WorldWideScience

Sample records for incidents involving hazardous

  1. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Brederode, N.E. van; Bos, P.M.J.; Nijhuis, N.J.; Weerdt, R.H. van de; Woude, I. van der; Eggens, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency

  2. Modeling retrospective attribution of responsibility to hazard-managing institutions: an example involving a food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Hallman, William K; Cuite, Cara L

    2015-03-01

    Perceptions of institutions that manage hazards are important because they can affect how the public responds to hazard events. Antecedents of trust judgments have received far more attention than antecedents of attributions of responsibility for hazard events. We build upon a model of retrospective attribution of responsibility to individuals to examine these relationships regarding five classes of institutions that bear responsibility for food safety: producers (e.g., farmers), processors (e.g., packaging firms), watchdogs (e.g., government agencies), sellers (e.g., supermarkets), and preparers (e.g., restaurants). A nationally representative sample of 1,200 American adults completed an Internet-based survey in which a hypothetical scenario involving contamination of diverse foods with Salmonella served as the stimulus event. Perceived competence and good intentions of the institution moderately decreased attributions of responsibility. A stronger factor was whether an institution was deemed (potentially) aware of the contamination and free to act to prevent or mitigate it. Responsibility was rated higher the more aware and free the institution. This initial model for attributions of responsibility to impersonal institutions (as opposed to individual responsibility) merits further development. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  4. Transportation-related hazardous materials incidents and the role of poison control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mark E; Hon, Stephanie L; Chang, Arthur S; Schwartz, Michael D; Algren, D Adam; Schier, Joshua G; Lando, James; Lewis, Lauren S

    2010-06-01

    Department of Transportation (DOT) mandates reporting of all serious hazardous materials incidents. Hazardous material exposures may result in secondary contamination of emergency departments, or delayed clinical effects. Poison control centers specialize in the management of patients exposed to toxic substances; however, poison control center notification is not required. The objective is to determine the frequency of poison control center notification after serious hazardous materials incidents when patients were transported to a hospital. A retrospective analysis was conducted of serious hazardous materials incidents as reported by DOT, matched with data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers from 2002 through 2006 that involved patient transport. Incidents were divided into four groups: those reported to a poison control center within 0-360 minutes of the incident; those reported within 361-1440 minutes of the incident; those reported within 1441-4320 minutes of the incident; and no poison control center notification. Analyses were performed on variables including date, time, substance, and time to notification. Data were received in January 2008. One hundred fifty-four serious incidents met inclusion criteria. One hundred thirty-four incidents (87%) occurred without poison control center notification. Poison control centers were notified in 20 incidents (12.9%); 15 incidents (9.7%) were reported within 0-360 minutes of the incident (M=115 minutes, range=5-359 minutes); four incidents (2.6%) were reported within 361-1440 minutes of the incident (M=652 minutes, range=566-750 minutes); and one incident (0.7%) was reported after 4320 minutes following the incident. Most serious hazardous materials incidents involving patient transport are not reported to poison control centers. Opportunities exist to increase utilization of poison control center resources without increasing financial burdens of the hazardous materials incident. Published by

  5. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  6. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  8. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  9. 18 CFR 1316.9 - Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear energy hazards... Text of Conditions and Certifications § 1316.9 Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. When so... documents or actions: Nuclear Energy Hazards and Nuclear Incidents (Applicable only to contracts for goods...

  10. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  11. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical incidents involving students on placement: an analysis of incident reports to identify potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Maloney, S; Lo, K; Morgan, P

    2015-06-01

    Students are sometimes involved in incidents during clinical training. To the authors' knowledge, no quantitative studies of incidents specifically involving physiotherapy students on clinical placement are available in the literature. A retrospective audit (2008 to 2011) of incident reports involving physiotherapy students was conducted to identify the nature and features of incidents. The study aimed to determine if injuries to a student or patient were more or less likely when the supervisor was in close proximity, and whether students with lower academic performance in their preclinical semester were more likely to be involved in an incident. There were 19 care-delivery-related and three equipment-related incidents. There were no incidents of violent, aggressive or demeaning behaviour towards students. The incident rate was 9.0/100,000 student-hours for third-year students and 6.8/100,000 student-hours for fourth-year students. The majority of incidents (55%) occurred from 11 am to 12-noon and from 3 pm to 3.30 pm. Incidents more often resulted in patient or student injury when the supervisor was not in close proximity (approximately 50% vs approximately 20%), although the difference was not significant (P=0.336). The academic results of students involved in incidents were equivalent to the whole cohort in their preclinical semester {mean 75 [standard deviation (SD) 6] vs 76 (SD 7); P=0.488}. The unexpected temporal clustering of incidents warrants further investigation. Student fatigue may warrant attention as a potential contributor; however, contextual factors, such as staff workload, along with organisational systems, structures and procedures may be more relevant. The potential relationship between supervisor proximity and injury also warrants further exploration. The findings of the present study should be integrated into clinical education curricula and communicated to clinical educators. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by

  13. Summarization of Injury and Fatality Factors Involving Children and Youth in Grain Storage and Handling Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, S F; Field, W E; Hamm, K E; Cheng, Y H; Roberts, M J; Riedel, S M

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes data gathered on 246 documented cases of children and youth under the age of 21 involved in grain storage and handling incidents in agricultural workplaces from 1964 to 2013 in the U.S. that have been entered into the Purdue Agricultural Confined Space Incident Database. The database is the result of ongoing efforts to collect and file information on documented injuries, fatalities, and entrapments in all forms of agricultural confined spaces. While the frequency of injuries and fatalities involving children and youth in agriculture has decreased in recent years, incidents related to agricultural confined spaces, especially grain storage and handling facilities, have remained largely unchanged during the same period. Approximately 21% of all documented incidents involved children and youth (age 20 and younger), and more than 77% of all documented incidents were fatal, suggesting an under-reporting of non-fatal incidents. Findings indicate that the majority of youth incidents occurred at OSHA exempt agricultural worksites. The states reporting the most incidents were Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, and Minnesota. Grain transport vehicles represented a significant portion of incidents involving children under the age of 16. The overwhelming majority of victims were male, and most incidents (50%) occurred in June, October, and November. Recommendations include developing intervention strategies that target OSHA exempt farms, feedlots, and seed processing facilities; preparing engineering design and best practice standards that reduce the exposure of children and youth to agricultural confined spaces; and developing gender-specific safety resources that incorporate gender-sensitive strategies to communicate safety information to the population of young males with the greatest risk of exposure to the hazards of agricultural confined spaces.

  14. 49 CFR 171.16 - Detailed hazardous materials incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing any hazardous material suffers structural damage to the lading retention system or damage that..., explosion or dangerous evolution of heat (i.e., an amount of heat sufficient to be dangerous to packaging or personal safety to include charring of packaging, melting of packaging, scorching of packaging, or other...

  15. NAIR: handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A revised handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) has been published. Following brief introductory sections on the administrative aspects and operational aspects, the main part of the handbook is devoted to operational and call-out lists including an index of police forces served by NAIR, an index of establishments providing assistance under NAIR, sources of stage 1 and stage 2 assistance for each police constabulary, hospitals prepared to accept contaminated casualties and to assist with decontamination of personnel, and hospitals prepared to advise on the treatment and admission of casualties exposed to large doses of radiation. Technical appendices are also given on radiological protection in NAIR incidents, instruments and equipment, radionuclide data and a guide to suitable detectors, package and source identification and disposal of radioactive materials involved in NAIR accidents. (U.K.)

  16. Review on hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) involved in marine spill incidents—an online database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Isabel; Moreira, Susana; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-03-21

    In this review, we have collected information on the behavior, fate, weathering, and impact of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) accidentally spilled at sea on the marine biota. The information was compiled on a datasheet and converted into a database that can be accessed by the general public (www.ciimar.up.pt/hns). Systematization of data is important to assist stakeholders involved in HNS spill preparedness and response, facilitating the incorporation of lessons from past incidents in the decision process. The database contains 184 entries of HNS spilled in 119 incidents in marine waters around the world. Data were analyzed in terms of HNS physical behavior in water according to SEBC (Standard European Behavior Classification) codes. The most common products involved in accidental spills in the marine environment were identified and major lessons highlighted. From the analysis, it was determined that most HNS spills were poorly documented and information was mistreated. In most cases, no monitoring programs were implemented following the incident. This conduct has occurred in 24 out of 119 incidents analyzed and has consequently limited the information on fate, behavior, and weathering of HNS spilled that could have been recovered. Major gaps were identified, and priorities and recommendations were drawn as a step toward improving preparedness and response to HNS spills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  18. Investigation of incidents of terrorism involving commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Wagner, G N; Wright, D G; Ruehle, C J; McDonnell, E W

    1989-07-01

    Deaths resulting from terrorism involving aircraft have occurred incident to hijackings as well as bombings. Passengers or groups of passengers have been chosen by terrorists as the recipients of violence based on citizenship, religion, and political beliefs. They have usually been segregated from other passengers and subsequently mistreated and/or murdered. Thorough documentation of the injuries of victims is essential to the investigation of such atrocities; a medicolegal autopsy correlated with a scene investigation is of paramount importance. Aircraft bombings can create extremely sensitive political situations and public demands for quick resolution. The autopsy of victims in such circumstances, if properly conducted, can yield invaluable trace evidence leading to the identification of the explosive device. The examination of any surviving victims as well as the aircraft is also critical in reconstructing the event. Deaths occurring as the result of in-flight aircraft bombings can produce injuries by five different mechanisms, viz. blast, shrapnel, decompression, impact with the aircraft, and ground impact.

  19. Flexible parametric modelling of cause-specific hazards to estimate cumulative incidence functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Competing risks are a common occurrence in survival analysis. They arise when a patient is at risk of more than one mutually exclusive event, such as death from different causes, and the occurrence of one of these may prevent any other event from ever happening. Methods There are two main approaches to modelling competing risks: the first is to model the cause-specific hazards and transform these to the cumulative incidence function; the second is to model directly on a transformation of the cumulative incidence function. We focus on the first approach in this paper. This paper advocates the use of the flexible parametric survival model in this competing risk framework. Results An illustrative example on the survival of breast cancer patients has shown that the flexible parametric proportional hazards model has almost perfect agreement with the Cox proportional hazards model. However, the large epidemiological data set used here shows clear evidence of non-proportional hazards. The flexible parametric model is able to adequately account for these through the incorporation of time-dependent effects. Conclusion A key advantage of using this approach is that smooth estimates of both the cause-specific hazard rates and the cumulative incidence functions can be obtained. It is also relatively easy to incorporate time-dependent effects which are commonly seen in epidemiological studies. PMID:23384310

  20. 76 FR 61371 - All-Hazard Position Task Books for Type 3 Incident Management Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...). 11. Division/Group Supervisor. 12. Unit Leader. 13. Strike Team/Task Force Leader. 14. Technical... Teams AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency; DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: The All-Hazard Position Task Books for Type 3 Incident Management Teams were developed...

  1. Electromagnetic interference from radio frequency identification inducing potentially hazardous incidents in critical care medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Togt, Remko; van Lieshout, Erik Jan; Hensbroek, Reinout; Beinat, E; Binnekade, J M; Bakker, P J M

    2008-06-25

    Health care applications of autoidentification technologies, such as radio frequency identification (RFID), have been proposed to improve patient safety and also the tracking and tracing of medical equipment. However, electromagnetic interference (EMI) by RFID on medical devices has never been reported. To assess and classify incidents of EMI by RFID on critical care equipment. Without a patient being connected, EMI by 2 RFID systems (active 125 kHz and passive 868 MHz) was assessed under controlled conditions during May 2006, in the proximity of 41 medical devices (in 17 categories, 22 different manufacturers) at the Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Assessment took place according to an international test protocol. Incidents of EMI were classified according to a critical care adverse events scale as hazardous, significant, or light. In 123 EMI tests (3 per medical device), RFID induced 34 EMI incidents: 22 were classified as hazardous, 2 as significant, and 10 as light. The passive 868-MHz RFID signal induced a higher number of incidents (26 incidents in 41 EMI tests; 63%) compared with the active 125-kHz RFID signal (8 incidents in 41 EMI tests; 20%); difference 44% (95% confidence interval, 27%-53%; P RFID signal induced EMI in 26 medical devices, including 8 that were also affected by the active 125-kHz RFID signal (26 in 41 devices; 63%). The median distance between the RFID reader and the medical device in all EMI incidents was 30 cm (range, 0.1-600 cm). In a controlled nonclinical setting, RFID induced potentially hazardous incidents in medical devices. Implementation of RFID in the critical care environment should require on-site EMI tests and updates of international standards.

  2. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1981, Sandia National Laboratories developed the Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database to support its research and development activities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The RMIR database contains information on transportation accidents/incidents with radioactive materials that have occurred since 1971. The RMIR classifies a transportation accident/incident in one of six ways: as a transportation accident, a handling accident, a reported incident, missing or stolen, cask weeping, or other. This paper will define these terms and provide detailed examples of each. (J.P.N.)

  3. Hazardous chemical incidents in schools--United States, 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    Chemicals that can cause adverse health effects are used in many elementary and secondary schools (e.g., in chemistry laboratories, art classrooms, automotive repair areas, printing and other vocational shops, and facility maintenance areas). Every year, unintentional and intentional releases of these chemicals, or related fires or explosions, occur in schools, causing injuries, costly cleanups, and lost school days. The federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducts national public health surveillance of chemical incidents through its Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system. To identify school-related incidents and elucidate their causes and consequences to highlight the need for intervention, ATSDR conducted an analysis of HSEES data for 2002-2007. During that period, 423 chemical incidents in elementary and secondary schools were reported by 15 participating states. Mercury was the most common chemical released. The analysis found that 62% of reported chemical incidents at elementary and secondary schools resulted from human error (i.e., mistakes in the use or handling of a substance), and 30% of incidents resulted in at least one acute injury. Proper chemical use and management (e.g., keeping an inventory and properly storing, labeling, and disposing of chemicals) is essential to protect school building occupants. Additional education directed at raising awareness of the problem and providing resources to reduce the risk is needed to ensure that schools are safe from unnecessary dangers posed by hazardous chemicals.

  4. Hazard detection in noise-related incidents - the role of driving experience with battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocron, Peter; Bachl, Veronika; Früh, Laura; Koch, Iris; Krems, Josef F

    2014-12-01

    The low noise emission of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has led to discussions about how to address potential safety issues for other road users. Legislative actions have already been undertaken to implement artificial sounds. In previous research, BEV drivers reported that due to low noise emission they paid particular attention to pedestrians and bicyclists. For the current research, we developed a hazard detection task to test whether drivers with BEV experience respond faster to incidents, which arise due to the low noise emission, than inexperienced drivers. The first study (N=65) revealed that BEV experience only played a minor role in drivers' response to hazards resulting from low BEV noise. The tendency to respond, reaction times and hazard evaluations were similar among experienced and inexperienced BEV drivers; only small trends in the assumed direction were observed. Still, both groups clearly differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios and responded accordingly. In the second study (N=58), we investigated additionally if sensitization to low noise emission of BEVs had an effect on hazard perception in incidents where the noise difference is crucial. Again, participants in all groups differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios. Even though trends in response rates and latencies occurred, experience and sensitization to low noise seemed to only play a minor role in detecting hazards due to low BEV noise. An additional global evaluation of BEV noise further suggests that even after a short test drive, the lack of noise is perceived more as a comfort feature than a safety threat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nurses involved in whistleblowing incidents: sequelae for their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Lesley M; Peters, Kath; Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Nurses involved in whistleblowing often face economic and emotional retaliation, victimization and abuse. Yet for many nurses, one major part of their whistleblowing experience is the negative impact it has on their families. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study pertaining to the effects of whistleblowing on family life from the perspective of the nurses. Using a narrative inquiry approach, fourteen nurses were interviewed who were directly involved in whistleblowing complaints. Data analysis drew out three themes: strained relationships with family members, dislocation of family life, and exposing family to public scrutiny. The harm caused to the nurses involved in a whistleblowing event is not restricted to one party but to all those involved, as the harrowing experience and its consequences are echoed in the family life as well. It is important for organizations to seek strategies that will minimize the harmful effects on nurses' families during whistleblowing events.

  6. The breast cancer incidence risk among females and a hazards in the microenvironments of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the earlier examinations on the Silesia voivodeship territory was found ultimately that in the districts with greatest development of industry the incidence of breast cancer was significantly greater in native females (stationary population than in immigrants (no stationary population, which suggests that there is a harmful influence of industrial pollutants in the female population (a longer time living in such conditions. It is possible that various chemical compounds especially from industrial-communal emissions and in the place of work – in the atmosphere contribute to a rise in the incidence of breast cancer in females as well. Material and methods. In analyse case-control type two women populations, i.e. natives – 540 cases with a breast cancer and 687 cases of control (women born within Silesia voivodeship, and immigrants – 319 cases of ills for breast cancer and 446 not-ills (all ones born outside Silesia voivodeship – were examinated. Anywhere in this case checking thesis whether character and long-time of hazards in microenvironment of work is significant in a risk of breast cancer. Results. The females that manually working without hazards in the place of work were characterized a bigger breast cancer risk – independently from place of birth (natives, immigrants, age group (30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 60 and total age and the endemic areas about statistically significantly high or low incidence and mortality (tab. II, III. It can not distinguished in this study no bigger females group with any characteristic impurities in the place of work comparatively suffering groups to controls ones. Conclusions. In this study the occupational risk factors are small significant mark in the incidence for female breast cancer.

  7. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...-2010-0211] RIN 2105-AE07 Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport... incidents involving animals during air transport, 14 CFR 234.13, to expand the reporting requirement to U.S... seats, to expand the definition of ``animal'' to include all cats and dogs transported by the carrier...

  8. 77 FR 69925 - Assessment of Hazardous Materials Incident Data Collection, Analysis, Reporting, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... for an assessment to improve the collection, analysis, reporting, and use of data related to accidents... Department to conduct an assessment to improve the collection, analysis, reporting, and use of data related... improving the collection, analysis, reporting, and use of data related to accidents and incidents involving...

  9. Perceived neighborhood safety and incident mobility disability among elders: the hazards of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cheryl R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ryan, Louise; Ertel, Karen; Fay, Martha E; Berkman, Lisa F

    2009-05-28

    We investigated whether lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime, or living in high crime neighborhoods was associated with incident mobility disability in elderly populations. We hypothesized that low-income elders and elders at retirement age (65 - 74) would be at greatest risk of mobility disability onset in the face of perceived or measured crime-related safety hazards. We conducted the study in the New Haven Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE), a longitudinal cohort study of community-dwelling elders aged 65 and older who were residents of New Haven, Connecticut in 1982. Elders were interviewed beginning in 1982 to assess mobility (ability to climb stairs and walk a half mile), perceptions of their neighborhood safety due to crime, annual household income, lifestyle characteristics (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity), and the presence of chronic co-morbid conditions. Additionally, we collected baseline data on neighborhood crime events from the New Haven Register newspaper in 1982 to measure local area crime rates at the census tract level. At baseline in 1982, 1,884 elders were without mobility disability. After 8 years of follow-up, perceiving safety hazards was associated with increased risk of mobility disability among elders at retirement age whose incomes were below the federal poverty line (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02 - 2.37). No effect of perceived safety hazards was found among elders at retirement age whose incomes were above the poverty line. No effect of living in neighborhoods with high crime rates (measured by newspaper reports) was found in any sub-group. Perceiving a safety hazard due to neighborhood crime was associated with increased risk of incident mobility disability among impoverished elders near retirement age. Consistent with prior literature, retirement age appears to be a vulnerable period with respect to the effect of neighborhood conditions on elder health. Community violence prevention

  10. Determination and calculation of hazardous incident scenarios in accordance with the 3rd hazardous incident administrative instruction. Vol. 1; Ermittlung und Berechnung von Stoerfallablaufszenarien nach Massgabe der 3. Stoerfallverwaltungsvorschrift. Bd. 1: Methodischer Teil zum Erarbeiten von Stoerfallablaufszenarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W.; Rogazewski, P.; Schindler, M. [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg; Acikalin, A.; Albrecht, M.; Lambert, M.; Steinbach, J. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    At present there are used various procedures, calculation methods, models and model equations for hazardous incident scenarios. The procedure on principle is varying often. This guideline explains in one main part and six appendixes the methodical procedure to select specifications and assumptions on hazardous incident scenarios and their processing. Hazardous incident scenarios lead to information on emergency preparedness planning. Both general viewpoints and possibilities are shown, how to find necessary basic assumptions on a hazardous incident scenario from information on hazardous substances, on comparable hazardous incidents and on conditions of the site and the plant. Appendixes deal with precise instructions distinguished between substance release, explosion and fire (App. 1: Assessment of source terms, App. 2: Assessment of dispersion, App. 3: Assessment of effects). Appendix 4 gives explanations to appendixes 1, 2 and 3. Appendix 5 contains a collection of 15 examples of hazardous incident scenarios, which illustrate and comment the methodical procedure. Appendix 6 describes and comments software available on German market which assists the calculating of hazardous incidents. Volume 2 determines procedures with regard to methods of calculation, current models and model equations from scientists' point of view. (orig.) [German] Derzeit wird eine Vielzahl von Vorgehensweisen, Berechnungsmethoden, Modellen und Modellgleichungen fuer Stoerfallablaufszenarien verwendet. Das prinzipielle Vorgehen ist haeufig unterschiedlich. Dieser Leitfaden enthaelt in einem Hauptteil und sechs Anhaengen das methodische Vorgehen zur Auswahl von Angaben und Annahmen fuer Stoerfallablaufszenarien sowie deren Bearbeitung. Stoerfallablaufszenarien fuehren zu Angaben fuer die Gefahrenabwehrplanung. Fuer das Ableiten von Stoerfallablaufszenarien sind sowohl allgemeine Gesichtspunkte als auch Moeglichkeiten dargelegt, wie man aus Angaben zu Gefahrstoffen, zu vergleichbaren

  11. Determination and calculation of hazardous incident scenarios in accordance with the 3rd hazardous incident administrative instruction. Vol. 2; Ermittlung und Berechnung von Stoerfallablaufszenarien nach Massgabe der 3. Stoerfallverwaltungsvorschrift. Bd. 2: Berechnungsmethoden, aktuelle Modelle und Modellgleichungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W.; Rogazewski, P.; Schindler, M. [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg; Acikalin, A.; Albrecht, M.; Lambert, M.; Steinbach, J. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    At present there are used various of procedures, calculation methods, models and model equations for hazardous incident scenarios. The procedure on principle is varying often. This guideline explains in one main part and six appendixes the methodical procedure to select specifications and assumptions on hazardous incident scenarios and their processing. Hazardous incident scenarios lead to information on emergency preparedness planning. Both general viewpoints and possibilities are shown, how to find necessary basic assumptions on a hazardous incident scenario from information on hazardous substances, on comparable hazardous incidents and on conditions of the site and the plant. Appendixes deal with precise instructions distinguished between substance release, explosion and fire (app. 1: Assessment of source terms, app. 2: Assessment of dispersion, app. 3: Assessment of effects). Appendix 4 gives explanations to appendixes 1, 2 and 3. Appendix 5 contains a collection of 15 examples of hazardous incident scenarios, which illustrate and comment the methodical procedure. Appendix 6 describes and comments software available on German market which assists the calculating of hazardous incidents. Volume 2 determines procedures with regard to methods of calculation, current models and model equations from scientists point of view. (orig.) [German] Derzeit wird eine Vielzahl von Vorgehensweisen, Berechnungsmethoden, Modellen und Modellgleichungen fuer Stoerfallablaufszenarien verwendet. Das prinzipielle Vorgehen ist haeufig unterschiedlich. Dieser Leitfaden enthaelt in einem Hauptteil und sechs Anhaengen das methodische Vorgehen zur Auswahl von Angaben und Annahmen fuer Stoerfallablaufszenarien sowie deren Bearbeitung. Stoerfallablaufszenarien fuehren zu Angaben fuer die Gefahrenabwehrplanung. Fuer das Ableiten von Stoerfallablaufszenarien sind sowohl allgemeine Gesichtspunkte als auch Moeglichkeiten dargelegt, wie man aus Angaben zu Gefahrstoffen, zu vergleichbaren

  12. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Involving Animals During Air Transport AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation... period of an NPRM on the reporting of incidents involving animals during air transport that was published... animal during air transport. The NPRM proposed to: (1) Expand the reporting requirement to U.S. carriers...

  13. Can a video-based hazard perception test used for driver licensing predict crash involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Hill, Andrew; Wetton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, the state of Queensland in Australia introduced a video-based hazard perception test as part of the licensing process for new drivers. A key validity check for such a test is whether scores are associated with crash involvement. We present data demonstrating that drivers who failed the hazard perception test (based on a ROC curve-derived pass mark) were 25% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6%, 48%] more likely to be involved in an active crash (defined as a crash occurring while the driver's vehicle was moving but they were not engaged in parking or reversing) during a one year period following the test (controlling for driving exposure, age, and sex). Failing drivers were also 17% (95% CI 6%, 29%) more likely to have been involved in active crashes prior to the test, in the period since obtaining their provisional license. These data support the proposal that the hazard perception test is a valid measure of crash-related driving performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence of intraglandular lymph nodes within submandibular gland, and involvement by floor of mouth cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Cassie; Feeley, Linda; Sadadcharam, Mira; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Resection of the submandibular gland is generally undertaken as an integral component of level I neck dissection for oral cancer. However, it is unclear whether lymph nodes are present within the submandibular gland which may form the basis of lymphatic spread. Our purpose was to investigate the frequency of lymph nodes within the submandibular gland, and the incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement in floor of mouth cancer. Retrospective review of 177 patients with oral cancer undergoing neck dissection. Original pathology slides of floor of mouth cases were re-reviewed by two pathologists to determine frequency of intraglandular lymph nodes, and incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement by cancer. The overall incidence of cervical metastases was 36.4 %, of whom 44 % had level I metastases. Level I metastases were significantly more common in floor of mouth than tongue cancers (p = 0.004). Among 50 patients with floor of mouth cancer undergoing re-review of pathology slides, intraglandular lymph nodes were not found in any of 69 submandibular glands. Submandibular gland involvement by cancer was present in two patients, representing 1 % of all oral cancers, and 4 % FOM cases. Mechanisms of involvement were direct extension, and by an apparent novel mechanism of carcinoma growing along bilateral Wharton's ducts. Despite the high incidence of level I metastasis in floor of mouth, lymphatic metastases to submandibular gland are unlikely based on absence of intraglandular lymph nodes. We describe a previously unreported mechanism of submandibular gland involvement.

  15. Training requirements for preparing hazardous waste site workers for involvement with mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Mantooth, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the future, it is highly probable that many more of the site remediation jobs will involve radioactive materials, presenting the existing trained workforce with new challenges. The purpose of this paper is to examine the training that the present workforce needs to supplement their knowledge and experience to be properly prepared to work with radioactive materials when the need arises. The REM site worker characterization data used as the basis of this discussion were developed through a survey of education, experience, and supplemental training information for Ebasco and Envirosphere hazardous waste site workers. These individuals are categorized in terms of their academic degrees and disciplines; their experience with hazardous materials, personnel protection concepts, and instrumentation; and supplemental training. The minimum requirements for working with mixed nuclear and chemically hazardous, or mixed wastes are proposed in terms of the three characteristics referred to earlier in the personnel characterization activity: education, experience and training. These requirements are derived on the basis of experience, not regulatory guidance, and the rationale for each component is suggested. The identification of additional training needed to prepare the REM workers for involvement with mixed waste is accomplished through the comparison of the requirements with the existing capabilities. These comparisons are done on the basis of the same three characteristics that are utilized in the previous sections of this discussion. The paper is concluded with suggestions pertaining to the most efficient and cost effective means by which these suggestions are tailored to the circumstances that might exist within various companies in terms of the capabilities to conduct the training, and the financial and time constraints involved

  16. Lessons learnt from incidents involving the airway and breathing reported from Australasian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, Carmel; Hansen, Kim; Fogg, Toby; Cahill, Angela; Deakin, Anita; Runciman, William B

    2018-02-01

    To review incident reports relating to problems encountered during the ED management of patients with 'airway or breathing' problems, with the aim of finding and highlighting common themes within these rare events, and making recommendations to further improve patient safety in the areas in which deficiencies have been identified. Thematic analysis of 36 incidents reported from Australasian EDs, which were related to problems with airway and breathing. In all, 51 problems were identified among the 36 incidents related to airway and/or breathing. Fourteen involved clinical decision-making, 11 equipment, nine communication, seven intubation, five surgical access and five pneumothorax. Eight incidents involved children and there were nine deaths within hours or days. Recommendations for improving preparedness of ED staff and facilities have been made for each of the problem areas identified with respect to clinical practice, equipment, communication and clinical process. Analysis of incidents from the Australasian Emergency Medicine Events Register allows clusters of like-events to be identified and characterised, providing the possibility of getting a better idea of how problems present and progress, with some information about contributing factors, characteristics and context. This will pave the way for earlier and better detection of life-threatening problems and the development and reinforcement of preventive and corrective strategies. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  17. Ramp-related incidents involving wheeled mobility device users during transit bus boarding/alighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) ramp-related incidents while boarding/alighting a public transit bus and to determine whether the frequency of incidents is less when the ramp slope meets the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable limit of ≤9.5°. Observational study. Community public transportation. WhMD users (N=414) accessing a public transit bus equipped with an instrumented ramp. Not applicable. Prevalence of boarding/alighting incidents involving WhMD users and associated ramp slopes; factors affecting incidents. A total of 4.6% (n=35) of WhMD users experienced an incident while boarding/alighting a transit bus. Significantly more incidents occurred during boarding (6.3%, n=26) than during alighting (2.2%, n=9) (Pboard/alight when the ramp slope exceeded the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope was 5.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-9.0; P9.5° and ramps deployed to street level are associated with a higher frequency of incidents and provision of assistance. Transit agencies should increase awareness among bus operators of the effect kneeling and deployment location (street/sidewalk) have on the ramp slope. In addition, ramp components and the built environment may contribute to incidents. When prescribing WhMDs, skills training must include ascending/descending ramps at slopes encountered during boarding/alighting to ensure safe and independent access to public transit buses. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Marques, Raissa Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  19. Technical handbook on the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity. NAIR technical handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, N.P.; Kruse, P.

