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Sample records for incident nonfatal myocardial

  1. Long-Term Effects of the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on Incidence of Fatal and Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Kentarou; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Matsuura, Yuuki; Komi, Ryousuke; Niiyama, Masanobu; Kawakami, Mikio; Koeda, Yorihiko; Sakai, Toshiaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Tomonori

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the long-term effects of the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami on the incidence of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, the incidence of 2 types of cardiac events was comprehensively recorded. The study area was divided into 2 zones based on the severity of tsunami damage, which was determined by the percentage of the inundated area within the residential area (tsunami (r = 0.77; p tsunami was associated with a continual increase in the incidence of fatal MI among disaster survivors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction in Denmark 1976-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Osler, M; Vestbo, J

    2003-01-01

    information on smoking habits at two examinations five to ten years apart were followed up from the second examination for a first hospital admission or death from myocardial infarction. Mean duration of follow up was 13.8 years. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 643 participants who were heavy smokers at baseline......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effects of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on incidence of myocardial infarction after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and hospital registers. The association of individual...... change in smoking with myocardial infarction was examined in Cox proportional hazard analyses with continuous heavy smokers (> or =5 cigarettes/day) as reference. SETTING: Pooled data from three population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 10 956 men and 8467 women with complete...

  3. Associations between serum uric acid levels and the incidence of nonfatal stroke: a nationwide community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Keita; Konta, Tsuneo; Hirayama, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Kubota, Isao; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Narita, Ichiei; Kondo, Masahide; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kasahara, Masato; Asahi, Koichi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Hyperuricemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality. This study investigated the association between serum uric acid and the incidence of nonfatal stroke in a Japanese community-based population. We used a nationwide database of 155,322 subjects (aged 40-73, male 39 %) who participated in the annual "Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan" checkup from 2008 to 2010. We examined the relationship between the quintiles of serum uric acid levels at baseline and the incidence of nonfatal stroke during a 2-year study period using self-reported data. The crude incidence of nonfatal stroke was significantly associated with serum uric acid levels at baseline, showing the lowest values in subjects with the 3rd quintile (Q3: men, 5.0-5.6; women, 3.8-4.3) of uric acid levels (mg/dL) and the highest values in subjects with the highest quintile (Q5: men ≥7.1, women ≥5.5) both in men and women (P uric acid levels for incident stroke was high, irrespective of characteristics such as age, sex, and renal function. This study has shown that serum uric acid is independently associated with the incidence of nonfatal stroke in the general Japanese population.

  4. Common genetic variation in six lipid-related and statin-related genes, statin use and risk of incident nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindorff, Lucia A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Smith, Nicholas L; Bis, Joshua C; Marciante, Kristin D; Rice, Kenneth M; Lumley, Thomas; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Li, Guo; Heckbert, Susan R; Psaty, Bruce M

    2008-08-01

    Genetic polymorphisms are associated with lipid-lowering response to statins, but generalizeability to disease endpoints is unclear. The association between 82 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six lipid-related or statin-related genes (ABCB1, CETP, HMGCR, LDLR, LIPC, NOS3) and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke was analyzed according to current statin use and overall in a population-based case-control study (856 MI, 368 stroke, 2686 controls). Common SNPs were chosen from resequencing data using pairwise linkage disequilibrium. Gene-level analyses (testing global association within a gene) and SNP-level analyses (comparing the number of observed vs. expected associations across all genes) were performed using logistic regression, setting nominal statistical significance at P value of less than 0.05. No gene-level interactions with statin use on MI or stroke were identified. Across all genes, two SNP-statin interactions on MI were observed (one ABCB1, one LIPC) and five interactions on stroke (one CETP, four LIPC). The strongest SNP-statin interaction was for synonymous CETP SNP rs5883 on stroke (P=0.008). Gene-level associations were present for LIPC and MI (P=0.026), but not other genes or outcomes. SNP-level associations included three SNPs with MI (one LDLR, two LIPC) and two SNPs with stroke (one CETP, one LDLR). The number of observed SNP associations was no greater than expected by chance. Several potential novel associations or interactions of SNPs in ABCB1, CETP, LDLR, and LIPC with MI and stroke were identified; however, our results should be regarded as hypothesis generating until corroborated by other studies.

  5. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction in Denmark 1976-1998: a pooled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Osler, M; Vestbo, J

    2003-01-01

    information on smoking habits at two examinations five to ten years apart were followed up from the second examination for a first hospital admission or death from myocardial infarction. Mean duration of follow up was 13.8 years. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 643 participants who were heavy smokers at baseline......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effects of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on incidence of myocardial infarction after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and hospital registers. The association of individual...... change in smoking with myocardial infarction was examined in Cox proportional hazard analyses with continuous heavy smokers (> or =5 cigarettes/day) as reference. SETTING: Pooled data from three population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 10 956 men and 8467 women with complete...

  6. Myocardial contusion following nonfatal blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.A.; Puri, V.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Cortez, J.

    1983-01-01

    Currently available diagnostic techniques for myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma were evaluated. We investigated 30 patients prospectively over a period of 1 year for the presence of myocardial contusion. Among the 30 patients, eight were found to have myocardial contusion on the basis of abnormal electrocardiograms, elevated creatine phosphokinase MB fraction (CPK-MB), and positive myocardial scan. Myocardial scan was positive in seven of eight patients (87.5%). CPK-MB fraction was elevated in four of eight patients (50%). Definitive electrocardiographic changes were seen in only two of eight patients (25%). It appears that myocardial scan using technetium pyrophosphate and CPK-MB fraction determinations are the most reliable aids in diagnosis of myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma

  7. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sattar, Naveed

    2009-06-23

    Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

  8. [Incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in Southeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Prestes, Simone Cristina Chiodi; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Diniz, Cíntia Ségre; Sakate, Mirian; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2006-02-01

    Incidence of work-related accidents in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, was estimated according to gender, age, employment status, occupation, and type of work. A household survey was conducted by systematic random group sampling (195 census tracts). Information was collected from all residents 10 years or older in each household. Of those who had worked during the 90 days prior to the interview, we obtained information on occupation, job position, and employment contract. The study included 9,626 households (sample fraction 0.26). The proportion of non-fatal work accidents in the municipal area was 3.3% (95%CI: 2.7-3.9), higher for men 4.5% (95%CI: 3.6-5.5) and varying with type of employment contract and occupation. Compared to results from previous studies, we observed a decline in work-related accident risk.

  9. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  10. Incidence, Frequency, and Clinical Characteristics of Type 3 Myocardial Infarction in Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangaard, Nikolaj; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    the Danish Register of Causes of Death, ambulance and hospital patient files. Adjudication of the diagnosis was done by two local experts and one external senior cardiologist. RESULTS: A total of 2766 of the 246.723 adult residents in the region had died. A type 3 myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 18...... individuals, corresponding to an annual incidence of 7.3/100.000 person years. During the same one-year period 488 patients had other types of myocardial infarction implying a 3.6% frequency of type 3 myocardial infarction (18 of 506) among all myocardial infarctions. CONCLUSIONS: Type 3 myocardial infarction...... is a rare observation in clinical practice with an annual incidence below 10/100.000 person years and a frequency of 3-4% among all types of myocardial infarction. If autopsy data are included the number of type 3 myocardial infarctions will increase....

  11. The incidence of suspected myocardial infarction in Dutch general practice in the period 1978-1994.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Verkleij, H.; Jansen, J.; Bartelds, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate how the incidence of suspected myocardial infarction has developed from 1978 to 1994 and to study the incidence of confirmed acute myocardial infarction in Dutch general practices during the period 1991-1994. Methods: In three periods (1978, 1983-1985 and 1991-1994) the incidence of

  12. Is the association between short stature and myocardial infarction explained by childhood exposures--a population-based case referent study (SHEEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Michael; Diderichsen, Finn; Hallqvist, Johan

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study was undertaken to examine the association between short stature and acute non-fatal myocardial infarction and to analyse causal mechanisms related to height with a focus on childhood risk factors. METHOD: The SHEEP (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program) is a population-based case......-referent study. The outcome was incident first events of myocardial infarction. The study base included all Swedish citizens aged 45 to 70, who lived in Stockholm County during 1992-94. This analysis is based on 967 male cases, 412 female cases and 1696 referents. Exposure information was obtained through...... questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and obstetric records. RESULTS: Adult height was inversely related to myocardial infarction. The odds ratio for men in the shortest quartile (

  13. Prognostic study of risk stratification among Japanese patients with ischemic heart disease using gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: J-ACCESS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kusuoka, Hideo; Yamashina, Akira; Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    2008-01-01

    Although the prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging using gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for predicting major cardiac events has been evaluated, little is known about the relevance of this procedure to the Japanese population. A total of 4,031 consecutive Japanese patients with suspected or confirmed ischemic heart diseases were registered at 117 hospitals in the Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT investigation. Gated stress/rest myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed and the patients were followed up for 3 years. Segmental perfusion scores and quantitative gated SPECT results were calculated. Major cardiac events were defined as cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and severe heart failure. During the 3-year follow-up, cardiac death (n = 57) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 39) occurred in 96 patients (2.4%/3 years) when hard events were the endpoints. When severe heart failure was included as an endpoint, major cardiac events that developed in 175 patients (4.3%/3 years) comprised cardiac death (n = 45), nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 37), and severe heart failure (n = 93). Normal and severely abnormal summed stress score values were associated with low (2.31%/3 years) and high (9.21%/3 years) rates of major cardiac events, respectively. Rates of major cardiac events were significantly higher in patients with ejection fraction (EF) <45% than in those with EF 45% or higher (16.55 vs 2.94%/3 years; P < 0.001). The incidence of major cardiac events within 3 years was also significantly higher among patients with high end-systolic volumes. The major event rates were similar among nondiabetic patients with and diabetic patients without prior myocardial infarction at 5.06% and 5.73%/3 years, respectively. Cardiac event rates were significantly lower in the Japanese than in the USA and European populations. However, large myocardial perfusion defects and

  14. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion and ventricular function in a Japanese multicenter cohort study (J-ACCESS). The first-year total events and hard events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Kusuoka, Hideo; Nishimura, Shigeyuki; Yamashina, Akira; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic value of myocardial ischemia, function and coronary risk factors on total and hard cardiac events using myocardial perfusion imaging in a Japanese population. A prospective cohort study was performed in 117 Japanese hospitals, each with a nuclear cardiology facility. A total of 4,031 patients with suspected or confirmed ischemic heart disease were registered. The patients were followed up for a year to investigate total and hard events, and those who had any events were followed up for 3 years to evaluate subsequent hard events. A stress-rest gated myocardial perfusion study was performed with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin using gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and analyzed by semi-quantitative scores. During the 1-year follow-up period, 263 (6.5%) patients had total events comprising all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, unstable angina, angina pectoris and coronary revascularization. Cardiac death occurred in 23 patients (0.6%) and non-fatal MI in 11 (0.3%). Among patients with ejection fraction (EF) of <45% and a summed difference score (SDS) of ≥2, 18.7% (2.4% for cardiac death and 0.6% for non-fatal MI) experienced total events compared with 3.9% (0.3% for cardiac death and 0.2% for non-fatal MI; P<0.0001) of those with EF≥45% and SDS<2. Multivariate analysis identified EF, SDS, age, history of revascularization and diabetes as significant predictors of all events, while the significant predictors were age and EF for hard events. When the patients who had heart failure in the first year were followed up, 9 of 41 (22.0%) experienced cardiac death in the subsequent 3-year follow-up period. Myocardial ischemia defined by SDS and ventricular function were the main predictors of total events despite the relatively low incidence of hard events in this Japanese population. In patients with cardiac events in a year, closer attention should be paid to subsequent

  15. Increased incidence and clinical correlation of persistently abnormal technetium pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams following acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicod, P.; Lewis, S.E.; Corbett, J.C.; Buja, L.M.; Henderson, G.; Raskin, P.; Rude, R.E.; Willerson, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Persistently abnormal /sup 99m/Tc stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams (PPi+) appear to be associated with a relatively poor prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To assess the incidence and implications of PPi+, we performed a retrospective analysis in 29 patients with and 25 patients without diabetes mellitus who had abnormal myocardial scintigrams within 4 days of AMI and who had follow-up scintigrams at least 3 months after hospital discharge. There were no significant differences between patients with and without diabetes as regards age, incidence of transmural or nontransmural AMI, or degree of left ventricular dysfunction after AMI. Persistently abnormal PPi+ occurred more commonly in patients with diabetes than in nondiabetic patients (18 of 29, 62%, compared to 3 of 25, 12%; p less than 0.001). Patients with chronic PPi+ had more frequent cardiac complications following hospital discharge (p less than 0.005) including death, recurrent AMI, unstable angina, and intractable congestive heart failure. Postmortem analysis in two patients with diabetes and chronic PPi+ revealed marked myocytolysis. Thus, patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of post-AMI persistently abnormal technetium (PPi+) scintigrams and relatively poor prognosis following myocardial infarction

  16. Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease Events in Men Compared to Women by Menopause Type and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Cushman, Mary; Khodneva, Yulia; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Judd, Suzanne; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Howard, Virginia J; Safford, Monika M

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether type of menopause affects sex differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) events and whether the impact is similar in blacks and whites. Methods and Results Participants were enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort between 2003 and 2007 without CHD at baseline (n=23 086). Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard of incident nonfatal CHD (definite or probable myocardial infarction) and acute CHD death, adjusting for age, age at last menstrual period menopause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31, 0.66) and surgical menopause (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.99) had a reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to white men. Black women in natural menopause (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47, 1.03), but not surgical menopause (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.51, 1.29), had a marginally reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to black men. Women had lower risk of acute CHD death than men regardless of their menopause type and race. Conclusions Sex differences in the risk of incident CHD events were larger among whites than blacks and varied by type of menopause. Women consistently had a lower risk of incident CHD death than men, but the magnitude of sex differences was greater in whites than blacks for nonfatal events, regardless of menopause type. PMID:26133958

  17. Impact of on-site cardiac catheterization on resource utilization and fatal and non-fatal outcomes after acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hugues

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI strongly depend on the availability of on-site cardiac catheterization facilities. Although the management found at hospitals without on-site catheterization does not lead to increased mortality, little it known about its impact on resource utilization and non-fatal outcomes. Methods We identified all patients (n = 35,289 admitted with a first AMI in the province of Quebec between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 1999 using population-based administrative databases. Medical resource utilization and non-fatal and fatal outcomes were compared among patients admitted to hospitals with and without on-site cardiac catheterization facilities. Results Cardiac catheterization and PCI were more frequently performed among patients admitted to hospitals with catheterization facilities. However, non-invasive procedures were not used more frequently at hospitals without catheterization facilities. To the contrary, echocardiography [odds ratio (OR, 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.93–2.16] and multi-gated acquisition imaging (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17–1.32 were used more frequently at hospitals with catheterization, and exercise treadmill testing (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91–1.15 and Sestamibi/Thallium imaging (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88–0.98 were used similarly at hospitals with and without catheterization. Use of anti-ischemic medications and frequency of emergency room and physician visits, were similar at both types of institutions. Readmission rates for AMI-related cardiac complications and mortality were also similar [adjusted hazard ratio, recurrent AMI: 1.02, 95% CI, 0.89–1.16; congestive heart failure: 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90–1.15; unstable angina: 0.93; 95% CI, 0.85–1.02; mortality: 0.99; 95% CI, 0.93–1.05]. Conclusion Although on-site availability of cardiac catheterization facilities is associated with greater use of invasive cardiac procedures, non-availability of

