. However, the strength of the obtained geopolymer mortars are still significantly lower than that of ordinary Portland cement mortar.

  6. The mineral and glass content of South African fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesch, W.

    1987-01-01

    A study has been made of the mineralogical composition of South African fly ashes using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy and wet chemistry. Depending on the source and the Ca-content, the ash consists of a Si-Al-Ca-rich glassy phase between 24-75 wt% and the following mineral phases: mullite (3Al 2 O 3 .2SiO 2 ) at 16-49 wt%, quartz (SiO 2 ) at 2,7-26 wt%, maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) and hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) at 2,5-8,5 wt% and lime (CaO) and portlandite (Ca(OH) 2 ) at o,3-2,9 wt%. The minerals were quantified with XRD, using a spiking technique to determine calibration curves, and the glassy phase was determined by subtraction. A curve was established whereby the glass content could possibly be determined directly from the total CaO concentration. Spherical particles (2-100micron) dominate the morphology of the fly ash, the bulk of which consists of the glassy phase. The particles comprise solid spheres, hollow-or cenospheres, spheres filled with spheres (plerospheres), skeletal sphere aggregates and sphere-encapsulated mineral phases (mullite and the Fe-oxides). Quartz and lime occur mainly as separate mineral grains

  7. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Jensen, Pernille E

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue. PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g(-1), being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) varied ten fold, ranging 0.18-2.0 ng g(-1) I-TEQ, with penta and hexa-homologs being most significant for toxicity. After the electrodialytic treatment PCDD/PCDF levels increased in the residues (between 1.4 and 2.0 times). This does not mean PCDD/PCDF were synthesized, but else that soluble materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end-of-waste criteria are set and that a risk assessment of individual options is carried out, including the end-of-life stage when the materials become waste again. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting AEA dosage by Foam Index and adsorption on Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Ollendorff, Margrethe; Geiker, Mette Rica; Tunstall, Lori; Scherer, George W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The unpredictable air entrainment in fly ash concrete caused by carbon in fly ash was studied by measuring adsorption of Air Entraining Agents (AEA) on the fly ash and by Foam Index (FI) testing. The FI test measures the mass ratio of AEA/binder required to obtain stable foam when shaking a mixture of water, binder powder and AEA, while increasing AEA-dosage stepwise. A review of concrete air entrainment and new studies combining adsorption (TGA, NMR) of AEA on fly ash with various ...

  10. Sustainability of construction industry : quality control of fly ash for its application into construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawa, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan). Laboratory of Eco-Materials and Resources; Nishi, H. [FLOWRIC Co. Ltd., Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Concrete Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    A major driver for future innovations and prospects for development of the construction industry is the realization of a sustainable society through green infrastructures that are more energy and resource-efficient. However, until the materials used for construction are also green, greening of the construction industry cannot be complete. Therefore, the use of industrial by-products and recycling material in construction are a favourable option to ensure sustainable development. This paper discussed the quality control of concrete with fly ash, which is a by-product from a coal-fired electrical power plant. The paper examined the effect of the quality of fly ash on fluidity of concrete in order to establish effective quality control of fly ash concrete. The paper discussed the experimental materials, sample preparation and experimental methods. Topics that were discussed included the influence of unburnt carbon in fly ash on the content of entrained air bubbles; the influence of the type of fly ash on fluidity of concrete; prediction of fluidity of fly ash concrete from fluidity test of mortar; and prediction of concrete fluidity from quality of fly ash. It was concluded that both fluidity of concrete and required dosage of superplasticizer to obtain the same fluidity varies significantly depending on the type of fly ash. It was concluded that the required dosage of superplasticizer and air entrained agents to obtain the same fluidity of concrete and air contents, respectively, is closely related to the methylene blue adsorption of fly ash. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Micromorphology use for visualization of fly-ash distribution in sandy material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodesova, R.; Kapicka, A.

    2009-04-01

    Fly-ash migration in three sands of various particle size distributions and consequently various porosities, was studied in the laboratory. The fly-ash was applied on the top of all sands packed in plastic cylinders followed by pulse infiltrations. Water regime was monitored using the soil water content sensors and tensiometers. Kappameter SM400 (Petrovský at al., 2004) was used to monitor migration of ferrimagnetic particles-tracers presented in the fly-ash. Undisturbed samples of sands polluted by fly-ash were taken at the end of the experiments to study final fly-ash distribution in thin sections. Images showed that while fly-ash migrates freely thought the course sandy material, in the other two sands fly-ash is accumulated in few bottle neck pores. However, fly-ash mobility was documented in both cases. Information about image porosities and pore blocking will be used as input data for numerical simulation of observed fly-ash transport. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic grant No. A300120701, and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports grant No. MSM 6046070901.