    2002-01-01

    This Technical Handbook contains information for radiation specialists participating in the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR). Together with the NAIR Users Handbook 2000 edition, it updates and replaces the NAIR Handbook published in 1995. The Users Handbook was designed for those who might seek assistance through NAIR, principally the police or other emergency services. Both Handbooks are reproduced on the NRPB website (www.nrpb.org) and are available from NRPB

  20. Safeguarding Cultural Heritage against Climate Change and Natural Hazards through Stakeholder Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Rosmarie; Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Hollosi, Brigitta; Anders, Ivonne; Höfler, Angelika; Boi, Silvia; Resta, Vanni; Patrikakis, Charalampos

    2017-04-01

    Europe's cultural heritage is among the richest in the world, and draws millions of visitors to archeological sites, museums, monuments, castles, and other sites each year. The protection and conservation of European heritage is of utmost importance for our society, not only in order to preserve the European cultural identity, but also because cultural heritage is a wealth creator bringing tourism-related business opportunities on which many communities depend. However, Europe's heritage assets are extremely exposed to climate change and natural hazards, which threatens their integrity and may compromise their value. The goal of the STORM (Safeguarding Cultural Heritage through Technical and Organisational Management) project is to provide critical decision-making tools to European cultural heritage stakeholders affected by climate change and natural hazards. Here, the STORM project will be presented with a focus on climate change and natural hazard risk communication to the involved stakeholders. However, climate change communication is not a one-way process, and discussions with stakeholders are necessary to identify their specific needs. Hence, the STORM concept is tested through pilot site studies in five different countries: the Diocletian Baths in Rome, Italy; the Mellor Heritage site, Manchester, UK; the Roman Ruins of Tróia, Portugal; the Historical Centre of Rethymno on Crete, Greece and Ephesus, Izmir, Turkey. Furthermore, the past and future climatic conditions at the project's pilot sites are analysed in terms of mean state and extreme events (for example temperature and precipitation changes evident from observations and climate scenarios), which will be discussed with regard to their relevance for the local cultural heritage protection based on discussions with the stakeholders.

  1. Managing disasters involving hazardous substances in Canada: technical and sociopolitical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, H

    2001-12-14

    This article focuses on the management lessons learned from disasters involving hazardous materials, which occurred in Quebec, Canada, between 1988 and 1995. The findings of the previous case studies of Canadian and some other disasters are considered as well. Both technical and sociopolitical issues on the disaster management are contemplated from the viewpoint of complexity and uncertainty. A distinction is made between the two concepts through specific examples. In addition, two types of uncertainty, first and second-level, are differentiated. The relationship between technical and sociopolitical issues of such management are then illustrated, and the salience of efficient disaster risk communication between technical specialists and the public for bridging the gap existing between these two types of issues is shown.

  2. Experience in the analysis of accidents and incidents involving the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner-Jones, S.M.; Hughes, J.S.; Shaw, K.B.

    2002-01-01

    Some half a million packages containing radioactive materials are transported to, from and within the UK annually. Accidents and incidents involving these shipments are rare. However, there is always the potential for such an event, which could lead to a release of the contents of a package or an increase in radiation level caused by damaged shielding. These events could result in radiological consequences for transport workers. As transport occurs in the public environment, such events could also lead to radiation exposures of members of the public. The UK Department for Transport (DfT), together with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) have supported, for almost 20 years, work to compile, analyse and report on accidents and incidents that occur during the transport of radioactive materials. Annual reports on these events have been produced for twelve years. The details of these events are recorded in the Radioactive Materials Transport Event Database (RAMTED) maintained by the National Radiological Protection Board on behalf of the DfT and HSE. Information on accidents and incidents dates back to 1958. RAMTED currently includes information of 708 accidents and incidents, covering the period 1958 to 2000. This paper presents a summary of the data covering this period, identifying trends and lessons learned together with a discussion of some examples. It was found that, historically, the most significant exposures were received as a result of accidents involving the transport of industrial radiography sources. However, the frequency and severity of these events has decreased considerably in the later years of this study due to improvements in training, awareness and equipment. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency, have established the international nuclear event scale (INES), which is described in detail in a users' guide. The INES has been revised to fully include transport events, and the information in RAMTED has been reviewed

  3. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  4. Characterization of post-disaster environmental management for Hazardous Materials Incidents: Lessons learnt from the Tianjin warehouse explosion, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Duan, Huabo; Zuo, Jian; Song, MingWei; Zhang, Yukui; Yang, Bo; Niu, Yongning

    2017-09-01

    Hazardous Materials Incidents (HMIs) have attracted a growing public concern worldwide. The health risks and environmental implications associated with HMIs are almost invariably severe, and underscore the urgency for sound management. Hazardous Materials Explosion incidents (HMEIs) belong to a category of extremely serious HMIs. Existing studies placed focuses predominately on the promptness and efficiency of emergency responses to HMIs and HMEIs. By contrast, post-disaster environmental management has been largely overlooked. Very few studies attempted to examine the post-disaster environmental management plan particularly its effectiveness and sufficiency. In the event of the Tianjin warehouse explosion (TWE), apart from the immediate emergency response, the post-disaster environmental management systems (P-EMSs) have been reported to be effective and sufficient in dealing with the environmental concerns. Therefore, this study aims to critically investigate the P-EMSs for the TWE, and consequently to propose a framework and procedures for P-EMSs in general for HMIs, particularly for HMEIs. These findings provide a useful reference to develop P-EMSs for HMIs in the future, not only in China but also other countries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Operational effects & safety hazards involved in transporting 14-foot wide loads in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Since the early 1950's, highways have been designed in Virginia to carry 8-foot wide vehicles on 12-foot lanes. Extralegal width vehicles impose detrimental operational effects and safety hazards on other highway users. To minimize the hazards, the H...

  6. Incidence and clinical significance of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture involving the temporomandibular joint with emphasis on trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Ko, Edward C; Kao, Chu-Chiang; Chang, Pei-Ying; Chen, Michael Y C

    2012-06-01

    Trismus is frequently a sequel of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in a zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture. Although trismus is commonly observed in patients with ZMC fracture, continuous follow-up examinations of their degree of mouth opening have rarely been documented. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and clinical significance of ZMC fracture involving the glenoid fossa or articular eminence of the TMJ with an emphasis on trismus. The medical and computed tomography (CT) imaging data of 28 patients with ZMC fracture treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFSs) (OMFS group) and 174 patients with ZMC fracture treated by surgeons other than OMFSs (non-OMFS group) between May 2002 and May 2006 were reviewed. Maximal interincisal opening (MIO) less than 35 mm or three-finger width was considered limited mouth opening and indicative of trismus. Preoperative CT imaging data indicated that about 64% (18/28) and 50% (87/174) of the patients in the OMFS and non-OMFS groups, respectively, had a ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. Among these OMFS patients, 17 (94.40%) patients had limited mouth opening (MIO range, 7-33 mm) preoperatively, which improved markedly postoperatively. Among the non-OMFS patients with such fractures, 42 (48.3%) patients had trismus preoperatively and two retained trismus postoperatively. Lack of proper preoperative CT images, inadequate postoperative follow-up protocol, and/or neglect by patients and medical staff could influence the outcomes of ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. We make recommendations for reducing the risk of complications subsequent to ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Incidence and clinical significance of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture involving the temporomandibular joint with emphasis on trismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Chang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trismus is frequently a sequel of temporomandibular joint (TMJ involvement in a zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC fracture. Although trismus is commonly observed in patients with ZMC fracture, continuous follow-up examinations of their degree of mouth opening have rarely been documented. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and clinical significance of ZMC fracture involving the glenoid fossa or articular eminence of the TMJ with an emphasis on trismus. The medical and computed tomography (CT imaging data of 28 patients with ZMC fracture treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFSs (OMFS group and 174 patients with ZMC fracture treated by surgeons other than OMFSs (non-OMFS group between May 2002 and May 2006 were reviewed. Maximal interincisal opening (MIO less than 35 mm or three-finger width was considered limited mouth opening and indicative of trismus. Preoperative CT imaging data indicated that about 64% (18/28 and 50% (87/174 of the patients in the OMFS and non-OMFS groups, respectively, had a ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. Among these OMFS patients, 17 (94.40% patients had limited mouth opening (MIO range, 7–33 mm preoperatively, which improved markedly postoperatively. Among the non-OMFS patients with such fractures, 42 (48.3% patients had trismus preoperatively and two retained trismus postoperatively. Lack of proper preoperative CT images, inadequate postoperative follow-up protocol, and/or neglect by patients and medical staff could influence the outcomes of ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. We make recommendations for reducing the risk of complications subsequent to ZMC fracture involving the TMJ.

  8. 30 CFR 57.4660 - Work in shafts, raises, or winzes and other activities involving hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities involving hazard areas. 57.4660 Section 57.4660 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4660...

  9. Safety incidents involving confused and forgetful older patients in a specialised care setting--analysis of the safety incidents reported to the HaiPro reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Luovi, Kaisa; Saarnio, Reetta; Isola, Arja

    2014-09-01

    To describe the safety incidents involving confused and forgetful older patients in a specialised care setting entered in the HaiPro reporting system. About 10% of patients experience a safety incident during hospitalisation, which causes or could cause them harm. The possibility of a safety incident during hospitalisation increases significantly with age. A mild or moderate memory disorder and acute confusion are often present in the safety incidents originating with an older patient. The design of the study was action research with this study using findings from one of the first-phase studies, which included qualitative and quantitative analysed data. Data were collected from the reporting system for safety incidents (HaiPro) in a university hospital in Finland. There were 672 reported safety incidents from four acute medical wards during the years 2009-2011, which were scrutinised. Seventy-five of them were linked to a confused patient and were analysed. The majority of the safety incidents analysed involved patient-related accidents. In addition to challenging behaviour, contributing factors included ward routines, shortage of nursing staff, environmental factors and staff knowledge and skills. Nurses tried to secure the patient safety in many different ways, but the modes of actions were insufficient. Nursing staff need evidence-based information on how to assess the cognitive status of a confused patient and how to encounter such patients. The number of nursing staff and ward routines should be examined critically and put in proportion to the care intensity demands caused by the patient's confused state. The findings can be used as a starting point in the prevention of safety incidents and in improving the care of older patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  11. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50-64 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bosque-Prous

    Full Text Available To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period.Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Individuals aged 50-64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615, were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI.Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1-7.2. Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00-1.04] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08-2.23] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60-0.95]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17-1.50] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95-0.99] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker.Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern.

  12. Surf, sand, scrapes and stings: First aid incidents involving children at New Zealand beaches, 2007–2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kevin; Webber, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In spite of the popularity of beaches for family recreation, little is known about childhood injuries sustained at beaches. It is the purpose of this study to analyse data from incidents necessitating first aid treatment from reports compiled by surf lifeguards on New Zealand beaches.Method: A retrospective analysis of first aid incidents involving children (safety via greater care giver awareness, the use of protective clothing and footwear, and child safety promotion via health professionals and safety organisations are discussed.

  13. Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology Versus Standard Practice in Identification of Hazards at a Mass Casualty Incident Scenario by Primary Care Paramedic Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Trevor; Sibley, Aaron; Stryhn, Henrik; Hubloue, Ives

    2018-01-31

    Introduction The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has the potential to change the situational awareness of incident commanders allowing greater scene safety. The aim of this study was to compare UAV technology to standard practice (SP) in hazard identification during a simulated multi-vehicle motor collision (MVC) in terms of time to identification, accuracy and the order of hazard identification. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted with 21 students randomized into UAV or SP group, based on a MVC with 7 hazards. The UAV group remained at the UAV ground station while the SP group approached the scene. After identifying hazards the time and order was recorded. The mean time (SD, range) to identify the hazards were 3 minutes 41 seconds (1 minute 37 seconds, 1 minute 48 seconds-6 minutes 51 seconds) and 2 minutes 43 seconds (55 seconds, 1 minute 43 seconds-4 minutes 38 seconds) in UAV and SP groups corresponding to a mean difference of 58 seconds (P=0.11). A non-parametric permutation test showed a significant (P=0.04) difference in identification order. Both groups had 100% accuracy in hazard identification with no statistical difference in time for hazard identification. A difference was found in the identification order of hazards. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 4).

  14. Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Romieu, Isabelle; Lelièvre, Sophie A

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Possible factors involved include lifestyle changes, notably diet that is known to make an impact on gene transcription. However, among dietary factors, there is sufficient support for only greater body weight and alcohol consumption whereas numerous studies revealing an impact of specific diets and nutrients on breast cancer risk show conflicting results. Also, little information is available from middle- and low-income countries. The diversity of gene expression profiles found in breast cancers indicates that transcription control is critical for the outcome of the disease. This suggests the need for studies on nutrients that affect epigenetic mechanisms of transcription, such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. In the present review, a new examination of the relationship between diet and breast cancer based on transcription control is proposed in light of epidemiological, animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms underlying the impact of diets on breast cancer development and factors that impede reaching clear conclusions are discussed. Understanding the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics (gene expression control via chromatin structure) is critical in light of the influence of diet during early stages of mammary gland development on breast cancer risk, suggesting a persistent effect on gene expression as shown by the influence of certain nutrients on DNA methylation. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require appropriate models, identification of biological markers for rapid assessment of preventive interventions, and coordinated worldwide research to discern the effects of diet.

  15. Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Romieu, Isabelle; Lelièvre, Sophie A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Possible factors involved include lifestyle changes, notably diet that is known to make an impact on gene transcription. However, among dietary factors, there is sufficient support for only greater body weight and alcohol consumption whereas numerous studies revealing an impact of specific diets and nutrients on breast cancer risk show conflicting results. Also, little information is available from middle- and low-income countries. The diversity of gene expression profiles found in breast cancers indicates that transcription control is critical for the outcome of the disease. This suggests the need for studies on nutrients that affect epigenetic mechanisms of transcription, such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. In the present review, a new examination of the relationship between diet and breast cancer based on transcription control is proposed in light of epidemiological, animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms underlying the impact of diets on breast cancer development and factors that impede reaching clear conclusions are discussed. Understanding the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics (gene expression control via chromatin structure) is critical in light of the influence of diet during early stages of mammary gland development on breast cancer risk, suggesting a persistent effect on gene expression as shown by the influence of certain nutrients on DNA methylation. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require appropriate models, identification of biological markers for rapid assessment of preventive interventions, and coordinated worldwide research to discern the effects of diet. PMID:22853843

  16. Analysis of Hazards Associated with a Process Involving Uranium Metal and Uranium Hydride Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, J.S.

    2000-05-01

    An analysis of the reaction chemistry and operational factors associated with processing uranium and uranium hydride powders is presented, focusing on a specific operation in the Development Division which was subjected to the Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) process. Primary emphasis is on the thermodynamic factors leading to pyrophoricity in common atmospheres. The discussion covers feed powders, cold-pressed and hot-pressed materials, and stray material resulting from the operations. The sensitivity of the various forms of material to pyrophoricity in common atmospheres is discussed. Operational recommendations for performing the work described are given.

  17. Health and productivity of commuter railroad employees involved in critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ABSTRACTThe effects of accidentstermed Critical Incidentson the health and productivity of rail transit workers have not been fully investigated. Anecdotal evidence suggests lasting effects of these incidents. Surveys were obtained from 363 com...

  18. Organization of public authorities in France for the event of an incident or accident involving nuclear safety: Simulation of a nuclear crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartigny, J.; Majorel, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The French nuclear safety regulations lay down the action to be taken in the event of an incident or accident involving the types of radiological hazard that could arise in a nuclear installation or during the transport of radioactive material. The organization established for this purpose is designed to ensure that the technical measures taken by the authorities responsible for nuclear safety, radiation protection, public order and public safety are fully effective. The Interministerial Nuclear Safety Committee (Comite interministeriel de la securite nucleaire), which reports to the Prime Minister, co-ordinates the measures taken by the public authorities. The public authorities and the operators together organize exercises designed to verify the whole complex of measures foreseen in the event of an incident or accident. These exercises, which have been carried out in a systematic manner in France for some years, are based on scenarios which are as realistic as possible and enable the following objectives to be achieved: (1) analysis of the crisis apparatus (ORSECRAD plans, individual intervention plans, information conventions); (2) uncovering gaps or inadequacies; (3) arrangements for interchange of information between the various participants whose responsibilities involve them in the emergency; and (4) allowance for the information requirements of the media and the population. The information drawn from these exercises enables the various procedures to be improved step by step. (author)

  19. Safer healthcare at home: Detecting, correcting and learning from incidents involving infusion devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, I.; Blandford, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Complex medical devices such as infusion pumps are increasingly being used in patients’ homes with little known about the impact on patient safety. Our aim was to better understand the risks to patient safety in this situation and how these risks might be minimised, by reference to incident reports. DESIGN: We identified 606 records of incidents associated with infusion devices that had occurred in a private home and were reported to the UK National Reporting and Learni...

  20. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [CHA University, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis.

  1. Environmental health, public safety, and social impacts associated with transportation accidents involving hazardous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-31

    Accidents involving chemicals or radioactive materials represent a significant threat to the environment, public : health and safety, and community well-being. In an increasingly complex and interconnected world, no community : is immune from the thr...

  2. Safer healthcare at home: Detecting, correcting and learning from incidents involving infusion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Imogen; Blandford, Ann

    2018-02-01

    Complex medical devices such as infusion pumps are increasingly being used in patients' homes with little known about the impact on patient safety. Our aim was to better understand the risks to patient safety in this situation and how these risks might be minimised, by reference to incident reports. We identified 606 records of incidents associated with infusion devices that had occurred in a private home and were reported to the UK National Reporting and Learning Service (2005-2015 inclusive). We used thematic analysis to identify key themes. In this paper we focus on two emergent themes: detecting and diagnosing incidents; and locating the patient, lay caregivers and their family in incident reports. The majority of incidents were attributed to device malfunction, and resulted in the patient being under-dosed. Delays in recognising and responding to problems were identified, alongside challenges in identifying the cause. We propose a process model for fault diagnosis and correction. Patients and caregivers did not feature strongly in reports; we highlight how the device is in the home but of the care system, and propose an agent model to describe this; we also identify ways of mitigating this disjoint. Devices need to be appropriately tailored to the setting in which they are employed, and within a system of care that ensures they are used optimally and safely. Suggested features to improve patient safety include devices that can provide better feedback to identify problems and support resolution, alongside greater monitoring and technical support by care providers for both patients and frontline professionals. The proposed process and agent models provide a structure for reviewing safety and learning from incidents in home health care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of citizens in hazardous waste management and use of recycling centres in the city of Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, María José; Martínez, Elvira; Piñeiro, Concepción; Palavecinos, Mireya; Benayas, Javier; Toribio, M Angeles

    2012-07-01

    In Spain, hazardous household waste management by citizens occurs via fixed recycling centres (FRC) and mobile recycling centres (MRC) which usually depend on local governments. This paper addresses a request by the Madrid City Council, in an attempt to improve the service it provides to the city of Madrid. The aim of the study involved analysing the information people possess in relation to hazardous waste and to the use of available equipment, and conducting a post-evaluation of the effectiveness of an environmental communication campaign conducted by the Madrid City Council and aimed at providing awareness of the existence of new FRCs and MRCs. To this end, a questionnaire was conducted with 5644 inhabitants of the city of Madrid. Qualitative data was categorized using content analysis followed by chi-squared tests, considering some socio-demographic characteristics of the sample, such as age or place of residence (district). Communication campaigns influenced citizen awareness of what constituted hazardous waste, of how to properly separate waste and of the existence of FRCs and MRCs. However, few citizens actually used FRCs or MRC (18% across four districts), a fact that might be related to a lack of knowledge of downstream waste treatment issues, or to self-limiting hindrances to householders, such as distance to recycling centres. It is recommended that future communication campaigns investigate householder needs and pre-conceptions in relation to recycling, as well as tailored education aimed at addressing the barriers, perceived or otherwise, facing citizens.

  4. Phase equilibrium data for potentially hazardous binary mixtures involving dichlorosilane, trichlorosilane and silicon-tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Wayne Michael; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Static-analytic equilibrium measurements for binary mixtures of chlorosilanes. • VLE data for (SiH 2 Cl 2 + SiHCl 3 ) at T = (343.04, 353.04 and 363.00) K. • VLE data for (SiH 2 Cl 2 + SiCl 4 ) at T = (343.28 and 353.07) K. • VLE data for (SiHCl 3 + SiCl 4 ) at T = (323.17, 333.11 and 343.03). • Data modeling with the Peng–Robinson EoS incorporating Wong–Sandler mixing rules. - Abstract: Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were obtained for potentially hazardous binary mixtures of (dichlorosilane + trichlorosilane), (dichlorosilane + tetrachlorosilane), and (trichlorosilane + tetrachlorosilane) using an apparatus based on the “static-analytic” method. The apparatus was specially developed and designed to ensure safe measurement of the flammable, toxic, and corrosive components. The (dichlorosilane + trichlorosilane) system was measured at T = (343.04, 353.04 and 363.00) K, and the (dichlorosilane + tetrachlorosilane) system at T = (343.28 and 353.07) K, and the (trichlorosilane + tetrachlorosilane) system at T = (323.17, 333.11 and 343.03) K. The resulting data were correlated with the Peng–Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong Sandler mixing rule. The model provided accurate description of all isotherms of the binary systems using temperature-independent interaction parameters regressed for all isotherms.

  5. Protective Behaviour of Citizens to Transport Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials: A Discrete Choice Experiment Applied to Populated Areas nearby Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Bergstra, Arnold D; Bliemer, Michiel C J; Trijssenaar-Buhre, Inge J M; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens' protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens' protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce. A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19-64 years) living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects' protective behaviour. The response was 44% (881/1,994). The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, 'escaping' was more preferred than 'seeking shelter', although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people. Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects' protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs to be targeted differently depending on gender and age

  6. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability: Marginal and Cause-Specific Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2005-01-01

    cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling......cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling...

  7. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  8. A procedure for matching truck crash records with hazardous material release incidents and a comparative analysis of the determinants of truck crashes with hazardous material releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In the current study, we quantified the number and location of hazardous release crashes and identified the events leading : to crashes, as well as the type of material released. This study, for the first time, combined two federal databases: the U.S...

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors Involved in the Development of Nephropathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Follow Up Since Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Maria José; Forga, Luis; Ibañez, Berta; Cambra, Koldo; Mozas, David; Anda, Emma

    2016-06-01

    Estimation of the incidence of nephropathy as well as potential risk factors involved in its onset in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes who were followed from diagnosis. We studied 716 patients, who were followed for a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 10.1 (SD: 5.3) years. We analyzed the influence of demographic characteristics and levels of glycated hemoglobin (A1C), lipids and blood pressure during the course of the disease by univariate and multivariate survival methods. The cumulative incidence of nephropathy was 2.6%, 6.3% and 11.9% at 5, 10 and 15 years of evolution, respectively. The factors associated with increased risk for nephropathy were systolic blood pressure and A1C levels. An increment of 10 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure increases the risk by 36%, and an increment of 1% in A1C levels raises the risk by 13% at 5 years since onset and 68% at 10 years, and it doubles the risk at 15 years. Women have higher risk than men (hazard ratio 1.79; p=0.024). Our study suggests that female gender and high levels of A1C and systolic blood pressure throughout the course of the disease are the main factors associated with an increased risk for development of nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A radiation contamination incident involving strontium 90 in a private home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, A.W.; Button, J.C.E.

    1977-01-01

    In October 1975 a private electronic service contractor, operating in his home workshop, drilled a hole through a Strontium 90 (15 mCi) capsule while attempting to repair a thickness gauge. Four days passed before he became aware of the resultant contamination and notified the authorities. Contamination was spead over himself, his wife, the family pet (a dog), the wokshop and living area of his home, furniture, garden and paths around the house. It took four officers from the Health Commission of New South Wales and another four from the Australian Atomic Energy Commission four weeks to clean the home and surrounds to the levels where the premises would be again occupied. A large amount of electronic equipment, personal belongings and furniture could not be decontaminated and has had to be stored for ultimate disposal. This, in itself, represents a problem because there is no Australian waste burial site and some of the objects, for disposal, are relatively large (e.g. carpets, pieces of furniture, furniture covers, etc.) It is proposed to discuss the incident, decontamination, health aspects and some of the consequences of the incident

  11. Patient Safety Incidents Involving Sick Children in Primary Care in England and Wales: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Rees

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK performs poorly relative to other economically developed countries on numerous indicators of care quality for children. The contribution of iatrogenic harm to these outcomes is unclear. As primary care is the first point of healthcare contact for most children, we sought to investigate the safety of care provided to children in this setting.We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales' National Reporting and Learning System between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2013. Two reviewers independently selected relevant incident reports meeting prespecified criteria, and then descriptively analyzed these reports to identify the most frequent and harmful incident types. This was followed by an in-depth thematic analysis of a purposive sample of reports to understand the reasons underpinning incidents. Key candidate areas for strengthening primary care provision and reducing the risks of systems failures were then identified through multidisciplinary discussions. Of 2,191 safety incidents identified from 2,178 reports, 30% (n = 658 were harmful, including 12 deaths and 41 cases of severe harm. The children involved in these incidents had respiratory conditions (n = 387; 18%, injuries (n = 289; 13%, nonspecific signs and symptoms, e.g., fever (n = 281; 13%, and gastrointestinal or genitourinary conditions (n = 268; 12%, among others. Priority areas for improvement included safer systems for medication provision in community pharmacies; triage processes to enable effective and timely assessment, diagnosis, and referral of acutely sick children attending out-of-hours services; and enhanced communication for robust safety netting between professionals and parents. The main limitations of this study result from underreporting of safety incidents and variable data quality. Our findings therefore require further exploration in longitudinal studies utilizing

  12. Patient Safety Incidents Involving Sick Children in Primary Care in England and Wales: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Philippa; Edwards, Adrian; Powell, Colin; Hibbert, Peter; Williams, Huw; Makeham, Meredith; Carter, Ben; Luff, Donna; Parry, Gareth; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The UK performs poorly relative to other economically developed countries on numerous indicators of care quality for children. The contribution of iatrogenic harm to these outcomes is unclear. As primary care is the first point of healthcare contact for most children, we sought to investigate the safety of care provided to children in this setting. We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales' National Reporting and Learning System between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2013. Two reviewers independently selected relevant incident reports meeting prespecified criteria, and then descriptively analyzed these reports to identify the most frequent and harmful incident types. This was followed by an in-depth thematic analysis of a purposive sample of reports to understand the reasons underpinning incidents. Key candidate areas for strengthening primary care provision and reducing the risks of systems failures were then identified through multidisciplinary discussions. Of 2,191 safety incidents identified from 2,178 reports, 30% (n = 658) were harmful, including 12 deaths and 41 cases of severe harm. The children involved in these incidents had respiratory conditions (n = 387; 18%), injuries (n = 289; 13%), nonspecific signs and symptoms, e.g., fever (n = 281; 13%), and gastrointestinal or genitourinary conditions (n = 268; 12%), among others. Priority areas for improvement included safer systems for medication provision in community pharmacies; triage processes to enable effective and timely assessment, diagnosis, and referral of acutely sick children attending out-of-hours services; and enhanced communication for robust safety netting between professionals and parents. The main limitations of this study result from underreporting of safety incidents and variable data quality. Our findings therefore require further exploration in longitudinal studies utilizing case review

  13. Cryptosporidium hominis genotypes involved in increased incidence and clusters of cases, Navarra, Spain, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, I; Martín, C; Beristain, X; Mazón, A; Saugar, J M; Blanco, A; García Cenoz, M; Valle-Cristia, M; Ezpeleta, C; Castilla, J

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Two clusters of confirmed cryptosporidiosis infections were detected in Navarra, Spain, in the summer of 2012, in the context of an increased incidence in the region. Molecular subtyping of Cryptosporidium hominis determined that one cluster, occurring in an urban area, was due to the predominant circulating subtype IbA10G2R2 and the other cluster, with cases occurring in a rural area, was due to a rare subtype IaA18R3. No single exposure was associated with infection, although exposure to certain children's pools was reported by a majority of patients interviewed in each cluster. Genotyping tools were useful in the investigation and could aid investigation of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Spain in the future.