  18. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease using myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with diabetes mellitus: analysis of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a critical disease with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. There is growing interest in how to determine high-risk patients who are candidates for screening testing. This study was performed to evaluate the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients detected by Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and to assess risk factors of CAD and cardiac hard events. 203 diabetic patients (64 male, mean age 64.1 ± 9.0 years) who underwent MPS were included between Jan 2000 and July 2004. Cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were considered as hard events, and coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery >60 days after testing were considered as soft events. The mean follow-up period was 36 ± 18 months. Patients underwent exercise (n=6) or adenosine stress (n=197) myocardial perfusion SPECT. Perfusion defects on MPS were detected in 28.6% (58/203) of the patients. There was no cardiac death but 11 hard events were observed. The annual cardiac hard event rate was 1.1%. In univariate analysis of clinical factors, typical anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were significantly associated with the occurrence of hard events. Anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, and resting ECG abnormality remained independent predictors of nonfatal MIs with multivariate analysis. Abnormal SPECT results were significantly associated with high prevalence of hard events but not independent predictors on uni- and multivariate analyses. patients who were male, had longer diabetes duration (especially over 20 years), peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, or resting ECG abnormality had higher incidence of CAD. Among clinical factors in diabetic patients, typical angina, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were strong predictors of hard events

  19. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease using myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with diabetes mellitus: analysis of risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu, (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a critical disease with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. There is growing interest in how to determine high-risk patients who are candidates for screening testing. This study was performed to evaluate the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients detected by Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and to assess risk factors of CAD and cardiac hard events. 203 diabetic patients (64 male, mean age 64.1 {+-} 9.0 years) who underwent MPS were included between Jan 2000 and July 2004. Cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were considered as hard events, and coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery >60 days after testing were considered as soft events. The mean follow-up period was 36 {+-} 18 months. Patients underwent exercise (n=6) or adenosine stress (n=197) myocardial perfusion SPECT. Perfusion defects on MPS were detected in 28.6% (58/203) of the patients. There was no cardiac death but 11 hard events were observed. The annual cardiac hard event rate was 1.1%. In univariate analysis of clinical factors, typical anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were significantly associated with the occurrence of hard events. Anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, and resting ECG abnormality remained independent predictors of nonfatal MIs with multivariate analysis. Abnormal SPECT results were significantly associated with high prevalence of hard events but not independent predictors on uni- and multivariate analyses. patients who were male, had longer diabetes duration (especially over 20 years), peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, or resting ECG abnormality had higher incidence of CAD. Among clinical factors in diabetic patients, typical angina, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were strong predictors of hard events.

  20. Non-Fatal Injury in Thailand From 2005 to 2013: Incidence Trends and Links to Alcohol Consumption Patterns in the Thai Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Wakabayashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We analyzed population-based injury trends and the association between injury and alcohol consumption patterns in Thailand, a middle-income country undergoing rapid social change. Methods: A nationwide cohort of 42 785 Thai adult Open University students, who were aged 15 to 87 years at enrolment, participated in cross-sectional assessments at baseline (2005 and 8 years later (2013. Incident non-fatal traffic and non-traffic injuries were recorded. Alcohol consumption patterns were categorized as follows: nondrinkers, occasional light drinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, regular drinkers, and ex-drinkers. Logistic regression was used to assess associations in 2005 and 2013 between injuries and alcohol consumption. We adjusted odds ratios (ORs for socio-demographic factors, stress, health behaviors, and risk-taking behaviors. Results: Incidence estimates in 2013 were standardized to the age structure of 2005: the standardized rates were 10% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.32–9.89 for participants with at least one non-traffic injury and 5% (95% CI, 4.86–5.29 for those with at least one traffic injury. Both standardized incidences for non-traffic and traffic injuries were significantly lower than corresponding rates in 2005 (20% and 6%, respectively. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with non-traffic injury in 2005, but the association disappeared in 2013. For example, nontraffic injury was associated with regular drinking (adjusted OR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.40 in 2005, but not in 2013 (adjusted OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73–1.10. In both survey years, traffic injury was not associated with occasional heavy drinking when adjusted for health and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions: We examined non-fatal injury and the health-risk transition in Thailand in 2005 and 2013. Our data revealed decreases in alcohol consumption and non-fatal injury in the Thai Cohort between 2005 and 2013. Alcoholrelated injury in Thailand today

  1. Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Heather; Myers, John; Liu, Gil; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2015-12-15

    The current study aimed to better understand trends and risk factors associated with non-fatal drowning of infants and children in the USA using two large, national databases. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample databases. The analytic sample (n=19,403) included children near-drowning/non-fatal drowning. Descriptive, χ(2) and analysis of variance techniques were applied, and incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 population. Non-fatal drowning incidence has remained relatively stable from 2006 to 2011. In general, the highest rates of non-fatal drowning occurred in swimming pools and in children from racial/ethnic minorities. However, when compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian children, children from racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to drown in natural waterways than in swimming pools. Despite the overall lower rate of non-fatal drowning among non-Hispanic Caucasian children, the highest rate of all non-fatal drowning was for non-Hispanic Caucasian children aged 0-4 years in swimming pools. Children who were admitted to inpatient facilities were younger, male and came from families with lower incomes. Data from two large US national databases show lack of progress in preventing and reducing non-fatal drowning admissions from 2006 to 2011. Discrepancies are seen in the location of drowning events and demographic characteristics. New policies and interventions are needed, and tailoring approaches by age and race/ethnicity may improve their effectiveness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction associated with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, non-narcotic analgesics and other drugs used in osteoarthritis: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Francisco J; Gil, Miguel J; García Poza, Patricia; Bryant, Verónica; Oliva, Belén; Timoner, Julia; García-Rodríguez, Luis A

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs), non-narcotic analgesics (paracetamol and metamizole), and symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) overall and in different subgroups of patients. We performed a nested case-control study using a Primary Care Database (Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria), over the study period, 2001-2007. We included patients aged 40-90 years, with nonfatal AMI and randomly selected controls matched for age, sex and calendar year. Exposure to drugs was assessed within a 30-day window before the index date. We did not find an association with nonfatal AMI in patients at low-intermediate background cardiovascular risk (odds ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.12), whereas there was a moderate significant association among those at high risk (1.28; 1.06-1.54) or when tNSAIDs were used for longer than 365 days (1.43; 1.12-1.82). The greatest risk occurred when these two conditions were combined (1.80; 1.26-2.58). The risk varied across individual tNSAIDs, with ibuprofen (0.95; 0.78-1.16) in the lower and aceclofenac (1.59; 1.15-2.19) in the upper part of the range. Low-dose aspirin did not modify the risk profile showed by any of the individual tNSAIDs examined. Paracetamol (0.84; 0.74-0.95), metamizole (1.06; 0.87-1.29) and SYSADOAs (0.68; 0.47-0.99) were not associated with an increased risk overall or in any subgroup of patients. The risk of nonfatal AMI varied with individual tNSAIDs, duration of treatment and background cardiovascular risk. Paracetamol, metamizole and SYSADOAs did not increase the risk in any of the conditions examined. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Myocardial Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Cardiac Events in Patients without Typical Symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smanio, Paola Emanuela Poggio, E-mail: pgmsmanio@gmail.com; Silva, Juliana Horie; Holtz, João Vitor; Ueda, Leandro; Abreu, Marilia; Marques, Carlindo; Machado, Leonardo [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP - Brazil Mailing (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the world and in Brazil. Myocardial scintigraphy is an important noninvasive method for detecting ischemia in symptomatic patients, but its use in asymptomatic ones or those with atypical symptoms is yet to be defined. To verify the presence of major cardiac events in asymptomatic patients or those with atypical symptoms (atypical chest pain or dyspnea) that underwent myocardial scintigraphy (MS), over a period of 8 years. Secondary objectives were to identify cardiac risk factors associated with myocardial scintigraphy abnormalities and possible predictors for major cardiac events in this group. This was a retrospective, observational study using the medical records of 892 patients that underwent myocardial scintigraphy between 2005 and 2011 and who were followed until 2013 for assessment of major cardiac events and risk factors associated with myocardial scintigraphy abnormalities. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test, logistic regression and Kaplan-Meyer survival curves, with statistical significance being set at p ≤ 0.05. Of the total sample, 52.1% were men, 86.9% were hypertensive, 72.4% had hyperlipidemia, 33.6% were diabetic, and 12.2% were smokers; 44.5% had known coronary artery disease; and 70% had high Framingham score, 21.8% had moderate and 8% had low risk. Of the myocardial scintigraphies, 58.6% were normal, 26.1% suggestive of fibrosis and 15.3% suggestive of ischemia. At evolution, 13 patients (1.5%) had non-fatal myocardial infarction and six individuals (0.7%) died. The group with normal myocardial scintigraphy showed longer period of time free of major cardiac events, non-fatal myocardial infarction (p = 0.036) and death. Fibrosis in the myocardial scintigraphy determined a 2.4-fold increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction and five-fold higher risk of death (odds ratio: 2.4 and 5.7, respectively; p = 0.043). The occurrence of major cardiac events in 8 years

  4. Population based estimates of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Mafi, Mostafa; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi

    2011-07-31

    Fatal injuries are at the top of the injury pyramid; however, non-fatal injuries are quite common and impose huge medical expenses on the population. Relying on hospital data will underestimate the incidence of non-fatal injuries. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual incidence and out of pocket medical expenses of all injuries in urban population of Tehran (the capital city of Iran). Using the cluster random sampling approach, a household survey of residents of greater Tehran was performed on April 2008. At randomly selected residential locations, interviewers asked one adult person to report all injuries which have occurred during the past year for all household members, as well as the type of injury, place of occurrence, the activity, cause of accidents resulting in injuries, the amount of out of pocket medical expenses for injury, and whether they referred to hospital. This study included 2,450 households residing in Tehran during 2007-8. The annual incidence of all injuries was 188.7 (180.7-196.9), significant injuries needing any medical care was 68.8 (63.7-74.2), fractures was 19.3 (16.6 - 22.4), and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 16.7 (14.2 - 19.6) per 1000 population. The annual incidence of fatal injuries was 33 (7-96) per 100,000 Population. In children aged 15 or less, the annual incidence of all injuries was 137.2 (120.0 - 155.9), significant injuries needing any medical care was 64.2 (52.2 - 78.0), fractures was 21.8 (15.0 - 30.7), and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 6.8 (3.3 - 12.5) per 1000 population. The mean out of pocket medical expense for injuries was 19.9 USD. This population based study showed that the real incidence of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran is more than the formal hospital-based estimates. These injuries impose non trivial medical and indirect cost on the community. The out of pocket medical expense of non-fatal injuries to Tehran population is estimated as 27 million USD per year. Effective

  5. Spousal depression, anxiety, and suicide after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Weeke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    or non-fatal AMI. Married patients with fatal or non-fatal AMI (1997-2008) were matched with their counterparts dying or hospitalized with a non-AMI cause; incident use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, incident depression care, and suicides were compared pre- and post-event using Poisson models...... and benzodiazepine initiation (IRR 1.5 vs. 1.1, and 6.7 vs. 1.3, respectively, Pdepression and suicide. Male individuals whose spouse had a fatal or non-fatal AMI had a relatively higher increased risk of depression than female individuals...

  6. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Sattar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, baseline inflammatory markers in up to 5,680 men and women aged 70-82 y were related to risk for endpoints; nonfatal CVD (i.e., nonfatal MI and nonfatal stroke [n = 672], fatal CVD (n = 190, death from other CV causes (n = 38, and non-CVD mortality (n = 300, over 3.2-y follow-up. Elevations in baseline IL-6 levels were significantly (p = 0.0009; competing risks model analysis more strongly associated with fatal CVD (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 log unit increase in IL-6 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.12 than with risk of nonfatal CVD (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, in analyses adjusted for treatment allocation. The findings were consistent in a fully adjusted model. These broad trends were similar for CRP and, to a lesser extent, for fibrinogen. The results were also similar in placebo and statin recipients (i.e., no interaction. The C-statistic for fatal CVD using traditional risk factors was significantly (+0.017; p<0.0001 improved by inclusion of IL-6 but not so for nonfatal CVD events (p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In PROSPER, inflammatory markers, in particular IL-6 and CRP, are more strongly associated with risk of fatal vascular events than nonfatal vascular events. These novel observations may have important implications for better understanding aetiology of CVD mortality, and have potential clinical relevance.

  7. Incidence of myocardial infarction in the Danish MONICA population 1982-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, M; Davidsen, M; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular mortality has been declining in Denmark over the past 20 years. Trends in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) over the period 1982-1991 are described within the framework of the World Health Organization MONICA Project. METHODS: The DAN-MONICA heart register included...

  8. [Incidence of myocardial infarction in Hungary. Population study in five districts of Budapest and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánosi, András; Ofner, Péter; Branyickiné Géczy, Gabriella; Polgár, Péter

    2013-07-14

    In the last few decades data on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction are not available in Hungary. The aim of the authors was to define the incidence of myocardial infarction using the Hungarian Infarction Registry according to the number of in- and out-of-hospital cases in five districts of the capital (districts II, III, IX, X and XVII) and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county. Besides using the Hungarian Infarction Registry, databases of the National Public Health and Medical Officer Service and that of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office were used in order to define the incidence of prehospital cases, according to the regulations presented in an earlier proposal of the Data Protection Ombudsman of Hungary. For 10 000 residents the incidence of myocardial infarction in the capital was 28.63 in males and 16.21 in females, while in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county the mean incidence was 32.49 for males and 18.59 for females. The mean incidence of myocardial infarction in the five districts of the capital in males and females did not differ from the mean values of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county. When comparing the incidence values in different districts of the capital to the countryside, the Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county had significantly higher values for both males and females compared to districts II and III of the capital, while in district X the incidence of myocardial infarction in males was significantly lower compared to the values in the countryside. Using the mean incidence results projected to the capital and countryside population according to age and gender, 20 000 new myocardial infarction cases might be expected per year in Hungary.