  12. Preparation of Fly ash Based Adsorbents for Removal Active Red X-3B from Dying Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash with a large number of active sites can occur with the adsorbent chemical and physical adsorption, and therefore have a strong adsorption capacity. The original fly ash and raw fly ash compared to the physical and chemical properties to a significant change. On the fly ash in industrial water treatment application were outlined. The purpose is to focus on the modification methods of fly ash and comparison of raw fly ash and fly ash in the effect of dyeing wastewater. Single factor test method; select the appropriate modifier to study the dosage, pH, stirring time on the modification of adsorption properties of fly ash before and after. The results showed that the modified fly ash was better than the adsorption. Greatly improves on active red X-3B dye wastewater removal capacity, pH = 5, 6, dosage is 5g / L, the mixing time is 30min, COD removal rate reached 73.07%. This modified material can be used as adsorbent for pre-treating dying wastewater.

  13. Improvement of coal fly ash pozzolanic activity by different physical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations performed in order to determine the possibility of improving the pozzolanic activity of coal fly ash from two Serbian Thermal Power Plants. The initial samples of fly ash were treated by different physical processes (mechanical activation, grinding and classification. On the obtained samples, the pozzolanic activity was determined using standard methods (with lime and Portland cement. It was found that the above procedures can significantly improve the pozzolanic activity of fly ash, and the best results were achieved when the fly ash was treated by mechanical activation process in the laboratory ring mill.

  14. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  15. Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in municipal waste incinerator bottom ash in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Yao, Jun; Shi, Dezhi; Fang, Jie; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Chen, Yingxu

    2010-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in bottom ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in six cities in Zhejiang province, where one-fourth of the MSW incinerators of China are located. Total PAH contents varied from 2222.53 to 6883.91 microg/kg. The patterns of PAHs were found to be very similar in all the samples, dominated by three-ring and four-ring PAHs. Total PCB concentrations in bottom ash ranged from 1.00 to 1.31 microg/kg, while the coplanar PCBs in the bottom ash were in the range of 0.08-0.52 microg/kg. Among PCB congeners, low chlorinated PCBs contributed to the majority of total PCBs. Generally, PAH concentrations in cities with fluidized bed incinerator were less than those in cities with grate furnace incinerator. PAH and PCB levels were affected by both plastic content in MSW incinerator feed and combustion efficiency. However, further study is required to investigate the effect of these two variables deeply, as well as other influencing factors. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CO2 uptake capacity of coal fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzella, Alessandro; Errico, Massimiliano; Spiga, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Coal ashes are normally considered as a waste obtained by the coal combustion in thermal power plants. Their utilization inside the site where are produced represents an important example of sustainable process integration. The present study was performed to evaluate the application of a gas......-solid carbonation treatment on coal fly ash in order to assess the potential of the process in terms of sequestration of CO2 as well as its influence on the leaching behavior of metals and soluble salts. Laboratory tests, performed under different pressure and temperature conditions, showed that in the pressure...... range 1 ÷ 7.5 bar the CO2 uptake increased with temperature, shortening the time required to capture higher percentage of CO2. Conversely, in the pressure range 10 ÷ 15 bar, the carbonation kinetics slowed down and the effect of temperature was less evident. The best CO2 uptake was found to be 18.2 wt...

  17. Gehlenite and anorthite formation from fluid fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perná, Ivana; Šupová, Monika; Hanzlíček, Tomáš

    2018-04-01

    Fluid fly ash could be considered a waste, but, when well treated, it may also become a useful secondary source material. Its rather high content of calcium-containing phases along with thermally treated alumino-silicate residues resulting from coal combustion can lead to the formation of a stable system with newly formatted phases. The high temperature destroys the clay lattice and activates a new configuration of aluminum ions, changing their coordination to oxygen. The effect is accompanied by changes in charge in the surroundings, which are compensated for by calcium ions. The higher the temperature of the fluid ash treatment, the more pronounced the appearance of gehlenite and anorthite in the final mass. Both are natural materials and, together with mullite and anhydrite, they could ensure safety and protection even if exposed to open fire of up to 1150 °C.

  18. Fire Related Temperature Resistance of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyalakshmi R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper is on the effect of heat treatment on fly ash based geopolymer mortar synthesized from fly ash (Class F –Low lime using alkaline binary activator solution containing sodium hydroxide (18 M and sodium silicate solution (MR 2.0, cured at 80oC for 24 h. 7 days aged specimen heated at elevated temperature (200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C for the sustained period of 2hrs. The TGA/DTA analysis and thermal conductivity measurement as per ASTM C113 were carried out besides the compressive strengths. The thermal stability of the fly ash mortar at elevated temperature was found to be high as reflected in the observed value of f800°C/f30°C being more than 1 and this ratio was raised to about 1.3 with the addition of 2% Zirconium di oxide (ZrO2. No visible cracks were found on the specimens with and without ZrO2 when 800°C was sustained for 4 hrs in smaller specimens of size: 50 mm diameter x 100 mm height and in also bigger size specimens: 22 cm × 11 cm × 7 cm specimens. TGA/DTA analysis of the geopolymer paste showed that the retention of mass was around 90%. The addition of ZrO2 improved thermal resistance. The micro structure of the matrix found to be intact even at elevated temperature that was evident from the FESEM studies.