  14. Incident involving radioactive material at IAEA Safeguards Laboratory - No radioactivity released to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Pressure build-up in a small sealed sample bottle in a storage safe resulted in plutonium contamination of a storage room at about 02:30 today at the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf. All indications are that there was no release of radioactivity to the environment. Further monitoring around the laboratory will be undertaken. No one was working in the laboratory at the time. The Laboratory's safety system detected plutonium contamination in the storage room where the safe was located and in two other rooms - subsequently confirmed by a team of IAEA radiation protection experts. The Laboratory is equipped with multiple safety systems, including an air-filtering system to prevent the release of radioactivity to the environment. There will be restricted access to the affected rooms until they are decontaminated. A full investigation of the incident will be conducted. The IAEA has informed the Austrian regulatory authority. The IAEA's Laboratory in Seibersdorf is located within the complex of the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARC), about 35 km southeast of Vienna. The laboratory routinely analyses small samples of nuclear material (uranium or plutonium) as part of the IAEA's safeguards verification work. (IAEA)

  15. Enhanced Chemical Incident Response Plan (ECIRP). Appendix F, remediation analysis with Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for wide-area chemical hazards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassig, Nancy L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Pulsipher, Brent A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2011-07-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) commissioned an assessment of the Consequence Management (CM) plans in place on military bases for response to a chemical attack. The effectiveness of the CM plans for recovering from chemical incidents was modeled using a multiple Decision Support Tools (DSTs). First, a scenario was developed based on an aerial dispersion of a chemical agent over a wide-area of land. The extent of contamination was modeled with the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) tool. Subsequently, the Analyzer for Wide Area Restoration Effectiveness (AWARE) tool was used to estimate the cost and time demands for remediation based on input of contamination maps, sampling and decontamination resources, strategies, rates and costs. The sampling strategies incorporated in the calculation were designed using the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) tool. Based on a gaps assessment and the DST remediation analysis, an Enhanced Chemical Incident Response Plan (ECIRP) was developed.

  16. Patient safety incidents involving neuromuscular blockade: analysis of the UK National Reporting and Learning System data from 2006 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot-Smith, J; Smith, A F

    2010-11-01

    Neuromuscular blockade is a powerful anaesthetic tool that has the potential for significant adverse outcomes. We sought to explore the national picture by analysing incidents relating to neuromuscular blockade in anaesthesia from the National Reporting and Learning System from England and Wales between 2006 and 2008. We searched the database of incidents using SNOMED CT search terms and reading the free text of relevant incidents. There were 231 incidents arising from the use or reversal of neuromuscular blocking agents. The main themes identified were: non-availability of drugs (45 incidents, 19%), possible unintentional awareness under general anaesthesia (42 incidents, 18%), potential allergic reaction (31 incidents, 13%), problems with reversal of blockade (13 incidents, 6%), storage (13 incidents, 6%) and prolonged apnoea (11 incidents, 5%). We make recommendations to reduce human error in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents and on future incident reporting in anaesthesia. © 2010 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Adolescent male hazardous drinking and participation in organised activities: involvement in team sports is associated with less hazardous drinking in young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallingberg, Britt; Moore, Simon; Morgan, Joanne; Bowen, Katharine; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-02-01

    There is a lack of research investigating organised activity participation and associated alcohol use in vulnerable groups. The purpose of this research was to test and compare associations between participation in organised activities and indicators of hazardous drinking between young offenders and young non-offenders. Two groups of 13-18 year-old males were recruited in Cardiff, UK: 93 young offenders and 53 non-offenders from secondary schools matched on estimated IQ, sex and socioeconomic status. Indicators of hazardous drinking were measured using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). Organised activity participation and externalising behaviour was measured by the Youth Self Report. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence was also administered. Young offenders participated in fewer organised activities and had higher FAST scores than non-offenders. Young offenders and non-offenders significantly differed on mean FAST scores if they participated in no organised activities but not if they participated in at least one team sport. Externalising behaviour problems were unrelated to participation in organised activities. Although young offenders were less likely to have participated in organised activities, for them, participation in a team sport was associated with less hazardous drinking. Vulnerable youths who might benefit most from sporting activities actually access them the least. Future research should identify the different barriers to participation that they face. © 2014 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Problems of drawing up standards for persons simultaneously engaged in more than one activity involving radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucci, F.; Pelliccioni, M.

    1979-01-01

    The authors examine, from the points of view of the ICRP recommendations and of national and international standards, radiation protection problems posed by persons simultaneously engaged in professional activities involving radiation hazards in more than one place. The consequences of this type of situation, for the radiological protection classification of workers and for the evaluation and recording of doses received, are described in detail. In order to ensure proper monitoring of doses, agreements must be reached in advance between those in charge of the different areas of activity. Three cases seem to be of particular relevance: (a) that of workers who, while working for a single employer, perform in more than one place activities in which they are exposed to ionizing radiation (scientists working at different research centres, employees of companies specialized in the nuclear field, including the use of isotopes, accelerators, etc.); (b) that of workers who are engaged by more than one employer and are exposed to ionizing radiations as a result of their activities at different establishments (a special case is that of doctors who are radiologists or specialists in some other branch of nuclear medicine and work both as employees and independently in their own practices); and (c) that of employees of outside organizations not directly concerned with nuclear activities who are only exposed to ionizing radiation when called upon to work in establishments possessing sources of radiation. Finally, the authors suggest some ways of solving these problems - though they are rather difficult to define objectively (for example the case of medical practioners). (author)

  19. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  20. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  1. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  2. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Cheng Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  3. Analysis of minor incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants: a case study on the use of procedures in organizations dealing with hazardous technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguea; Carvalho, Eduardo Ferro de

    2005-01-01

    Organizations that work with hazardous materials, such as nuclear power plants, offshore installations, and chemical and petrochemical plants, have risk management systems involving accident control and mitigation to ensure the safety of their facilities. These systems are based on physical devices, such as protective barriers, equipment and systems aimed at preventing the occurrence and propagation of accidents, and on human aspects such as regulations and procedures. This paper analyzes the use of a variety of procedures by nuclear power plant control room operators. The methodology consisted of analyzing the work of control room operators during the normal operations, shutdown, and startup of a nuclear power plant, and in full scale simulator training. This survey revealed that routine noncompliance to procedures was considered normal according to the operating rationale, which is based on technical, organizational and cultural factors. These findings indicate that the competencies nuclear power plant operators must possess far exceed proper technical training and the ability to follow written instructions. (author)

  4. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  5. Voluntary approaches to solid waste management in small towns: a case study of community involvement in household hazardous waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Legleu, Tye; Vasut, Laura; Brandon, Kelly; Shelden, Greg

    2014-06-01

    An enormous amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated as part of municipal solid waste. This scenario presents problems during disposal, including endangering human health and the environment if improperly disposed. This article examines current HHW recycling efforts in Hammond, Louisiana, with the following objectives: (a) analyze factors and attitudes that motivate residents to participate in the program; (b) quantify various types of HHW; and (c) analyze the e-waste stream in the HHW. Residents and city officials who were surveyed and interviewed cited that commitment shown by local authorities and passion to protect the environment and human health were part of their active participation in the program. An awareness program has played a key role in the success of the program. A legislation specific to e-waste is encouraged. While knowledge and information on laws and permit application processes and the promotion of greener products are encouraged, provision of storage or collection facilities and communal transportation will further motivate more residents to participate in the recycling program.

  6. An evaluation of rabies vaccination rates among canines and felines involved in biting incidents within the Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, K; Trotz-Williams, L; Hutchison, S; MacLeod, J; Dixon, J; Berke, O; Poljak, Z

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of animal bite incidents occurring in the human population of a local health department, and to determine the proportion of these canines and felines that were not up to date on their rabies vaccination at the time the incident occurred. Data were obtained from animal bite incidents reported to Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health during 2010 and 2011. Descriptive statistics of 718 eligible reports revealed the average rate of animal biting was 1.55 bites per 1000 residents per year. Approximately 54% of these animals were vaccinated against rabies, 32% were not up to date with their rabies vaccination, and the remaining 14.5% were of unknown status. The unit of analysis was the municipality, and the four outcomes of interest were: (i) number of animal bite incidents per 1000 residents, (ii) number of dog bite incidents per 1000 residents, (iii) proportion of animals involved in bite incidents that were not up to date with their rabies vaccination, and (iv) proportion of dogs that were not up to date. Associations between the outcomes and selected demographic variables were investigated using regression analysis. The number of veterinary clinics per 10,000 residents, and whether the municipality was urban or rural were identified as significant predictors for the number of animal bites per 1000 residents, and the number of dog bites. There were no significant predictors for the proportion of unvaccinated animals or dogs. Spatial clustering and the location of spatial clusters were assessed using the empirical Bayes index and spatial scan test. This analysis identified five municipalities within the health department that have a high rate of biting incidents and a high proportion of animals that were not up to date on their rabies vaccination. Such municipalities are ideal for targeted educational campaigns regarding the importance of vaccination in pets. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Patient involvement in patient safety: Protocol for developing an intervention using patient reports of organisational safety and patient incident reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients have the potential to provide a rich source of information on both organisational aspects of safety and patient safety incidents. This project aims to develop two patient safety interventions to promote organisational learning about safety - a patient measure of organisational safety (PMOS), and a patient incident reporting tool (PIRT) - to help the NHS prevent patient safety incidents by learning more about when and why they occur. Methods To develop the PMOS 1) literature will be reviewed to identify similar measures and key contributory factors to error; 2) four patient focus groups will ascertain practicality and feasibility; 3) 25 patient interviews will elicit approximately 60 items across 10 domains; 4) 10 patient and clinician interviews will test acceptability and understanding. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic content analysis. To develop the PIRT 1) individual and then combined patient and clinician focus groups will provide guidance for the development of three potential reporting tools; 2) nine wards across three hospital directorates will pilot each of the tools for three months. The best performing tool will be identified from the frequency, volume and quality of reports. The validity of both measures will be tested. 300 patients will be asked to complete the PMOS and PIRT during their stay in hospital. A sub-sample (N = 50) will complete the PMOS again one week later. Health professionals in participating wards will also be asked to complete the AHRQ safety culture questionnaire. Case notes for all patients will be reviewed. The psychometric properties of the PMOS will be assessed and a final valid and reliable version developed. Concurrent validity for the PIRT will be assessed by comparing reported incidents with those identified from case note review and the existing staff reporting scheme. In a subsequent study these tools will be used to provide information to wards/units about their priorities for patient

  8. Patient involvement in patient safety: Protocol for developing an intervention using patient reports of organisational safety and patient incident reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage Gerry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients have the potential to provide a rich source of information on both organisational aspects of safety and patient safety incidents. This project aims to develop two patient safety interventions to promote organisational learning about safety - a patient measure of organisational safety (PMOS, and a patient incident reporting tool (PIRT - to help the NHS prevent patient safety incidents by learning more about when and why they occur. Methods To develop the PMOS 1 literature will be reviewed to identify similar measures and key contributory factors to error; 2 four patient focus groups will ascertain practicality and feasibility; 3 25 patient interviews will elicit approximately 60 items across 10 domains; 4 10 patient and clinician interviews will test acceptability and understanding. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic content analysis. To develop the PIRT 1 individual and then combined patient and clinician focus groups will provide guidance for the development of three potential reporting tools; 2 nine wards across three hospital directorates will pilot each of the tools for three months. The best performing tool will be identified from the frequency, volume and quality of reports. The validity of both measures will be tested. 300 patients will be asked to complete the PMOS and PIRT during their stay in hospital. A sub-sample (N = 50 will complete the PMOS again one week later. Health professionals in participating wards will also be asked to complete the AHRQ safety culture questionnaire. Case notes for all patients will be reviewed. The psychometric properties of the PMOS will be assessed and a final valid and reliable version developed. Concurrent validity for the PIRT will be assessed by comparing reported incidents with those identified from case note review and the existing staff reporting scheme. In a subsequent study these tools will be used to provide information to wards/units about their

  9. Thermodynamical properties and deexcitation of sources involved in collisions between light nuclei around 100 AMeV incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borderie, B.; Gulminelli, F.; Rivet, M.F.; Dore, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Ouatizerga, A.; Plagnol, E.; Squalli, M.; Chbihi, A.; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J.; Ecomard, P.; Le Fevre, A.; Marie, N.; Rosato, E.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Durand, D.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Laforest, R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Metivier, V.; Peter, J.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Parlog, M.; Bisquer, E.; Demeyer, A.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Lebreton, L.; Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; De Filippo, E.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Eudes, Ph.; Gourio, D.; Laville, J.L.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.

    1997-01-01

    Vaporization events, where all species have atomic numbers lower than 3, and deexcitation properties of quasi-projectiles involved in binary dissipative collisions between 36 Ar and 58 Ni are studied with the multidetector INDRA. Kinematical properties and chemical composition (mean values and variances) of vaporizing sources are derived over the excitation energy per nucleon range 8-28 MeV. These data are found in good agreement with the results of a model describing a gas of fermions and bosons in thermal and chemical equilibrium, which strongly suggests that thermodynamical equilibrium has been reached even for such sources produced in very extreme conditions of collisions. Finally, removing the constraint on atomic numbers lower than 3, the evolution of the chemical composition of quasi-projectiles is presented over the excitation energy range 0-25 AMeV. (authors)

  10. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  11. Force Protection for Fire Fighters: Warm Zone Operations at Paramilitary Style Active Shooter Incidents in a Multi-Hazard Environment as a Fire Service Core Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    devices, and fire as a weapon.95 One of the most harrowing images of the attack came from the HBO film “Terror in Mumbai,” in which two-year-old Baby...armed terrorist, an ambulance driver had his windshield shattered by a grenade, and another ambulance worker recounted being caught in the middle of...assailants used a hijacked police vehicle to change locations. The assailants even placed diversionary bombs in taxis to create additional incident

  12. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  13. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  14. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  15. Hazardous Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and hazardous drugs in the workplace. Pharmacy . OSHA Hospital eTool. Reviews safety and health topics related to hazardous drugs including drug handling, administration, storage, and disposal. OSHA has identified worker exposure ...

  16. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities

  17. Reproductive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include: Radiation Metals such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the ...

  18. Comparing Data from the Poisons Information Centre with Employers' Accident Reports Reveal Under-Recognized Hazards at the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Linda; Öberg, Mattias

    2018-02-28

    Records of injuries and incidents provide an important basis for injury prevention related to hazardous substances at the workplace. The present study aimed to review available data on injuries and incidents involving hazardous substances and investigate how data from the Poisons Information Centre could complement the records of the Swedish Work Environment Authority. We found two major obstacles for using injury/incident data based on employers' mandatory reporting. First, it was not possible to quickly and reliably identify injuries caused by hazardous substances, and second, data identifying substances or products are not systematically included. For two out of five investigated injuries with lost working days likely due to chemical injuries, we could not identify substances and/or products involved. The records based on calls to the Poisons Information Centre allow better understanding of chemical hazards and products. Besides the large share of unidentified chemical hazards in the injury statistics, the most striking difference was found for cleaning agents. Cleaning agents were implicated in one-third of the occupational cases that the consulting Poisons Information Centre expert judged to pose a major risk and in need of immediate healthcare. Only one in 10 injuries with lost days reported by employers was related to this type of product. The identification of exposures and symptoms by the Poisons Information Centre allow recognition of chemicals with problematic occupational uses. Hence, these records may serve as an important complement to official injury statistics related to incidents with hazardous substances at work.

  19. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  20. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  1. Incidence of meningeal involvement by rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children. A report of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tefft, M.; Fernandez, C.; Donaldson, M.; Newton, W.; Moon, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one patients with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the head and neck are reviewed. 57/141 had lesions of para-meningeal sites. 20/57 (35%) developed evidence of direct meningeal extension. 18/20 (90%) died of this complication. Radiation portals and doses were limited in 42% and 32%, respectively. All patients had chemotherapy for 6 weeks prior to radiation. The significance of the adequacy of radiation factors and the timing of chemotherapy are reviewed. Recommendations for managing these patients include earlier use of radiation and increased coverage of adjacent meninges by radiation including total craniospinal axis radiation when brain meningeal involvement exists

  2. The Role of Emergency Medical Service in CBR Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castulik, P.

    2007-01-01

    Majority of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) have daily extensive experience with rescue of casualties having trauma injuries, resulting from conventional incidents. In the case of non-conventional incidents involving chemical, bacteriological or radiological (CBR) hazardous materials operational scene for all responders is begin to be more complicated due contamination of casualties, equipment and environment. Especially EMS personnel and receiving staff at the hospital have to work under very demanding condition due to burden of personal protective equipment (PPE) and awareness to avoiding cross-contamination during handling casualties. Those conditions require significantly different approaches for search and rescue of victims from incident site, through transportation and effective treatment at medical facilities. In cases when chemicals will be major hazard materials, the speed of rescue and treatment of victims is a major challenge. Each minute matter, and any delay of response could seriously complicated saving of lives and successful recovery of exposed victims. Success in rescue victims is finally measured thorough the ability of the first responders to save people... ALIVE..., no matter what surrounding condition is. The presentation is providing a view and suggestions on more rapid immediate medical response during non-conventional incidents. It names basic concept based on preparedness, early identification of CBR hazards through signs and symptoms of casualties, priorities of rescue procedures and care on-site, needs of decontamination, rapid evacuation casualties from a scene and immediate hospital response.(author)

  3. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  4. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  5. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  6. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  7. Adsorption of Hazardous Compounds to Mineral Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carron, Keith

    1997-01-01

    The project entitled 'Adsorption of Hazardous Compounds to Mineral Surfaces' involved five faculty members from the University of Wyoming's Departments of Chemistry, Geology, Soil Science, and Mathematics...

  8. The effect of periodontal therapy on the survival rate and incidence of complications of multirooted teeth with furcation involvement after an observation period of at least 5 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Ba, Guy; Kuonen, Patrick; Hofer, Dominik; Schmid, Jürg; Lang, Niklaus P; Salvi, Giovanni E

    2009-02-01

    To systematically review the survival rate and incidence of complications of furcation-involved multirooted teeth following periodontal therapy after at least 5 years. Electronic and manual searches were performed up to and including January 2008. Publication selection, data extraction and validity assessment were performed independently by three reviewers. Twenty-two publications met the inclusion criteria. Because of the heterogeneity of the data, a meta-analysis could not be performed. The survival rate of molars treated non-surgically was >90% after 5-9 years. The corresponding values for the different surgical procedures were: Surgical therapy: 43.1% to 96%, observation period: 5-53 years. Tunnelling procedures: 42.9% to 92.9%, observation period: 5-8 years. Surgical resective procedures including amputation(s) and hemisections: 62% to 100%, observation period: 5-13 years. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR): 83.3% to 100%, observation period: 5-12 years. The most frequent complications included caries in the furcation area after tunnelling procedures and root fractures after root-resective procedures. Good long-term survival rates (up to 100%) of multirooted teeth with furcation involvement were obtained following various therapeutic approaches. Initial furcation involvement (Degree I) could be successfully managed by non-surgical mechanical debridement. Vertical root fractures and endodontic failures were the most frequent complications observed following resective procedures.

  9. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  10. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  11. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to ... of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are Hazardous Air Pollutants? Health and ...

  12. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

  13. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  14. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  15. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  17. Potential radiation exposure in emergencies involving neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, P.K.; Bisht, J.S.; Massand, O.P.; Venkataraman, G.; Nandakumar, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Incidents involving neutron sources, particularly in the field of oil well logging, may involve potential hazards by way of source lost above ground, lost under water at a depth or source damaged and spread over an area. While every effort should be made for retrieving a lost source or contain the contamination, there could be occasions when abandonment of the source may be preferable to retrieval. However, the decision to abandon the source needs to be guided primarily by considerations of potential exposure and the cost of retrieval. This report briefly discusses these aspects of such emergencies. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  19. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  20. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  1. Risks to offshore installations in Europe due to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necci, Amos; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as storms, earthquakes, or lightning are a major threat to industry. In particular, chemical plants, storage facilities, pipelines, and offshore oil and gas facilities are vulnerable to natural events which can cause hazardous materials releases and thereby endanger workers, the population and the environment. These technological accidents are commonly referred to as Natech accidents. Recent events have increased concerns about safety in the offshore oil and gas sector, and the need for improving knowledge on the matter has become evident. With those premises, we analyzed accidents, near misses and accident precursors at offshore facilities in Europe caused by natural events using both a statistical and a qualitative approach. For this purpose, we screened the World Offshore Accident Database (WOAD) to identify all incidents that featured natural events as causes or aggravating factors. A dataset of 1,085 global Natech events was built for the statistical analysis. Among those, a subset composed of 303 European records was selected. The results of the analysis showed that offshore Natech events in Europe are frequent; they resulted, however, in low consequences. The main threat to offshore facilities resulted from bad weather, such as strong winds and heavy seas. Storms can put intense loads on the structural parts of offshore installations, eventually exceeding design resistance specifications. Several incidents triggered by lightning strikes and earthquakes were also recorded. Substantial differences in terms of vulnerability, damage modality and consequences emerged between fixed and floating offshore structures. The main damage mode for floating structures was the failure of station keeping systems due to the rupture of mooring or anchors, mainly caused by adverse meteorological conditions. Most of the incidents at fixed offshore structures in Europe involved falling loads for both metal jacket and concrete base platforms due to storms. In

  2. Hazards of exposure to tritium and tritium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.C.; Kornberg, H.A.

    1954-01-01

    Experimental data pertinent to the evaluation of hazards involved in the exposure of personnel to tritium and tritium oxide are reviewed. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made with regard to the control of these hazards.

  3. Hazard reduction in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    The release of hazardous substances is a matter of concern for nanotechnology. This may include some nanoparticles, reactants, by-products, and solvents. The use of low-hazard solvents may reduce the hazards from nanoparticle production and nanomaterial processing. The hazards of inorganic

  4. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  5. Waste explosives and other hazardous materials--hazard potential and remedial measures: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R K; Asthana, S N; Bhattacharya, B; Tiwari, Ila; Ghole, V S

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of energetic materials including propellants, high explosives, pyrotechnics are subjected to disposal either due to expiry of their useful life or rejection in the manufacturing process. The environmental regulations do not allow the hazardous materials for open burning / detonation in view of the health hazard involved in these operations. The present paper describes the hazard potential of energetic materials and associated hazardous chemicals. It also deals with global technological status for remedial measures of hazardous chemicals along with their merits and demerits.

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Hazard analyses were performed to evaluate the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment process was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. The analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public. The following selected hazardous scenarios received increased attention: •Scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy, controls were identified in the What-If analysis table that prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release. •Scenarios with significant consequences that could impact personnel outside the immediate operations area, quantitative analyses were performed to determine the potential magnitude of the scenario. The set of “critical controls” were identified for these scenarios (see Section 4) which prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release of events with significant consequences.

  7. Natural Hazards Observer. Volume 24 Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Spanish, see http://ops-oms.org/ve/ desastres . Natural Hazards Observer March 2000 World Bank Launches ProVention Consortium to Mitigate Disasters...and explain critical incident stress management. The booklet describes the types of emergency assistance provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  8. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  9. Identify alkylation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that extensive experience shows that alkylation plants regardless of acid catalyst choice, can be operated safely, and with minimum process risk to employees or neighbors. Both types of plants require a comprehensive and fully supported hazard management program that accounts for differing physical properties of the acids involved. Control and mitigation cost to refiners will vary considerably from plant to plant and location to location. In the author's experience, the order of magnitude costs will be about $1 to $2 million for a sulfuric acid (SA) alkylation plant, and about $10 to $15 million for a hydrofluoric acid (HF) plant. These costs include water supply systems and impoundment facilities for contaminated runoff water. The alkylation process, which chemically reacts isobutane and light olefins in the presence of a strong acid catalyst into a premium gasoline component is described

  10. Civil nuclear: which hazards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document briefly indicates and describes the various hazards of exposure to radioactivity in relationship with the different stages of exploitation of nuclear energy: mining, exploitation, fuel reprocessing and waste management. It briefly presents and describes the scenarios associated with major risks in the exploitation phase: core fusion (description, possible origins, consequences in terms of possible releases), formation of hydrogen (chemical reaction, risk of explosion with releases, failure modes for the containment enclosure). It proposes a brief overview of consequences for mankind and for the environment due to irradiation and contamination. A brief assessment of major nuclear accidents is given, with an indication of their severity INES classification (Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima). It evokes incidents which occurred in France, and outlines the main challenges and stakes in terms of risk prevention, of plant control, of nuclear material and waste management, of public information, and of struggle against nuclear weapon proliferation. Actors and their roles are indicated: operator (EDF in France), control authority (ASN), actors in charge of waste management (ANDRA), research and information institutions (CEA, IRSN, CRIIRAD), international scientific bodies (UNSCEAR)

  11. Indicators of emerging hazards and risks to food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    There is a widely felt need to develop methods for the early identification of emerging hazards to food safety with the aim of preventing these hazards from becoming real risks and causing incidents. This paper reviews various activities and previous reports that describe methods to select

  12. The transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of all kinds of transports has been leading to a continuously increasing number of accidents involving the release and escape of hazardous materials. The risks involved for men and the environment have to be realized and reduced to a minimum. Efforts in this field have meanwhile been accumulating an enormous quantity of rules, recommendations and regulations. They comprise, among others, both national and international rail transport, maritime transport, inland shipping, air and road transport regulations adding up to a total of about 5000 pages. The publication discusses the necessity and justification of the existing quantity of regulations, it deals with their possible simplification and modified user-oriented arrangement as well as with a possible international harmonization of regulations. Apart from giving a general survey of the transport of hazardous materials the author reviews the intensive efforts which are going into the safety of the transport of hazardous materials and points out technical and legal problems which have remained unsolved so far. The publication essentially contributes to clearing up the background, perspectives and prospects of the complex regulations controlling the transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  13. RASAM Hazard Identification

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Interactive Media Element This media helps students refine their understanding of the various types of hazards; mishaps, hazards, causal factors. Last modified: 5/18/2009 SW4582 Weapon Systems Software Safety

  14. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  15. Handling Hazardous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, James; Piverotto, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes a 16-hour course in hazard communication for vocational instructors, which teaches the proper use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials in the laboratory as well as techniques for teaching safety. (SK)

  16. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  17. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  18. Periurbanisation and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Loison

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble, which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux

  19. NASA Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant Hazards Technical Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David L.; Greene, Ben; Frazier, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The Fire, Explosion, Compatibility and Safety Hazards of Hydrogen Peroxide NASA technical manual was developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility. NASA Technical Memorandum TM-2004-213151 covers topics concerning high concentration hydrogen peroxide including fire and explosion hazards, material and fluid reactivity, materials selection information, personnel and environmental hazards, physical and chemical properties, analytical spectroscopy, specifications, analytical methods, and material compatibility data. A summary of hydrogen peroxide-related accidents, incidents, dose calls, mishaps and lessons learned is included. The manual draws from art extensive literature base and includes recent applicable regulatory compliance documentation. The manual may be obtained by United States government agencies from NASA Johnson Space Center and used as a reference source for hazards and safe handling of hydrogen peroxide.

  20. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant action...

  1. Analysis of minor incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants: a case study on the use of procedures in organizations dealing with hazardous technologies; Analise de microincidentes na operacao de usinas nucleares: estudo de caso sobre o uso de procedimentos em organizacoes que lidam com tecnologias perigosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguea [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Ergonomia e Novas Tecnologias (GENTE); Carvalho, Eduardo Ferro de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao

    2005-05-15

    Organizations that work with hazardous materials, such as nuclear power plants, offshore installations, and chemical and petrochemical plants, have risk management systems involving accident control and mitigation to ensure the safety of their facilities. These systems are based on physical devices, such as protective barriers, equipment and systems aimed at preventing the occurrence and propagation of accidents, and on human aspects such as regulations and procedures. This paper analyzes the use of a variety of procedures by nuclear power plant control room operators. The methodology consisted of analyzing the work of control room operators during the normal operations, shutdown, and startup of a nuclear power plant, and in full scale simulator training. This survey revealed that routine noncompliance to procedures was considered normal according to the operating rationale, which is based on technical, organizational and cultural factors. These findings indicate that the competencies nuclear power plant operators must possess far exceed proper technical training and the ability to follow written instructions. (author)

  2. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-01-01

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity

  3. Low dose systemic or intralesional meglumine antimoniate treatment for American tegumentary leishmaniasis results in low lethality, low incidence of relapse, and low late mucosal involvement in a referral centre in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2001-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Lucia Regina; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria; Antônio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Paes, Luiz Eduardo de Carvalho; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Iracema Forni; Dias, Cristina Maria Giordano; Duque, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a non-lethal parasitic disease that presents with cutaneous (CL) and mucosal (ML) clinical forms. ATL treatment aims at healing the lesions and preventing the development of the late mucosal form. Systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) therapy with 10-20 mg Sb5+/kg/day is the first choice of treatment. However, alternative therapies using 5 mg Sb5+/kg/day or intralesional (IL) MA are the usual regimens at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. OBJECTIVES To evaluate lethality and the incidence of relapse and development of late ML in CL patients treated at NIID from 2001 until 2013. METHODS Data were recovered from records of all ATL patients diagnosed during that period. FINDINGS Out of 777 patients, 753 were treated with MA (96.9%). Of those, 89.1% received alternative therapy of 9.9% IL and 79.2% systemic 5 mg Sb5+/kg/day. Some patients required 1-3 additional courses of treatment, thus making a total of 997 courses; 85.2% of them were subjected to alternative therapies. Lethality was 0.1%, relapse incidence 5.8%, and late ML incidence 0.25%. As a final outcome for the 777 patients, 95.9% were cured, 0.1% died and 4.0% were not able to follow-up. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Alternative MA schedules resulted in low lethality without increase of relapse or late ML incidence. PMID:29211245

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A

  5. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Home Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Management Generation Identification Definition of Solid Waste Exclusions Characterization Delistings Transportation Land ...