  9. Nonfatal Injuries to Law Enforcement Officers: A Rise in Assaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Gwilliam, Melody; Konda, Srinivas; Rojek, Jeff; Marsh, Suzanne

    2018-04-01

    Limited studies exist that describe nonfatal work-related injuries to law enforcement officers. The aim of this study is to provide national estimates and trends of nonfatal injuries to law enforcement officers from 2003 through 2014. Nonfatal injuries were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement. Data were obtained for injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments from 2003 to 2014. Nonfatal injury rates were calculated using denominators from the Current Population Survey. Negative binomial regression was used to analyze temporal trends. Data were analyzed in 2016-2017. Between 2003 and 2014, an estimated 669,100 law enforcement officers were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal injuries. The overall rate of 635 per 10,000 full-time equivalents was three times higher than all other U.S. workers rate (213 per 10,000 full-time equivalents). The three leading injury events were assaults and violent acts (35%), bodily reactions and exertion (15%), and transportation incidents (14%). Injury rates were highest for the youngest officers, aged 21-24 years. Male and female law enforcement officers had similar nonfatal injury rates. Rates for most injuries remained stable; however, rates for assault-related injuries grew among law enforcement officers between 2003 and 2011. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement data demonstrate a significant upward trend in assault injuries among U.S. law enforcement officers and this warrants further investigation. Police-citizen interactions are dynamic social encounters and evidence-based policing is vital to the health and safety of both police and civilians. The law enforcement community should energize efforts toward the study of how policing tactics impact both officer and citizen injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Myocardial Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Cardiac Events in Patients without Typical Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Emanuela Poggio Smanio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the world and in Brazil. Myocardial scintigraphy is an important noninvasive method for detecting ischemia in symptomatic patients, but its use in asymptomatic ones or those with atypical symptoms is yet to be defined. Objective: To verify the presence of major cardiac events in asymptomatic patients or those with atypical symptoms (atypical chest pain or dyspnea that underwent myocardial scintigraphy (MS, over a period of 8 years. Secondary objectives were to identify cardiac risk factors associated with myocardial scintigraphy abnormalities and possible predictors for major cardiac events in this group. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study using the medical records of 892 patients that underwent myocardial scintigraphy between 2005 and 2011 and who were followed until 2013 for assessment of major cardiac events and risk factors associated with myocardial scintigraphy abnormalities. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test, logistic regression and Kaplan-Meyer survival curves, with statistical significance being set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Of the total sample, 52.1% were men, 86.9% were hypertensive, 72.4% had hyperlipidemia, 33.6% were diabetic, and 12.2% were smokers; 44.5% had known coronary artery disease; and 70% had high Framingham score, 21.8% had moderate and 8% had low risk. Of the myocardial scintigraphies, 58.6% were normal, 26.1% suggestive of fibrosis and 15.3% suggestive of ischemia. At evolution, 13 patients (1.5% had non-fatal myocardial infarction and six individuals (0.7% died. The group with normal myocardial scintigraphy showed longer period of time free of major cardiac events, non-fatal myocardial infarction (p = 0.036 and death. Fibrosis in the myocardial scintigraphy determined a 2.4-fold increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction and five-fold higher risk of death (odds ratio: 2.4 and 5.7, respectively; p = 0

  11. Risk of incident cardiovascular events amongst individuals with anxiety and depression:A prospective cohort study in the east London primary care database

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, R.; Pérez-Pinar, M.; Foguet-Boreu, Q.; Ayis, S.; Ayerbe, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown how risk of myocardial infarction and stroke differ for patients with and without anxiety or depression, and whether this risk can be explained by demographics, medication use, cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study is to quantify differences in risk of non-fatal MI or stroke among patients with anxiety or depression. Methods Prospective cohort study examining risk of incident MI and stroke between March 2005 and March 2015 for 524,952 patients aged 30 and...

  12. Nonfatal road traffic injuries: can road safety campaigns prevent hazardous behavior? An Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, R; Messina, G; Quercioli, C; Vencia, F; Genco, L; Di Bartolomeo, L; Nante, N

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a widespread problem and are very difficult to prevent. The purpose of this study was to verify whether intensive versus basic road safety education programs are associated with different incidence and severity of nonfatal road injuries. The study had an ecological design and involved Local Health Authority One (LHA1) in Salerno, Italy, which includes 20 municipalities. Data on nonfatal road injuries occurring in the periods June to August 2003 and June to August 2008 were obtained from trained operators through the information system of the emergency department. All 20 municipalities received a basic community road safety education program (publicity campaign using bill-posting, brochures, mass media communication with press conferences, articles in local papers, radio and television interviews, and a dedicated LHA1 web site), and 12 municipalities also received an intensive education campaign (in secondary schools, community conferences, and activities organized by police and firefighters). The incidence and severity of nonfatal road traffic injuries were compared between June to August 2003 (before the campaign) and June to August 2008. The total number of injuries in all 20 municipalities in 2003 and 2008 was 907 and 755, respectively. The incidence of injuries decreased in the study period both in the 8 municipalities where only the basic campaign was run (difference in incidence = -0.4; P = .053) and in the 12 municipalities where the intensive campaign was implemented (difference in incidence = -0.5; P road safety education. This does not mean that such campaigns are useless (they are important to raise awareness) but that they should be supplemented with complementary activities in order to be really effective.

  13. Prognostic value of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with unstable angina who respond to medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Although the prognostic value of thallium-201 imaging is well established, its ability to risk stratify patients who present with unstable angina is unclear. Fifty-two consecutive patients admitted with unstable angina who responded to medical treatment and underwent stress thallium-201 imaging within 1 week of discharge were studied. Patients were followed up for 39 +/- 11 months. Cardiac events included cardiac death (n = 3), nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 4) and admission for unstable angina or revascularization (n = 17). The ability of thallium-201 data (redistribution, fixed defects, normal) to predict cardiac events was compared with clinical data (age, gender, prior myocardial infarction, anginal syndrome, rest and stress electrocardiogram) and cardiac catheterization data using logistic regression. Thallium-201 redistribution was the only significant predictor of cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (p less than 0.05). The number of myocardial segments with thallium-201 redistribution (p less than 0.0005) and a history of prior myocardial infarction (p less than 0.05) were the only significant predictors of all cardiac events. Cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred more frequently in patients with thallium-201 redistribution (6 [26%] of 23) than in those without redistribution (1 [3%] of 29, p less than 0.05). Similarly, total cardiac events developed more frequently in patients with thallium-201 redistribution (p less than 0.001). Stress thallium-201 imaging has important prognostic value in patients admitted with unstable angina who respond to medical therapy and can identify subgroups at high versus low risk for future cardiac events

  14. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an official...

  15. The contribution of job characteristics to socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Martijn; Van Lenthe, Frank; Avendano, Mauricio; Mackenbach, Johan

    The current study estimated the contribution of job characteristics to socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) during a 12-year follow-up period. Data were from the working population (aged 25-64 years) in the Netherlands longitudinal GLOBE study (N = 5757).

  16. 21 CFR 131.206 - Nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat yogurt. 131.206 Section 131.206 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.206 Nonfat yogurt. (a) Description. Nonfat yogurt is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy ingredients...

  17. Incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction following stent implantation: Comparison between first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandjung, Kenneth; Basalus, Mounir W.Z.; Muurman, Esther; Louwerenburg, Hans W.; van Houwelingen, Gert K.; Stoel, Martin G.; de Man, Frits H.A.F.; Jansen, Hanneke; Huisman, Jennifer; Linssen, Gerard C.M.; Droste, Herman T.; Nienhuis, Mark B.; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Background: First- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) differ in coating materials, which may influence the incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI). Objective: To compare the incidence of PMI between first- and second-generation DES, using the current Academic Research

  18. Haemodynamic patterns in ST-elevation myocardial infarction : incidence and correlates of elevated filling pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, A.; Svilaas, T.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; van den Heuvel, A. F. M.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijlstra, F.

    Objectives. We sought to study the incidence and clinical correlates of elevated filling pressures in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, without physical signs of heart failure and treated with primary coronary angioplasty. Background. Haemodynamic data, as measured with a

  19. Cardiovascular outcomes after pharmacologic stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Douglas S; Husain, Mansoor; Wang, Xuesong; Austin, Peter C; Iwanochko, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    While pharmacologic stress single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) is used for noninvasive evaluation of patients who are unable to perform treadmill exercise, its impact on net reclassification improvement (NRI) of prognosis is unknown. We evaluated the prognostic value of pharmacologic stress MPI for prediction of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) within 1 year at a single-center, university-based laboratory. We examined continuous and categorical NRI of pharmacologic SPECT-MPI for prediction of outcomes beyond clinical factors alone. Six thousand two hundred forty patients (median age 66 years [IQR 56-74], 3466 men) were studied and followed for 5963 person-years. SPECT-MPI variables associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death or non-fatal MI included summed stress score, stress ST-shift, and post-stress resting left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50%. Compared to a clinical model which included age, sex, cardiovascular disease, risk factors, and medications, model χ(2) (210.5 vs. 281.9, P statistic (0.74 vs. 0.78, P stress score, stress ST-shift and stress resting left ventricular ejection fraction). SPECT-MPI predictors increased continuous NRI by 49.4% (P 3% annualized risk of cardiovascular death or non-fatal MI, yielded a 15.0% improvement in NRI (95% CI 7.6%-27.6%, P stress MPI substantially improved net reclassification of cardiovascular death or MI risk beyond that afforded by clinical factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic impact of alkaline phosphatase measured at time of presentation in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyung Chun Oh

    Full Text Available Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP has been shown to be a prognostic factor in several subgroups of patients due to its promotion of vascular calcification. However, the prognostic impact of serum ALP level in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI patients with a relatively low calcification burden has not been determined. We aimed to investigate the association of ALP level measured at time of presentation on clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI.A total of 1178 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry and classified into tertiles by ALP level (83 IU/L. The primary study outcome was a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE, defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization.Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10-39 months. The incidence of MACCE significantly increased as ALP level increased, that is, for the 83 IU/L tertiles incidences were 8.7%, 11.7%, and 15.7%, respectively; p for trend = 0.003. After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for MACCE in the middle and highest tertiles were 1.69 (95% CI 1.01-2.81 and 2.46 (95% CI 1.48-4.09, respectively, as compared with the lowest ALP tertile.Elevated ALP level at presentation, but within the higher limit of normal, was found to be independently associated with higher risk of MACCE after primary PCI in patients with STEMI.

  1. 7 CFR 58.716 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.716 Section 58.716 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.716 Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk used in cheese products should meet the requirements...

  2.  Effect of Thrombolytic Therapy on the Incidence of Early Left Ventricular Infarct Expansion in Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namir Ghanim Al-Tawil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To determine the incidence of early left ventricular infarct expansion within five days after first anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and the effect of early thrombolytic therapy on the incidence of early infarct expansion compared with late thrombolytic therapy.Methods: In a prospective study of 101 patients (75males and 26 females, with the first attack of acute anterior myocardial infarction, their ages ranged from 40-80 years (mean age: 61.07±10.78 who had been admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of Hawler Teaching Hospital for the period from July 2007 through to September 2009. Those who received alteplase ≤3 hours of acute myocardial infarction were labelled as group-I (49 patients and those who received alteplase >3-12 hours were labelled as group-II (52 patients.Results: The incidence of early left ventricular infarct expansion was diagnosed by 2D-echocardiography and was found to be 17.8�20Group I patients had a lower incidence of early left ventricular infarct expansion (8.16�20compared with group-II (26.92�20 p=0.014. Patients with early left ventricular infarct expansion had a higher frequency rate of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (94.44�20compared to patients without early left ventricular infarct expansion (8.43�20p<0.001. There was a significant difference in the incidence of in-hospital mortality between the patients who developed early left ventricular infarct expansion (11.1�20compared with patients without early left ventricular infarct expansion (1.2�20p=0.025.Conclusion: Early reperfusion therapy in acute anterior myocardial infarction can decrease the incidence of early left ventricular infarct expansion, preserve left ventricular systolic function and decrease in-hospital mortality.

  3. The incidence and prognostic significance of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a CARISMA substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jons, Christian; Jacobsen, Uffe G; Joergensen, Rikke Moerch

    2011-01-01

    The incidence and risk associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) occurring after discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains unknown.......The incidence and risk associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) occurring after discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains unknown....

  4. Repeat non-fatal suicidal behaviour at Johannesburg Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M YH Moosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the characteristics of non-fatal suicide behaviour (NFSB in a group of patients and to determine factors, if any, that may be associated with repetition of this behaviour. Method. The study included all patients treated for NFSB at Johannesburg Hospital during the period August 2002 - October 2002. The information was gathered by means of a structured questionnaire designed to evaluate characteristics of the behaviour. Results. The study sample comprised 43 patients with NFSB (mean age 29.7 years, range of 16 - 75 years, of whom 26 (60% were female. Sixty-three per cent of the patients overdosed with medication and 33% ingested household poisons. Events that precipitated the event included relationship problems (70%, illness (12%, financial difficulties (9%, and depressed mood (9%. In 65% of patients the behaviour was impulsive. Factors associated with non-fatal repetition included being in the 18 - 30-year age group (76% (χ2 = 6.74, p < 0.05; being female (90% (χ2 = 4.75, p < 0.05; having children (90% (χ2 = 4.72, p < 0.05; a past psychiatric history (50% (χ2 = 4.08, p < 0.05; and the current attempt deemed medically serious (50% (χ2 = 6.67, p < 0.05. Conclusions. NFSB is a major problem in South Africa and the incidence is still increasing. Hospital-based interventions following admission are recommended to reduce repeat attempts in such patients. Significant factors associated with non-fatal repetition include among others, a history of a previous medically serious attempt and/or a known psychiatric illness.

  5. 7 CFR 58.522 - Reconstituting nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconstituting nonfat dry milk. 58.522 Section 58.522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.522 Reconstituting nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk shall be reconstituted in a sanitary...

  6. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  7. 7 CFR 58.249 - Instant nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instant nonfat dry milk. 58.249 Section 58.249... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.249 Instant nonfat dry milk. (a) Only instant nonfat dry milk manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of this part and with the applicable...