  19. Floating cultivation of marine cyanobacteria using coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M.; Yoshida, E.; Takeyama, H.; Matsunaga, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Biotetechnology

    2000-07-01

    The aim was to develop improved methodologies for bulk culturing of biotechnologically useful marine cyanobacteria in the open ocean. The viability of using coal fly ash (CFA) blocks as the support medium in a novel floating culture system for marine microalgae was investigated. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBC 040607 was found to adhere to floating CFA blocks in liquid culture medium. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902 weakly adhered to floating CFA blocks in BG-11 medium. Increasing the concentration of calcium ion in the culture medium enhanced adherence to CFA blocks.

  20. Morphological and structural characterization of fly ash powders

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Peña-Rodríguez; Luis René Ortega-Triana

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and structural characterization of fly ash powder's reports are obtained from coal  combustion supplied by the thermal - electrical plant Termotasajero S.A. The morphological study consisted in the superficial analysis, using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The basic chemical composition was found using X ray energy dispersion spectrums (EDX - SEM) whereas structural characterization was developed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The software Image tool V. 3.0. was used for the p...

  1. The leaching of trace elements from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash at different stages of weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, J.A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-01-01

    For a proper assessment of the environmental impact of the utilisation and disposal of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash it is necessary to understand weathering processes and their effects on (trace) element leaching. The authors have investigated the processes that control the

  2. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zomeren, André; Comans, Rob N J

    2004-07-15

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was investigated with specific attention for the nature of the organic ligands. A competitive ligand exchange-solvent extraction (CLE-SE) method was used to measure Cu binding to DOC. Two types of binding sites for Cu were identified and geochemical modeling showed that the organically bound fraction varied from 82% to 100% between pH 6.6 and 10.6. Model calculations showed that complexation by previously identified aliphatic and aromatic acids was unable to explain the enhanced Cu leaching from the MSWI residues. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and the standard extraction procedure to isolate and purify natural organic matter revealed that about 0.5% of DOC consists of humic acids and 14.3-25.6% consists of fulvic acids. Calculated Cu binding isotherms based on these natural organic compounds, and the nonideal competitive adsorption-Donnan (NICA-Donnan) model, provide an adequate description of the organic Cu complexation in the bottom ash leachates. The results show that fulvic acid-type components exist in MSWI bottom ash leachates and are likely responsible for the generally observed enhanced Cu leaching from these residues. These findings enable the use of geochemical speciation programs, which include models and intrinsic parameters for metal binding to natural organic matter, to predict Cu leaching from this widely produced waste material under variable environmental conditions (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and concentrations of competing metals). The identified role of fulvic acids in the leaching of Cu and possibly other heavy metals can also be used in the development of techniques to improve the environmental quality of MSWI bottom ash.

  3. Integrated management of ash from industrial and domestic combustion : a new sustainable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Benassi, L; Dalipi, R; Consigli, V; Pasquali, M; Borgese, L; Depero, L E; Clegg, Francis; Bingham, Paul; Bontempi, E

    2017-01-01

    This work supports, for the first time, the integrated management of waste materials arising from industrial processes (fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration and coal fly ash), agriculture (rice husk ash), and domestic activities (ash from wood biomass burning in domestic stoves). The main novelty of the paper is the reuse of wood pellet ash, an underestimated environmental problem, by the application of a new technology (COSMOS-RICE) that already involves the reuse of fly ashes fro...

  4. Chemical composition, nutritional and toxicological evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in fly ash amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarachary, Kandlakunta; Ramulu, Punna; Udayasekhararao, Paruchuri; Bapurao, Sangras; Kamala, Krishnaswamy; Syed, Qadri; Udaykumar, Putcha; Sesikeran, Boindala

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate nutritional and toxicological aspects of rice grown in fly ash amended soils. Rice was grown on soils with fly ash (200 t ha(-1) ) and without fly ash at two different geographical locations of India. One kilogram each of 36 samples randomly collected from three replicates of rice grown with and without fly ash was subjected to various analytical techniques to determine the nutrient composition, mineral and heavy metal content. Moisture, protein and ash content of the rice samples showed no difference between fly ash treated and controls. Similar observations were also made on trace and heavy elements. Further, the rice grown on soils treated with fly ash was incorporated in the diet at 90% level and was fed to Wistar/NIN rats for 26 weeks for carrying out protein and toxicological evaluation. Results indicated that there is no difference between rice samples grown in soils with or without fly ash. Studies also clearly indicated that there were no adverse effects on hematological, biochemical or histopathological parameters when rice was fed to rats for 6 months. This indicates that rice grown on fly ash treated soils may be safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Problematic Incinerator Ash: A Case Study of Finding a Successful Treatment Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) produces incinerator flyash and bottom ash as a consequence of burning low-level radioactive waste materials at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). The incineration process greatly r