  6. Differences in incidence of suicide attempts between bipolar I and II disorders and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, K Mikael; Haukka, Jari; Suominen, Kirsi; Valtonen, Hanna M; Mantere, Outi; Melartin, Tarja K; Sokero, T Petteri; Oquendo, Maria A; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2014-09-01

    Whether risk of suicide attempts (SAs) differs between patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is unclear. We investigated whether cumulative risk differences are due to dissimilarities in time spent in high-risk states, incidence per unit time in high-risk states, or both. Incidence rates for SAs during various illness phases, based on prospective life charts, were compared between patients from the Jorvi Bipolar Study (n = 176; 18 months) and the Vantaa Depression Study (n = 249; five years). Risk factors and their interactions with diagnosis were investigated with Cox proportional hazards models. By 18 months, 19.9% of patients with BD versus 9.5% of patients with MDD had attempted suicide. However, patients with BD spent 4.6% of the time in mixed episodes, and more time in major depressive episodes (MDEs) (35% versus 21%, respectively) and in subthreshold depression (39% versus 31%, respectively) than those with MDD. Compared with full remission, the combined incidence rates of SAs were 5-, 25-, and 65-fold in subthreshold depression, MDEs, and BD mixed states, respectively. Between cohorts, incidence of attempts was not different during comparable symptom states. In Cox models, hazard was elevated during MDEs and subthreshold depression, and among patients with preceding SAs, female patients, those with poor social support, and those aged < 40 years, but was unrelated to BD diagnosis. The observed higher cumulative incidence of SAs among patients with BD than among those with MDD is mostly due to patients with BD spending more time in high-risk illness phases, not to differences in incidence during these phases, or to bipolarity itself. BD mixed phases contribute to differences involving very high incidence, but short duration. Diminishing the time spent in high-risk phases is crucial for prevention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  8. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  9. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  10. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  11. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  12. Hazards in the theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossol, M; Hinkamp, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors offer a survey of the myriad and unique safety and health hazards faced past and present by performers and theatrical workers, from preproduction work, through the show, and during the strike (dismantling). Special emphasis is given to health hazards posed by the many new plastic resin systems and adhesives used in set, prop, and costume construction; the hazards of special-effect fogs, smokes, haze, dusts, and pyrotechnic emissions; and theatrical makeup.

  13. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  14. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  15. New Developments in Natural Hazard Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stötter, J.; Meißl, G.; Weck-Hannemann, H.; Veulliet, E.

    2003-04-01

    Natural hazard processes such as avalanches, debris flows, rockfalls, slides, slow mass movements and floods inherently threaten areas used for settlements, economic activities or transport in mountain regions like the Alps. In the recent past an increasing demand for new settlement, traffic and other land use areas has arisen, resulting in intensified utilization of land known to be threatened by natural hazard processes. In the same time a decrease of individual responsibility can be observed, leading to a growing call for protection by public authorities. As public financial resources become more limited in these days and the outsourcing of areas of traditional government responsibility increases, there is an urgent need for new, more effective and efficient strategies in natural hazard management, involving all relevant actors. To meet these new demands in dealing with natural hazards, the "alpS - Centre of Natural Hazard Management" was founded in October 2002 in Innsbruck/Austria, supported by the Austrian Government. Central goal of the alpS - Centre is to elaborate the basis for future sustainable safety of the alpine lebensraum. The following objectives will be addressed by an interdisciplinary team: - Systematic compilation and evaluation of the present situation. - Developing a more efficient and effective way of natural hazard management. - Implementation of a paradigm change. - Development of strategies for natural hazard management under changed frame conditions in the future (global change). Strong emphasis is laid on research on the socio-economic aspects of Natural Hazard Management, which have been more or less neglected up to now.

  16. Resilience to Interacting multi-natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    temporal changes in hazards and vulnerability during successive hazards; 2) hazard monitoring, forecasting and early warning systems have not fully utilised the domain knowledge of physical processes and the statistical information of the observations; 3) uncertainties have not been well recognised in the current risk management practice, and ignorance of uncertainties could lead to major threat to the society and poor consideration with inefficient or unsustainable preferences of options; 4) there is increasing recognition that the so called 'natural' disasters are not just the consequences of nature-related processes alone, but are attributable to various social, economic, historical, political and cultural causes. However, despite this recognition, the current hazard and risk assessments are fragmented with a weakness in holistically combining quantitative and qualitative information from a variety of sources; 5) successful disaster risk management must be relevant and useful to all stakeholders involved. Efforts should enable the essential common purpose, collective learning and entrepreneurial collaborations that underpin effective and efficient resilience. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the systems thinking framework and decision support system tools in adequate scenario assessment and resilience development from a harmonised and transdisciplinary perspective. It is important that the aforementioned issues should be tackled with a joint effort from a multidisciplinary team in social science, natural science, engineering and systems.

  17. Monogenetic volcanic hazards and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Connor, L. J.; Richardson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many of the Earth's major cities are build on the products of monogenetic volcanic eruptions and within geologically active basaltic volcanic fields. These cities include Mexico City (Mexico), Auckland (New Zealand), Melbourne (Australia), and Portland (USA) to name a few. Volcanic hazards in these areas are complex, and involve the potential formation of new volcanic vents and associated hazards, such as lava flows, tephra fallout, and ballistic hazards. Hazard assessment is complicated by the low recurrence rate of volcanism in most volcanic fields. We have developed a two-stage process for probabilistic modeling monogenetic volcanic hazards. The first step is an estimation of the possible locations of future eruptive vents based on kernel density estimation and recurrence rate of volcanism using Monte Carlo simulation and accounting for uncertainties in age determinations. The second step is convolution of this spatial density / recurrence rate model with hazard codes for modeling lava inundation, tephra fallout, and ballistic impacts. A methodology is presented using this two-stage approach to estimate lava flow hazard in several monogenetic volcanic fields, including at a nuclear power plant site near the Shamiram Plateau, a Quaternary volcanic field in Armenia. The location of possible future vents is determined by estimating spatial density from a distribution of 18 mapped vents using a 2-D elliptical Gaussian kernel function. The SAMSE method, a modified asymptotic mean squared error approach, uses the distribution of known eruptive vents to optimally determine a smoothing bandwidth for the Gaussian kernel function. The result is a probability map of vent density. A large random sample (N=10000) of vent locations is drawn from this probability map. For each randomly sampled vent location, a lava flow inundation model is executed. Lava flow input parameters (volume and average thickness) are determined from distributions fit to field observations of the low

  18. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  19. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  20. The hazards of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackith, R.

    1979-01-01

    Safety standards are questioned, particularly in relation to the risk of inducing cancer at low doses of radiation. Statements are made on the following topics: incidence of leukaemia among children around reactors, general aging effect due to radiation, leukaemia among radiation workers in a shipyard repairing nuclear submarines, official withdrawal of funds from research workers in the field of radiation hazards, discrepancies between different measurements of radiation near nuclear power plants. (U.K.)

  1. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  2. Process hazards review of the 904-A trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The 904-A trench is an enclosed underground concrete containment for high level and low level radioactive waste lines between the main Laboratory Building 773-A and waste storage and shipping Building 776-A. The waste generated in laboratories and other facilities in 773-A flows by gravity into the high level and low level drain lines, which proceed from 773-A through the 904-A trench. The trench ends at 776-2A, where the underground was handling tanks for both high level and low level liquids are located. The trench serves to contain any leaks originating in the drain lines. The trench is sloped downward toward the Building 776-2A pipe gallery. Any liquid collected from the sump can be pumped automatically to a waste tank sampled. The review of the 904-A trench system included a study of the trench and piping itself, as well as a study of the high level and low level drain lines from the laboratories to the trench. The present review emphasized on examination of the hazards involved in chemical reactions in the drain lines, misuse of the drains, and criticality. The following items were examined: Process Hazards Review of the Liquid Waste Collection System, Nuclear Criticality Review of the High Level Drain System, Improvements in the 904-A Trench System, Operating Procedures, and Unusual Incidents

  3. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  4. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  5. Diesel particles - a health hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, C.

    2004-08-15

    To all appearances, small particles belong to the pollutants presenting the biggest health hazards. Particles come especially from diesel-powered vehicles. According to researchers, particles cause thousands of early deaths each year in the big cities in Denmark alone, and up to 1,250 of these deaths could be prevented by fitting particle filters on diesel-powered vehicles. That is more than deaths caused by traffic accidents. Especially the elderly are affected. In addition, the small particles seem to aggravate asthma incidences, including the many children with asthma. What makes the small particles so very dangerous is that they can enter the smallest of vessels of the lungs. There is a solution within sight to this grave health hazard. The solution is called particle filters, but they will not come automatically. It requires initiatives in the form of legislation, green taxes and subsidies. The EU is introducing stricter regulations regarding particle emission from heavy vehicles from 2006, though only for new vehicles. It will therefore take many years to abate the problem this way. In the present pamphlet, the Danish Ecological Council offers a number of specific proposals on how to further the introduction of filters on diesel vehicles. The Danish government has taken a small step in the right direction by establishing a subsidy scheme for particle filters. Yet the amount allocated is too small and, because it is not followed up by setting taxes on polluting vehicles, it will have little effect. (au)

  6. How to HAMMER home hazardous materials training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollero, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes HAMMER - the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training - program being developed at the Hanford Reservation. The program uses true-to-life props and facilities to simulate emergencies and hazardous conditions. Topics covered include the set-up of the facility and training; the demand for such training; the involvement of the Army Corps of Engineers; the props to be constructed; the educational involvement of Tulane and Xavier Univerisities of Louisiana; temporary facility for the program; partnership with Indian Nations and Stakeholders; and budget plans and constriction. 9 figs

  7. Control systems, personnel policies and management initiatives to limit pollution incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    After the regulatory requirements are met, an important collateral step in the continuing Hazardous Waste/Environmental Management cycle of activities is to minimize the possibility of a pollution incident, spill, contamination, mislabeling, mishandling or exposure, since this minimizes a major contingent liability of the company. Human failure accounts for 88% of accidents, 10% occur from mechanical failure and only 2% are unpreventable force majeure. This implies that fully 98% of all accidents can be prevented or minimized. Good engineering, production, management and educational practices can be formulated to minimize the occurrence and effects of accidental pollution incidents. Hazardous Material/Environmental Management tends to focus on technical and regulatory objectives, a reactionary mode caused in part by the rapidly changing regulatory environment and the need to continually adapt to these changes. Management functions such as personnel management and situational management get shortchanged in research and in practice. What is needed is a system that incorporates change readily, adapts personnel to change easily and mobilizes all the human resources of a company in meeting environmental and regulatory goals in the same way other goals of the company are met. Feedback Loop/Control System concepts have been applied to management practice in the popular Management By Objectives School as well as other schools of management practice. An Environmental Management program is proposed which incorporates feedback loop/ control systems to facilitate operations and training objectives and requirements. By incorporating Environmental and Hazardous Waste goals with other management goals in a system involving all levels of management and workers on the same team, the proposed system will reduce the probability of accidental pollution incidents and thus the contingent liability of a spill or other incident

  8. Gang exposure and pregnancy incidence among female adolescents in San Francisco: evidence for the need to integrate reproductive health with violence prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

    2008-05-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections.

  9. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  10. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  11. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  12. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  13. Estrogen and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Sayeh; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross L; Kato, Ikuko; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C; Young, Alicia; Rodabough, Rebecca; Hubbell, F Allan; Mahinbakht, Ali; Simon, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer. The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study. Colorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of

  15. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  16. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  17. Handling hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, C

    1988-01-01

    Hazardous waste management is a concern for every healthcare organization. A system for managing such waste must meet guidelines from various sources and be comprehensive enough to ensure the safety of the institution's employees and guests, and of the community. An integral part of a hazardous waste management system is employee training. "Employees must be trained to make use of the information that will be available to them. This includes knowing the hazards of the materials they use, how to use the appropriate protective clothing and equipment, what steps to take if there is an accidental release or over-exposure..." and much more. The institution's success in managing hazardous wastes and maintaining a safe environment will depend on the adequacy of its employee training.

  18. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  19. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  1. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  2. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  3. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  4. Incidence and latency of radiation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.M.; Thames, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Like any other pathological condition, radiation reactions are characterized not only by their incidence (i.e. frequency) but also buy their latent period. The difference between latencies is the basis for the biologically and clinically important distinction between early and late radiation reactions. The authors conclude in this letter that a hazard-rate type of analysis does not allow separation of the effects of incidency and latency. The authors feel that a more adequate framework for analysis of latent-time distributions is provided bu the mixture model. Currenctly, the hydronephrosis data by Knowles and Trott are being reanalyzed using the model. (author). 8 refs.; 1 fig

  5. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  6. Management of response to the polonium-210 incident in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, John; Bailey, Michael; Tattersall, Phil; Morrey, Mary; McColl, Neil; Prosser, Lesley; Maguire, Helen; Fraser, Graham; Gross, Roger

    2008-01-01

    On the 23 November 2006, Alexander Litvinenko died in London allegedly from poisoning by 210 Po, an alpha particle emitter. The spread of radioactive contamination, arising from the poisoning and the events leading up to it, involved many locations in London. The potential for intakes of 210 Po arising from the contamination posed a public health risk and generated significant public concern. The scale of the event required a multi-agency response, including top level UK Government emergency response management arrangements. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) had a leading role in co-ordinating and managing the public health response. This paper reviews the management of the incident response and the issues involved. The fatal poisoning of Mr Litvinenko with 210 Po, and the associated public health hazard from the spread of contamination to many locations across London, was an unprecedented event. Fortunately, no one else is known to have suffered any acute effects. Results from the programme of individual monitoring showed that whilst more than 100 people had measurable intakes of 210 Po, only 17 had assessed doses in excess of 6 mSv. The highest dose of about 100 mSv gives rise to an increased risk of fatal cancer of about 0.5%, compared with the natural incidence of about 25%. The incident required a co-ordinated and sustained multi-agency emergency response. The Health Protection Agency, as the lead on public health matters played a significant role in this. Whilst inevitably some lessons have been identified, the response is considered to have been very effective and to have benefited from the wide spectrum of experience and expertise developed through normal work, together with the effort put into emergency preparedness and the various emergency response. (author)

  7. Onshore preparedness for hazardous chemical marine vessel accidents: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisel T. Illiyas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS are widely transported in marine vessels to reach every part of the world. Bulk transportation of hazardous chemicals is carried out in tank container–carrying cargo ships or in designed vessels. Ensuring the safety of HNS containers during maritime transportation is critically important as the accidental release of any substance may be lethal to the on-board crew and marine environment. A general assumption in maritime accidents in open ocean is that it will not create any danger to the coastal population. The case study discussed in this article throws light on the dangers latent in maritime HNS accidents. An accident involving an HNS-carrying marine vessel in the Arabian Sea near the coast of Yemen became a safety issue to the coastal people of Kasargod District of Kerala, India. The ship carried more than 4000 containers, which were lost to the sea in the accident. Six HNS tank containers were carried by the waves and shored at the populated coast of Kasargod, more than 650 nautical miles east from the accident spot. The unanticipated sighting of tank containers in the coast and the response of the administration to the incident, the hurdles faced by the district administration in handling the case, the need for engaging national agencies and lessons learned from the incident are discussed in the article. This case study has proven that accidents in the open ocean have the potential to put the coastal areas at risk if the on-board cargo contains hazardous chemicals. Littoral nations, especially those close to the international waterlines, must include hazardous chemical spills to their oil spill contingency plans.

  8. Occupational, social, and relationship hazards and psychological distress among low-income workers: implications of the 'inverse hazard law'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Kaddour, Afamia; Koenen, Karestan; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have simultaneously included exposure information on occupational hazards, relationship hazards (eg, intimate partner violence) and social hazards (eg, poverty and racial discrimination), especially among low-income multiracial/ethnic populations. A cross-sectional study (2003-2004) of 1202 workers employed at 14 worksites in the greater Boston area of Massachusetts investigated the independent and joint association of occupational, social and relationship hazards with psychological distress (K6 scale). Among this low-income cohort (45% were below the US poverty line), exposure to occupational, social and relationship hazards, per the 'inverse hazard law,' was high: 82% exposed to at least one occupational hazard, 79% to at least one social hazard, and 32% of men and 34% of women, respectively, stated they had been the perpetrator or target of intimate partner violence (IPV). Fully 15.4% had clinically significant psychological distress scores (K6 score ≥ 13). All three types of hazards, and also poverty, were independently associated with increased risk of psychological distress. In models including all three hazards, however, significant associations with psychological distress occurred among men and women for workplace abuse and high exposure to racial discrimination only; among men, for IPV; and among women, for high exposure to occupational hazards, poverty and smoking. Reckoning with the joint and embodied reality of diverse types of hazards involving how people live and work is necessary for understanding determinants of health status.

  9. MCFRS Incidents by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  10. Police Incident Reports Written

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  11. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...

  12. Violent incidents on a regional secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rïx, G; Seymour, D

    1988-11-01

    This 1-year retrospective study was conducted on a regional secure unit at the Bethlem Royal Hospital, London, using the hospital's data collection sheet for violent incidents. The majority of incidents were minor in nature but there were a few assaults that involved pain, lacerations or bruising. Although violence was common to the majority of patients, two contributed a large number. Those staff at the bottom of the nursing hierachy who spent most time with patients were most at risk. Likewise fellow patients were also often involved in incidents. Violence did not tail off after the breakfast period, as reported in previous studies, but continued to rise until bedtime.

  13. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  14. Intravenous Therapy: Hazards, Complications and Their Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review article, the local and systemic complications of intravenous therapy are highlighted and their preventive measures are discussed. Intravenous therapy exposes the patient to numerous hazards and many of them are avoidable, if the health care provider understands the risks involved and acts appropriately and ...

  15. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  16. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  17. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  18. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  19. Natural hazard losses and acceptable risk criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.; Nadim, F.; Lacasse, S.

    2009-12-01

    The criteria for the definition of acceptable risk to the lives of members of a society (commonly called societal risk) resulting from exposure to natural hazards are based in most countries on the frequency and characteristics of industrial accidents, e.g., nuclear power plants. However, historical records indicate that the frequency of natural hazard events is much higher than those involved in industrial hazards and their consequences are far greater. We find that the risk from natural hazards is unacceptable in the current risk criteria framework, i.e., they are an unacceptable risk with respect to the acceptable risk criteria based on the frequency and consequences of industrial accidents. According to a definition of risk, there are two main components; first, the probability of occurrence of the hazard and second, the consequence of the hazard. The occurrence of industrial accident events (hazard) can be controlled to a large extent in contrast to that of natural hazards. However, we can control natural hazard risk, in some cases by engineering solutions to control hazard and by reducing the consequences of the events by mitigating, risk management, warning and monitoring techniques. With reference to natural hazards reducing risk is mainly effected by reducing consequences. The FN-curve is a tool commonly used in societal risk assessment. It is built on a series of frequency-loss data associated with a particular process in a given period of time. It is also used to set acceptable risk criteria for countries or sub-national jurisdictions, by defining slopes and intercepts for plots of a particular (or group of) processes. The intercept of the acceptable risk curve is usually arbitrarily defined in the order of 10-7-10-1 deaths per year, and the slope criteria is based on an adopted aversion factor of the society to accident and disaster losses.The imposed slope criteria is usually between -1 and -2 whereas the slope of FN-curves based on real natural

  20. Uranium storage bed accident hazards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1989-10-01

    To properly assess hazards and risks associated with the use of uranium beds as tritium storage devices in fusion reactor systems, it is necessary to understand the consequences occurring in the event of an accident. Accidents involving uranium beds are postulated, and the possible results are considered. A research program to more fully and accurately understand those results has been initiated involving the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Ontario Hydro. The plan and objectives of that program are presented. 11 refs., 1 tab

  1. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  2. Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George

    2017-04-01

    Georgia belongs to one of world's most complex mountainous regions according to the scale and frequency of Geological processes and damage caused to population, farmlands, and Infrastructure facilities. Geological hazards (landslide, debrisflow/mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.) are affecting many populated areas, agricultural fields, roads, oil and gas pipes, high-voltage electric power transmission towers, hydraulic structures, and tourist complexes. Landslides occur almost in all geomorphological zones, resulting in wide differentiation in the failure types and mechanisms and in the size-frequency distribution. In Georgia, geological hazards triggered by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic change; 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. The prediction and monitoring of Geological Hazards is a very wide theme, which involves different researchers from different spheres. Geological hazard monitoring is essential to prevent and mitigate these hazards. In past years in Georgia several monitoring system, such as Ground-based geodetic techniques, Debrisflow Early Warning System (EWS) were installed on high sensitive landslide and debrisflow areas. This work presents description of Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  4. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  5. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  7. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  8. Incident command linkup: the vital key for CBRN response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most vital element for responding emergency personnel to a CBRN attack is the incident command linkup and dissemination of information. Incident Command, the basic foundation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS), is the first thing that must be effectively established when a response is required in any emergency. When initial evaluation of the scene determines that the incident involves CBRN, specialized resources from a wide array of assets must be activated quickly to mitigate the hazards. In this paper, we examine the information that the Incident Commander must be prepared to convey to those specialized assets responding. We will also look at what questions those specialized resources may ask while en route and upon arrival. Another key element that will be discussed is the placement of those resources in the hierarchy of the National Incident Management System. The information that the Incident Commander (IC) must be prepared to convey to those specialized assets responding is crucial for an efficient response and effective deployment. What questions might those specialized CBRN resources ask while en route and upon arrival? At a bare minimum, the four basic questions of who is in charge of the incident, where is the incident located, what transpired to trigger a response, and when did the incident occur must be answered. These questions should be answered while en route to the scene so that the Commander of the responding CBRN unit can formulate a plan on the move and prepare his response accordingly. While in transit, the CBRN responders should maintain contact with a representative of the Incident Command at the scene so that the latest information is available. Discussions should include anticipated logistical requirements such as personal protective equipment (PPE), decon requirements, communications protocols, and medical care issues. The CBRN Commander will need to know if the site is secure, has it been cleared of explosive hazards

  9. Women, Loneliness, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between loneliness and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 19-year follow-up period in a community sample of men and women. Loneliness, the perceived discrepancy between actual and desired social relationships, has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, no previous research has prospectively examined the association between loneliness and incident CHD in a community sample of men and women. Methods Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 3003). Loneliness, assessed by one item from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. Incident CHD was derived from hospital records/death certificates over 19 years of follow-up. Hypotheses were evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among women, high loneliness was associated with increased risk of incident CHD (high: hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.17â2.63; medium: hazard ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.64â1.49; reference: low), controlling for age, race, education, income, marital status, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. Findings persisted additionally controlling for depressive symptoms. No significant associations were observed among men. Conclusions Loneliness was prospectively associated with increased risk of incident CHD, controlling for multiple confounding factors. Loneliness among women may merit clinical attention, not only due to its impact on quality of life but also its potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:19661189

  10. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  11. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  12. The perception of hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The fourth chapter deals with the profusion of factors determining the differing assessment of hazards by our society. Subjective factors influencing risk perception comprise, among others, general knowledge and recognition of a hazard; the degree of voluntariness when taking the risk and its influencibility; the problem of large scale accidents; immediate and delayed results. Next to the objective and the subjective risks, the individual and the social or collective risks are assessed differently. The author dicusses in detail recent investigations into and study methods for the determination of risk perception, while eliminating systematic trends from subjective perception since common assessments are shared by whole groups of individuals time and again which allow a better understanding of today's handling of hazards. (HSCH) [de

  13. Ocular Hazards in Ophthalmic Dispensing Industry in South East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of ocular hazards in ophthalmic dispensing industry in south east Nigeria was carried out using 70 subjects drawn from different towns in the region. Tables were used to analyze the data obtained from his study. Results showed that ocular hazards are involved in ophthalmic dispensing depending on the ...

  14. 41 CFR 101-42.209 - Cost of care and handling of hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cost of care and handling of hazardous materials and certain categories of property. The special handling requirements associated with many hazardous materials often increase the cost of core and handling... associated with hazardous materials. Only the cost of transportation and handling incurred incident to the...

  15. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  16. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  17. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  18. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  19. Letter: Laparoscopy explosion hazards with nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunda, S; Ghanima, K Y

    1976-05-08

    With reference to your correspondence (September 27, p. 764, and December 27, p. 760) regarding laparoscopy explosion hazards with nitrous oxide, in our experience this is not substantiated. In the last 18 months we have done some 123 laparoscopies in the Medical City Hospital, Baghdad. We have done 16 sterilizations by tubal diathermy and not fewer than 12 cases where biopsies were taken from ovaries in case of tuberculosis or for other reasons, where diathermy was used. In all our laparoscopy procedures we always used nitrous oxide gas because carbon dioxide cylinders are difficult to otain. We did not have any incident of explosion, and most of our patients stayed in hospital not more than 24 hours postoperatively, during which time no complications were reported. None of these cases was readmitted for any complications. It seems to us that the hazard of explosion with nitrous oxide is more theoretical than real.

  20. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  1. Hazardous industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es

  2. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  3. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  4. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  5. On nonparametric hazard estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Brian P

    The Nelson-Aalen estimator provides the basis for the ubiquitous Kaplan-Meier estimator, and therefore is an essential tool for nonparametric survival analysis. This article reviews martingale theory and its role in demonstrating that the Nelson-Aalen estimator is uniformly consistent for estimating the cumulative hazard function for right-censored continuous time-to-failure data.

  6. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  7. Stop radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Brief general advice is presented for the employer unused to handling radioactive materials or using x-ray techniques. Topics mentioned are the definition of radiation and its hazards, measuring and monitoring the working environment, how to decide on and obtain equipment, standards and regulations, codes of practice, records, training, and useful sources of information. (U.K.)

  8. Koeberg radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the article by J.K. Basson, B.C. Winkler and J. Walmsley on the assessment of environmental radiation hazards from the Koeberg nuclear power station. He gives his own evaluation of the safety of the Koeberg nuclear power station and suggests an alternative reactor site

  9. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Sultan A.

    2004-01-01

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  10. The Impact Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    1994-01-01

    The Earth has been subject to hypervelocity impacts from comets and asteroids since its formation, and such impacts have played an important role in the evolution of life on our planet. We now recognize not only the historical role of impacts, but the contemporary hazard posed by such events. In the absence of a complete census of potentially threatening Earth-crossing asteroids or comets (called collectively Near Earth Objects, or NEOs), or even of a comprehensive cur-rent search program to identify NEOs, we can consider the hazard only from a probabilistic perspective. We know the steep power-law relationship between NEO numbers and size, with many more small bodies than large ones. We also know that few objects less than about 50 m in diameter (with kinetic energy near 10 megatons) penetrate the atmosphere and are capable of doing surface damage. But there is a spectrum of possible impact hazards associated with objects from this 10-megaton threshold all the way up to NEOs 5 km or larger in diameter, which are capable of inflicting severe damage on the environment, leading to mass extinction's of species. Detailed analysis has shown that, in general, the larger the object the greater the hazard, even when allowance is made for the infrequency of large impacts. Most of the danger to human life is associated with impacts by objects roughly 2 km or larger (energy greater than 1 million megatons), which can inject sufficient submicrometer dust into the atmosphere to produce a severe short-term global cooling with subsequent loss of crops, leading to starvation. Hazard estimates suggest that the chance of such an event occurring during a human lifetime is about 1:5000, and the global probability of death from such impacts is of the order of 1:20000, values that can be compared with risks associated with other natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms. However, the impact hazard differs from the others in that it can be largely

  11. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  12. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  13. Report: U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board Needs to Complete More Timely Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #13-P-0337, July 30, 2013. CSB does not have an effective management system to meet its established performance goal to “conduct incident investigations and safety studies concerning releases of hazardous chemical substances.”

  14. Understanding and managing the movements of hazardous material shipments through Texas population centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Every day almost a million shipments of hazardous materials move safely and securely along our nations transportation system, via any combination of modes. Only a small fraction of total shipments interrupt their planned journey due to an incident...

  15. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M.; Abkowitz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort

  16. VIP protection from CBRN hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszeta, D.

    2009-01-01

    Protection of heads of state/government from CBRN threats requires flexibility and advanced planning. The best approach to CBRN countermeasures in a close protection context combine traditional close protection techniques, sound security practices, and a good understanding of the technical nature of the threat. Poor general security practices make for poor CBRN protection. This paper addresses a methodology for assessing the viability of threats to protected persons/VIPs and provides an overview of close protection in the CBRN environment. It is important to define the scope of CBRN response in the close protection context. Some threat agents are more applicable to a military environment than to the type of attack consistent with assassination. By focussing the scope of CBRN close protection more specifically on the more technically viable threats, appropriate concepts of operation can be developed. Concepts of operation, developed with an understanding of the threat, determine the requirement for advanced preparation and the training and equipping of protective details. Most of the responses required in CBRN incidents are well served by tactically sound close protection procedures. The fundamental principles are: rapid identification of hazard, speed, use of protective technology, and medical interventions, including rapid decontamination and basic and advanced life support measures. This paper does not contain confidential or classified information and represents only the opinion of its author. It does not represent any official policy or opinion of the authors present or previous employers.(author)

  17. Hazardous waste research and development in the Pacific Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Carpenter, R.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Environment and Policy Inst., Honolulu, HI (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effective management of hazardous waste is an issue that all countries of the Pacific Basin must address. By very rough estimates, almost 272 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are being generated every year in the region. While the data are not consistently defined and reported, they do indicate the extent of the problem. Increasing development brings along an increase in the rate of hazardous waste generation. On this basis, the developing countries of the region can be expected to experience some of the same problems of the developed countries as their economies become more industrialized. Fundamental problems are involved in the compilation of consistent hazardous-waste generation statistics in the Pacific Basin. One involves the definition of what constitutes hazardous waste.