  8. Effect of Definition on Incidence and Prognosis of Type 2 Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestelberger, Thomas; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Badertscher, Patrick; Twerenbold, Raphael; Wildi, Karin; Breitenbücher, Dominik; Sabti, Zaid; Puelacher, Christian; Rubini Giménez, Maria; Kozhuharov, Nikola; Strebel, Ivo; Sazgary, Lorraine; Schneider, Deborah; Jann, Janina; du Fay de Lavallaz, Jeanne; Miró, Òscar; Martin-Sanchez, F Javier; Morawiec, Beata; Kawecki, Damian; Muzyk, Piotr; Keller, Dagmar I; Geigy, Nicolas; Osswald, Stefan; Reichlin, Tobias; Mueller, Christian

    2017-09-26

    Uncertainties regarding the most appropriate definition and treatment of type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) due to supply-demand mismatch have contributed to inconsistent adoption in clinical practice. This study sought a better understanding of the effect of the definition of T2MI on its incidence, treatment, and event-related mortality, thereby addressing an important unmet clinical need. The final diagnosis was adjudicated in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction by 2 independent cardiologists by 2 methods: 1 method required the presence of coronary artery disease, a common interpretation of the 2007 universal definition (T2MI 2007 ); and 1 method did not require coronary artery disease, the 2012 universal definition (T2MI 2012 ). Overall, 4,015 consecutive patients were adjudicated. The incidence of T2MI based on the T2MI 2007 definition was 2.8% (n = 112). The application of the more liberal T2MI 2012 definition resulted in an increase of T2MI incidence of 6% (n = 240), a relative increase of 114% (128 reclassified patients, defined as T2MI 2012reclassified ). Among T2MI 2007 , 6.3% of patients received coronary revascularization, 22% dual-antiplatelet therapy, and 71% high-dose statin therapy versus 0.8%, 1.6%, and 31% among T2MI 2012reclassified patients, respectively (all p < 0.01). Cardiovascular mortality at 90 days was 0% among T2MI 2012reclassified , which was similar to patients with noncardiac causes of chest discomfort (0.2%), and lower than T2MI 2007 (3.6%) and type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI) (4.8%) (T2MI 2012reclassified vs. T2MI 2007 and T1MI: p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). T2MI 2012reclassified has a substantially lower event-related mortality rate compared with T2MI 2007 and T1MI. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE] Study; NCT00470587). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A

  10. Incidence of myocardial infarction with shifts to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddou, Monica R; Pica, Mark; Boura, Judy; Qu, Lihua; Franklin, Barry A

    2013-03-01

    Modulators of normal bodily functions such as the duration and quality of sleep might transiently influence cardiovascular risk. The transition to daylight savings time (DST) has been associated with a short-term increased incidence ratio (IR) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present retrospective study examined the IR of AMIs that presented to our hospitals the week after DST and after the autumn switch to standard time, October 2006 to April 2012, with specific reference to the AMI type. Our study population (n = 935 patients; 59% men, 41% women) was obtained from the electronic medical records of the Royal Oak and Troy campuses of the Beaumont Hospitals in Michigan. Overall, the frequency of AMI was similar in the spring and autumn, 463 (49.5%) and 472 (50.5%), respectively. The IR for the first week after the spring shift was 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.36). After the transition from DST in the autumn, the IR for the same period was lower, but not significantly different, 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.16). Nevertheless, the greatest increase in AMI occurred on the first day (Sunday) after the spring shift to DST (1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.02; p <0.05). Also, a significantly greater incidence was found of non-ST-segment myocardial infarction after the transition to DST in the study group compared with that in the control group (p = 0.022). In conclusion, these data suggest that shifts to and from DST might transiently affect the incidence and type of acute cardiac events, albeit modestly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A. M.; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based

  12. Prognostic value of normal stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging: a comparison between conventional and CZT-based SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shu; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Timmer, Jorik R. [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mouden, Mohamed; Engbers, Elsemiek [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging has proven to have prognostic importance in patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The recently introduced ultrafast cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based gamma cameras have been associated with less equivocal findings and more normal interpretations, allowing stress-only imaging to be performed more often. However, it is yet unclear whether normal stress-only CZT SPECT has comparable prognostic value as normally interpreted stress-only conventional SPECT. The study population consisted of 1,650 consecutive patients without known CAD with normal stress-only myocardial perfusion results with either conventional (n = 362) or CZT SPECT (n = 1,288). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization) was compared between the conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT groups. Multivariable analyses using the Cox model were used to adjust for differences in baseline variables. Patients scanned with CZT were less often male (33 vs 39 %), had less often hypercholesterolaemia (41 vs 50 %) and had more often a family history of CAD (57 vs 49 %). At a median follow-up time of 37 months (interquartile range 28-45 months) MACE occurred in 68 patients. The incidence of MACE was 1.5 %/year in the CZT group, compared to 2.0 %/year in the conventional group (p = 0.08). After multivariate analyses, there was a trend to a lower incidence of MACE in the CZT SPECT group (hazard ratio 0.61, 95 % confidence interval 0.35-1.04, p = 0.07). The prognostic value of normal stress-only CZT SPECT is at least comparable and may be even better than that of normal conventional stress SPECT. (orig.)

  13. An electronic health records cohort study on heart failure following myocardial infarction in England : Incidence and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gho, Johannes M.I.H.; Schmidt, Amand F.; Pasea, Laura; Koudstaal, Stefan; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Denaxas, Spiros; Shah, Anoop D.; Patel, Riyaz S.; Gale, Chris P.; Hoes, Arno W.; Cleland, John G.; Hemingway, Harry; Asselbergs, Folkert W.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the incidence and determinants of heart failure (HF) following a myocardial infarction (MI) in a contemporary cohort of patients with MI using routinely collected primary and hospital care electronic health records (EHRs). Methods: Data were used from the CALIBER

  14. Trends in incidence, case-fatality and recurrence of myocardial infarction in the Danish MONICA population 1982-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, M; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Jørgensen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing awareness of risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI), continuous mass campaigns on lifestyle factors, increasing use of heart rehabilitation and improved treatment should imply decreases in the incidence, case-fatality and recurrence rates of MI. The purpose of the study...

  15. Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults With Blood Pressure Hg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Booth, John N; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Howard, George; Lackland, Daniel T; O'Brien, Emily C; Oparil, Suzanne; Ravenell, Joseph; Safford, Monika M; Seals, Samantha R; Shimbo, Daichi; Shea, Steven; Spruill, Tanya M; Tanner, Rikki M; Muntner, Paul

    2017-08-29

    Data from before the 2000s indicate that the majority of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occur among US adults with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Over the past several decades, BP has declined and hypertension control has improved. We estimated the percentage of incident CVD events that occur at SBP/DBP Hg in a pooled analysis of 3 contemporary US cohorts: the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) (n=31 856; REGARDS=21 208; MESA=6779; JHS=3869). Baseline study visits were conducted in 2003 to 2007 for REGARDS, 2000 to 2002 for MESA, and 2000 to 2004 for JHS. BP was measured by trained staff using standardized methods. Antihypertensive medication use was self-reported. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined by the first occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, or heart failure. Events were adjudicated in each study. Over a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, 2584 participants had incident CVD events. Overall, 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.9-71.1) of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg; 58.4% (95% CI, 47.7-69.2) and 68.1% (95% CI, 60.1-76.0) among those taking and not taking antihypertensive medication, respectively. The majority of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg among those Hg, 76.6% (95% CI, 75.8-77.5) were eligible for statin treatment, but only 33.2% (95% CI, 32.1-34.3) were taking one, and 19.5% (95% CI, 18.5-20.5) met the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) eligibility criteria and may benefit from a SBP target goal of 120 mm Hg. Although higher BP levels are associated with increased CVD risk, in the modern era, the majority of incident CVD events occur in US adults with SBP/DBP Hg. While absolute risk and cost-effectiveness should be considered, additional CVD risk

  16. Clinical significance of normal exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in subjects with abnormal exercise electrocardiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Chiba, Hiroshi; Mitani, Isao; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic findings and clinical features (chest pain, risk factors, resting electrocardiography, exercise electrocardiography and prognosis) was studied in the 234 patients with profound ST-segment depression (J 80 ≥ -2 mm) or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. We classified these cases into two groups by exercise thallium perfusion; (I) normal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 24), (II) abnormal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 210). The incidence of female in group I was larger than that in group II. In resting electrocardiography, left ventricular hypertrophy was found more frequent in group I. In exercise electrocardiography, most of ST-segment depression in group I revealed up-slope type and a rapid recovery to baseline. Group I had lower incidence of cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting). In conclusion, normal thallium-201 perfusion in exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy was more useful indicator for prognosis, even if the patients had the findings of profound ST-segment depression or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a...

  18. Incident diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in exercising hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Franklin, Barry A

    2015-11-15

    Exercise may be an important treatment for hypercholesterolemic patients, particularly in statin users who are at increased diabetes risk. We therefore used Cox proportional hazard analyses to compare running and walking dose (metabolic equivalent hours/day [MET-h/d]) to diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in hypercholesterolemic patients. There were 60 diabetic- and 373 CVD-related deaths during a 10.1-year mortality surveillance of 6,688 hypercholesterolemic patients. In addition, there were 177 incident nonfatal diabetes, 815 incident nonfatal hypertensions, and 323 incident nonfatal CVD events during a 6.4-year follow-up of 6,971 hypercholesterolemic patients who supplied follow-up questionnaires. Fatal and nonfatal diabetes risk decreased 26% (p = 0.002) and 19% (p ≤0.0001) per MET-h/d, respectively, and relative to hypertension risk decreased 4% (p = 0.01) per MET-h/d, and relative to diabetes, hypertension, and CVD risk in hypercholesterolemic patients and should more than compensate for the purported 9% increase in diabetes risk from statin use. By preventing morbidity and mortality for a specific existing medical condition, some exercise expenses may qualify for flexible spending account expenditures in hypercholesterolemic patients when prescribed by a physician. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Non-fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Said, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Bin Aziz; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed data on non-fatal occupational injuries reported to Malaysia's social security organization from 2002 to 2006. There was a decrease in both the absolute number and the incidence rates of these injuries over time. About 40% of cases occurred in the manufacturing sector followed by the service (17%) and trading (17%) sectors. The agriculture sector reported the highest incidence rate (24.1/1,000), followed by the manufacturing sector subcategories of wood-product manufacturing (22.1/1,000) and non-metallic industries (20.8/1,000). Men age 40 to 59 and persons of Indian ethnicity had a greater tendency to sustain injuries. Government and non-governmental organizations should strive to develop strategies to reduce the occupational injuries targeting vulnerable groups. Enforcement of safety measures will further play an important role to ensure that both employees and employers take special precautions to address workplace hazards.

  20. Socioeconomic status predicts second cardiovascular event in 29,226 survivors of a first myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Joel; Skoglund, Per H; Discacciati, Andrea; Sundström, Johan; Hambraeus, Kristina; Jernberg, Tomas; Svensson, Per

    2018-01-01

    Background Risk assessment post-myocardial infarction needs improvement, and risk factors derived from general populations apply differently in secondary prevention. The prediction of subsequent cardiovascular events post-myocardial infarction by socioeconomic status has previously been poorly studied. Design Swedish nationwide cohort study. Methods A total of 29,226 men and women (27%), 40-76 years of age, registered at the standardised one year revisit after a first myocardial infarction in the secondary prevention quality registry of SWEDEHEART 2006-2014. Personal-level data on socioeconomic status measured by disposable income and educational level, marital status, and the primary endpoint, first recurrent event of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, defined as non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease death or fatal or non-fatal stroke were obtained from linked national registries. Results During the mean 4.1-year follow-up, 2284 (7.8%) first recurrent manifestations of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease occurred. Both socioeconomic status indicators and marital status were associated with the primary endpoint in multivariable Cox regression models. In a comprehensively adjusted model, including secondary preventive treatment, the hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest quintile of disposable income was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.62-0.83). The association between disposable income and first recurrent manifestation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was stronger in men as was the risk associated with being unmarried (tests for interaction P < 0.05). Conclusions Among one year survivors of a first myocardial infarction, first recurrent manifestation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was predicted by disposable income, level of education and marital status. The association between disposable income and first recurrent manifestation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was independent of secondary preventive

  1. [Influence of weather in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Galicia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, José Manuel; Dosil Díaz, Olga; Taboada Hidalgo, Juan José; Fernández, José Ramón; Sánchez-Santos, Luis

    2015-08-07

    To assess the interactions between weather and the impact of each individual meteorological parameters in the incidence of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in Galicia. Retrospective study analyzing the number of AMI diagnosed and transferred to the hospital by the Emergencies Sanitary System of Galicia between 2002 and 2009. We included patients with clinical and ECG findings of AMI. The correlation between 10-minute meteorological variables (temperature, humidity, pressure, accumulated rainfall and wind speed) recorded by MeteoGalicia and the incidence of AMI was assessed. A total of 4,717 AMI were registered (72.8% men, 27.2% women). No seasonal variations were found. No significant correlations were detected with regard to average daily temperature (P=.683) or wind speed (P=.895). Correlation between atmospheric pressure and incidence of AMI was significant (P<.005), as well as with the daily relative humidity average (P=.005). Our study showed a statistical significant association with atmospheric pressure and with the daily relative humidity average. Since the local conditions of weather are widely variable, future studies should establish the relationship between weather patterns (including combinations of meteorological parameters), rather than seasonal variations, and the incidence of AMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonfatal and Fatal Self-Harm Injuries among Children Aged 10-14 Years--United States and Oregon, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajani, Madhavi; Annest, Joseph L.; Crosby, Alex E.; Alexander, Janice D.; Millet, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries due to suicidal behavior among younger adolescents are of growing concern for many communities. We examined the incidence and patterns of these injuries among persons aged 10-14 years using three databases, two national and a third from Oregon. Suffocation and firearm gunshot were the leading external causes of suicide;…

  3. A review of clinical trials in dietary interventions to decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miettinen Tatu A

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Of the associations between dietary elements and coronary artery disease (CAD, the greatest body of evidence deals with the beneficial effect of reducing the dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Furthermore, it is well established, on the basis of convincing evidence, that reduction in serum total cholesterol results in reduction in coronary morbidity and mortality, as well as in regression of other atherosclerotic manifestations.In fact, dietary intervention studies revealed that it is possible to reduce the incidence of coronary death and nonfatal myocardial infarction, as well as manifestations of atherosclerosis in cerebral and peripheral arteries, by reducing dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol. In two recently reported dietary interventions the incidence of coronary events, especially coronary mortality, and total mortality were reduced by increased intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and by a modification of the diet toward a Mediterranean-type diet (rich in α-linolenic acid. In addition to those findings, the potential efficacy of the dietary newcomers phytostanol and phytosterol esters on reducing coronary incidence is discussed in the present review.

  4. Incidence and predictors of cardiovascular events in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Morais Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An excess in cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality has been recognized in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA patients when compared to the general population. Given the paucity of prospective data, our aim was to estimate the incidence of CV events and the contribution of traditional CVD risk factors and RA-related parameters to future events. Methods: Incident fatal and non-fatal CV events (hospitalizations due to unstable angina, myocardial infarction, coronary artery revascularization procedures, stroke, or CV death were assessed in a prospective cohort of RA women followed since 2007 and without CV events at cohort entry. The presence of traditional CV risk factors, disease characteristics, medication, carotid ultrasound, and biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation were evaluated at baseline. Univariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify risk factors for CV events. Results: Among 106 women followed over 565 patient-years we identified 4 CV events (1 fatal stroke, 2 myocardial infarction and 1 unstable angina, which contributed to an incidence rate of 7 per 1000 person-years (95%CI 2.0- 13.9. Patients who developed CV events were older, but the distribution of other traditional CV risk factors was otherwise similar in both groups. Also, corticosteroid dosage and proportion of patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaques was higher in those with CV events. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (HR 1.036; 95%CI 1.005-1.067 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 serum levels (HR 1.002; 95%CI 1.000-1.003 significantly contributed to CV events. These results remained significant after adjusting for patients’ age. Conclusion: We found an incidence of cardiovascular events in women with RA of 7 per 1000 patent-years. This value is similar to that found in other Portuguese cohort of RA patients1 and much higher than the incidence reported for the general Portuguese population. Markers of

  5. Incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with either heart failure or acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Pedersen, Ole D; Køber, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We examined the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Patients either had a recent myocardial infarction (with or without clinical heart failure) or symptomatic heart failure (without a recent MI). Patients were with and without treatment...

  6. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A T; Lidegaard, O; Kreiner, S

    1997-01-01

    haemorrhage, 846 thromboembolic infarction, 321 transient ischaemic attack) and 3171 controls. FINDINGS: After adjustment for confounding variables and correction for the trend in sales of HRT preparations, no significant associations were detected between current use of unopposed oestrogen replacement...... influence on the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (1.22 [0.79-1.89]), intracerebral haemorrhage (1.17 [0.64-2.13]), or thromboembolic infarction (1.17 [0.92-1.47]). A significantly increased incidence of transient ischaemic attacks among former users of HRT and among current users of unopposed oestrogen may...... to some extent be explained by selection--HRT users being more aware of symptoms than non-users. INTERPRETATION: Unopposed oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen replacement therapy have no influence on the risk of non-fatal thromboembolic or haemorrhagic stroke in women aged 45-64 years....

  8. Genetic Variants from Lipid-Related Pathways and Risk for Incident Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ci; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Watkins, Hugh; Hamsten, Anders; Prince, Jonathan A.; Ingelsson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background Circulating lipids levels, as well as several familial lipid metabolism disorders, are strongly associated with initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives We hypothesized that genetic variants associated with circulating lipid levels would also be associated with MI incidence, and have tested this in three independent samples. Setting and Subjects Using age- and sex-adjusted additive genetic models, we analyzed 554 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 41 candidate gene regions proposed to be involved in lipid-related pathways potentially predisposing to incidence of MI in 2,602 participants of the Swedish Twin Register (STR; 57% women). All associations with nominal P<0.01 were further investigated in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; N = 1,142). Results In the present study, we report associations of lipid-related SNPs with incident MI in two community-based longitudinal studies with in silico replication in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Overall, there were 9 SNPs in STR with nominal P-value <0.01 that were successfully genotyped in ULSAM. rs4149313 located in ABCA1 was associated with MI incidence in both longitudinal study samples with nominal significance (hazard ratio, 1.36 and 1.40; P-value, 0.004 and 0.015 in STR and ULSAM, respectively). In silico replication supported the association of rs4149313 with coronary artery disease in an independent meta-analysis including 173,975 individuals of European descent from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium (odds ratio, 1.03; P-value, 0.048). Conclusions rs4149313 is one of the few amino acid changing variants in ABCA1 known to associate with reduced cholesterol efflux. Our results are suggestive of a weak association between this variant and the development of atherosclerosis and MI. PMID:23555974

  9. New‐Onset Atrial Fibrillation is Associated With Cardiovascular Events Leading to Death in a First Time Myocardial Infarction Population of 89 703 Patients With Long‐Term Follow‐Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Gislason, Gunnar H; Greve, Anders M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is reported to increase the risk of death in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results and no data exist to explain the underlying cause of higher death rates in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS......: All patients with first acute MI between 1997 and 2009 in Denmark, without prior AF, were identified from Danish nationwide administrative registers. The impact of new-onset AF on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, fatal/nonfatal stroke, fatal/nonfatal re-infarction and noncardiovascular death...... 173.9 versus 69.4 per 1000 person-years, cardiovascular death 137.2 versus 50.0 per 1000 person-years, fatal/nonfatal stroke 19.6/19.9 versus 6.2/5.6 per 1000 person-years, fatal/nonfatal re-infarction 29.0/60.7 versus 14.2/37.9 per 1000 person-years. In time-dependent multiple Cox analyses, new...

  10. Risk of self-harm and nonfatal suicide attempts, and completed suicide in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Hansen, P. R.; Gislason, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. Objectives: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. Methods: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. Results: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...

  11. Economic growth and the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Alfred; Winker, Robert; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Sögner, Leopold

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of economic growth measured by real gross domestic product (GDP) on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. The relationship between GDP and the occupational injury rate of the wage-earning population between 1955 and 2004 was analyzed using an error correction model. The sample size increased from 1.568,371 persons in 1955 to 2.656,952 in 2004. Occupational injuries were divided into fatal and non-fatal injuries. Occupational injuries (fatal and non-fatal) decreased from 8.59% to 4.08%: non-fatal injuries decreased from 8.56% to 4.07%; fatal injuries decreased from 0.03% to 0.01%. Austrian GDP increased from EUR 37.7 billion to EUR 202.8 billion (base year 1995). Statistical analysis clearly shows that a growing economy is associated with declining injury rates (fatal and non-fatal). Two mechanisms are discussed. Firstly, rising GDP is accompanied by greater investment in safer technologies and occupational safety measures. Secondly, booming economies are associated with a reduced risk of unemployment, which is already known to be a risk factor for occupational injuries. Economic development appears to have an impact on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. Health policy should emphasize the necessity for safety at work particularly in phases of economic slowdown.

  12. Effect of eating on thallium myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Sullivan, P.J.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Morris, C.; Pohost, G.M.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if eating between initial and delayed thallium images alters the appearance of the delayed thallium scan, a prospective study was performed; 184 subjects sent for routine thallium imaging were randomized into two groups, those who ate a meal high in carbohydrates between initial and delayed thallium myocardial images (n = 106), and those who fasted (n = 78). The 201 Tl images were interpreted in blinded fashion for global myocardial and pulmonary clearance of 201 Tl myocardial defects. The eating group had a significantly lower incidence of transient myocardial defects compared to the noneating group (7 percent vs 18 percent, respectively; p less than 0.05). The time between initial and delayed images and the incidence of exercise-induced ischemic ST-segment depression or pathologic Q waves on the electrocardiogram were not significantly different between the two groups. These data suggest that eating a high-carbohydrate meal between initial and delayed 201 Tl images causes increased 201 Tl myocardial clearance rates and may alter 201 Tl myocardial redistribution over time

  13. Plasma Ceramides, Mediterranean Diet, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Trial (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong D; Toledo, Estefanía; Hruby, Adela; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C; Sun, Qi; Razquin, Cristina; Zheng, Yan; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Corella, Dolores; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Lapetra, José; Fito, Montserrat; Aros, Fernando; Serra-Majem, Luis; Lee, Chih-Hao; Clish, Clary B; Liang, Liming; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Hu, Frank B

    2017-05-23

    Although in vitro studies and investigations in animal models and small clinical populations have suggested that ceramides may represent an intermediate link between overnutrition and certain pathological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD), no prospective studies have investigated the association between plasma ceramides and risk of CVD. The study population consisted of 980 participants from the PREDIMED trial (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea), including 230 incident cases of CVD and 787 randomly selected participants at baseline (including 37 overlapping cases) followed for ≤7.4 years. Participants were randomized to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts, or a control diet. Plasma ceramide concentrations were measured on a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics platform. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death. Hazard ratios were estimated with weighted Cox regression models using Barlow weights to account for the case-cohort design. The multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the extreme quartiles of plasma concentrations of C16:0, C22:0, C24:0, and C24:1 ceramides were 2.39 (1.49-3.83, P trend Mediterranean diet and control groups during the first year of follow-up. Our study documented a novel positive association between baseline plasma ceramide concentrations and incident CVD. In addition, a Mediterranean dietary intervention may mitigate potential deleterious effects of elevated plasma ceramide concentrations on CVD. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Acute Myocardial Infarction Population Incidence and Mortality Rates, and 28-day Case-fatality in Older Adults. The REGICOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Oliva, Gabriel; Zamora, Alberto; Ramos, Rafel; Marti, Ruth; Subirana, Isaac; Grau, María; Dégano, Irene R; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-11-22

    Our aims were to determine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and mortality rates, and population and in-hospital case-fatality in the population older than 74 years; variability in clinical characteristics and AMI management of hospitalized patients, and changes in the incidence and mortality rates, case-fatality, and management by age groups from 1996 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008. A population-based AMI registry in Girona (Catalonia, Spain) including individuals with suspected AMI older than 34 years. The incidence rate increased with age from 169 and 28 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 2306 and 1384 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 85 to 94 years, in men and women, respectively. Population case-fatality also increased with age, from 19% in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 84% in the group aged 85 to 94 years. A lower population case-fatality was observed in the second period, mainly explained by a lower in-hospital case-fatality. The use of invasive procedures and effective drugs decreased with age but increased in the second period in all ages up to 84 years. Acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality, and case-fatality increased exponentially with age. There is still a gap in the use of invasive procedures and effective drugs between younger and older patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Myocardial infarction incidence and survival by ethnic group: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narinder; Fischbacher, Colin M; Bhopal, Raj S; Brown, Helen; Steiner, Markus Fc; Capewell, Simon

    2013-09-13

    Inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality by country of birth are large and poorly understood. However, these data misclassify UK-born minority ethnic groups and provide little detail on whether excess risk is due to increased incidence, poorer survival or both. Retrospective cohort study. General resident population of Scotland. All those residing in Scotland during the 2001 Census were eligible for inclusion: 2 972 120 people were included in the analysis. The number still residing in Scotland at the end of the study in 2008 is not known. As specified in the analysis plan, the primary outcome measures were first occurrence of admission or death due to myocardial infarction and time to event. There were no secondary outcome measures. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence risk ratios (95% CIs) relative to white Scottish populations (100) were highest among Pakistani men (164.1 (142.2 to 189.2)) and women (153.7 (120.5, 196.1)) and lowest for men and women of Chinese (39.5 (27.1 to 57.6) and 59.1 (38.6 to 90.7)), other white British (77 (74.2 to 79.8) and 72.2 (69.0 to 75.5)) and other white (83.1 (75.9 to 91.0) and 79.9 (71.5 to 89.3)) ethnic groups. Adjustment for educational qualification did not eliminate these differences. Cardiac intervention uptake was similar across most ethnic groups. Compared to white Scottish, 28-day survival did not differ by ethnicity, except in Pakistanis where it was better, particularly in women (0.44 (0.25 to 0.78)), a difference not removed by adjustment for education, travel time to hospital or cardiac intervention uptake. Pakistanis have the highest incidence of AMI in Scotland, a country renowned for internationally high cardiovascular disease rates. In contrast, survival is similar or better in minority ethnic groups. Clinical care and policy should focus on reducing incidence among Pakistanis through more aggressive prevention.

  16. Prognostic importance of silent myocardial ischemia detected by intravenous dipyridamole thallium myocardial imaging in asymptomatic patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, L.T.; Byers, S.; Shaw, L.; Barth, G.; Goodgold, H.; Chaitman, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred seven asymptomatic patients who underwent intravenous dipyridamole thallium imaging were evaluated to determine prognostic indicators of subsequent cardiac events over an average follow-up period of 14 +/- 10 months. Univariate analysis of 18 clinical, scintigraphic and angiographic variables revealed that a reversible thallium defect, a combined fixed and reversible thallium defect, number of segmental thallium defects and extent of coronary artery disease were significant predictors of subsequent cardiac events. Of the 13 patients who died or had a nonfatal infarction, 12 had a reversible thallium defect. Stepwise logistic regression analysis selected a reversible thallium defect as the only significant predictor of cardiac events. When death or myocardial infarction was the outcome variable, a combined fixed and reversible thallium defect was the only predictor of outcome. In patients without previous myocardial infarction, the cardiac event rate was significantly greater in those with an abnormal versus normal thallium scan (55% versus 12%, p less than 0.001). Thus, intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy is a useful noninvasive test to risk stratify asymptomatic patients with coronary artery disease. A reversible thallium defect most likely indicates silent myocardial ischemia in a sizable fraction of patients in this clinical subset and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis

  17. Long-term cardiovascular risk of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use according to time passed after first-time myocardial infarction: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Fosbøl, Emil L; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Folke, Fredrik; Charlot, Mette; Selmer, Christian; Bjerring Olesen, Jonas; Lamberts, Morten; Ruwald, Martin H; Køber, Lars; Hansen, Peter R; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2012-10-16

    The cardiovascular risk after the first myocardial infarction (MI) declines rapidly during the first year. We analyzed whether the cardiovascular risk associated with using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was associated with the time elapsed following first-time MI. We identified patients aged 30 years or older admitted with first-time MI in 1997 to 2009 and subsequent NSAID use by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalization and drug dispensing from pharmacies in Denmark. We calculated the incidence rates of death and a composite end point of coronary death or nonfatal recurrent MIs associated with NSAID use in 1-year time intervals up to 5 years after inclusion and analyzed risk by using multivariable adjusted time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 99 187 patients included, 43 608 (44%) were prescribed NSAIDs after the index MI. There were 36 747 deaths and 28 693 coronary deaths or nonfatal recurrent MIs during the 5 years of follow-up. Relative to noncurrent treatment with NSAIDs, the use of any NSAID in the years following MI was persistently associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.49-1.69]) after 1 year and hazard ratio 1.63 [95% confidence interval, 1.52-1.74] after 5 years) and coronary death or nonfatal recurrent MI (hazard ratio, 1.30 [95% confidence interval,l 1.22-1.39] and hazard ratio, 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.55]). The use of NSAIDs is associated with persistently increased coronary risk regardless of time elapsed after first-time MI. We advise long-term caution in the use of NSAIDs for patients after MI.

  18. Television Viewing and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: Prospective Associations and Mediation Analysis in the EPIC Norfolk Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Søren; Besson, Hervé; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ekelund, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Background Although television viewing time is detrimentally associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship with incident total (i.e. combined fatal and non-fatal) cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-fatal CVD and coronary heart disease is largely unknown. This study examined whether television viewing time is associated with these three outcomes, independently of physical activity energy expenditure and other confounding variables. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based cohort of 12,608 men and women (aged 61.4±9.0), free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998–2000 were followed up until 2007 (6.9±1.9 years). Participants self-reported education, smoking, alcohol use, antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antidepressant medication, disease history, total energy intake, sleep duration, physical activity and television viewing. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured by standardized procedures; a clustered metabolic risk score was constructed. Every one hour/day increase in television viewing was associated with an increased hazard for total (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03–1.08; 2,620 cases), non-fatal CVD (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03–1.09; 2,134 cases), and coronary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.03–1.13; 940 cases), independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes status, CVD family history, sleep duration and physical activity energy expenditure. Energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c and the clustered metabolic risk score only partially mediated these associations. Conclusions These results indicate that the most prevalent leisure time (sedentary) behaviour, television viewing, independently contributes to increased CVD risk. Recommendations on reducing television viewing time should be considered. PMID

  19. Smoking Status and Incidence of Cancer After Myocardial Infarction: A Follow-Up Study of over 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Katrin; Goldbourt, Uri; Gerber, Yariv

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated long-term incidence of cancer after myocardial infarction among current, former, and never smokers, and assessed whether reducing cigarette consumption is associated with decreased cancer risk. Consecutive patients aged ≤65 years discharged from 8 hospitals in central Israel after first myocardial infarction in 1992-1993 were followed for cancer and death. Extensive data including smoking habits were obtained at the index hospitalization and 4 time points during follow-up. Survival methods were applied to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer associated with smoking categories. Included in the study were 1486 cancer-free participants (mean age, 54 years; 81% men), among whom 787 were current smokers at baseline (average daily cigarette consumption = 29). Smokers were younger than nonsmokers and more likely to be male and of lower socioeconomic status. Over a median follow-up of 21.4 years, 273 (18.4%) patients developed cancer. Baseline smoking was associated with a ∼40% excess adjusted risk of cancer; ∼25% after accounting for death as a competing event. Considering changes in smoking during follow-up, the excess risk was confined to persistent smokers (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.50), whereas post- (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 0.80-1.62) and pre-myocardial infarction quitters (HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.47) were comparable with never smokers. Among persistent smokers, each reduction of 10 cigarettes relative to pre-myocardial infarction consumption was associated with a ∼10% reduced adjusted risk. Among young survivors of first myocardial infarction followed-up longitudinally, smoking cessation is associated with lower risk of cancer. Reducing consumption among smokers may also be beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anhedonic depression, history of depression, and anxiety as gender-specific risk factors of myocardial infarction in healthy men and women: The HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Langvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study examines gender-specific psychological risk factors of myocardial infarction. Out of 41,248 participants free of coronary heart disease at baseline, 822 cases of myocardial infarction were identified in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study or the mortality register. The participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist–hip ratio were measured by medical staff. Smoking, diabetes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and history of depressive episode were self-reported. Anhedonic depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D ≥8 was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in women but not in men. Gender difference in risk estimate based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D was significant ( p  < .01. History of depressive episode was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in men. Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A ≥8 reduced the risk of having a myocardial infarction.