  18. Hazardous waste research and development in the Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Carpenter, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effective management of hazardous waste is an issue that all countries of the Pacific Basin must address. By very rough estimates, almost 272 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are being generated every year in the region. While the data are not consistently defined and reported, they do indicate the extent of the problem. Increasing development brings along an increase in the rate of hazardous waste generation. On this basis, the developing countries of the region can be expected to experience some of the same problems of the developed countries as their economies become more industrialized. Fundamental problems are involved in the compilation of consistent hazardous-waste generation statistics in the Pacific Basin. One involves the definition of what constitutes hazardous waste

  19. A methodology for physically based rockfall hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rockfall hazard assessment is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. The mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope instabilities with minimal runout. Rockfall hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". This paper is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of 3-D numerical modelling on a topography described by a DEM. Maps portraying the maximum frequency of passages, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, are easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. Different methods are suggested and discussed for rockfall hazard mapping at a regional and local scale both along linear features or within exposed areas. An objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing both a positional "Rockfall Hazard Index" and a "Rockfall Hazard Vector" is presented. The opportunity of combining different parameters in the 3-D matrixes has been evaluated to better express the relative increase in hazard. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the hazard index with respect to the included variables and their combinations is preliminarily discussed in order to constrain as objective as possible assessment criteria.

  20. Estimating hurricane hazards using a GIS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taramelli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a GIS-based integrated approach to the Multi-Hazard model method, with reference to hurricanes. This approach has three components: data integration, hazard assessment and score calculation to estimate elements at risk such as affected area and affected population. First, spatial data integration issues within a GIS environment, such as geographical scales and data models, are addressed. Particularly, the integration of physical parameters and population data is achieved linking remotely sensed data with a high resolution population distribution in GIS. In order to assess the number of affected people, involving heterogeneous data sources, the selection of spatial analysis units is basic. Second, specific multi-hazard tasks, such as hazard behaviour simulation and elements at risk assessment, are composed in order to understand complex hazard and provide support for decision making. Finally, the paper concludes that the integrated approach herein presented can be used to assist emergency management of hurricane consequences, in theory and in practice.

  1. Moral hazard in ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fayle, Tom Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, Article no. 3 (2015), s. 1-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S Grant - others:Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : economic crisis * moral hazard * power asymmetry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fevo.2015.00003/full

  2. Immobilisation of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste, e.g. radioactive waste, particularly that containing caesium-137, is immobilised by mixing with cement and solidifiable organic polymeric material. When first mixed, the organic material is preferably liquid and at this time can be polymerisable or already polymerised. The hardening can result from cooling or further polymerisation e.g. cross-linking. The organic material may be wax, or a polyester which may be unsaturated and cross-linkable by reaction with styrene. (author)

  3. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.

  4. Radiation hazard control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Hisanaga, Saemi; Miki, Ryota; Kawai, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yutaka; Sone, Koji; Okada, Hirokazu

    1990-01-01

    The report describes the radiation hazard control activities performed at the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University, Japan, during the one-year period from April 1989 to March 1990. Personal radiation hazard control is outlined first focusing on results of physical examination and data of personal exposure dose equivalent. Radiation control in laboratory is then described. Dose equivalent at various places is discussed on the basis of monthly total dose equivalent measured on film badges, measurements made by TLD, and observations made through a continuous radiations monitoring system. The concentration of radiations in air and water is discussed focusing on their measured concentrations in air at the air outlets of tracer/accelerator facilities, and radioactivity in waste water sampled in the reactor facilities and tracer/accelerator facilities. Another discussion is made on the surface contamination density over the floors, draft systems, sink surface, etc. Concerning outdoor radiation hazard control, furthermore, TLD measurements of environmental gamma-rays, data on total gamma-ray radioactivity in environmental samples, and analysis of gamma-ray emitting nuclides in environmental samples are described and discussed. (N.K.)

  5. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities

  6. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  7. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  8. Loss experience from natural phenomena hazards in the Department of Energy (50 years of natural phenomena hazard losses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a historical prespective on losses due to natural hazard incidents (1943-1993) at Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies including the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA). This paper also demonstrates how an existing DOE resource can be used to gain valuable insight into injury or property damage incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE's Safety Performance Measurement System. CAIRS data selected the 1981-1991 DOE injury/illness reports, from all the accident reports of the AEC that cited a natural phenomena hazard as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/property damage. Specifically, injury or property damage reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to severe weather or natural phenomena hazard categories. Natural phenomena hazard categories are injury/property damage caused by hurricane/tornado, earthquake, lightning, or flood. Severe weather categories are injury/property damage associated with other than normal weather conditions. The lessons learned, as a result of reviewing case histories, are presented, as are suggestions on how to reduce the likelihood of future injuries/property damage as a result of similar events. A significant finding, is that most injuries and property damage were the result of an indirect causal link to a natural phenomena hazard and thus, may be more preventable than previously thought possible. The primary message, however, is that CAIRS and other incident data bases are valuable resources and should be considered for use by those interested in identifying new ways of protecting the health and safety of the worker and for reducing building losses due to the effects of natural phenomena hazards

  9. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 02: fire hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Fire hazard reflects the potential fire behavior and magnitude of effects as a function of fuel conditions. This fact sheet discusses crown fuels, surface fuels, and ground fuels and their contribution and involvement in wildland fire.Other publications in this series...

  10. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  11. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  12. Hazards in the chemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretherick, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Preface; Introduction; Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Safety Planning and Management; Fire Protection; Reactive Chemical Hazards; Chemical Hazards and Toxicology; Health Care and First Aid; Hazardous Chemicals; Precautions against Radiations; and An American View

  13. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... liquids, process safety management, and most substance-specific health standards, to ensure consistency... expensive chemical hazard management and communication. In this way, the modifications are in line with the... are hazardous. The standard provides definitions of health and physical hazards to use as the criteria...

  14. Ambiguous involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Karen Ida

    2016-01-01

    This edited collection shows that good parenthood is neither fixed nor stable. The contributors show how parenthood is equally done by men, women and children, in and through practices involving different normative guidelines. The book explores how normative layers of parenthood are constituted...... by notions such as good childhood, family ideals, national public health and educational strategies. The authors illustrate how different versions of parenthood coexist and how complex sets of actions are demanded to fulfil today’s expectations of parenthood in Western societies. This interdisciplinary book...

  15. A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Lloyd B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cartelli, Laura [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    electrical hazards. The new comprehensive electrical hazard classification system uses a combination of voltage, shock current available, fault current available, power, energy, and waveform to classify all forms of electrical hazards. Based on this electrical hazard classification system, many new tools have been developed, including (a) work controls for these hazards, (b) better selection of PPE for R&D work, (c) improved training, and (d) a new Severity Ranking Tool that is used to rank electrical accidents and incidents with various forms of electrical energy.

  16. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  17. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Tanner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  18. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting 50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation.

  19. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification

  20. Indicators of emerging hazards and risks to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans J P

    2009-05-01

    There is a widely felt need to develop methods for the early identification of emerging hazards to food safety with the aim of preventing these hazards from becoming real risks and causing incidents. This paper reviews various activities and previous reports that describe methods to select indicators that can be used for the purpose of early identification of hazards. These indicators have been divided over three different environments, including (i) the environment surrounding food production, (ii) the food production chain from farm to fork, and (iii) consumers. Changes in these indicators are signals that may require follow-up action. Besides indicators that are linked to specific kinds of hazards, the indicators used for vulnerability assessment can help identifying weak spots in the food production system that are sensitive to a broader range of hazards. Based on the various indicators for emerging hazards that have thus been identified in literature, a set of generic indicators is provided that can be useful for the early identification of hazards.

  1. Tuberculosis among HIV-infected population: incidence and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only prior history of TB disease was found to have a significant association with an increased risk of TB, hazard ratio 5.7 (95% CI 2.0-16.4, p value 0.001). Conclusion: Tuberculosis incidence among HIV-infected adults with medium/high CD4 count in Bagamoyo is lower than in other high TB burden countries. Previously TB ...

  2. Human Q fever incidence is associated to spatiotemporal environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G. Van Leuken

    2016-12-01

    We conclude that environmental conditions are correlated to human Q fever incidence rate. Similar research with data from other outbreaks would be needed to more firmly establish our findings. This could lead to better estimations of the public health risk of a C. burnetii outbreak, and to more detailed and accurate hazard maps that could be used for spatial planning of livestock operations.

  3. Incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geohelminths are soil-transmitted parasitic nematodes which present a potential public health hazard in Nigeria. The present study examined soil samples for the incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena Community. Two hundred (200) soil samples were collected from five vegetable and fruits ...

  4. Radiation Hazard Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A.

  6. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium...... contract. On the one hand, an overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments, and thus prefers higher-powered incentives. On the other hand, if the agent is overconfident in particular about the extent to which his actions affect the likelihood of success, lower...

  7. System Safety Assessment Based on Past Incidents in Oil and Gas Industries: A Focused Approach in Forecasting of Minor, Severe, Critical, and Catastrophic Incidents, 2010–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident in an occupation which occurred due to series of repetitive minor incidents within the working environment. This work demonstrates the critical system safety assessment based on various incidents that took place to the different system and subsystem of two Indian oil refineries in five years of span 2010 to 2015. The categorization of incidents and hazard rate function of each incident category were classified and calculated. The result of Weibull analysis estimators in the form of scale and shape parameters provides useful information of incidents forecasting and their patterns in a particular time.

  8. “Capacitive sensor” to measure flow electrification and prevent electrostatic hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillat, Thierry; Touchard, Gerard; Bertrand, Yves

    2012-10-25

    At a solid/liquid interface, physico-chemical phenomena occur that lead to the separation of electrical charges, establishing a zone called electrical double layer. The convection of one part of these charges by the liquid flow is the cause of the flow electrification phenomenon which is suspected of being responsible of incidents in the industry. The P’ Institute of Poitiers University and CNRS has developed an original sensor called “capacitive sensor” that allows the characterization of the mechanisms involved in the generation, accumulation and transfer of charges. As an example, this sensor included in the design of high power transformers, could easily show the evolution of electrostatic charge generation developed during the operating time of the transformer and, therefore, point out the operations leading to electrostatic hazards and, then, monitor the transformer to prevent such risks.

  9. Critical incident stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J J; Childs, J; Gonsalves, K

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stress management process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident Stress Management Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization.

  10. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  11. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  12. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  13. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  14. Emergency preparedness hazards assessment for selected 100 Area Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The emergency preparedness hazards assessment for Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI) facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of a hazards assessment is to identify the hazardous material at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. The hazards assessment is the technical basis for the facility emergency plans and procedures. There are many other buildings and past- practice burial grounds, trenches, cribs, etc., in the 100 Areas that may contain hazardous materials. Undisturbed buried waste sites that are not near the Columbia River are outside the scope of emergency preparedness hazards assessments because there is no mechanism for acute release to the air or ground water. The sites near the Columbia River are considered in a separate flood hazards assessment. This hazards assessment includes only the near-term soil remediation projects that involve intrusive activities

  15. [Occupational hazards related to the practice of anaesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérat, F; Mérat, S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the occupational hazards related to the practice of anaesthesia and to give the preventing measures related to these risks. The Medline data bank, the specialized reviews of Occupational medicine and the bank of data of the Regional Case Disease in "Ile-de-France" were consulted. The key words employed separately or in combination were: anaesthesia, occupational hazards, anaesthetic gas, stress, working conditions, burnout, addiction, occupational blood exposure, latex allergy, ionizing radiation, electrocution, explosion. General reviews and original articles were selected. We also selected isolated clinical cases and letters to editor according to their relevance compared with the existing literature. After grouping the data according to the nature of the risk, the articles were analyzed for description, the analysis and the prevention of the risk. There are several occupational hazards related to the practice of anaesthesia. The toxicity of anaesthetic gases and particularly of nitrous oxide was highlighted at the beginning of their use. Most toxic gases were abandoned and the application of collective protection measures (system of evacuation of anaesthetic gas, ventilation of operating rooms, use of closed circuit for anaesthesia) made it possible to decrease considerably the risk related to inhalational anaesthesia. Occupational blood exposure also decreases thanks to a better observance of safety rules and the use of protected material. The risk of latex allergy has decreased considerably with the substitution of latex by other material. The risk related to the exposure to ionizing radiations is better controlled because very strict regulations have been implemented. The operating room environment involves risks of electrification, fire and explosion. New risks have been identified: drug-addiction and the painfulness of work or burnout. Their frequency is difficult to evaluate but they can have serious consequences for the patients and the

  16. Information Security Incident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Persanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights the points of information security incident management in an enterprise. Some aspects of the incident and event classification are given. The author presents his view of the process scheme over the monitoring and processing information security events. Also, the report determines a few critical points of the listed process and gives the practical recommendations over its development and optimization.

  17. Sex Trading Among Hazardously Drinking Jailed Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Johnson, Jennifer; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    For women involved in sex trading, both alcohol problems and passage through the criminal justice system are highly prevalent. This study is the first to conduct a focused examination of factors associated with sex trading among hazardously drinking, pretrial, jailed women. Cocaine use, social support for alcohol abstinence, and more days incarcerated in the 90 days leading up to the index incarceration were significantly associated with sex trading involvement among alcoholic women. Helping incarcerated alcoholic women reduce cocaine use and improve sober support networks during and following an incarceration may minimize sex trading after release.

  18. Auditing hazardous waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Allen, J.M.; Sokol, C.K.; von Lehmden, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that audit standards consisting of volatile and semivoltile organics have been established by the EPA to be provided to federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors for use in performance audits to assess the accuracy of measurement methods used during hazardous waste trial burns. The volatile organic audit standards currently total 29 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, 9, and 18-component mixtures at part-per-billion (ppb) levels (1 to 10 000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The semivoltile organic audit standards currently total six organics which are spiked onto XAD-2 cartridges for auditing analysis procedures. Studies of all organic standards have been performed to determine the stability of the compounds and the feasibility of using them as performance audit materials. Results as of July 1987 indicate that all of the selected organic compounds are adequately stabile for use as reliable audit materials. Performance audits have been conducted with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the measurement methods. To date, 160 performance audits have been initiated with the ppb-level audit gases. The audit results obtained with audit gases during hazardous waste trial burn tests were generally within ±50% of the audit concentrations. A limited number of audit results have been obtained with spiked XAD-2 cartridges, and the results have generally been within ±35% of the audit concentrations

  19. Acupuncture Therapy and Incidence of Depression After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Huang, Hsin-Chia; Chang, Hen-Hong; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Pei-Chun

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether use of acupuncture within a 3-month poststroke period after hospital discharge is associated with reduced risk of depression. This cohort study included 16 046 patients aged ≥18 years with an initial hospitalization for stroke during 2000 and 2012 in the claims database of a universal health insurance program. Patients who had received acupuncture therapies within 3 months of discharge were defined as acupuncture users (n=1714). All patients were followed up for incidence of depression until the end of 2013. We assessed the association between use of acupuncture and incidence of depression using Cox proportional hazards models in all subjects and in propensity score-matched samples consisting of 1714 pairs of users and nonusers. During the follow-up period, the incidence of depression per 1000 person-years was 11.1 and 9.7 in users and nonusers, respectively. Neither multivariable-adjusted Cox models (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.29) nor the propensity score-matching model (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.42) revealed an association between use of acupuncture and incidence of depression. In patients admitted to hospital for stroke, acupuncture therapy within 3 months after discharge was not associated with subsequent incidence of depression. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. A generic hazardous waste management training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Karnofsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of this training program element is to familiarize personnel involved in hazardous waste management with the goals of RCRA and how they are to be achieved. These goals include: to protect health and the environment; to conserve valuable material and energy resources; to prohibit future open dumping on the land; to assure that hazardous waste management practices are conducted in a manner which protects human health and the environment; to insure that hazardous waste is properly managed thereby reducing the need for corrective actions in the future; to establish a national policy to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste, wherever feasible. Another objective of this progam element is to present a brief overview of the RCRA regulations and how they are implemented/enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each of the fifty states. This element also discusses where the RCRA regulations are published and how they are updated. In addition it details who is responsible for compliance with the regulations. Finally, this part of the training program provides an overview of the activities and materials that are regulated. 1 ref

  1. Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics

  2. Modelling and Simulation for Major Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pacciani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in Major Incidents with big impact on the citizens health and the society. Without the possibility of conducting live experiments when it comes to physical and/or toxic trauma, only an accurate in silico reconstruction allows us to identify organizational solutions with the best possible chance of success, in correlation with the limitations on available resources (e.g. medical team, first responders, treatments, transports, and hospitals availability and with the variability of the characteristic of event (e.g. type of incident, severity of the event and type of lesions. Utilizing modelling and simulation techniques, a simplified mathematical model of physiological evolution for patients involved in physical and toxic trauma incident scenarios has been developed and implemented. The model formalizes the dynamics, operating standards and practices of medical response and the main emergency service in the chain of emergency management during a Major Incident.

  3. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

  4. INCIDENCE OF AMPUTATION IN EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rojaramani Kumbha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Technology and early detection of disease by recent improvements in investigation modalities lead to decreased incidents of amputations while Road Traffic Accidents (RTA increase. Furthermore, it leads to variation and decreased morbidity, mortality and accidents (crush injuries, and better equipped and trained staff, specialist services, diabetic food, rehabilitation centres, and giving good support physically and psychologically for Amputated patients. OBJECTIVE To know incidence rates of Emergency Amputation who attended causality with advanced disease and severe Trauma. METHODOLOGY The study is done over a period of one year i.e. between June 2015 to June 2016 who attended causality with advanced and severe disease affecting the limbs either due to diabetes, trauma or vascular diseases. RESULTS During one-year period, total 6,371 patients attended for general surgery OP. In those, 187 patients needed emergency surgery which included both major and minor operations. Among those, 81 patients were amputated. CONCLUSION As per our available records and observation, even though there is increased literacy and access to advanced technology, there is still increased incidence of patients undergoing amputations due to diseases. Therefore, there is a need to improve awareness and importance of early detection of diabetes, hazards of smoking, and regular general health checkups for patients at root level. With that we can treat diabetes and/or any disease in time. So there must be awareness in peripheral health staff i.e. PHC, subcentres, and community health centres about early detection of disease which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. Due to diabetes slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation.(1 The tumours are seen commonly in the age group of 20-40 years after bone fusion, bones affected commonly are those around the knee (lower end of knee, upper end of tibia. A lytic

  5. Responding to a biological incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, P.R. [U.S. Environmental Response Team, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team (ERT) was established in October 1978 to provide technical assistance to a variety of governmental agencies in the area of environmental emergency issues such as chemical spills, uncontrolled hazardous waste site and terrorist incidents. This paper describes responses to a biological incident that occurred on July 29 2004, when the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) received an anonymous e-mail identifying 3 containers on board the M/V Rio Puelo, one of which was said to contain a harmful biological substance. The containers were part of a 5 container shipment of Argentinian lemons bound for Canada. The vessel had a total of 2204 containers, of which 260 were loaded at the same port as the lemons. The containers were to be off-loaded at the Port of Newark and transported via truck to Canada. The federal On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) was responsible for managing this incident, as well as assessing the creditability of the threat. In accordance with federal authorities under the Public Water Safety Act, the Captain of the Port of New York ordered the vessel to anchor off shore. A tactical security operations team was dispatched to assess vessel security. It was determined that none of the crew, who had been exposed to the potential agent 10 days earlier, had shown any symptoms of biological warfare agents. A multi-agency unified command was set up, consisting of state, federal and local agencies. Various options were evaluated, including treatment of the containers on board due to the possibility of a dispersal device which could cause wide-spread contamination; the off loading and disposal of the cargo into the sea; and off loading of containers on shore with subsequent treatment. The following safety precautions were taken: cooling units were shut off 48 hours before sailing; the vents were sealed and closed; and the drains were plugged. At the port, trained dogs were used, and

  6. Time dependent seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, B.; Iervolino, I.; Chioccarelli, E.; Giorgio, M.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard is usually computed trough a homogeneous Poisson process that even though it is a time-independent process it is widely used for its very convenient properties. However, when a single fault is of concern and/or the time scale is different from that of the long term, time-dependent processes are required. In this paper, different time-dependent models are reviewed with working examples. In fact, the Paganica fault (in central Italy) has been considered to compute both the probability of occurrence of at least one event in the lifespan of the structure, as well as the seismic hazard expressed in terms of probability of exceedance of an intensity value in a given time frame causing the collapse of the structure. Several models, well known or novel application to engineering hazard have been considered, limitation and issues in their applications are also discussed. The Brownian Passage Time (BPT) model is based on a stochastic modification of the deterministic stick-slip oscillator model for characteristic earthquakes; i.e., based on the addition of random perturbations (a Gaussian white noise) to the deterministic load path predicted by elastic rebound theory. This model assumes that the load state is at some ground level immediately after an event, increases steadly over time, reaches a failure threshold and relaxes instantaneously back to the ground level. For this model also a variable threshold has been considered to take into account the uncertainty of the threshold value. For the slip-predictable model it is assumed that the stress accumulates at a constant rate starting from some initial stress level. Stress is assumed to accumulate for a random period of time until an earthquake occurs. The size of the earthquake is governed by the stress release and it is a function of the elapsed time since the last event. In the time-predictable model stress buildup occurs at a constant rate until the accumulated stress reaches a threshold

  7. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: Zoonoses and other biological hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study describes biological hazards reported by veterinarians working in western Canada obtained through a self-administered mailed questionnaire. The potential occupational hazards included as biological hazards were zoonotic disease events, exposure to rabies, injuries due to bites and scratches, and allergies. Only 16.7% (136/812) of responding veterinarians reported the occurrence of a zoonosis or exposure to rabies in the past 5 years; the most commonly reported event was ringworm. Most bites and scratches (86%) described by 586 veterinarians involved encounters with cats; 81% of the resulting 163 infections were due to cat bites or scratches. Approximately 38% of participants reported developing an allergy during their career, with 41% of the affected individuals altering the way they practiced in response to their allergy. PMID:22851775

  8. Leukocyte count and incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, Martin; Zia, Elisabet; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2014-04-03

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, in the majority of cases caused by a rupture of an arterial intracranial aneurysm. The effect of systemic low-grade inflammation on incidence of SAH is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte count, a marker of systemic inflammation, and incidence of SAH in a large cohort study. Leukocyte count and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 19,794 individuals (17,083 men and 2,711 women, mean age 44 years) participating in a health screening program between 1974 and 1981. Incidence of SAH in relation to baseline leukocyte concentration was studied during a mean follow-up of 27 years in participants free from previous stroke. Ninety-five participants had a SAH, corresponding to an incidence of 22 per 100,000 in women and 17 per 100,000 in men. The hazard ratio for SAH per one standard deviation (2.01 × 10⁹ cells/L) increase of leukocyte concentration was 1.26 (95% CI 1.05-1.53, p = 0.014) after adjustment for several potential confounding factors including smoking. In sensitivity analysis, there was a significant association in smokers but not in non-smokers. High leukocyte count at baseline was associated with increased incidence of SAH, although this relationship might be restricted to smokers. The results support the view that low-grade systemic inflammation could be involved in the pathogenesis of SAH, or constitute an early risk marker for the disease.

  9. Incident diabetes mellitus may explain the association between sleep duration and incident coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Akiko Kishi; Svensson, Thomas; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Almgren, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle

    2018-02-01

    Sleep duration is a risk factor for incident diabetes mellitus and CHD. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate, in sex-specific analyses, the role of incident diabetes as the possible biological mechanism for the reported association between short/long sleep duration and incident CHD. Considering that diabetes is a major risk factor for CHD, we hypothesised that any association with sleep duration would not hold for cases of incident CHD occurring before incident diabetes ('non-diabetes CHD') but would hold true for cases of incident CHD following incident diabetes ('diabetes-CHD'). A total of 6966 men and 9378 women aged 45-73 years from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based, prospective cohort, who had answered questions on habitual sleep duration and did not have a history of prevalent diabetes or CHD were included in the analyses. Incident cases of diabetes and CHD were identified using national registers. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were stratified by BMI and adjusted for known covariates of diabetes and CHD. Mean follow-up times for incident diabetes (n = 1137/1016 [men/women]), incident CHD (n = 1170/578), non-diabetes CHD (n = 1016/501) and diabetes-CHD (n = 154/77) were 14.2-15.2 years for men, and 15.8-16.5 years for women. In men, short sleep duration (< 6 h) was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01, 1.80), CHD (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06, 1.89) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.20, 4.55). Short sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98, 1.87). Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h) was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03, 1.83), CHD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01, 1.75) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11, 4.00). Long sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 0.98, 1.80). In women, short sleep duration was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.16, 2.01), CHD (HR 1

  10. Hazardous waste landfill research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1983-05-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the Permit Writers Guidance Manuals. These manuals will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of work in the various categorical areas.

  11. Tsunami: The Underrated Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, Costas; Fryer, Gerard J.

    Tsunami: the Underrated Hazard, by Edward Bryant, would appear to be a welcome addition to the scholarly tsunami literature. No book on tsunamis has the broad perspective of this work. The book looks attractive, with many high-quality photographs. It looks comprehensive, with discussions of tsunami hydrodynamics, tsunami effects on coastal landscapes, and causes of tsunamis (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts). It looks practical, with a section on risk and mitigation. It also looks entertaining, with an opening chapter on tsunami legends and a closing chapter presenting fanciful descriptions of imagined events. Appearances are deceiving, though. Any initial enthusiasm for the work evaporates on even casual reading. The book is so flawed by errors, omissions, confusion, and unsupported conjecture that we cannot recommend it to anyone.

  12. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...

  13. Hamburger hazards and emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior.With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers’ willingness to eat hamburgers depends...... on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group...... with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer’s willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play...

  14. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough......The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...... to be a risk. A hazard does not necessarily constitute a risk, as efforts can be done to minimize risk by reducing the exposure. Thus, the relationship between hazard and risk must be treated cautiously. Fora robust risk assessment good data on exposure to the substance is needed and exposure data for other...

  15. Identifying patient safety problems associated with information technology in general practice: an analysis of incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrabi, Farah; Liaw, Siaw Teng; Arachi, Diana; Runciman, William; Coiera, Enrico; Kidd, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    To identify the categories of problems with information technology (IT), which affect patient safety in general practice. General practitioners (GPs) reported incidents online or by telephone between May 2012 and November 2013. Incidents were reviewed against an existing classification for problems associated with IT and the clinical process impacted. 87 GPs across Australia. Types of problems, consequences and clinical processes. GPs reported 90 incidents involving IT which had an observable impact on the delivery of care, including actual patient harm as well as near miss events. Practice systems and medications were the most affected clinical processes. Problems with IT disrupted clinical workflow, wasted time and caused frustration. Issues with user interfaces, routine updates to software packages and drug databases, and the migration of records from one package to another generated clinical errors that were unique to IT; some could affect many patients at once. Human factors issues gave rise to some errors that have always existed with paper records but are more likely to occur and cause harm with IT. Such errors were linked to slips in concentration, multitasking, distractions and interruptions. Problems with patient identification and hybrid records generated errors that were in principle no different to paper records. Problems associated with IT include perennial risks with paper records, but additional disruptions in workflow and hazards for patients unique to IT, occasionally affecting multiple patients. Surveillance for such hazards may have general utility, but particularly in the context of migrating historical records to new systems and software updates to existing systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Landslide Hazard in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early

  17. Fragility and hazard aspects of the Chinshan seismic PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Tong, W.H.; Griffin, M.J.; Han, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology and the results of the fragility and hazard portions of the seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and the containment overpressure fragilities at the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. The Chinshan seismic PRA involves the generation and combination of the seismic hazard at the site, the fragilities of equipment and structures and the dominant accident sequences leading to core damage. The seismic fragilities and the hazard study and the containment overpressure fragilities have been completed and are presented in this paper

  18. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  19. Radiological hazards of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M. N. A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of Polonium-210 and Lead -210 contents of tobacco has a great importance because of the increase in the incidence of lung cancer observed among smokers. The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Naturally occurring primordial radionuclides of the uranium-radium series have long been associated with tobacco plants. The properties and distribution of trichomes on tobacco leaf surfaces suggest that they are effective collectors of small particles. It was reported that for an individual smoking two packages of cigarettes a day, the radiation dose to bronchial epithelium from 210 Po inhaled in cigarette smoking probably is at least seven times that from background sources. The effective dose of persons who smoke one or more packs per day of low quality brands is much higher than that resulting from intake with food and water. This indicates that smoke absorbed through the respiratory system is the main source and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake. Cigarette smoking can be the reason for the higher incidence of cancer of all organs of the respiratory system. (author)

  20. HASCAL -- A system for estimating contamination and doses from incidents at worldwide nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (HASCAL) is being developed to support the analysis of radiological incidents anywhere in the world for the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA). HASCAL is a component of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC), which is a comprehensive nuclear, biological, and chemical hazard effects planning and forecasting modeling system that is being developed by DNA. HASCAL computes best-guess estimates of the consequences of radiological incidents. HASCAL estimates the amount of radioactivity released, its atmospheric transport and deposition, and the resulting radiological doses

  1. Permitting a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, changes in the laws and regulations have produced an increased emphasis on proper solid waste disposal. Experience with various types of industrial wastes has shown that a large segment of these materials should not go to a landfill. If these wastes are prohibited from landfills, an effective alternative is incineration. The Department of Energy (DOE) has seen the need to build an incinerator at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to treat wastes that are generated at the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations facilities, many of which are contaminated with low levels of radioactivity. An extensive effort has been put forth to bring this project to reality. Several permits from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment are required before the facility can operate. These permits include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Permit, (2) Toxic Substances Control Act Permit, (3) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit, (4) Tennessee State Air Permit, and (5) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Approval Letter. The permitting process has been very long and involved and has taken nearly three years to complete. Currently, plans are to have the facility fully operational by January 1988

  2. Informing Workers of Chemical Hazards: The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Practical information on how to implement a chemical-related safety program is outlined in this publication. Highlights of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard are presented and explained. These include: (1) hazard communication requirements (consisting of warning labels, material safety…

  3. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary

  4. Natural Hazards, Poverty Traps versus Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netti, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    Governments, even in developed countries, devote too scarce resources to coping (ex-ante) with natural hazards; as a consequence of this short-sightedness, (ex-post) direct and indirect effects of catastrophic events deeply compromise the economic growth. Protective measures against natural hazards mean complex choices involving the opinions of multidisciplinary groups of experts in the fields of ecology, civic and geotechnical engineering, geology, meteorology, law and economics. Moreover, tools and choices affect different stakeholders: politicians, producers, consumers, taxpayers and voters. Complementarity between informed rationality and democracy need to be recognized and guaranteed as too often the perceptions of the majority of the stakeholders involved about natural hazards are not consistent with any objective information about the catastrophic event. The interaction between strict budget constraints, extremely high degrees of uncertainty, risk-aversion and credit rationing, trade-off between democracy and rationality, are the main causes of potential 'poverty traps'. First of all we believe that the 'reconstruction output' to be included in GDP as an ex-post effect of a natural hazard is a forced investment much more effective in crowding-out other consumption and investment and less effective for growth than investments aiming at increasing, ex-ante, the resiliency of the economy. Keynes' 'Animal Spirits' are embedded in positive expectation for future gains especially if not concentrated in reconstruction procurement sectors but spread across different sectors of the economy. The increased demand for reconstruction goods and services may act in both directions depending on the phase of the business cycles in which the economy is. Risk premiums for risk-averter investors increase in consequence of a natural hazard event; this restrict budget constraints and strengthen credit rationing. A mere replacement effect of the destroyed capital by a more

  5. Teaching Coastal Hazard, Risk, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Blockstein, D.; Davis, F.; McDaris, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience literacy and expertise play a role in all societal issues that involve the Earth. Issues that range from environmental degradation and natural hazards to creating sustainable economic systems or livable cities. Human health and resilience also involves the Earth. Environmental hazard issues have dimensions and consequences that have connections to environmental justice and disproportionate impacts on people based on their ethnicity, gender, cultural and socioeconomic conditions. Often these dimensions are hidden or unexplored in common approaches to teaching about hazards. However, they can provide importance context and meaning to students who would not otherwise see themselves in STEM disciplines. Teaching geoscience in a framework of societal issues may be an important mechanism for building science and sustainability capacity in future graduates. In May 2015, the NSF STEP center InTeGrate held a workshop in New Orleans, LA on teaching about Coastal Hazards, Risk and Environmental Justice. This was an opportunity to bring together people who use these topics as a powerful topic for transdisciplinary learning that connects science to local communities. This workshop was tailored for faculty members from minority-serving institutions and other colleges and universities that serve populations that are under-represented in the geosciences and related fields. The workshop outcome was a set of strategies for accomplishing this work, including participants' experience teaching with local cases, making connections to communities, and building partnerships with employers to understand workforce needs related to interdisciplinary thinking, sustainability science and risk. The participants articulated both the great need and opportunity for educators to help learners to explore these dimensions with their students as well as the challenge of learning to teach across disciplines and using controversial topics.