  1. Occupational and leisure time physical activity and the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Andrea; Tavani, Alessandra; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2004-08-01

    Physical activity has long been related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the quantitative estimates of the possible protective role of physical activity appear to vary across studies and populations. A case-control study conducted in Italy between 1995 and 1999, including 507 incident cases below 79 years (378 men, 129 women) with a first episode of AMI, and 478 controls (297 men, 181 women) admitted to hospitals for acute conditions. Compared with the lowest level of occupational physical activity, the multivariate odds ratios (OR) of AMI for the highest level were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.97) at age 15 to 19 years, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.34-0.95) at age 30 to 39 years, and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29-0.90) at age 50 to 59 years. The corresponding values for leisure time activity were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.38-0.77), 0.86 (95% CI, 0.57-1.30), and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.57-1.74), respectively. The association was consistent across strata of age, sex, education, smoking, and other selected covariates. The attributable risk for low occupational exercise at age 30 to 39 years was over 10%, indicating the scope for further intervention on this modifiable risk factor in this Italian population, particularly in consideration of the public health importance of CHD.

  2. Emprego em serviços domésticos e acidentes de trabalho não fatais Housemaids and non-fatal occupational injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S Santana

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a incidência anual de acidentes não fatais de acordo com variáveis sociodemográficas e ocupacionais entre empregadas em serviços domésticos. MÉTODOS: Inquérito de base comunitária conduzido com 1.650 mulheres de 10 a 65 anos de idade, que referiram ter atividade remunerada e que compunham uma amostra aleatória por conglomerados dos domicílios da cidade de Salvador, capital da Bahia. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de questionários individuais sobre condições de vida, trabalho e saúde. Foi utilizado o teste Exato de Fisher para diferenças de freqüências. RESULTADOS: Estimou-se a incidência anual de acidentes de trabalho não fatais em 5,0%, maior entre as empregadas em serviços domésticos (7,3% do que entre as demais trabalhadoras (4,5%, diferença estatisticamente significante (pOBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual incidence of non-fatal work injuries according to sociodemographic and occupational variables among housemaids. METHODS: A community-based survey was conducted in a population of 1,650 women aged 10 to 65 years who reported a paid occupation randomly selected in a household sample of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data was collected through individual questionnaires on living and work conditions and health status. Fisher Exact test was performed for frequency analysis. RESULTS: It was estimated an overall annual incidence of non-fatal work injuries in the study population of 5.0%, which was statistically significant (p<0.05 higher among housemaids (7.3% than in the group with other occupations (4.5%. Half of the injuries among housemaids were not related with long-term disabilities, and 38.1% women referred not being able to work for two weeks on average after the injury. CONCLUSIONS: Housemaids represent a major contingent of the work force in Brazil and other Latin America countries. The high incidence of non-fatal work injuries in this working group reveals its public health relevance and the need

  3. Circadian analysis of myocardial infarction incidence in an Argentine and Uruguayan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola-Siri Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of variations in the spectrum of cardiovascular disease between different regions of the world and ethnic groups have been the subject of great interest. This study report the 24-h variation of myocardial infarction (MI occurrence in patients recruited from CCU located in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods A cohort of 1063 patients admitted to the CCU within 24 h of the onset of symptoms of an acute MI was examined. MI incidence along the day was computed in 1 h-intervals. Results A minimal MI incidence between 03:00 and 07:00 h and the occurrence of a first maximum between 08:00 and 12:00 h and a second maximum between 15:00 and 22:00 h were verified. The best fit curve was a 24 h cosinor (acrophase ~ 19:00 h, accounting for 63 % of variance together with a symmetrical gaussian bell (maximum at ~ 10:00 h, accounting for 37 % of variance. A similar picture was observed for MI frequencies among different excluding subgroups (older or younger than 70 years; with or without previous symptoms; diabetics or non diabetics; Q wave- or non-Q wave-type MI; anterior or inferior MI location. Proportion between cosinor and gaussian probabilities was maintained among most subgroups except for older patients who had more MI at the afternoon and patients with previous symptoms who were equally distributed among the morning and afternoon maxima. Conclusion The results support the existence of two maxima (at morning and afternoon hours in MI incidence in the Argentine and Uruguayan population.

  4. Investigation of KIF6 Trp719Arg in a case-control study of myocardial infarction: a Costa Rican population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A Bare

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The 719Arg allele of KIF6 (rs20455 was associated with coronary events in Caucasian participants of five prospective studies. We investigated whether this KIF6 variant was associated with non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI in a case-control study of an admixed population from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Genotypes of the KIF6 variant were determined for 4,134 men and women. Cases (1,987 had survived a first MI; controls (2,147 had no history of MI and were matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. We tested the association between the KIF6 719Arg allele and non-fatal MI by conditional logistic regression and adjusted for admixture of founder populations.Compared with the reference Trp/Trp homozygotes, KIF6 719Arg carriers were not at significantly higher risk for non-fatal MI in this study after adjustment for traditional risk factors or admixture (OR= 1.12; 95%CI, 0.98-1.28. Heterozygotes of the KIF6 Trp719Arg variant were at increased risk of non-fatal MI: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34, but this association would not be significant after a multiple testing correction.We found that carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele were not at increased risk of non-fatal MI in a case-control study of Costa Ricans living in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  5. Obesity and non-fatal motor vehicle crash injuries: sex difference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Laud, P W; Pintar, F; Kim, J-E; Shih, A; Shen, W; Heymsfield, S B; Allison, D B; Zhu, S

    2011-09-01

    Obesity and motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are two parallel epidemics in the United States. An important unanswered question is whether there are sex differences in the associations between the presence of obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries. To further understand the association between obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries, particularly the sex differences in these relations. We examined this question by analyzing data from the 2003 to 2007 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS). A total of 10,962 drivers who were aged 18 years or older and who survived frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Male drivers experienced a lower rate of overall non-fatal MVC injuries than did female drivers (38.1 versus 52.2%), but experienced a higher rate of severe injuries (0.7 versus 0.2%). After adjusting for change in velocity (ΔV) during the crashes, obese male drivers showed a much higher risk (logistic coefficients of body mass index (BMI) for moderate, serious and severe injury are 0.0766, 0.1470 and 0.1792, respectively; all Pobese male drivers and these risks increased with injury severity. Non-fatal injury risks were not found to be increased in obese female drivers. The association between obesity and risk of non-fatal injury was much stronger for male drivers than for female drivers. The higher risk of non-fatal MVC injuries in obese male drivers might result from their different body shape and fat distribution compared with obese female drivers. Our findings should be considered for obesity reduction, traffic safety evaluation and vehicle design for obese male drivers and provide testable hypotheses for future studies.

  6. Myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: 1-year interim report of the J-ACCESS 3 investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Kawano, Yuhei; Nakamura, Satoko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hatta, Tsuguru; Nishimura, Shigeyuki; Moroi, Masao; Nakagawa, Susumu; Kasai, Tokuo; Kusuoka, Hideo; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Momose, Mitsuru; Takehana, Kazuya; Nanasato, Mamoru; Yoda, Shunichi; Nishina, Hidetaka; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2014-01-01

    Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) 2 without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction. MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys. (orig.)

  7. Myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: 1-year interim report of the J-ACCESS 3 investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Tokyo (Japan); Kawano, Yuhei; Nakamura, Satoko [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Hatta, Tsuguru [Hatta Medical Office of Internal Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Shigeyuki [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Moroi, Masao [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Susumu [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Kasai, Tokuo [Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Takeishi, Yasuchika [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Cardiology and Hematology, Fukushima (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takehana, Kazuya [Kansai Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Osaka (Japan); Nanasato, Mamoru [Cardiovascular Center, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Yoda, Shunichi [Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina, Hidetaka [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Suruga-dai Nihon University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 50 ml/min per 1.73{sup 2} without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction. MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys. (orig.)

  8. Myocardial infarction in Swedish subway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigert, Carolina; Klerdal, Kristina; Hammar, Niklas; Gustavsson, Per

    2007-08-01

    Particulate matter in urban air is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population. Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system of Stockholm, as well as in several other large cities. This situation has caused concern for negative health effects among subway staff. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an increased incidence of myocardial infarction among subway drivers. Data from a population-based case-control study of men aged 40-69 in Stockholm County in 1976-1996 were used. The study included all first events of myocardial infarction in registers of hospital discharges and deaths. The controls were selected randomly from the general population. National censuses were used for information on occupation. Altogether, 22 311 cases and 131 496 controls were included. Among these, 54 cases and 250 controls had worked as subway drivers. The relative risk of myocardial infarction among subway drivers was not increased. It was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.68-1.25] when the subway drivers were compared with other manual workers and 1.06 (95% CI 0.78-1.43) when the subway drivers were compared with all other gainfully employed men. Subgroup analyses indicated no influence on the risk of myocardial infarction from the duration of employment, latency time, or time since employment stopped. Subway drivers in Stockholm do not have a higher incidence of myocardial infarction than other employed persons.

  9. Consumption of nonfat milk results in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroya; Takiwaki, Masaki; Yamashita, Mine; Kawasaki, Kenji; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Honda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    An increase in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a well-known risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Dairy consumption may lower the risk of atherosclerosis; however, studies on the effects of milk on cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. We were interested in investigating whether the intake of milk improves the atherogenic lipoprotein profile. We investigated the effects of consuming whole or nonfat milk on plasma lipoprotein composition in healthy Japanese subjects as a pilot study. Normolipidemic subjects consumed 500 ml of whole milk (whole milk group; n=7) or nonfat milk (nonfat milk group; n=7) every day for 2 weeks. The consumption of nonfat milk resulted in a lowering of plasma triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid levels and TG level in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) C-III level. In addition, the TG/cholesterol ratios in HDL and LDL were significantly decreased, and LDL particles became larger. In contrast, the only changes observed following whole milk consumption were increases in the plasma levels of apoC-III and apoE. These findings suggest that consumption of nonfat milk, but not whole milk, may result in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile, and that the constituents of nonfat milk may improve lipid metabolism.

  10. [Seasonal variations in the myocardial infarction incidence and possible effects of geomagnetic micropulsations on the cardiovascular system in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleĭmenova, N G; Kozyreva, O V; Breus, T K; Rapoport, S I

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the ambulance calls in Moscow, related to myocardial infarction (85.000 events), sudden death (71.700 events), and hypertension crises (165.500 events) over the period of 1979-1981 demonstrated their clear seasonal variations with a profound summer minimum and a winter maximum. The same results were obtained in the analysis of statistical monthly data on sudden death from infarction in Bulgaria over the period of 15 years (1970-1985). However, there are a great number of clinical and statistical studies confirming the rises in the incidence of myocardial infarction, hypertension crise, and sudden death during geomagnetic disturbances, which have maximum occurrence near equinox, not in winter. In order to explain this contradiction, we suggested that one of critical factors that affect the human cardiovascular system is geomagnetic micropulsations Pc1 having the frequency comparable with the frequency of heart rate beatings and winter maximum in their occurrence. The results of a comparative analysis of data of ambulance calls in Moscow related to myocardial infarction and sudden death and the catalog of Pc1 observations at the geophysical observatory "Borok" (Yaroslavl region) are presented. It is shown that in approximately 70% of days with an anomalously large number of ambulance calls related to myocardial infarction, Pc1 micropulsations have been registered. The probability of simultaneous occurrence of myocardial infarction and Pc1 in the winter season was 1.5 times greater than their accidental coincidence. Moreover, it was found that in winter the effects of magnetic storms and Pc1 IM(A) were much higher than in summer. We suggested that one of possible reasons for the seasonal variations in the occurrence of myocardial infarction is an increase in the production of the pineal hormone melatonin in winter which leads to an unstable state of the human organism and an increase in its sensitivity to the effect of geomagnetic pulsations.

  11. Non-fatal disease burden for subtypes of depressive disorder: population-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesheuvel-Leliefeld, Karolien E M; Kok, Gemma D; Bockting, Claudi L H; de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Schaik, Anneke; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Smit, Filip

    2016-05-12

    Major depression is the leading cause of non-fatal disease burden. Because major depression is not a homogeneous condition, this study estimated the non-fatal disease burden for mild, moderate and severe depression in both single episode and recurrent depression. All estimates were assessed from an individual and a population perspective and presented as unadjusted, raw estimates and as estimates adjusted for comorbidity. We used data from the first wave of the second Netherlands-Mental-Health-Survey-and-Incidence-Study (NEMESIS-2, n = 6646; single episode Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV depression, n = 115; recurrent depression, n = 246). Disease burden from an individual perspective was assessed as 'disability weight * time spent in depression' for each person in the dataset. From a population perspective it was assessed as 'disability weight * time spent in depression *number of people affected'. The presence of mental disorders was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0. Single depressive episodes emerged as a key driver of disease burden from an individual perspective. From a population perspective, recurrent depressions emerged as a key driver. These findings remained unaltered after adjusting for comorbidity. The burden of disease differs between the subtype of depression and depends much on the choice of perspective. The distinction between an individual and a population perspective may help to avoid misunderstandings between policy makers and clinicians.

  12. Delayed ventricular septal rupture complicating acute inferior wall myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jae Hyung; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Mehta, Sanjay; Missov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Background Ventricular septal rupture is a potentially fatal complication of acute myocardial infarction. Its incidence has declined with modern reperfusion therapy. In the era of percutaneous coronary interventions, it occurs a median of 18?24?hours after myocardial infarction and is most commonly associated with anterior myocardial infarction. We present a case of delayed ventricular septal rupture complicating acute inferior wall myocardial infarction. Case presentation A 53-year-old Cauca...