  6. Incidence, 10-year recidivism rate and prognostic factors for cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britze, A; Møller, M L; Ovesen, T

    2017-04-01

    Cholesteatoma patients have a high risk of recurrence with complications, and knowledge exchange is a prerequisite for improving treatment. This study aimed to apply appropriate statistics to provide meaningful and transferable results from cholesteatoma surgery, to highlight independent prognostic factors, and to assess the incidence rate. Incidence rates were assessed for the district of Aarhus, Denmark. From 147 patients operated on mainly with canal wall up mastoidectomies for debuting cholesteatomas, 10-year Kaplan-Meier recidivism rates were calculated and independent prognostic factors for the recidivism were identified by Cox multivariate regression analyses. Incidence rate was 6.8 per 100 000 per year. The 10-year cumulative recidivism rate was 0.44 (95 per cent confidence interval, 0.37-0.53). Independent prognostic factors for the recidivism were: age below 15 years (hazard ratio = 2.2; p > z = 0.002), cholesteatoma localised to the mastoid (hazard ratio = 1.7; p > z = 0.04), stapes erosion (hazard ratio = 1.9; p > z = 0.02) and incus erosion (hazard ratio = 1.9; p > z = 0.04). The recidivism rate is influenced by several factors that are important to observe, both in the clinic and when comparing results from surgery.

  7. Incidents in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.; Wienhold, W.

    1976-09-01

    With reference to the incident list of the Ministry for the period 1971-74, Prof. Bechert has expressed a lot of questions and statements in a letter to the Government. The letter is quoted in full. Inadequate conclusions drawn by Prof. Bechert in connection with quotations from daily newspapers and other documents are put right. (HP) [de

  8. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  9. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND

  10. Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

  11. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically redu...

  12. The transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Vehicle Safety Group of the National Institute for Transport and Road Research investigated the problem of transportation of hazardous materials. The roles of the driver; vehicle; container; routing and labelling are discussed. The term hazardous materials is defined, and safety services are discussed

  13. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated...

  14. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG QUARRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Occupational health hazards, Industrial pollution, Quarry industry, Sources of hazards, Preventive practices, Awareness ... The type of quarrying industry present in Ebonyi State ranges from manual stone crushing industry to small and medium ..... Lagos: Macmillan Printing Press. Ashley, M.N. (2004) Dustiness, ...

  15. Hazardous waste. Annual report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Activities in the Hazardous Waste Program area in 1984 ranged from preparing management and long-range plans to arranging training seminars. Past and present generation of hazardous wastes were the key concerns. This report provides a summary of the significant events which took place in 1984. 6 tabs

  16. Radon -- an environmental hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, M.; Rahman, R.; Rahman, S.; Matiullah

    2005-01-01

    Humans have always been exposed throughout its period of experience to naturally occurring sources of ionizing radiation or natural background radiation, It is an established fact that even these low background doses are harmful to man and cause increased cancer risk. About half of our radiation comes from radon, a radioactive gas coming from normal materials in the ground. Several building materials such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium in various amounts. The radioactive gas /sup 222/Rn produced in these materials due to decay of 226Ra is transported to indoor air through diffusion and convective flow. It seeps out of soil and rocks, well water, building materials and other sources at a varied rate. Amongst the naturally occurring radioisotopes, radon is the most harmful one that can be a cause of lung cancer. Radon isotopes are born by the decay of radium and radium production in turns comes from uranium or thorium decay. For humans the greatest importance among Radon isotopes is attributed to /sup 222/Rn because it is the longest lived of the three naturally produced isotopes. Drinking water also poses a threat. Radon gas is dissolved in water and is released into the air via water faucets, showerheads, etc. the lack of understanding has so far lead to speculative estimates of pollutant related health hazards. (author)

  17. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  18. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Investigations on natural hazards which trigger technological disasters in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ozunu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania faces the challenges of a developing country preparing to cope with disasters, be they natural or technological. The paper entails comprehensive research on technological accidents triggered by natural hazards (so-called Natech accidents. The research is based on a survey conducted by the competent authorities on the Seveso II Directive in 2009. This survey enabled the identification of Natech hazards and their correlation with the vulnerability of local communities and infrastructures. The Natech hazards were analyzed also in terms of their inclusion in the emergency planning process, starting from the current legislation. The results indicate that the number of incidents (including Natech events has significantly decreased subsequent to the appropriate implementation of emergency plans and safety reports.

  20. SRL process hazards review manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The principal objective of the Process Hazards Management Program is to provide a regular, systematic review of each process at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to eliminate injuries and to minimize property damage resulting from process hazards of catastrophic potential. Management effort is directed, through the Du Pont Safety Program, toward those controls and practices that ensure this objective. The Process Hazards Management Program provides an additional dimension to further ensure the health and safety of employees and the public. Du Pont has concluded that an organized approach is essential to obtain an effective and efficient process hazards review. The intent of this manual is to provide guidance in creating such an organized approach to performing process hazards reviews on a continuing basis

  1. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  2. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  3. Worker safety for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    A study group under the auspices of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) Labor Committee and the High-level Radioactive Waste/Hazardous Materials Transportation Task Force examined worker protection and safety programs for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials. Concern about the risks posed to people who live along spent nuclear fuel transportation routes has led to demands for redundant inspections of the transported spent fuel. It would also be prudent to examine the radiological risk to the inspectors themselves before state of federal regulations are promulgated which require redundant inspections. Other workers may also come close to a spent fuel cask during normal operations. The dose rate to which these inspectors and handlers are exposed is higher than the dose rate to which any other group is exposed during incident-free truck transportation and higher than the dose rate to the drivers when they are in the truck cab. This report consists of miscellaneous papers covering topics related to determining radiation doses to workers involved in the transport of radioactive materials

  4. Wrong-patient incidents during medication administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkänen, Marja; Tiainen, Maijaterttu; Haatainen, Kaisa

    2018-02-01

    To describe the factors pertaining to medication being administered to the wrong patient and to describe how patient identification is mentioned in wrong-patient incident reports. Although patient identification has been given high priority to improve patient safety, patient misidentifications occur, and wrong-patient incidents are common. A descriptive content analysis. Incident reports related to medication administration (n = 1,012) were collected from two hospitals in Finland between 1 January 2013-31 December 2014. Of those, only incidents involving wrong-patient medication administration (n = 103) were included in this study. Wrong-patient incidents occurred due for many reasons, including nurse-related factors (such as tiredness, a lack of skills or negligence) but also system-related factors (such as rushing or heavy workloads). In 77% (n = 79) of wrong-patient incident reports, the process of identifying of the patient was not described at all. There is need to pay more attention to and increase training in correct identification processes to prevent wrong-patient incidents, and it is important to adjust system factors to support nurses. Active patient identification procedures, double-checking and verification at each stage of the medication process should be implemented. More attention should also be paid to organisational factors, such as division of work, rushing and workload, as well as to correct communication. The active participation of nurses in handling incidents could increase risk awareness and facilitate useful protection actions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the 'exotic' particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino ('little neutral one', as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with 'neutron', a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a 'paper tiger'. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  8. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  9. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  10. Hygiene hazards for wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) operators; Riesgos higienicos en operadores de plantas depuradoras de aguas residuales urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Suarez, C. A.

    1999-06-01

    Are revised in the present article (chemical, physical and biological hazards) and also routes of infection. Referring to the bibliography, biological hazards are the most important for the WWTP operators, but the incidence of occupational illness is comparable to other related professions when workers follow good personal hygiene practices, use protective equipment and clothing and minimise exposure time. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. Reporting radiological incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinty, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the information available from and disseminated by government sources to television journalists about the premature re-entry to the earth's atmosphere of a Soviet nuclear powered satellite, in 1988. There was a possibility of it landing in the United Kingdom with resultant contamination. This account is used to illustrate the poverty of information available, which in turn, affects the quality of information available to the public on matters of nuclear safety. A shorter 'information chain' is suggested so that journalists would have direct access to scientists with accurate, up-to-date information on a potential radiation hazard. (U.K.)

  12. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  13. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  14. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  15. How natural hazards influence Internet searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Joan; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Effective dissemination of correct and easy-to-understand scientific information is one of the most imperative tasks of natural hazard assessment and risk management, being the media and the population the two fundamental groups of receptors. It has been observed how during the occurrence of hazardous natural phenomena, media and population desperately seek for information in all possible channels. Traditionally, these have been the radio and television, but over the past decades, the Internet has also become a significant information resource. Nevertheless, how the Internet search behavior changes during the occurrence of natural phenomena of significant societal impact (i.e. involving important human and/or economic losses) has never been analyzed so far. Focusing mainly on volcanism, we use here for the first time Internet search data provided by Google Trends to examine the search patterns of volcanology-related terms and how these may change during unrest periods or volcanic crises. Results obtained allow us to evaluate, at a global and local scale, the interest of society towards volcanological phenomena and its potential background knowledge of Earth Sciences. We show here how Internet search data turns to be a promising tool for the global and local monitoring of awareness and education background of society on natural phenomena in general, and volcanic hazards in particular.

  16. Health hazards of radiation exposure in the context of brain imaging research: special consideration for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, M; Freed, M E; Zametkin, A J

    1998-04-01

    This review provides information on health and biological effects of low-dose radiation to help institutional review boards and investigators make educated assessments of the risks of low-level radiation exposure involved in research, particularly in children. Studies of low-level radiation exposure with large sample sizes and long follow-up were reviewed. To help interpret the studies, we clarified the measures and measurement strategies of radiation exposure and of health risks. The few large studies of risks of low-level radiation in children have failed to detect an increased incidence of cancer. Most studies of low-level radiation involve adults. The risk of increased rates of cancer after low-level radiation exposure is not supported by population studies of health hazards from exposure to background radiation, radon in homes, radiation in the workplace or radiotherapy. Compared to the frequency of daily spontaneous genetic mutations, the biological effect of low-level radiation at the cellular level seems extremely low. Furthermore, the potentiation of cellular repair mechanisms by low-level radiation may result in a protective effect from subsequent high-level radiation. Studies approved by institutional review boards in the U.S. that involve the exposure of healthy normal children to ionizing radiation were reviewed. Health risks from low-level radiation could not be detected above the "noise" of adverse events of everyday life. In addition, no data were found that demonstrated higher risks with younger age at low-level radiation exposure.

  17. Job hazards and job security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the link between occupational health hazards and job security. Consistent with the underlying hypothesis that firms utilizing hazardous technologies tend to employ low-skilled workers who can be discharged easily in case of a downturn in business, the analysis indicates that workers in hazardous positions are more likely to face involuntary job loss than are those in safe positions. These workers may be particularly sensitive to political arguments that efforts to reduce exposure to toxins in the workplace and the general environment are responsible for layoffs and plant closures. The paper discusses policy alternatives that could reduce the impact of health regulations on job security.

  18. Fall Hazards Within Senior Independent Living: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Portillo, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to identify significant relationships between environmental hazards and older adults' falling. Falls can present a major health risk to older persons. Identifying potential environmental hazards that increase fall risks can be effective for developing fall prevention strategies that can create safer residential environments for older adults. The research included a retrospective analysis of 449 fall incident reports in two case-control buildings. In the homes of 88 older adults residing in independent living, an observational study was conducted to identify environmental hazards using two assessment tools including Westmead Home Safety Assessment (WeHSA) and resident interviews. A fall history analysis indicated that falls occurred in the bathroom were significantly associated with hospitalization. The observational study revealed that the bathroom was the most common place for environmental hazards. The research showed, with increasing age and use of mobility assistive aids, there was a corresponding increase in the total number of environmental hazards. Home hazards were significantly and independently associated with the incidence rate of falls. In other words, the high fall rate building included more environmental hazards compared to the low fall rate building while controlling for residents' age and mobility. The current study provides empirical evidence of the link between environmental hazards and older adults' falling, which is useful for developing effective fall intervention design strategies.

  19. Effectiveness of citizen involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, L. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed the rise of citizen involvement in industry that affects their community. Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in 1989, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provided funding by industry for a citizens group to provide oversite of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Agency terminal and associated tankers. That role is currently filled by the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, a volunteer organization that represents communities that were affected by the EVOS. The history of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council was discussed along with its structure, funding and overview of projects and research into safer transportation of oil, better oil spill response capabilities and improved environmental protection practices. Some of the successes involving citizen input include the requirement that all tankers going into Prince William Sound be double hull by 2015; a world-class system of tugs escorting tankers in Prince William Sound; installation of an ice-detection radar on a small island near the site of the EVOS; a guidebook for communities affected by man-made disasters; identification of nearshore locations that should be the first to be protected in the case of another spill; and, the installation of a system to capture crude oil vapors when tankers take on cargo. Other projects underway include the study of invasive species that can be transported in the ballast water of tankers, efficacy of dispersants, soil contamination at the tanker loading site, emissions of hazardous air pollutants from ballast water treatment processes, and continual review of emergency response plans. In the 17 years since the formation of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, it has been shown that communication and transparency are the keys to solving complacency, which is believed to have been a contributing factor to the EVOS. 3 refs.

  20. Hazardous wastes, hazardous materials and environmental health inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, M R; Derosa, C T; Mielke, H W; Bota, K

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews issues associated with the equity of locating hazardous waste sites and hazardous materials. Reports and case studies indicate that hazardous waste sites and the locations of hazardous materials are disproportionately situated near minority communities, especially African-American communities. This inequitable placement of hazardous waste sites is of concern, since exposure to toxic waste can adversely affect human health. Proximity to these sites may place these minority communities at higher risk of developing cancers and respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases, and of incurring increased levels of individual and family stress. The health of persons in minority communities near hazardous waste sites is further compromised by their lack of access to adequate health care. The potential health risks borne by racial and ethnic minorities and by low income communities as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste constitutes environmental inequity. In order to decrease the burden of these risks, we recommend developing environmental policies that address environmental inequity; conducting detailed demographic and health studies that assess the impact of exposure to toxic waste on minority populations; and devising educational programs to sensitize professional service providers and prevent exposure by community residents. This paper identifies research needs and opportunities.

  1. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Solomon, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 10 6 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10 -6 PYR -1 WLM -1 ). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  2. Observed Hearing Loss and Incident Dementia in a Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Luchsinger, José A; Manly, Jennifer J; Stern, Yaakov; Mayeux, Richard; Schupf, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether observed hearing loss (OHL) is associated with incident dementia in a multiethnic population. Prospective epidemiological cohort study. Community in northern Manhattan. Participants in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a longitudinal study on aging and dementia in an ethnically diverse community (n = 1,881). OHL was defined when the examiner observed it or according to self-reported hearing aid use. A consensus panel diagnosed dementia using standard research criteria. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the relationship between OHL at baseline and risk of incident dementia (mean 7.3 ± 4.4 years of longitudinal followup, range 0.9-20 years). OHL was associated with 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-2.3, P < .010) times the risk of incident dementia, adjusting for demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and stroke. When stratified according to race, the association between OHL and incident dementia was high in all groups but was statistically significant only in blacks (hazard ratio = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.5-4.5, P < .010). OHL was associated with greater risk of incident dementia in a multiethnic cohort. More study is needed to determine whether HL contributes to dementia and whether treating HL can reduce the risk of dementia. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-Peak Ground Acceleration is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  4. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-peak ground acceleration is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  5. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  6. Flood Hazard Mapping by Applying Fuzzy TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Keum, H.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    There are lots of technical methods to integrate various factors for flood hazard mapping. The purpose of this study is to suggest the methodology of integrated flood hazard mapping using MCDM(Multi Criteria Decision Making). MCDM problems involve a set of alternatives that are evaluated on the basis of conflicting and incommensurate criteria. In this study, to apply MCDM to assessing flood risk, maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time are considered as criterion, and each applied elements are considered as alternatives. The scheme to find the efficient alternative closest to a ideal value is appropriate way to assess flood risk of a lot of element units(alternatives) based on various flood indices. Therefore, TOPSIS which is most commonly used MCDM scheme is adopted to create flood hazard map. The indices for flood hazard mapping(maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time) have uncertainty concerning simulation results due to various values according to flood scenario and topographical condition. These kind of ambiguity of indices can cause uncertainty of flood hazard map. To consider ambiguity and uncertainty of criterion, fuzzy logic is introduced which is able to handle ambiguous expression. In this paper, we made Flood Hazard Map according to levee breach overflow using the Fuzzy TOPSIS Technique. We confirmed the areas where the highest grade of hazard was recorded through the drawn-up integrated flood hazard map, and then produced flood hazard map can be compared them with those indicated in the existing flood risk maps. Also, we expect that if we can apply the flood hazard map methodology suggested in this paper even to manufacturing the current flood risk maps, we will be able to make a new flood hazard map to even consider the priorities for hazard areas, including more varied and important information than ever before. Keywords : Flood hazard map; levee break analysis; 2D analysis; MCDM; Fuzzy TOPSIS

  7. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  8. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  9. Optical Landing Hazard Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to investigate an active optical 3D imaging LADAR as the sensor for an automated Landing Hazard Avoidance system for spacecraft landing on the Moon...

  10. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  11. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  12. Hazardous Wastes--New Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Harvey W.

    1979-01-01

    The need for effective disposal of hazardous medical and pathological wastes is discussed and the results of a test of five different models of incinerators in disposing of such wastes is presented. (MJB)

  13. Safety Tips: Hazardous Chemical Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses storage of hazardous chemicals and provides a list of eight basic safety rules to use in developing a safe storage system. Suggestions include not storing materials alphabetically, storing nonreactive chemicals together, and not storing oxidizers and fuels together. (JN)

  14. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  15. Natural Hazards - A National Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS Role in Reducing Disaster Losses -- In the United States each year, natural hazards cause hundreds of deaths and cost billions of dollars in disaster aid, disruption of commerce, and destruction of homes and critical infrastructure. Although the number of lives lost to natural hazards each year generally has declined, the economic cost of major disaster response and recovery continues to rise. Each decade, property damage from natural hazards events doubles or triples. The United States is second only to Japan in economic damages resulting from natural disasters. A major goal of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to reduce the vulnerability of the people and areas most at risk from natural hazards. Working with partners throughout all sectors of society, the USGS provides information, products, and knowledge to help build more resilient communities.

  16. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps

  17. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  18. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  19. Quantitative Hazard and Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Geza Tarnai; Balazs Saghi; Izabela Krbilova

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.

  20. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  1. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  2. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  3. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical... Provisions § 123.6 Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard analysis. Every processor shall conduct, or have conducted for it, a hazard analysis to determine whether...

  4. SAFE MOVEMENT OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS THROUGH HEURISTIC HYBRID APPROACH: TABU SEARCH AND GAME THEORY APLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan ASLAN

    2008-01-01

    The safe movement of hazardous materials is receiving increased attention due to growing environmental awareness of the potential health affects of a release causing incident. A novel approach developed in this paper through a game theory interpretation provides a risk-averse solution to the hazardous materials transportation problem. The dispatcher minimizes the expected maximum disutility subject to worst possible set of link failure probabilities, assuming that one link in the network fail...

  5. Preparedness of hazardous materials emergencies in railyards: Guidance for railroads and adjacent communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Railroads are a key part of the distribution system for hazardous materials and, thus, much hazardous material passes through railyards en route to intermediate or final consumers. While the vast majority of these materials are shipped without incident, both the number of shipments and the nature of the materials themselves dictate that railyards and surrounding communities be prepared to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. This report contains information on 11 emergency preparedness functions and 150 guidance recommendations.

  6. Measuring reuse in hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard analysis for safety-critical systems require sufficient coverage and rigour to instill confidence that the majority of hazardous consequences have been identified. These requirements are commonly met through the use of exhaustive hazard analysis techniques. However, such techniques are time consuming and error-prone. As an attempt at exhaustive coverage, hazard analysts typically employ reuse mechanisms such as copy-and-paste. Unfortunately, if reuse is applied inappropriately there is a risk that the reuse is at the cost of rigour in the analysis. This potential risk to the validity of the analysis is dependent on the nature and amount of reuse applied. This paper investigates hazard analysis reuse over two case studies. Initially reuse in an existing safety argument is described. Argument structures within the hazard analysis are identified and the amount of verbatim reuse examined. A second study is concerned with how reuse changes as a result of tool support. In contrast to the first case, the defined arguments are more diverse-reuse has occurred but is less verbatim in nature. Although tool support has aided the customisation of the reused arguments, many are only trivially customised. An edit distance algorithm is utilised to identify and enumerate verbatim and trivial reuse in the arguments

  7. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... initial antipsychotic prescribing patterns and associated use of mental health care services. METHOD: Population-based cohort study linking the following Danish national registers: the Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...

  8. Transportation training: Focusing on movement of hazardous substances and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Moreland, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  10. Periodontitis and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Winning, Lewis; Patterson, Christopher C; Neville, Charlotte E; Kee, Frank; Linden, Gerard J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate periodontitis as a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a group of men aged 58-72 years.METHODS: 1331 dentate, diabetes-free males in Northern Ireland underwent a detailed periodontal examination during 2001-2003. Follow-up was by bi-annual questionnaire and for those reporting diabetes their general medical practitioner was contacted to validate diabetes type, treatment and diagnosis date. Cox's proportional hazard models were used to estimat...

  11. Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense

    CERN Document Server

    Allahdadi, Firooz

    2015-01-01

    Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and ...

  12. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  13. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  14. Uncertainty on shallow landslide hazard assessment: from field data to hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefolini, Emanuele; Tolo, Silvia; Patelli, Eduardo; Broggi, Matteo; Disperati, Leonardo; Le Tuan, Hai

    2015-04-01

    Shallow landsliding that involve Hillslope Deposits (HD), the surficial soil that cover the bedrock, is an important process of erosion, transport and deposition of sediment along hillslopes. Despite Shallow landslides generally mobilize relatively small volume of material, they represent the most hazardous factor in mountain regions due to their high velocity and the common absence of warning signs. Moreover, increasing urbanization and likely climate change make shallow landslides a source of widespread risk, therefore the interest of scientific community about this process grown in the last three decades. One of the main aims of research projects involved on this topic, is to perform robust shallow landslides hazard assessment for wide areas (regional assessment), in order to support sustainable spatial planning. Currently, three main methodologies may be implemented to assess regional shallow landslides hazard: expert evaluation, probabilistic (or data mining) methods and physical models based methods. The aim of this work is evaluate the uncertainty of shallow landslides hazard assessment based on physical models taking into account spatial variables such as: geotechnical and hydrogeologic parameters as well as hillslope morphometry. To achieve this goal a wide dataset of geotechnical properties (shear strength, permeability, depth and unit weight) of HD was gathered by integrating field survey, in situ and laboratory tests. This spatial database was collected from a study area of about 350 km2 including different bedrock lithotypes and geomorphological features. The uncertainty associated to each step of the hazard assessment process (e.g. field data collection, regionalization of site specific information and numerical modelling of hillslope stability) was carefully characterized. The most appropriate probability density function (PDF) was chosen for each numerical variable and we assessed the uncertainty propagation on HD strength parameters obtained by

  15. Can we learn from SCADA security Incidents?

    OpenAIRE

    Tryfonas, Theo; May, John H R

    2013-01-01

    Security experts across the world continue to sound the alarm bells about the security of Industrial Control Systems (ICS). Industrial Control Systems look more and more like consumer PCs. They are used everywhere and involve a considerable amount of software, often outdated and unpatched. Recent security incidents in the context of SCADA and Industrial Control Systems emphasise greatly the importance of good governance and control of SCADA infrastructures. In particular the ability to respon...

  16. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  17. Disaster Risks Reduction for Extreme Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2013-12-01

    . Integration of these low-probability, high-impact events in DRR requires an approach focused on resilience and antifragility, as well as the ability to cope with, and recover from failure of infrastructure and social systems. Resilience does not primarily result from the robustness of infrastructure but mainly is a function of the social capital. While it is important to understand the hazards (the contribution of geosciences), it is equally important to understand the processes that let us cope with the hazards, or lead to failure (the contribution of social sciences and engineering). For the latter, we need a joint effort of social sciences and engineering and a revised science-policy relationship. Democratizing knowledge about extreme geohazards is very important in order to inform deliberations of DRR through increased resilience and reduced fragility. The current science-society dialog is not fully capable of supporting deliberative governance. Most scientific knowledge is created independent of those who could put it to use, and a transition to co-design and co-development of knowledge involving a broad stakeholder base is necessary for DRR, particularly for extreme events. This transition may have the consequence of more responsibility and even liability for science.

  18. Systematic Review of Control Measures to Reduce Hazardous Drug Exposure for Health Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crickman, Rachael; Finnell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Because of their involvement in the transport, handling, preparation, administration, or disposal of hazardous medications, health care workers across multiple settings are at risk for adverse health consequences from exposure to these drugs. This review presents evidence-based strategies to mitigate the harmful exposures. These include engineering controls, full use of personal protective equipment, medical and environmental monitoring, hazard identification, and the need for a comprehensive hazardous drug control program that includes education and training for health care workers.

  19. The impact of smoking on incident type 2 diabetes in a cohort with hepatitis B but not hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-S; Chang, T-T; Yao, W-J; Wang, S-T; Chou, P

    2017-12-01

    Smoking may be a risk factor for diabetes, and it has been suggested that viral hepatitis may predispose to diabetes. We studied diabetes and smoking histories in people with viral hepatitis. From 1997 to 2004, we studied the risk of incident diabetes in a community cohort with hyperendemic HBV and HCV infection in southern Taiwan. The cohort involved 3539 people (40-70 years old) without diabetes. Four hundred and twenty-three individuals developed diabetes. Those who were ≥65 years old, frequently consumed alcohol, had a BMI ≥25, had <9 years of education, were anti-HCV + or smoked ≥1 pack per day were more likely to develop diabetes (P < 0.05). A cumulative hazard function test showed that the higher the smoking levels, the greater the cumulative incidence rate of diabetes in HBsAg + participants only (P = 0.03 by log-rank test). A multiple Cox proportional hazards model analysis in different hepatitis statuses showed smoking levels were strong predictors of diabetes with a dose-response relationship for type 2 diabetes in those with HBsAg + : hazard ratio (HR) = 3.8, (95% CI: 1.2, 12.3) for light smokers (<1 pack per day) and HR = 4.4 (95% CI: 1.5, 13.3) for heavy smokers (≥1 pack per day). Increasing BMI was a common predictor in all people. Smoking is a strong predictor for diabetes with a dose-response relationship in HBsAg + individuals and a mild predictor for seronegative individuals but not significant in anti-HCV + individuals. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Occupational hazards and safety measures among stone quarry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health conditions of workers all over the world vary widely, depending among others on the geographical location, the type of employment and the patterns of work. The study was undertaken to determine the occupational hazards, and safety measures among Stone quarry workers in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. It involved ...