  13. Menopause and myocardial infarction risk among employed women in relation to work and family psychosocial factors in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Tamosiunas, Abdonas

    2010-05-01

    To assess the relationship between menopause and age at menopause and the risk of the first non-fatal myocardial infarction taking into account the possible influence of psychosocial job characteristics, marital stress, level of social support, educational level, occupation, age and traditional ischemic heart disease risk factors. Population-based case-control study among 35-61 years old employed women in Kaunas, Lithuania. Totally 122 myocardial infarction cases and 371 controls were interviewed in 2001-2004. The logistic regression analysis was performed. Younger age at menopause (women was 1.15; 95% CI 0.48-2.75. The association between low job control and myocardial infarction showed step increase, women in the lowest quartile of job control had the highest myocardial infarction risk (OR=4.51; 95% CI 1.90-10.75), while those in the second and third quartiles showed modest risk. Marital stress was an independent myocardial infarction risk factor for employed women (adjusted OR=2.36; 95% CI 1.07-5.19). Menopausal status and younger age at menopause showed only a tendency for increase in myocardial infarction risk among the employed women in Kaunas, Lithuania. Adverse psychosocial job characteristics as low job control, as well as marital stress play more important role in the development of the first myocardial infarction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in predicting prognosis in suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, J.H.; Kobren, S.M.; Grunwald, A.M.; Bodenheimer, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    While exercise thallium imaging has improved sensitivity and specificity for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), its predictive value for morbid cardiac events is unclear. Of 532 consecutive patients who underwent exercise thallium imaging, follow-up was complete in 515 (97%) after an average of 36 months (range 31 to 48). Two hundred six patients had an abnormal exercise thallium response and 309 had a normal response. Twenty morbid cardiac events occurred (13 deaths and 7 acute myocardial infarctions [AMI]). Of the 13 patients who died, 12 had abnormal thallium results. Overall, 5.8% of the patients with abnormal thallium results died, in contrast to 0.3% of patients with normal results. Of the 7 patients who had a nonfatal AMI, 3 had abnormal exercise thallium results. Moreover, similar proportions of patients (1.4% and 1.3%) with normal and abnormal exercise thallium results had nonfatal AMI. Presence or absence of pathologic Q waves and inclusion of exercise electrocardiographic results did not significantly alter the results. Thus, although a normal exercise thallium response significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular death, its predictive value for nonfatal AMI is limited. Moreover, the relatively low event rate for patients with a positive exercise thallium response further limits its prognostic value

  15. Body mass index is closely correlated to incident diabetes in patients with heart failure or myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle; Andersson, Charlotte; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in patients with heart failure or myocardial infarction (MI) increases morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the impact of obesity on the risk of developing diabetes in these populations. Design: A cohort of patients consecutively hospitalized with heart failure (n......¿=¿3472) or MI (n¿=¿5723) was followed in the period 1995-2006. Methods: Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models were used to estimate the risk of developing diabetes according to the World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) classification. Normal weight patients (BMI 18.5-24.9¿kg/m(2)) were....... Incident diabetes was associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks with adjusted HRs of greater magnitude than in prevalent diabetes. Conclusion: BMI was an independent predictor of incident diabetes in patients with either heart failure or MI. More than half of the patients...

  16. Non-fatal suicide attempt by intentional stab wound: Clinical management, psychiatric assessment, and multidisciplinary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Badger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide by means of self-inflicted stab wounds is relatively uncommon and little is known about this population and their management. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of adult trauma patients admitted to our Level-1 trauma center between January 2005 and October 2009 for management of non-fatal, self-inflicted stab wounds. Results: Fifty-eight patients were evaluated with self-inflicted stab wounds. Four patients died due to their injuries (mortality, 7%. Of the non-fatal stab wounds, 78% were male ranging in age from 19-82 (mean: 45 years. The most common injury sites were the abdomen (46%, neck (33%, and chest (20%. In terms of operative interventions, 56% of abdominal operations were therapeutic, whereas 100% of neck and chest operations were therapeutic. When assessing for suicidal ideation, 44 patients (81% admitted to suicidal intentions whereas 10 patients (19% described "accidental" circumstances. Following psychiatric evaluation, 8 of the 10 patients with "accidental injuries" were found to be suicidal. Overall, 54 patients (98% met criteria for a formal psychiatric diagnosis with 48 patients (89% necessitating inpatient or outpatient psychiatric assistance at discharge. Conclusions: Compared to previous reports of stab wounds among trauma patients, patients with self- inflicted stab wounds may have a higher incidence of operative interventions and significant injuries depending on the stab location. When circumstances surrounding a self-inflicted stabbing are suspicious, additional interviews by psychiatric care providers may uncover a suicidal basis to the event. Given the increased incidence of psychiatric illness in this population, it is imperative to approach the suicidal patient in a multidisciplinary fashion.

  17. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Is cold or warm blood cardioplegia superior for myocardial protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, Udo; Roberts, Patrick Garfjeld; Ishaq, Muhammad; De Silva, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether the use of warm or cold blood cardioplegia has superior myocardial protection. More than 192 papers were found using the reported search, of which 20 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. A good breadth of high-level evidence addressing this clinical dilemma is available, including a recent meta-analysis and multiple large randomized clinical trials. Yet despite this level of evidence, no clear significant clinical benefit has been demonstrated by warm or cold blood cardioplegia. This suggests that neither method is significantly superior and that both provide similar efficacy of myocardial protection. The meta-analysis, including 41 randomized control trials (5879 patients in total), concluded that although a lower cardiac enzyme release and improved postoperative cardiac index was demonstrated in the warm cardioplegia group, this benefit was not reflected in clinical outcomes, which were similar in both groups. This theme of benefit in biochemical markers, physiological metrics and non-fatal postoperative events in the warm cardioplegia group ran throughout the literature, in particular the ‘Warm Heart investigators’ who conducted a randomized trial of 1732 patients, demonstrated a reduction in postoperative low output syndrome (6.1 versus 9.3%, P = 0.01) in the warm cardioplegia group, but no significant drop in 30-day all-cause mortality (1.4 versus 2.5%, P = 0.12). However, their later follow-up indicates non-fatal postoperative events predict reduced late survival, independent of cardioplegia. A minority of studies suggested a benefit of cold cardioplegia over warm in particular patient subgroups: One group conducted a retrospective study of 520 patients who

  19. Epidemiology of Nonfatal Injuries among Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Al-Awamreh, Khetam; Gharaibeh, Huda; Al-Kloub, Manal; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Alhalaiqa, Fadwa; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    Nonfatal injuries are considered as one of the major public health hazards affecting schoolchildren, and the majority of these injuries occur at school or in the home. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 months, March-May 2015. The participants were 4,355 Jordanian schoolchildren in Grades 7-12. The Pearson ?[superscript 2]…

  20. Incidence of road traffic accidents and pattern of injury among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Motorcyclists are at high risk of road traffic accidents and the attendant injuries, but few community-based studies have investigated the problem in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of accidents and patterns of non-fatal injury among commercial motorcyclists ...

  1. Culprit versus multivessel coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Satyanarayana R; Qamar, Arman; Arora, Sameer; Devarapally, Santhosh R; Kondur, Ashok; Kaul, Prashant

    2018-03-01

    The 2015 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association update on primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) recommended PCI of the non-infarct-related artery at the time of primary PCI (class IIb recommendation). Despite evidence supporting complete revascularization in STEMI, its benefit on mortality rates is uncertain. We searched all available databases for randomized controlled trials comparing complete multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (CMV PCI) with infarct-artery-only revascularization in patients with STEMI. Summary risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for both the efficacy and safety outcomes. Nine randomized controlled trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria, yielding 2991 patients. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 36 months. Compared with infarct-related artery-only PCI, CMV PCI was associated with significantly lower rates of major adverse cardiac events [relative risk (RR)=0.54, 95% CI=0.41-0.71; P<0.00001], cardiovascular mortality (RR=0.48, 95% CI=0.28-0.80; P=0.005), and repeat revascularization (RR=0.38, 95% CI=0.30-0.47; P<0.00001). Although, contrast-induced nephropathy and major bleed rates were comparable between both groups, CMV PCI failed to show any reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.75, 95% CI=0.53-1.07; P=0.11) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (RR=0.69, 95% CI=0.43-1.10; P=0.12). Our results suggest that in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, complete revascularization is safe, and is associated with reduced risks of major adverse cardiac events and cardiac death along with a reduced need for repeat revascularization. However, it showed no beneficial effect on all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction.

  2. Thrombus aspiration combined with intra-coronary injection of Tirofiban for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: its influence on myocardial reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Da; Zhu Hao; Zhou Xuchen; Huang Rongchong; Zhang Bo; Wang Shaopeng; Zhang Yousheng; Jia Yuqing; Sun Menghan; Cui Hashen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of thrombus aspiration combined with intra-coronary administration of the glycoprotein Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a inhibitor, Tirofiban, on myocardial microcirculation when percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is employed for the treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: During the period from April 2008 to June 2010, percutaneous coronary interventional was performed in 184 consecutive patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The patients were randomly divided into study group (n=78) and control group (n=106). Thrombus aspiration combined with intra-coronary administration of Tirofiban was used in patients of study group, while routine PCI together with intravenous administration of Tirofiban was adopted in patients of control group. Clinical features, TIMI grade, myocardial blush grade, ratio of ST falling >70% at 24 hours after treatment, incidence of massive haemorrhage, hospitalization, days, major adverse cardiac event within 30 days were observed, and the results were compared between two groups. Results: The incidence of no reflow phenomenon in study group was markedly lower than that in control group (5.67% vs. 21.14%, P=0.011), while the myocardial blush grade was much higher in study group than that in control group (2.03±0.32 vs. 1.12±0.47, P=0.021). The ratio of ST falling > 70% at 24 hours after treatment in study group was increased (94% vs. 85%, P=0.003), and the occurrence of perioperative massive haemorrhage was lower (9% vs. 4%, P=0.03). The incidence of major adverse cardiac event within 30 days was distinctly decreased although it was quite similar in both groups (5.5% vs. 6.1%, P=0.786). Conclusion: Thrombus aspiration combined with intra-coronary administration of Tirofiban is superior to conventional PCI in effectively improving the reperfusion of myocardial microcirculation and in reliably reducing perioperative risk. (authors)

  3. Glyburide increases risk in patients with diabetes mellitus after emergent percutaneous intervention for myocardial infarction - A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C H; Gislason, G H; Bretler, D

    2011-01-01

    Danish patients receiving glucose-lowering drugs admitted with myocardial infarction between 1997 and 2006 who underwent emergent percutaneous coronary intervention were identified from national registers. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the risk of cardiovascular.......9%) received metformin. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity and concomitant pharmacotherapy showed an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-6.72 ; p=0.012), cardiovascular mortality...... and nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR 2.69 , 95% CI 1.21-6.00; p=0.016), and all-cause mortality (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.11-5.47; p=0.027), respectively, with glyburide compared to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: Glyburide is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes...

  4. Epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke and transient ischemic attacks in Al Quseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy HN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Nabil M Abdel-Hakeem,2 Tarek A Rageh,1 Reda Badry,1 Mahmoud R Kandil1 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut branch, Assuit, Egypt Background and purpose: Stroke is a medical emergency that can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and disability. We aim to determine the epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke (CVS and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs in Al Quseir City, Red Sea, Egypt. Methods: The total population (n=33,285 was screened through a door to door study by three specialists of neurology and 15 female social workers (for demographic data collection. All suspected stroke patients were subjected to a full clinical examination, computerized tomography (CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of their brain, blood sugar, lipogram, serum uric acid, complete blood cells, blood urea, and serum creatinine, as well as evaluated by Barthel Index and Scandinavian Stroke Scale. Carotid doppler, echocardiography, and thyroid functions were done for selected cases. Results: CVS was recorded among 130 patients out of 19,848 subjects aged 20 years and more, yielding a total prevalence of 6.55/1,000 population. From June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011, 36 patients were recorded to have stroke within 1-year, yielding an incidence rate of 1.81/1,000. Prevalence and incidence rates were higher among males than females, and both indices increased steadily with advancing age to reach the highest prevalence (37.02/1,000 and incidence rate (9.5/1,000 among aged persons 60 years and more. Conclusion: The prevalence of non-fatal stroke in Al Quseir city (6.55/1,000 was at the lower range of that recorded in developing countries (5–10/1,000 and slightly higher than that recorded in industrialized countries (5/1,000 population. Ischemic stroke is the most

  5. Prognostic significance of myocardial imaging with iodine-123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid in patients with angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Tsuguhisa; Chikamori, Taishiro; Kamada, Tatsuya; Morishima, Takayuki; Hida, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Hidefumi; Iino, Hitoshi; Yamashina, Akira

    2001-01-01

    To assess the clinical significance of iodine-123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the predictive value of BMIPP imaging in patients with angina pectoris was evaluated. One hundred seventy-four patients who underwent BMIPP imaging in our institution were aged 61.8±11 years. One hundred thirty-five patients had stable angina and 39 had unstable angina at the time of examination. Patients with previous myocardial infarction or myocardial disorders were excluded. Early and delayed images were acquired in BMIPP SPECT, and the images were analyzed visually. Cardiac events were classified into hard and soft events: the former consisted of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and the latter included coronary revascularization and heart failure. The findings of BMIPP imaging were normal in 82 patients and abnormal in 92. During follow-up of 15.5±9.5 months, hard events were observed in 4 patients and soft events in 53. In patients with normal BMIPP imaging, soft events were observed in nine patients, but no hard event was encountered. Furthermore, in patients with both normal BMIPP and stress thallium imagings, no cardiac event was observed during 2 years. In contrast, 4 hard events and 44 soft events occurred in patients with abnormal BMIPP imaging. Patients with abnormal BMIPP imaging had a higher incidence of soft events than those with normal BMIPP imaging, regardless of the type of angina (16/62 vs 3/73, p<0.0005 for stable angina; 28/30 vs 6/9, p<0.0001 for unstable angina). The finding of BMIPP imaging correlates well with the mid-term prognosis of patients with angina pectoris. Since BMIPP SPECT is performed without stress to the patient, this imaging modality is important in evaluating patients with stable or unstable angina. (author)

  6. Social Integration and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women: The Role of Lifestyle Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Chiao; Glymour, Maria; Cornelis, Marilyn; Walter, Stefan; Rimm, Eric B; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2017-06-09

    Higher social integration is associated with lower cardiovascular mortality; however, whether it is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), especially in women, and whether associations differ by case fatality are unclear. This study sought to examine the associations between social integration and risk of incident CHD in a large female prospective cohort. Seventy-six thousand three hundred and sixty-two women in the Nurses' Health Study, free of CHD and stroke at baseline (1992), were followed until 2014. Social integration was assessed by a simplified Berkman-Syme Social Network Index every 4 years. End points included nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD. Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two incident CHD events occurred throughout follow-up. Adjusting for demographic, health/medical risk factors, and depressive symptoms, being socially integrated was significantly associated with lower CHD risk, particularly fatal CHD. The most socially integrated women had a hazard ratio of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.73) of developing fatal CHD compared with those least socially integrated ( P for trend social integration and nonfatal myocardial infarction risk were largely explained by health-promoting behaviors, particularly through differences in cigarette smoking; however, the association with fatal CHD risk remained after accounting for these behaviors and, thus, may involve more direct biological mechanisms. Social integration is inversely associated with CHD incidence in women, but is largely explained by lifestyle/behavioral pathways. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Analyses of non-fatal accidents in an opencast mine by logistic regression model - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Seyhan; Mutlu, Mert

    2017-09-01

    Accidents cause major damage for both workers and enterprises in the mining industry. To reduce the number of occupational accidents, these incidents should be properly registered and carefully analysed. This study efficiently examines the Aegean Lignite Enterprise (ELI) of Turkish Coal Enterprises (TKI) in Soma between 2006 and 2011, and opencast coal mine occupational accident records were used for statistical analyses. A total of 231 occupational accidents were analysed for this study. The accident records were categorized into seven groups: area, reason, occupation, part of body, age, shift hour and lost days. The SPSS package program was used in this study for logistic regression analyses, which predicted the probability of accidents resulting in greater or less than 3 lost workdays for non-fatal injuries. Social facilities-area of surface installations, workshops and opencast mining areas are the areas with the highest probability for accidents with greater than 3 lost workdays for non-fatal injuries, while the reasons with the highest probability for these types of accidents are transporting and manual handling. Additionally, the model was tested for such reported accidents that occurred in 2012 for the ELI in Soma and estimated the probability of exposure to accidents with lost workdays correctly by 70%.