  1. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, Robert MD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:151-156.

  2. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Robert MD; Wills, Brandon DO; Kang, Christopher MD

    2010-01-01

    Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2):151-156.

  3. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  5. Radiological incidents in industrial gamma radiography in the Philippines, 1979-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Among the many practices of radiation sources, the practice of industrial gamma radiography in the country has the most number of reported radiological incidents. During the past fourteen (14) years, from 1979-1993, twenty (20) incidents that have occurred were reported to the Institute. This paper presents the nature and extent of the 20 reported incidents as well as the results of the analysis of why these incidents happened. The results of the analysis showed that the causes of these incidents are mainly human error and equipment failure. Hence, the factors that can minimize or prevent the chance of occurrence and/or recurrence of incidents and in minimizing the hazard in case of radiological incidents are: a) proper training and re-training of personnel; b) proper and regular inspection and maintenance of equipment; c) adequate radiation survey; and d) proper storage and inventory of the radiography sealed sources. (author). 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Qualitative analysis of factors leading to clinical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Birch, Julian D; Renshaw, Mark; Ottewill, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the common themes leading or contributing to clinical incidents in a UK teaching hospital. A root-cause analysis was conducted on patient safety incidents. Commonly occurring root causes and contributing factors were collected and correlated with incident timing and severity. In total, 65 root-cause analyses were reviewed, highlighting 202 factors implicated in the clinical incidents and 69 categories were identified. The 14 most commonly occurring causes (encountered in four incidents or more) were examined as a key-root or contributory cause. Incident timing was also analysed; common factors were encountered more frequently during out-hours--occurring as contributory rather than a key-root cause. In total, 14 commonly occurring factors were identified to direct interventions that could prevent many clinical incidents. From these, an "Organisational Safety Checklist" was developed to involve departmental level clinicians to monitor practice. This study demonstrates that comprehensively investigating incidents highlights common factors that can be addressed at a local level. Resilience against clinical incidents is low during out-of-hours periods, where factors such as lower staffing levels and poor service provision allows problems to escalate and become clinical incidents, which adds to the literature regarding out-of-hours care provision and should prove useful to those organising hospital services at departmental and management levels.

  7. Security incidents on the Internet, 1989--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in Internet security based on an investigation of 4,299 Internet security-related incidents reported to the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center (CERT{reg_sign}/CC) from 1989 through 1995. Prior to this research, knowledge of actual Internet security incidents was limited and primarily anecdotal. This research: (1) developed a taxonomy to classify Internet attacks and incidents, (2) organized, classified, and analyzed CERT{reg_sign}/CC incident records, (3) summarized the relative frequency of the use of tools and vulnerabilities, success in achieving access, and results of attacks, (4) estimated total Internet incident activity, (5) developed recommendations for Internet users and suppliers, and (6) developed recommendations for future research. With the exception of denial-of-service attacks, security incidents were found to be increasing at a rate less than Internet growth. Estimates showed that most, if not all, severe incidents were reported to the CERT{reg_sign}/CC, and that more than one out of three above average incidents (in terms of duration and number of sites) were reported. Estimates also indicated that a typical Internet site was involved in, at most, around one incident (of any kind) per year, and a typical Internet host in, at most, around one incident in 45 years. The probability of unauthorized privileged access was around an order of magnitude less likely. As a result, simple and reasonable security precautions should be sufficient for most Internet users.

  8. Employment and risk of injection drug use initiation among street involved youth in Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lindsey; DeBeck, Kora; Feng, Cindy; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

    2014-09-01

    Youth unemployment has been associated with labour market and health disparities. However, employment as a determinant of high-risk health behaviour among marginalized young people has not been well described. We sought to assess a potential relationship between employment status and initiation of intravenous drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth. We followed injecting naïve youth in the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada, and employed Cox regression analyses to examine whether employment was associated with injection initiation. Among 422 injecting naïve youth recruited between September 2005 and November 2011, 77 participants transitioned from non-injection to injection drug use, for an incidence density of 10.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0-12.6) per 100 person years. Results demonstrating that employment was inversely associated with injection initiation (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33-0.85) were robust to adjustment for a range of potential confounders. A lack of employment among street-involved youth was associated with the initiation of injection drug use, a practice that predisposes individuals to serious long-term health consequences. Future research should examine if reducing barriers to labour market involvement among street-involved youth prevents transitions into high-risk drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations

  10. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Crane, D. L.; Meyer, P. J.; LaFontaine, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heat waves are one of the largest causes of environmentally-related deaths globally and are likely to become more numerous as a result of climate change. The intensification of heat waves by the urban heat island effect and elevated humidity, combined with urban demographics, are key elements leading to these disasters. Better warning of the potential hazards may help lower risks associated with heat waves. Moderate resolution thermal data from NASA satellites is used to derive high spatial resolution estimates of apparent temperature (heat index) over urban regions. These data, combined with demographic data, are used to produce a daily heat hazard/risk map for selected cities. MODIS data are used to derive daily composite maximum and minimum land surface temperature (LST) fields to represent the amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle and identify extreme heat days. Compositing routines are used to generate representative daily maximum and minimum LSTs for the urban environment. The limited effect of relative humidity on the apparent temperature (typically 10-15%) allows for the use of modeled moisture fields to convert LST to apparent temperature without loss of spatial variability. The daily max/min apparent temperature fields are used to identify abnormally extreme heat days relative to climatological values in order to produce a heat wave hazard map. Reference to climatological values normalizes the hazard for a particular region (e.g., the impact of an extreme heat day). A heat wave hazard map has been produced for several case study periods and then computed on a quasi-operational basis during the summer of 2016 for Atlanta, GA, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, and Huntsville, AL. A hazard does not become a risk until someone or something is exposed to that hazard at a level that might do harm. Demographic information is used to assess the urban risk associated with the heat wave hazard. Collectively, the heat wave hazard product can warn people in urban

  11. EG and G long-range hazardous waste program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop and implement a program for safe, economic management of hazardous and radioactive mixed waste generated, transported, treated, stored, or disposed of by EG and G Idaho operated facilities. The initial part of this program involves identification and characterization of EG and G-generated hazardous and radioactive mixed waste, and activities for corrective action, including handling, packaging, and shipping of these wastes off site for treatment, storage, and/or disposal, or for interim remedial action. The documentation necessary for all areas of the plan is carefully defined, so as to ensure compliance, at every step, with the requisite orders and guidelines. A second part of this program calls for assessment, and possible development and implementation of a treatment, storage, and disposal (T/S/D) program for special hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes which cannot practically, economically, and safely be disposed of at off-site facilities. This segment of the plan addresses obtaining permits for the existing Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator and for the construction of an adjacent hazardous waste solidification facility and a storage area. The permitting and construction of a special hazardous waste treatment and storage facility is also explored. The report investigates permitting the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) as a permanent storage facility

  12. Flood Hazard Assessment for the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curves for certain Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. This paper presents the method used to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curve for F-Area due to runoff from the Upper Three Runs basin. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this paper is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines as a function of water elevation the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. Based on facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves and the nature of facility operations (e.g., involving hazardous or radioactive materials), facility managers can design permanent or temporary devices to prevent the propagation of flood on site, and develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood hazard curves for SRS facilities. The flood hazard curves for the SRS F-Area due to flooding in the Upper Three Runs basin are presented in this paper

  13. Laser driven thermal reactor for hazardous waste stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, A. [SAIC, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Increasing attention is being paid to treatment of hazardous waste through stabilization and possible solidification. Among the preferred technologies are thermal processes that detoxify and reduce the volume of hazardous wastes by exposing them to appropriate thermal regimes. However, as with any technology, there are potential problems which may detract from the application of the technology. Environmental pollution from particulate matter and off-gases can occur. Therefore, it is important to develop the technology of hazardous waste stabilization on a strong research base and to determine parameters and conditions of appropriate thermal processes. The purpose of the present work was to determine phenomenological parameters that characterize the processes of hazardous waste stabilization during thermal treatment. These methods can be used for any kind of liquid, solid and multiphase (liquid/solid and gas/solid) hazardous wastes. The method presented herein has been used to find corresponding parameters and conditions in the following applications: decomposition of ozone and nitrocompounds absorbed by activated carbon; sulphur compounds in heavy fuel oil; and appraisals of the explosion hazards involved in coal mining.

  14. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  15. 16 CFR 1500.5 - Hazardous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazardous mixtures. 1500.5 Section 1500.5... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.5 Hazardous mixtures. For a mixture of substances, the determination of whether the mixture is a “hazardous substance” as...

  16. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  17. 14 CFR 437.29 - Hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.29 Section 437.29... Documentation § 437.29 Hazard analysis. (a) An applicant must perform a hazard analysis that complies with § 437.55(a). (b) An applicant must provide to the FAA all the results of each step of the hazard analysis...

  18. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Coastal Hazards Impacts And Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna D. Gonzales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communitys participation in the activities like the preparation and creation of historical timeline. resource and hazard mapping as well as vulnerability assessment matrix VAM are effective tools in determining hazards impacts and interventions of a certain locality. The most common hazards are typhoons saltwater intrusion floods and drought. Data were collected through focus group discussions FGDs from respondents along coastal areas. Findings revealed that natural calamities had great impact to livelihood properties and health. The damaged business operations fishing and agricultural livelihood led to loss of income likewise the sources of water were also contaminated. Planned interventions include launching of periodic education and awareness program creation of evacuation centers and relocation sites rescue centers installation of deep well water pumps and irrigation systems solid waste management drainage and sea walls construction canal rehabilitationdredging tree planting and alternative livelihood programs.

  20. Building 894 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, Z.; Williams, M.

    1996-07-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  1. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

  2. 327 Building hazard baseline document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEFFEN, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the hazards in the 327 Building at the time that a facility walk through was performed during FY99, presents a PHA of stabilization and deactivation activities, and provides a basis for the hazard evaluation and accident analysis that will be developed in the 327 Building Basis for Interim Operation (BIO). Activities addressed in this hazard baseline document include: (1) Stabilization and deactivation activities in preparation for eventual decommissioning of the 327 Building and the routine handling, processing, and shipment of waste to support these activities. (2) 324/327 Building Minimum Safe Project engineering and maintenance activities to maintain the building and systems viable--especially the Safety SSCs--to allow stabilization, deactivation, and waste handling activities with a minimum of risk to workers, the public, and the environment

  3. Hazards to Effective Due Diligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benoliel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not surprising that many business deals fail to realize their expected future value because some deal makers fail to perform effective due diligence. Successful deal makers, however, know that due diligence is one of the most important tasks in successful deal making. Thus, they avoid the psychological and contextual traps that cause poor due diligence. In this article, I describe the hazards – the psychological biases and contextual factors – that might affect the due diligence task. These hazards include information availability bias; confirmation bias; overconfidence bias; time pressure; self-interested agents; deal fever; narrow focus; and complexity. Following this review, I provide a number of suggestions to help deal makers and organizations overcome these hazards.

  4. Building 6630 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Banda, Z.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  5. Hazards and critical control points of milk produced in a research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hazard analyses of the milk production line and the milk produced in a Research Institute farm in Zaria were conducted to determine hazards associated with the production line and the raw milk produced, and also the critical control points. These analyses consisted of watching all the steps involved in the milking of the six ...

  6. Quantification of the number of injured people due to hazardous material accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmuller, N.; Trijssenaar, I.; Reinders, J.; Blokker, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accidents with hazardous materials may threaten the lives of people living in the direct environment of the transportation infrastructure. In many countries, fire brigades play a major role in advising the authorities when they are dealing with issues where hazardous materials are involved. Since

  7. The role of community participation in the control of bird hazards at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of measures to prevent bird hazards from occurring. One of the most important methods of bird hazard control involves participation of local communities around the airport. This paper illustrates the different ways in which the airport works with the community to control bird collisions with aircraft at Entebbe International ...

  8. Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process

  9. Incident at university research facility - melt down of gas chromatograph evaporation block and failure of a passive safety barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    Two incidents are described highlighting the importance of process hazard analysis in university laboratories. In the first incident, an online gas chromatograph (GC) was being developed. A complete meltdown of the heating blog was experienced during testing because the PC had failed to turn off...

  10. Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geda, Yonas E; Roberts, Rosebud O; Mielke, Michelle M; Knopman, David S; Christianson, Teresa J H; Pankratz, Vernon S; Boeve, Bradley F; Sochor, Ondrej; Tangalos, Eric G; Petersen, Ronald C; Rocca, Walter A

    2014-05-01

    The authors conducted a prospective cohort study to estimate the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment in cognitively normal elderly (aged ≥70 years) individuals with or without neuropsychiatric symptoms at baseline. The research was conducted in the setting of the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. A classification of normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia was adjudicated by an expert consensus panel based on published criteria. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using Cox proportional hazards model, with age as a time scale. Baseline Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data were available for 1,587 cognitively normal persons who underwent at least one follow-up visit. The cohort was followed to incident mild cognitive impairment (N=365) or censoring variables (N=179) for a median of 5 years. Agitation (hazard ratio=3.06, 95% CI=1.89-4.93), apathy (hazard ratio=2.26, 95% CI=1.49-3.41), anxiety (hazard ratio=1.87, 95% CI=1.28-2.73), irritability (hazard ratio=1.84, 95% CI=1.31-2.58), and depression (hazard ratio=1.63, 95% CI=1.23-2.16), observed initially, increased risk for later mild cognitive impairment. Delusion and hallucination did not. A secondary analysis, limited in significance by the small number of study participants, showed that euphoria, disinhibition, and nighttime behaviors were significant predictors of nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment but not amnestic mild cognitive impairment. By contrast, depression predicted amnestic mild cognitive impairment (hazard ratio=1.74, 95% CI=1.22-2.47) but not nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment. An increased incidence of mild cognitive impairment was observed in community-dwelling elderly adults who had nonpsychotic psychiatric symptoms at baseline. These baseline psychiatric symptoms were of similar or greater magnitude as biomarkers (genetic and structural MRI) in increasing the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment.

  11. Pediatric safety incidents from an intensive care reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapik, Julia Lynn; Pronovost, Peter J; Miller, Marlene R; Thompson, David A; Wu, Albert W

    2009-06-01

    Adverse events impose a great burden on patients and the health care system, but not enough is known about how to address incidents involving pediatric patients. This study examined the demographic factors, types of events, contributing system factors, and harm associated with incidents that occur in pediatric intensive care units. Cross-sectional analysis of 2 years of data on all pediatric safety incidents and near misses reported to the voluntary provider-recorded Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System in regards to harm and contributing factors. In 464 incidents reported from 23 intensive care units to the Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System, patients were physically injured in one third of incidents and harmed in some way in two thirds of incidents. Medication errors were the most common incident type, but were associated with less harm than other event types. Line, tube, and airway events comprised one third of incidents and were associated with more harm than other types. Patient contributing factors were a strong predictor of harm; training and education factors were also commonly cited. In multivariate analysis, patient factors were the strongest predictor of harm adjusting for age, sex, and race. Pediatric patients are commonly harmed in intensive care units. There are several potential ways to improve safety including protocols for high-risk procedures involving lines and tubes, improved monitoring, and staffing, training and communication initiatives. Providers may be able to identify patients at increased risk for harm and intervene to protect patient safety.

  12. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prediction of incident stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Wadley, Virginia G; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Howard, George; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Moy, Claudia; Howard, Virginia J; Kissela, Brett; Judd, Suzanne E

    2015-03-01

    There are limited data on the potential association of adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeD) with incident stroke. We sought to assess the longitudinal association between greater adherence to MeD and risk of incident stroke. We prospectively evaluated a population-based cohort of 30 239 individuals enrolled in REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, after excluding participants with stroke history, missing demographic data or food frequency questionnaires, and unavailable follow-up information. Adherence to MeD was categorized using MeD score. Incident stroke was adjudicated by expert panel review of medical records during a mean follow-up period of 6.5 years. Incident stroke was identified in 565 participants (2.8%; 497 and 68 cases of ischemic stroke [IS] and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively) of 20 197 individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria. High adherence to MeD (MeD score, 5-9) was associated with lower risk of incident IS in unadjusted analyses (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.00; P=0.046). The former association retained its significance (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.96; P=0.016) after adjustment for demographics, vascular risk factors, blood pressure levels, and antihypertensive medications. When MeD was evaluated as a continuous variable, a 1-point increase in MeD score was independently associated with a 5% reduction in the risk of incident IS (95% confidence interval, 0-11%). We documented no association of adherence to MeD with incident hemorrhagic stroke. There was no interaction of race (P=0.37) on the association of adherence to MeD with incident IS. High adherence to MeD seems to be associated with a lower risk of incident IS independent of potential confounders. Adherence to MeD is not related to the risk of incident hemorrhagic stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  14. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, A.; Huniche, L.

    2015-01-01

    , and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  15. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. SU-E-P-07: Retrospective Analysis of Incident Reports at a Radiology Department: Feedback From Incident Reporting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakinohana, Y; Toita, T; Heianna, J; Murayama, S [School of medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide an overview of reported incidents that occurred in a radiology department and to describe the most common causal source of incidents. Methods: Incident reports from the radiology department at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital between 2008 and 2013 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The incident report form contains the following items, causal factors of the incident and desirable corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar incidents. These items allow the institution to investigate/analyze root causes of the incidents and suggest measures to be taken to prevent further, similar incidents. The ‘causal factors of the incident’ item comprises multiple selections from among 24 selections and includes some synonymous selections. In this study, this item was re-categorized into four causal source types: (i) carelessness, (ii) lack of skill or knowledge, (iii) deficiencies in communication, and (iv) external factors. Results: There were a total of 7490 incident reports over the study period and 276 (3.7%) were identified as originating from the radiology department. The most frequent causal source type was carelessness (62%). The other three types showed similar frequencies (10–14%). The staff members involved in incidents indicate three predominant desirable corrective actions to prevent or decrease the recurrence of similar incidents. These are ‘improvement in communication’ (24%), ‘staff training/education’ (19%), and ‘daily medical procedures’ (22%), and the most frequent was ‘improvement in communication’. Even though the most frequent causal factor was related to carelessness, the most desirable corrective action indicated by the staff members was related to communication. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that the most immediate causes are strongly related to carelessness. However, the most likely underlying causes of incidents would be related to deficiencies in effective communication. At our

  17. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon... hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of hazardous waste, provided these...

  18. Explosive hazards in polyaniline chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 387-392 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * oxidation of aniline * safety hazards Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  19. Risk methodologies for offsite hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Eichler, T.V.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    A number of suggestions have been advanced in recent years concerning the risks posed to nuclear power plants by offsite hazardous materials relative to (1) the regulatory approach including considerations of minimum and safe standoff distances, exclusion distances, site acceptance ceilings and floors, screening distances and screening probabilities, plant design, etc., and (2) the analysis and evaluation procedures such as material screening criteria, plant vulnerability, standarized physical models, etc. An evaluation of current analyses and approaches indicates that this complex problem, variety of approaches, and safety concerns may be better accommodated by developing criteria and treatments along the lines of a so-called conditional risk approach. Specifically, the probability (P) of some ultimate consequence (C) occurring from an accident (A) involving hazardous materials is given as P(C) = P(C/A) x P(A). Assuming that the plant to accident site standoff distance is the fundamental independent variable of the risk methodology, certain conditional risk designations and conditions can be made and are presented

  20. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  1. Motivational interviewing with hazardous drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Nancy

    2007-02-01

    To test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in a population of hazardous drinkers utilizing community health care centers in rural southeastern Idaho. This study targeted rural people at risk for alcohol dependence utilizing low-income community health care centers in rural southeastern Idaho. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to screen interested clients' alcohol use. Clients achieving an AUDIT score indicating hazardous alcohol use were recruited into the study and randomized into a control or treatment group. Twenty-six hazardous drinkers attending five low-income community health centers participated in the study. The experimental group participated in one motivational interviewing session with the investigator, a family nurse practitioner (NP). The comparison group received no treatment. Alcohol use was tracked for 6 weeks after successful recruitment into the program. Participants in the study significantly decreased their average number of drinks per day. At time 1 (pretreatment), the control group drank 4.37 drinks per day and the treatment group drank 4.65 drinks per day. At time 2 (posttest), the control group drank 3.77 drinks per day and the treatment group drank 1.95 drinks per day. The effects of the motivational interviewing treatment on hazardous drinking also were measured by serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), a liver function test. There was also a significant decrease in the GGT from pretest to posttest in the treatment group. The results of this investigation found that motivational interviewing shows promise as an effective intervention for hazardous drinkers attending low-income community clinics. Although other possible explanations could be postulated for the positive changes in sample participants, the data indicate that the motivational interviewing approach was responsible for a significant portion of the positive changes within the current sample. The information collected from the study adds

  2. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  3. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  4. Vulnerability of electricity transmission infrastructure to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda

    2016-04-01

    Electricity transmission system is a very complex system, which consists of several elements, such as overhead lines, substations and transformers, covers wide areas, is interconnected with several networks with numerous inter-dependencies. This highly integrated system is exposed to several hazards, leading to interruption of power supply. Natural hazards, such as an increased frequency of extreme weather events, including storms, icing, wet snow deposits, lighting, floods, avalanches, rock falls and landslides or changing air temperature have effects on transmission and lead to destruction of this infrastructure, which is also critical for society as it guarantees functioning of vital for society services. The reliability of critical electricity transmission infrastructure depends on its ability to ensure normal operation, to limit number of incidents and to avoid major incidents and to limit consequences of major incidents. The concept of reliability is closely connected with the concept of resilience, which is understood, in general, as the ability of a system to react and recover from anticipated disturbances and events. In regards to electricity transmission resilience is the ability of the power system to adapt, self-organize and recover or achieve the level even higher than those before the shock. This paper reviews three major natural hazards disasters, which resulted in significant blackouts in Europe. The first one is the 2003 blackout in Italy, which was caused by flash-over from trees. The second one is the 2003 blackout in Sweden, which was caused by rainstorms. The third one is the 2005 blackout in Germany, which was caused by wet snow. The inter-comparative analysis of these events allowed us to develop recommendations on electricity transmission network resilience.

  5. Periodontal Disease, Regular Dental Care Use, and Incident Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Giamberardino, Lauren D; Moss, Kevin; Morelli, Thiago; Rosamond, Wayne D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2018-02-01

    Periodontal disease is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. Identification of periodontal disease as a risk factor for incident ischemic stroke raises the possibility that regular dental care utilization may reduce the stroke risk. In the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study, pattern of dental visits were classified as regular or episodic dental care users. In the ancillary dental ARIC study, selected subjects from ARIC underwent fullmouth periodontal measurements collected at 6 sites per tooth and classified into 7 periodontal profile classes (PPCs). In the ARIC study 10 362 stroke-free participants, 584 participants had incident ischemic strokes over a 15-year period. In the dental ARIC study, 6736 dentate subjects were assessed for periodontal disease status using PPC with a total of 299 incident ischemic strokes over the 15-year period. The 7 levels of PPC showed a trend toward an increased stroke risk (χ 2 trend P stroke/1000-person years was 1.29 for PPC-A (health), 2.82 for PPC-B, 4.80 for PPC-C, 3.81 for PPC-D, 3.50 for PPC-E, 4.78 for PPC-F, and 5.03 for PPC-G (severe periodontal disease). Periodontal disease was significantly associated with cardioembolic (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.6) and thrombotic (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) stroke subtypes. Regular dental care utilization was associated with lower adjusted stroke risk (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.94). We confirm an independent association between periodontal disease and incident stroke risk, particularly cardioembolic and thrombotic stroke subtype. Further, we report that regular dental care utilization may lower this risk for stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. C2-Related Incidents Reported by UAS Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. This presentation focuses on incidents that involved the management of the command and control (C2) link. The identified issues include loss of link, interference from undesired transmissions, voice latency, accidental control transfer, and the use of the lost link timer, or lost link OK features.

  7. Association of incident restless legs syndrome with outcomes in a large cohort of US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Miklos Z; Lu, Jun L; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2016-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a common sleep disorder, but there is a paucity of large cohort studies examining the association of restless legs syndrome with clinical outcomes, including all-cause mortality, incident coronary heart disease, stroke and chronic kidney disease. From a nationally representative prospective cohort of over 3 million US veterans [93% male, median follow-up time of 8.1 years (interquartile range: 7.0-8.5 years)] with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2), a propensity-matched cohort of 7392 patients was created, and the association between incident restless legs syndrome and the following was examined: (1) all-cause mortality; (2) incident coronary heart disease; (3) incident strokes; and (4) incident chronic kidney disease defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate restless legs syndrome-negative patients, incident restless legs syndrome was associated with 88% higher mortality risk [hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.88 (1.70-2.08)], and almost four times higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke [hazard ratio: 3.97 (3.26-4.84) and 3.89 (3.07-4.94), respectively]. The risk of incident chronic kidney disease was also significantly higher in incident restless legs syndrome patients [hazard ratio: 3.17 (2.74-3.66)] compared with restless legs syndrome-negative counterparts. In this large and contemporary cohort of US veterans, incident restless legs syndrome was associated with higher risk of mortality, incident coronary heart disease, stroke and chronic kidney disease. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  9. Rainfall-triggered landslides, anthropogenic hazards, and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Larsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-triggered landslides are part of a natural process of hillslope erosion that can result in catastrophic loss of life and extensive property damage in mountainous, densely populated areas. As global population expansion on or near steep hillslopes continues, the human and economic costs associated with landslides will increase. Landslide hazard mitigation strategies generally involve hazard assessment mapping, warning systems, control structures, and regional landslide planning and policy development. To be sustainable, hazard mitigation requires that management of natural resources is closely connected to local economic and social interests. A successful strategy is dependent on a combination of multi-disciplinary scientific and engineering approaches, and the political will to take action at the local community to national scale.

  10. Quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has required for many years that quality assurance programs be established and implemented for the packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. This paper identifies various requirement principles and related actions involved in establishing effective quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. A primary purpose of these quality assurance program activities is to provide assurance that the packaging and transportation of hazardous materials, which includes radioactive and fissile materials, are in conformance with appropriate governmental regulations. Applicable regulations include those issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Transportation (DOT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). DOE Order 5700.6A establishes that quality assurance requirements are to be applied in accordance with national consensus standards where suitable ones are available. In the nuclear area, ANSI/ASME NQA-1 is the preferred standard

  11. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste

  12. Hazardous substances in Europe's fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Robert; Brack, Werner; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    , exposure can be linked to the presence of hazardous substances in water, through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water and the consumption of contaminated freshwater fish and seafood. The exceedance of regulatory levels in seafood is documented for several hazardous substances in the seas around...... to be effective in addressing the problems of complex chemical mixtures in European water bodies. In addition to the potential for adverse impacts upon human and ecosystem health, the presence of hazardous substances in drinking water supplies requires their removal. Alternatively, where the level of treatment...... involved is so high as to be uneconomic, a supply can be decommissioned. In both cases, significant costs are incurred. A key measure for reducing the level of purification required for Europe's drinking water is the establishment of safeguard or protection zones around the source. The creation...

  13. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  14. Low Wages as Occupational Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; De Vogli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The history of occupational medicine has been characterized by ever-widening recognition of hazards, from fires in 1911 to asbestos in the 1960s, to job strain in the 1990s. In this essay, we argue for broadening the recognition further to include low wages. We first review possible mechanisms explaining the effects of wages on health or health behaviors. Mechanisms involve self-esteem, job satisfaction, deprivation, social rank, the "full" price of bad health, patience, and the ability to purchase health-producing goods and services. Second, we discuss empirical studies that rely on large, typically national, data sets and statistical models that use either instrumental variables or natural experiments and also account for other family income. Finally, we draw implications for laws governing minimum wages and labor unions.

  15. Lessons learned from recent safety related incidents at A Canadian uranium conversion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaferi, Jafir

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) regulatory requirements for nuclear fuel facility licensees to report any situation or incident that results or is likely to result in a hazard to the health or safety of any person or the environment and to submit its incident investigation report with cause(s) of the incident and corrective actions taken or planned. In addition, the paper presents two recent safety-related incidents that occurred at a uranium conversion facility in Canada along with their consequences, causes, corrective actions and any lessons learned. The first incident resulted in a release of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) inside the UF6 cylinder filling station and the second one resulted in a spill of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) slurry inside the UF6 plant. Both incidents had no impact on the workers or the environment. (authors)

  16. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  17. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  18. Driving in Parkinson's disease - a health hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, C N; Suppan, K; Homann, B; Crevenna, R; Ivanic, G; Ruzicka, E

    2003-12-01

    The driving safety of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has lately been questioned after several authors reported road accidents caused by sleep attacks in PD patients on dopaminergic medication. To determine 1) whether PD patients in general and those on dopaminergic medication in particular are especially prone to cause severe road accidents and 2) whether there are PD symptoms or dopaminergic side effects with the potential to compromise driving safety. Relevant articles were identified by electronic search of biomedical databases (1966-2002: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PASCAL, PUBMED), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and reference lists of located articles. Despite frequent occurrence of potentially hazardous dopaminergic side effects (2-57 %) and disabling parkinsonian non-motor and motor disabilities (16-63 %), the two existing studies on accident rates suggest that PD patients are not more prone to cause road accidents than the rest of the population. Five further reports including 1346 patients and focusing on dopaminergically induced sleep attacks provided comparably low accident figures (yearly incidence: 0%-2%). Because of low figures meta-analysis was intended but finally deemed inappropriate as the methodology of included studies varied greatly and was frequently flawed. Further prospective community-based well designed studies on accident risk in PD patients are needed to provide evidence based driving recommendations.

  19. Radiation hazards of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.

    1975-09-01

    This paper examines each of the radiological problems that arise in these processes and explains their scientific background. The major operational requirement is to ensure that exposure of miners over their working lives to radon and its daughter products does not lead to an unacceptable increase in their chance of contracting lung cancer. Studies on the incidence of lung cancer amongst underground uranium miners indicate that this risk will be small if lifetime exposures are kept below about 120 'working level months', even amongst underground miners who smoke cigarettes. The risk is much smaller again for miners who do not smoke cigarettes. Other hazards that must be controlled are exposure of miners and mill workers to external radiation and to dusts containing long-lived radioactive alpha emitting isotopes. Finally, the solid waste products from the mill (the tailings) which contain most of the naturally occurring radioactivity, must be properly impounded and after closure of the mill, stabilized to ensure long-term containment. Access by the public to the stabilized tailings must be controlled and habitation within the controlled area prohibited. (author)

  20. Urban Environmental Health Hazards and Health Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on “Improving the living environment” prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings. PMID:17450427

  1. Urban environmental health hazards and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on "Improving the living environment" prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings.

  2. Contingency plan for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's hazardous-waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the necessary equipment and trained personnel to respond to a large number of hazardous material spills and fires or other emergencies resulting from these spills including injured personnel. This response capability is further expanded by the agreements that LLNL has with a number of outside response agencies. The Hazards Control Department at LLNL functions as the central point for coordinating the response of the equipment and personnel. Emergencies involving hazardous waste are also coordinated through the Hazards Control Department, but the equipment and personnel in the Toxic Waste Control Group would be activated for large volume waste pumpouts. Descriptions of response equipment, hazardous waste locations communication systems, and procedures for personnel involved in the emergency are provided

  3. Schoolyard Volcanoes: A Unit in Volcanology and Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, H. N.; Gochis, E. E.; Brill, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    How do you teach volcanology and volcanic hazards to students when there is no volcano nearby? You bring the volcano to them! At Michigan Technological University we have developed a four-lesson-unit for middle and high school students which incorporates virtual, analogue and numerical models to increase students' interests in geosciences while simultaneously expanding the community of earth-science-literate individuals necessary for a disaster resilient society. The unit aims to build on students' prior geoscience knowledge by examining the physical properties that influence volcanic eruptions and introduces them to challenges and methods of communicating hazards and risk. Lesson one engages students in a series of hands-on investigations that explore the "3-Vs" of volcanology: Viscosity, Volatiles and Volume. The students learn about the relationship between magma composition and viscosity and the influence on eruption style, behavior and morphology of different volcanoes. Lesson two uses an analogue model of a volcano to demonstrate the forces involved in an explosive eruption and associated hazards. Students think critically about the factors that affect hazards and risk as well as the variables (such as topography) that affect the eruption and the hazard. During lesson three students use Google Earth for a virtual field trip to Pacaya volcano, Guatemala to examine changes in the landscape over time and other evidence of volcanic activity to make interpretations about the volcano. The final lesson has the students use numerical models and GIS to create hazard maps based on probabilistic lahar scenarios. Throughout the unit students are engaged in an inquiry-based exploration that covers several Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) content and practices. This four lesson unit has been field tested in two school districts and during a summer engineering program. Results from student work and post-surveys show that this strategy raises interests in and

  4. Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltić Milan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

  5. Harvesting rockfall hazard evaluation parameters from Google Earth Street View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Mertikas, Stelios

    2015-04-01

    Rockfall incidents along highways and railways prove extremely dangerous for properties, infrastructures and human lives. Several qualitative metrics such as the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) and the Colorado Rockfall Hazard Rating System (CRHRS) have been established to estimate rockfall potential and provide risk maps in order to control and monitor rockfall incidents. The implementation of such metrics for efficient and reliable risk modeling require accurate knowledge of multi-parametric attributes such as the geological, geotechnical, topographic parameters of the study area. The Missouri Rockfall Hazard Rating System (MORH RS) identifies the most potentially problematic areas using digital video logging for the determination of parameters like slope height and angle, face irregularities, etc. This study aims to harvest in a semi-automated approach geometric and qualitative measures through open source platforms that may provide 3-dimensional views of the areas of interest. More specifically, the Street View platform from Google Maps, is hereby used to provide essential information that can be used towards 3-dimensional reconstruction of slopes along highways. The potential of image capturing along a programmable virtual route to provide the input data for photogrammetric processing is also evaluated. Moreover, qualitative characterization of the geological and geotechnical status, based on the Street View images, is performed. These attributes are then integrated to deliver a GIS-based rockfall hazard map. The 3-dimensional models are compared to actual photogrammetric measures in a rockfall prone area in Crete, Greece while in-situ geotechnical characterization is also used to compare and validate the hazard risk. This work is considered as the first step towards the exploitation of open source platforms to improve road safety and the development of an operational system where authorized agencies (i.e., civil protection) will be able to acquire near

  6. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  7. Mapping flood hazards under uncertainty through probabilistic flood inundation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Miller, A. J.; Lee, G.

    2017-12-01

    Changing precipitation, rapid urbanization, and population growth interact to create unprecedented challenges for flood mitigation and management. Standard methods for estimating risk from flood inundation maps generally involve simulations of floodplain hydraulics for an established regulatory discharge of specified frequency. Hydraulic model results are then geospatially mapped and depicted as a discrete boundary of flood extents and a binary representation of the probability of inundation (in or out) that is assumed constant over a project's lifetime. Consequently, existing methods utilized to define flood hazards and assess risk management are hindered by deterministic approaches that assume stationarity in a nonstationary world, failing to account for spatio-temporal variability of climate and land use as they translate to hydraulic models. This presentation outlines novel techniques for portraying flood hazards and the results of multiple flood inundation maps spanning hydroclimatic regions. Flood inundation maps generated through modeling of floodplain hydraulics are probabilistic reflecting uncertainty quantified through Monte-Carlo analyses of model inputs and parameters under current and future scenarios. The likelihood of inundation and range of variability in flood extents resulting from Monte-Carlo simulations are then compared with deterministic evaluations of flood hazards from current regulatory flood hazard maps. By facilitating alternative approaches of portraying flood hazards, the novel techniques described in this presentation can contribute to a shifting paradigm in flood management that acknowledges the inherent uncertainty in model estimates and the nonstationary behavior of land use and climate.

  8. Flood hazard assessment for the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curves for certain Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. This paper presents the method used to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curve for F-Area due to runoff from the Upper Three Runs basin. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this paper is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines as a function of water elevation the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. Based on facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves and the nature of facility operations (e.g., involving hazardous or radioactive materials), facility managers can design permanent or temporary devices to prevent the propagation of flood on site, and develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. The flood hazard curves for the SRS F-Area due to flooding in the Upper Three Runs basin are presented in this paper

  9. Ethnic Differences in Incidence and Outcomes of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, Tonny H M; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Patel, Viral; Vasilevska-Ristovska, Jovanka; Borges, Karlota; Sibbald, Cathryn; Lipszyc, Deborah; Brooke, Josefina; Geary, Denis; Langlois, Valerie; Reddon, Michele; Pearl, Rachel; Levin, Leo; Piekut, Monica; Licht, Christoph P B; Radhakrishnan, Seetha; Aitken-Menezes, Kimberly; Harvey, Elizabeth; Hebert, Diane; Piscione, Tino D; Parekh, Rulan S

    2016-10-07

    Ethnic differences in outcomes among children with nephrotic syndrome are unknown. We conducted a longitudinal study at a single regional pediatric center comparing ethnic differences in incidence from 2001 to 2011 census data and longitudinal outcomes, including relapse rates, time to first relapse, frequently relapsing disease, and use of cyclophosphamide. Among 711 children, 24% were European, 33% were South Asian, 10% were East/Southeast Asian, and 33% were of other origins. Over 10 years, the overall incidence increased from 1.99/100,000 to 4.71/100,000 among children ages 1-18 years old. In 2011, South Asians had a higher incidence rate ratio of 6.61 (95% confidence interval, 3.16 to 15.1) compared with Europeans. East/Southeast Asians had a similar incidence rate ratio (0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.13 to 2.94) to Europeans. We determined outcomes in 455 children from the three largest ethnic groups with steroid-sensitive disease over a median of 4 years. South Asian and East/Southeast Asian children had significantly lower odds of frequently relapsing disease at 12 months (South Asian: adjusted odds ratio; 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.77; East/Southeast Asian: adjusted odds ratio; 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.51), fewer subsequent relapses (South Asian: adjusted odds ratio; 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.81; East/Southeast Asian: adjusted odds ratio; 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.91), lower risk of a first relapse (South Asian: adjusted hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 0.83; East/Southeast Asian: adjusted hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.68), and lower use of cyclophosphamide (South Asian: adjusted hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 1.28; East/Southeast Asian: adjusted hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.71) compared with European children. Despite the higher incidence among South Asians, South and East/Southeast Asian children have significantly

  10. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  11. Natural hazard and disaster tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucińska Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.

  12. Apparatus for sampling hazardous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.F.; Showalter, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus for sampling a hazardous medium, such as radioactive or chemical waste, selectively collects a predetermined quantity of the medium in a recess of an end-over-end rotatable valving member. This collected quantity is deposited in a receiving receptacle located in a cavity while the receiving receptacle is in a sealed relationship with a recess to prevent dusting of the sampled media outside the receiving receptacle. The receiving receptacle is removably fitted within a vehicle body which is, in turn, slidably movable upon a track within a transport tube. The receiving receptacle is transported in the vehicle body from its sample receiving position within a container for the hazardous medium to a sample retrieval position outside the medium container. The receiving receptacle may then be removed from the vehicle body, capped and taken to a laboratory for chemical analysis. (author)

  13. Robots Working with Hazardous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amai, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

    1999-01-06

    While many research and development activities take place at Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC), where the "rubber meets the road" is in the ISRC'S delivered systems. The ISRC has delivered several systems over the last few years that handle hazardous materials on a daily basis, and allow human workers to move to a safer, supervisory role than the "hands-on" operations that they used to perform. The ISRC at Sandia performs a large range of research and development activities, including development and delivery of one-of-a-kind robotic systems for use with hazardous materials. Our mission is to create systems for operations where people can't or don't want to perform the operations by hand, and the systems described in this article are several of our first-of-a-kind deliveries to achieve that mission.

  14. Laser Surgeries - Subverting Potential Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of lasers in Operation Theatre (OT is a challenge for both the surgeons and anesthesiologists due to its potential hazard of thermal injury to both patients and OT personnel Adequate preparations need to be undertaken prior to surgery to reduce the risks associated with laser beams. Pre-considered contingency plans for airway fires should be in place. Strict implementation of safety precautions is key for safety of patients and staff in naval hospitals.

  15. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  16. Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components w...

  17. Health hazards from environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    Three examples from current research are cited in order to show the health hazards from environmental pollution and to describe methods of risk quantification: (1) The smog situation of January 1985 is analyzed on the basis of detailed morbidity and mortality statistics; (2) The current knowledge on the contribution of radon decay products to lung cancer is discussed; (3) The problem of abandoned industrial sites is illustrated by a population group living on contaminated ground. (orig.) [de

  18. Sex work and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Thomas; Shannon, Kate; Ti, Lianping; Strathdee, Steffanie; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2016-02-20

    Although the global burden of HIV infection among sex workers (SW) has been well recognized, HIV-related risks among sex workers who inject drugs (SW-IDU) have received less attention. We investigated the relationship between sex work and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (IDU) in a Canadian setting. Prospective cohort study. Using Kaplan-Meier methods and the extended Cox regression, we compared HIV incidence among SW-IDU and non-SW-IDU in Vancouver, Canada, after adjusting for potential confounders. Between 1996 and 2012, 1647 participants were included in the study, including 512 (31.1%) IDU engaged in sex work. At 5 years the HIV cumulative incidence was higher among SW-IDU in comparison to other IDU (12 vs. 7%, P = 0.001). In unadjusted Cox regression analyses, HIV incidence among SW-IDU was also elevated [relative hazard: 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-2.53]. However, in a multivariable analysis, sex work did not remain associated with HIV infection (adjusted relative hazard: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.45-1.20), with cocaine injection appearing to account for the elevated risk for HIV infection among SW-IDU. These data suggest that local SW-IDU have elevated rates of HIV infection. However, our exploration of risk factors among SW-IDU demonstrated that drug use patterns and environmental factors, rather than sexual risks, may explain the elevated HIV incidence among SW-IDU locally. Our findings highlight the need for social and structural interventions, including increased access to harm reduction programs and addiction treatment.

  19. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  20. Sirolimus use and cancer incidence among US kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, E L; Gustafson, S K; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Hess, G P; Engels, E A; Segev, D L

    2015-01-01

    Sirolimus has anti-carcinogenic properties and can be included in maintenance immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. We investigated sirolimus effects on cancer incidence among kidney recipients. The US transplant registry was linked with 15 population-based cancer registries and national pharmacy claims. Recipients contributed sirolimus-exposed time when sirolimus claims were filled, and unexposed time when other immunosuppressant claims were filled without sirolimus. Cox regression was used to estimate associations with overall and specific cancer incidence, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers (not captured in cancer registries). We included 32,604 kidney transplants (5687 sirolimus-exposed). Overall, cancer incidence was suggestively lower during sirolimus use (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-1.11). Prostate cancer incidence was higher during sirolimus use (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-3.02). Incidence of other cancers was similar or lower with sirolimus use, with a 26% decrease overall (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, excluding prostate cancer). Results were similar after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. This modest association does not provide strong evidence that sirolimus prevents posttransplant cancer, but it may be advantageous among kidney recipients with high cancer risk. Increased prostate cancer diagnoses may result from sirolimus effects on screen detection. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Stroke Incidence Among Migrant Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, AA; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed socioecon......Background and Purpose—Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed...... socioeconomic inequalities in relation to stroke incidence among major ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods—A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n=2 397 446) between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2010, among ethnic Dutch and ethnic minority groups. Standardized disposable household...... income was used as a measure of socioeconomic position. Results—Among ethnic Dutch, the incidence of stroke was higher in the low-income group than in the high-income group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–1.20). Similar socioeconomic inequalities in stroke incidence were found...

  2. Leukocyte count and incidence of hospitalizations due to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo

    2009-05-01

    Leukocyte concentration in blood is a classical marker of systemic inflammation. Whether high leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of heart failure (HF) is unknown. This population-based study explored whether the leukocyte concentrations were associated with incidence of hospitalizations due to HF. Leukocyte counts were measured in 16 940 men from the general population (mean age 44 years) without history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Incidence of hospitalizations due to HF (primary diagnosis) was monitored over 23 years of follow-up, in relation to quartiles of leukocytes. Subjects with myocardial infarction during follow-up were censored in the main analysis. During the follow-up, 436 men were hospitalized due to HF. Incidence of HF hospitalizations was increased in men with high leukocyte counts. After adjustments for confounding factors, the adjusted hazards ratio (HR, 95% CI) for HF hospitalization was 1.00 (reference), 1.26 (0.93 to 1.7), 1.24 (0.91 to 1.7), and 1.73 (1.3 to 2.3), respectively, for men with leukocytes in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th (highest) quartiles (trend, Pleukocyte counts in middle-aged men were associated with increased long-term incidence of HF hospitalizations.

  3. Hazardous compounds in tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 μg day(-1) for all risks, and 1.2 μg day(-1) for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs.

  4. Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Wester

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 µg day−1 for all risks, and 1.2 µg day−1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs.

  5. Radiation hazards and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunu, Shyam; Kumar, Hemant; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Songara, Venkteshwer

    2012-01-01

    Radiation can be classified into ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on whether it is capable of ionizing atoms and breaking chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequency such as X-rays, gamma rays are ionizing. These pose their own special hazards. Non ionizing radiation is associated with two major potential hazards. i.e. electrical and biological. Additionally includes electric current caused by radiation can generate sparks and create a fire or explosive hazards. Strong radiation can induce current capable of delivering an electric shock. Extremely high power electromagnetic radiation can cause electric currents strong enough to create sparks when an induced voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage of surrounding mediums. A 2009 study at the University of Basal in Switzerland found that intermitted exposure of human cells to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at a flux density of 10 Gy induced a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the comet assay. Mobile phones radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwaves range and some believes this may be harmful to human health. (author)

  6. Rockfall Hazard Process Assessment : [Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) implemented its Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) between 2003 and 2005, obtaining information on the state's rock slopes and their associated hazards. The RHRS data facilitated decision-making in an ...

  7. Rockfall Hazard Process Assessment : Final Project Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    After a decade of using the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS), the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) sought a reassessment of their rockfall hazard evaluation process. Their prior system was a slightly modified version of the RHRS and was...

  8. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  9. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  10. Introduction to Plate Boundaries and Natural Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.

    2016-01-01

    A great variety of natural hazards occur on Earth, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, floods, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, and avalanches. The most destructive of these hazards, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are mostly associated with tectonic plate

  11. Incident asthma and Mycoplasma pneumoniae: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jun-Jun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the relationship between Mycoplasma pneumoniae and incident asthma in the general population have been inconclusive. We conducted a nationwide cohort study to clarify this relationship. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we identified 1591 patients with M pneumoniae infection (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 4830) given diagnoses between 2000 and 2008. We then frequency matched 6364 patients without M pneumoniae infection from the general population according to age, sex, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of the occurrence of asthma in the M pneumoniae cohort compared with that in the non-M pneumoniae cohort. Regardless of comorbidities and the use of antibiotic or steroid therapies, patients with M pneumonia infection had a higher risk of incident asthma than those without it. The aHR of asthma was 3.35 (95% CI, 2.71-4.15) for the M pneumoniae cohort, with a significantly higher risk when patients were stratified by age, sex, follow-up time, and comorbidities, including allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, or allergic conjunctivitis. Patients with M pneumoniae infection had a higher risk of having early-onset (age, incident cases of early-onset and late-onset asthma are closely related to M pneumoniae infection, even in nonatopic patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R. [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  13. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-09-24

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  14. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, A.M. [Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-08-01

    This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled.

  15. Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics

  16. Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill Jennifer; Rausser, Gordon C

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic effect of a hazardous waste site is analyzed by investigating the causal relationship between housing appreciation rates and house location in relation to a hazardous waste site using resale data from individual sales transactions in Dallas County, Texas. The results indicate that in the period in which the hazardous waste site was identified and cleanup occurred, residential property owners in close proximity to the hazardous waste site experienced lower housing appreciation rate...

  17. Violence Involving Sailors: Approaches for Reducing the Rates of Violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Gregory V; King, Cynthia L

    2006-01-01

    .... However, the data suggest that sailors in pay grades from E3 to E5 are more likely to be involved in violent incidents than higher pay grades, and that alcohol is potentially a factor in at least...

  18. "Only When You Know the Hazards..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2005-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous chemicals and chemical containing products is of much concern and there is a need for a document that describes the hazards of a chemical, to consider the precautionary measures to be taken. Many classic demonstrations however cannot be performed due to safety concerns since sometimes chemicals are deemed too hazardous or…

  19. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  20. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 3. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India ... Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard ...

  1. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  2. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee must... safety of property resulting from each permitted flight. This hazard analysis must— (1) Identify and...

  3. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  4. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO GUILHERME C. M. DE CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results.

  5. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am 241 Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  7. The Cedar Project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spittal Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with HCV incidence among young Aboriginal people in Canada are still not well understood. We sought to estimate time to HCV infection and the relative hazard of risk factors associated HCV infection among young Aboriginal people who use injection drugs in two Canadian cities. Methods The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were drawn and tested for HCV antibodies. Analysis was restricted to participants who use used injection drugs at enrolment or any of follow up visit. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of time to HCV seroconversion. Results In total, 45 out of 148 participants seroconverted over the study period. Incidence of HCV infection was 26.3 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 16.3, 46.1 among participants who reported using injection drugs for two years or less, 14.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 7.7, 28.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for between two and five years, and 5.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 2.6,10.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for over five years. Independent associations with HCV seroconversion were involvement in sex work in the last six months (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.42 compared to no involvement, having been using injection drugs for less than two years (AHR: 4.14; 95% CI: 1.91, 8.94 and for between two and five years (AHR: 2.12; 95%CI: 0.94, 4.77 compared to over five years, daily cocaine injection in the last six months (AHR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.51, 4.05 compared to less than daily, and sharing intravenous needles in the last six months (AHR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.49 compared to not sharing. Conclusions This study contributes to the limited body of research addressing HCV infection among

  8. Debris Hazards Due to Overloaded Conventional Construction Facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    cubic meter (m 3 ) Mass/ Density pound (lb) 4.535 924 × 10 –1 kilogram (kg) unified atomic mass unit (amu) 1.660 539 × 10 –27 kilogram (kg...hazards to buildings. This work will present results for experiments involving conventional façade materials (glass, concrete , and mason- ry) that have...been overloaded to generate debris data at the structural and material levels. The material level samples have been loaded at high pressures using a

  9. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Incident Rosacea in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Cho, Eunyoung; Drucker, Aaron M; Qureshi, Abrar A; Li, Wen-Qing

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between smoking and rosacea is poorly understood. We aimed to conduct the first cohort study to determine the association between smoking and risk of incident rosacea. We included 95,809 women from Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2005). Information on smoking was collected biennially during follow-up. Information on history of clinician-diagnosed rosacea and year of diagnosis was collected in 2005. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate age- and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between different measures of smoking and risk of rosacea. During follow-up, we identified 5,462 incident cases of rosacea. Compared with never smoking, we observed an increased risk of rosacea associated with past smoking (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.16) but a decreased risk associated with current smoking (hazard ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 0.72). We further found that increasing pack-years of smoking was associated with an elevated risk of rosacea among past smokers (P for trend = 0.003) and with a decreased risk of rosacea among current smokers (P for trend smoking cessation, and the significant association persisted among past smokers who had quit over 30 years before. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  11. Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Angela M.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Bowser, Robert; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Lacomis, David; Rana, Sandeep; Ada Youk; Talbott, Evelyn O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a serious and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disorder with an annual incidence of 1–2.6/100,000 persons. Few known risk factors exist although gene–environment interaction is suspected. We investigated the relationship between suspected neurotoxicant hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) exposure and ALS. Methods: A case–control study involving sporadic ALS cases (n = 51) and matched controls (n = 51) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Geocoded residential addresses were linked to U.S. EPA NATA data (1999, 2002, and 2005) by census tract. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results: Residential exposure to aromatic solvents significantly elevated the risk of ALS among cases compared to controls in 2002 (OR = 5.03, 95% CI: 1.29, 19.53) and 1999 (OR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.09, 16.79) following adjustment for education, smoking, and other exposure groups. Metals, pesticides, and other HAPs were not associated with ALS. Conclusions: A potential relationship is suggested between residential ambient air aromatic solvent exposure and risk of ALS in this study. - Highlights: • The effects of ambient air pollutants and risk of ALS was assessed. • EPA NATA data linked to geocoded addresses for 1999, 2002, and 2005. • Residential exposure to aromatic solvents was associated with an increased risk of ALS. - Residential exposure to aromatic solvents was associated with an increased risk of ALS

  12. French people addressing environmental hazards (Eser 2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautard, Eric; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Kraszewski, Marlene; Fretin, David; Carriere, Celine; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-07-01

    This publication presents the results of a survey, conducted towards the end of 2013, of 4,700 people resident in metropolitan France and its 'departements d'outre-mer' (DOM - overseas departments). The aim of the survey was to ascertain how French people perceive natural hazards (flooding, earthquakes, climate events, cyclones, etc.) and technological hazards (industrial and nuclear) to which they may be exposed. Questioned as to whether or not they felt exposed to one or several environmental hazards in their place of residence, French people's answers varied somewhat depending on the hazard invoked and place of residence. A strong feeling of exposure was expressed most frequently in the DOM. Respondents in both metropolitan France and DOM think that atmospheric pollution is a significant hazard (56%) but their opinions diverge partially where other hazards are concerned. Natural hazards (earthquakes and flooding) are cited most frequently overseas, whereas technological hazards (industrial and nuclear) are primarily metropolitan concerns. Climate change related hazards are seen as a threat by 56% of overseas respondents and by 42% in the mother country. In general, one-third of French people think that they are exposed to more than two environmental hazards. Unlike the younger members of the population, only one-quarter of respondents of 65 years of age or over felt exposed to three or more hazards. From municipal level databases providing information on exposure to flooding and technological and climate-related hazards, the survey indicates that a large majority of respondents living in these municipalities either do not feel at risk from existing hazards or feel that the risk is low (see figure below). It is in the area of climate-related hazards that awareness of threat seems to be highest in France, and more particularly in the DOM. In the face of the flooding that could affect them, overseas populations are more aware of this natural

  13. Urgent medical response in CBR incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castulik, P.; Slabotinsky, J.; Kralik, L.; Bradka, S.

    2009-01-01

    During CBR incidents with releases of hazardous materials (HazMat), there is extremely urgent aim of first rescuing responders to safe the life for as much as possible victims and reducing health consequences from the exposure of the HazMat. Highest priority of the response is to be applied, if victims are exposed with chemicals through their airways and/or mucous membranes. There is general approach in the emergency medical services (EMS) stated that the victims being in critical status have to receive emergency medical care on-site even prior the transportation to a medical facility. However, in a case of CBR events the EMS prefer to provide the First Aid for victims to be already decontaminated as mass casualties, e.g. by the firemen and transferred to a safe zone. This approach is to be time consuming and thus creating delays in medical care not in the favor of a victim's successful survival. In order to overcome this approach, there are needs for eminent ceasing of the victims exposure, protection of breathing tract/ventilation support and administration of antidotes, if available. All this have to be done in shortest time since HazMat incident/accident occurs. This presentation is focusing on emergency provisions for saving victims directly in contaminated environment through the assistance by responders, concentrating on search and rescue of victims, their emergency decontamination, breathing protection, clothing removal, ventilation support, antidote administration, fixing and bandage of trauma injuries prior transportation and/or mass decontamination. This experience is shared based on a field exercise with the EMS volunteers (Red Cross), fire brigade volunteers and university's students.(author)

  14. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  15. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act, is based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, to generate process heat in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. Nuclear energy in the form of LWRs has been used in the U.S. and internationally principally for the generation of electricity. However, because the HTGR operates at higher temperatures than LWRs, it can be used to displace the use of fossil fuels in many industrial applications. It also provides a carbon emission-free energy supply. For example, the energy needs for the recovery and refining of petroleum, for the petrochemical industry and for production of transportation fuels and feedstocks using coal conversion processes require process heat provided at temperatures approaching 800 C. This temperature range is readily achieved by the HTGR technology. This report summarizes a site assessment authorized by INL under the NGNP Project to determine hazards and potential challenges that site owners and HTGR designers need to be aware of when developing the HTGR design for co-location at industrial facilities, and to evaluate the site for suitability considering certain site characteristics. The objectives of the NGNP site hazard assessments are to do an initial screening of representative sites in order to identify potential challenges and restraints

  16. Framework for Automation of Hazard Log Management on Large Critical Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinerbi, Lorenzo; Babu, Arun P.

    2016-08-01

    Hazard log is a database of all risk management activities in a project. Maintaining its correctness and consistency on large safety/mission critical projects involving multiple vendors, suppliers, and partners is critical and challenging. IBM DOORS is one of the popular tool used for hazard management in space applications. However, not all stake- holders are familiar with it. Also, It is not always feasible to expect all stake-holders to provide correct and consistent hazard data.The current work describes the process and tools to simplify the process of hazard data collection on large projects. It demonstrates how the collected data from all stake-holders is merged to form the hazard log while ensuring data consistency and correctness.The data provided by all parties are collected using a template containing scripts. The scripts check for mistakes based on internal standards of company in charge of hazard management. The collected data is then subjected to merging in DOORS, which also contain scripts to check and import data to form the hazard log. The proposed tool has been applied to a mission critical project, and has been found to save time and reduce the number of mistakes while creating the hazard log. The use of automatic checks paves the way for correct tracking of risk and hazard analysis activities for large critical projects.

  17. Asymptotics for incidence matrix classes

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Peter; Prellberg, Thomas; Stark, Dudley

    2005-01-01

    We define {\\em incidence matrices} to be zero-one matrices with no zero rows or columns. A classification of incidence matrices is considered for which conditions of symmetry by transposition, having no repeated rows/columns, or identification by permutation of rows/columns are imposed. We find asymptotics and relationships for the number of matrices with $n$ ones in these classes as $n\\to\\infty$.

  18. Incidence Handling and Response System

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbande, Prof. Dhananjay R.; Thampi, Dr. G. T.; Singh, Mr. Manish

    2009-01-01

    A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the computing services. I...

  19. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  20. Temporal Changes in Community Resilience to Drought Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihunov, V.

    2017-12-01

    The threat of droughts and their associated impacts on the landscape and human communities have long been recognized. While considerable research on the climatological aspect of droughts has been conducted, studies on the resilience of human communities to the effects of drought remain limited. Understanding how different communities respond to and recover from the drought hazard, i.e. their community resilience, should inform the development of better strategies to cope with the hazard. This research assesses community resilience to drought hazard in South-Central U.S. and captures the temporal changes of community resilience in the region facing the climate change. First, the study applies the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) framework using the existing drought incidence, crop damage, socio-economic and food-water-energy nexus variables, which allows to assign county-level resilience scores in the study region and derive variables contributing to the resilience. Second, it captures the temporal changes in community resilience by using the model extracted from the RIM study and socio-economic data from several consecutive time periods. The resilience measurement study should help understand the complex process underlying communities' response to the drought impacts. The results identify gaps in resilience planning and help the improvement of the community resilience to the droughts of increasing frequency and intensity.