  8. Perioperative Myocardial Injury After Noncardiac Surgery: Incidence, Mortality, and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelacher, Christian; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Seeberger, Daniela; Sazgary, Lorraine; Marbot, Stella; Lampart, Andreas; Espinola, Jaqueline; Kindler, Christoph; Hammerer, Angelika; Seeberger, Esther; Strebel, Ivo; Wildi, Karin; Twerenbold, Raphael; du Fay de Lavallaz, Jeanne; Steiner, Luzius; Gurke, Lorenz; Breidthardt, Tobias; Rentsch, Katharina; Buser, Andreas; Gualandro, Danielle M; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2018-03-20

    Perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) seems to be a contributor to mortality after noncardiac surgery. Because the vast majority of PMIs are asymptomatic, PMI usually is missed in the absence of systematic screening. We performed a prospective diagnostic study enrolling consecutive patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who had a planned postoperative stay of ≥24 hours and were considered at increased cardiovascular risk. All patients received a systematic screening using serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in clinical routine. PMI was defined as an absolute high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T increase of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. Furthermore, mortality was compared among patients with PMI not fulfilling additional criteria (ischemic symptoms, new ECG changes, or imaging evidence of loss of viable myocardium) required for the diagnosis of spontaneous acute myocardial infarction versus those that did. From 2014 to 2015 we included 2018 consecutive patients undergoing 2546 surgeries. Patients had a median age of 74 years and 42% were women. PMI occurred after 397 of 2546 surgeries (16%; 95% confidence interval, 14%-17%) and was accompanied by typical chest pain in 24 of 397 patients (6%) and any ischemic symptoms in 72 of 397 (18%). Crude 30-day mortality was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-12.0) in patients with PMI versus 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9-2.0) in patients without PMI ( P PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for spontaneous acute myocardial infarction (280/397, 71%) versus those with at least 1 additional criterion (10.4%; 95% CI, 6.7-15.7, versus 8.7%; 95% CI, 4.2-16.7; P =0.684). PMI is a common complication after noncardiac surgery and, despite early detection during routine clinical screening, is associated with substantial short- and long-term mortality. Mortality seems comparable in patients with PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for

  9. Prognostic value of stress 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT after acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Xutao; Chen Zhi; Gao Shenghai; Shen Li; Li Shang'ai

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relativity of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with clinical, stress test and perfusion imaging parameters and to assess predictive value on hard events of cardiac death or recurrent nonfatal AMI. Methods: One hundred and one patients of AMI underwent stress 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT before discharge. Hard and soft events were followed-up, relative factors with cardiac events were analyzed by statistical methods and predictive value on hard events were assessed. Results: Independent predictors by multivariate analysis for cardiac hard events or all cardiac events consisted of a history of prior AMI (RR=5.30, CI 2.17-12.98), a low exercise capacity (RR=6.28, CI 1.92-21.46) and left ventricular ejection fraction 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT is a single test that can provide exercise parameter, cardiac perfusion imaging information and left ventricular function assessment to identify high-risk and estimate hard prognosis at discharge of AMI patients. These high-risk patients can be referred for early invasive evaluation and intervention

  10. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and un...

  11. Effect of Adjunctive Thrombus Aspiration on In-Hospital and 3-Year Outcomes in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Large Native Coronary Artery Thrombus Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Kaya, Adnan; Tatlısu, Mustafa Adem; Uzman, Osman; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Çinier, Göksel; Tekkeşin, Ahmet İlker; Türkkan, Ceyhan; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Kozan, Ömer

    2017-11-15

    Although the long-term clinical benefit of adjunctive thrombus aspiration (TA) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remains controversial, the impact of TA in patients with large thrombus has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of adjunctive TA during PPCI on clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and a large thrombus. We assessed the effect of adjunctive TA on in-hospital and 3-year clinical outcomes in 627 patients with STEMI and a large thrombus in the native coronary artery. The cumulative 3-year incidence of all-cause death was not significantly different between the 2 groups (91.5% vs 89.0%, log-rank test p = 0.347). After adjusting for confounders, the risk of all-cause death in the TA group was not significantly lower than that in the non-TA group (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 3.54, p = 0.674). The adjusted risks of target lesion revascularization, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis were also not significantly different between the 2 groups. In conclusion, adjunctive TA during PPCI was not associated with better in-hospital and 3-year all-cause deaths in patients with STEMI and a large coronary artery thrombus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part II. Risk stratification with dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Dijkman, Paul R.M. van; Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia. Clinical data and dobutamine-CMR results were analyzed in 299 consecutive patients. Follow-up data were analyzed in categories of risk levels defined by the history of coronary artery disease and presence of rest wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as evaluated end points included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and clinically indicated coronary revascularization. Follow-up was completed in 214 (99%) patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study (no signs of inducible myocardial ischemia) with an average of 24 months. The patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study and RWMA showed a significantly higher annual MACE rate (18%) than the patients without RWMA (0.56%) (P<0.001). Patients without RWMA showed an annual MACE rate of 2% when they had a history of coronary artery disease and <0.1% without a previous coronary event (P<0.001). Dobutamine-CMR showed a positive and negative predictive value of 95 and 93%, respectively. The cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 96.2%. In patients suspected of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine-CMR is able to assess risk levels for coronary events with high accuracy. (orig.)

  13. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part II. Risk stratification with dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan [State University and Academic Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Bronovolaan 1, P.O. Box 96900, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkman, Paul R.M. van [Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Bronovolaan 1, P.O. Box 96900, The Hague (Netherlands); Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs [State University and Academic Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia. Clinical data and dobutamine-CMR results were analyzed in 299 consecutive patients. Follow-up data were analyzed in categories of risk levels defined by the history of coronary artery disease and presence of rest wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as evaluated end points included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and clinically indicated coronary revascularization. Follow-up was completed in 214 (99%) patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study (no signs of inducible myocardial ischemia) with an average of 24 months. The patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study and RWMA showed a significantly higher annual MACE rate (18%) than the patients without RWMA (0.56%) (P<0.001). Patients without RWMA showed an annual MACE rate of 2% when they had a history of coronary artery disease and <0.1% without a previous coronary event (P<0.001). Dobutamine-CMR showed a positive and negative predictive value of 95 and 93%, respectively. The cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 96.2%. In patients suspected of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine-CMR is able to assess risk levels for coronary events with high accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part II. Risk stratification with dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Janssen, Caroline H C; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia. Clinical data and dobutamine-CMR results were analyzed in 299 consecutive patients. Follow-up data were analyzed in categories of risk levels defined by the history of coronary artery disease and presence of rest wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as evaluated end points included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and clinically indicated coronary revascularization. Follow-up was completed in 214 (99%) patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study (no signs of inducible myocardial ischemia) with an average of 24 months. The patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study and RWMA showed a significantly higher annual MACE rate (18%) than the patients without RWMA (0.56%) ( P<0.001). Patients without RWMA showed an annual MACE rate of 2% when they had a history of coronary artery disease and <0.1% without a previous coronary event ( P<0.001). Dobutamine-CMR showed a positive and negative predictive value of 95 and 93%, respectively. The cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 96.2%. In patients suspected of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine-CMR is able to assess risk levels for coronary events with high accuracy.

  15. Race and Sex Differences in the Incidence and Prognostic Significance of Silent Myocardial Infarction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Rautaharju, Pentti M; Prineas, Ronald J; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Loehr, Laura; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kitzman, Dalane; Couper, David; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2016-05-31

    Race and sex differences in silent myocardial infarction (SMI) are not well established. The analysis included 9498 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (visit 1, 1987-1989). Incident SMI was defined as ECG evidence of MI without clinically documented MI (CMI) after the baseline until ARIC visit 4 (1996-1998). Coronary heart disease and all-cause deaths were ascertained starting from ARIC visit 4 until 2010. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 317 participants (3.3%) developed SMI and 386 (4.1%) developed CMI. The incidence rates of both SMI and CMI were higher in men (5.08 and 7.96 per 1000-person years, respectively) than in women (2.93 and 2.25 per 1000-person years, respectively; Prace were detected. SMI represents >45% of incident MIs and is associated with poor prognosis. Race and sex differences in the incidence and prognostic significance of SMI exist that may warrant considering SMI in personalized assessments of coronary heart disease risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Global longitudinal strain predicts incident atrial fibrillation and stroke occurrence after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Pedersen, Sune; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2016-01-01

    myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients had an echocardiogram performed at a median of 2 days after their STEMI. The echocardiograms consisted of conventional measurements and myocardial strain analysis by speckle tracking from 3 apical projections...

  17. Role of myocardial ischemia on exercise-induced ST elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kouhei; Haze, Kazuo; Fukami, Ken-ichi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    1986-01-01

    Exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) has been recognized to be related to left ventricular (LV) asynergy, however it is also recognized that myocardial ischemia can induce ST elevation. In this study, factors which determine the extent of ST elevation, with special reference to myocardial ischemia, was re-evaluated using quantitative analysis of stress myocardial scintigraphy (S-SG). Among 65 patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction and documented single vessel disease of left anterior descending artery (LAD), 19 patients who had exercise-induced ST elevation (ΔST ≥ 2.0 mm) had more abnormal Q waves (p < 0.01), lower LV ejection fraction (EF) (p < 0.01), more severe LV asynergy (p < 0.05) and less incidence of post-MI angina pectoris (AP) (p < 0.01), compared to those with ΔST < 2.0 mm, indicating that ST elevation is primarily related to LV asynergy. Correlation studies among clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic parameters show that ΔST was significantly related to a size of MI represented by Tl score or relative defect Tl activity and number of abnormal Q waves (No.Q), the magnitude of work load expressed by changes in double product (ΔDP) and intervals between the onset and exercise test, as well as myocardial ischemia expressed by the extent of redistribution (%RD) in S-SG. Among 23 patients with post-MI AP, ΔST significantly correlated with %RD (r = 0.47), indicating that myocardial ischemia can be a mechanism of exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous MI. Furtheremore, among those with ST elevation, concave-type ST elevation was more related to myocardial ischemia compared to convex-type ST elevation as expressed by the incidence of post-MI AP and/or significant redistribution. (J.P.N.)

  18. Prognostic value of biological markers in myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander E; Samura, Tatiana A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9, and NT-pro-natriuretic peptide for fatal and nonfatal complications in Q-wave myocardial infarction patients in the acute and postinfarction periods. 85 men and women with documented Q-wave myocardial infarction were observed for 1 year after hospitalization. Clinical endpoints were identified through the hospital patient-tracking system, with a review of medical records for each recorded endpoint. Left ventricular ejection fraction and wall motion index were calculated. Measurements of matrix metalloproteinases and NT-pro-natriuretic peptide were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A cutoff value of 9.7 ng·mL(-1) for matrix metalloproteinase-3 showed the best discriminatory power (sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 90.8%). The optimal cutoff value of matrix metalloproteinase-9 was 18.1 ng·mL(-1) (sensitivity, 70.5%; specificity, 75%), and the cutoff for NT-pro-natriuretic peptide was 885 pmol·L(-1) (sensitivity, 58%; specificity, 68.6%). Matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9 were strongly related with a positive prognostic value of 70% (sensitivity and specificity, 84% and 82%, respectively). These data may be helpful for further stratification of patients into cardiovascular mortality risk groups.

  19. Thoracic epidural analgesia reduces myocardial injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad MF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Farouk Mohamad,1 Montaser A Mohammad,1 Diab F Hetta,1 Eman Hasan Ahmed,2 Ahmed A Obiedallah,3 Alaa Ali M Elzohry1 1Department of Anesthesia, ICU and Pain Relief, 2Department of Clinical Pathology, South Egypt Cancer Institute, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Arab Republic of Egypt Background and objectives: Major abdominal cancer surgeries are associated with significant perioperative mortality and morbidity due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. This study examined the effect of perioperative patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA on occurrence of ischemic cardiac injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery.Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II and III of either sex were scheduled for elective upper gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups (60 patients each to receive, besides general anesthesia: continuous intra and postoperative intravenous (IV infusion with fentanyl for 72 h postoperatively (patient controlled intravenous analgesia [PCIA] group or continuous intra and postoperative epidural infusion with bupivacaine 0.125% and fentanyl (PCEA group for 72 h postoperatively. Perioperative hemodynamics were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed over 72 h using visual analog scale (VAS. All patients were screened for occurrence of myocardial injury (MI by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and cardiac troponin I serum level. Other postoperative complications as arrhythmia, deep venous thrombosis (DVT, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and death were recorded.Results: There was a significant reduction in overall adverse cardiac events (myocardial injury, arrhythmias, angina, heart failure and nonfatal cardiac arrest in PCEA group in comparison to PCIA group. Also, there was a significant reduction in dynamic VAS pain score in group PCEA in comparison

  20. Incidence and hospital mortality of vascular surgery patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) and prognostically relevant myocardial injury following non-cardiac surgery (MINS) increases perioperative mortality. Studies in vascular patients show an increased incidence and mortality from PMI. However, there remains limited data on the relative prognostic ...

  1. Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Aronow, Herbert D; Abbott, J Dawn; Bhatt, Deepak L; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2018-03-27

    Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction, which can result in cardiogenic shock. Data on the relation of diabetes and the occurrence and prognosis of cardiogenic shock postacute myocardial infarction are scant. Among the National Inpatient Sample patients aged ≥18 years and hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction during the 2012-2014 period, we examined the association between diabetes and the incidence and outcomes of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction, using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Of 1,332,530 hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, 72,765 (5.5%) were complicated by cardiogenic shock. In acute myocardial infarction patients, cardiogenic shock incidence was higher among those with vs without diabetes (5.8% vs 5.2%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.19; P diabetes. Diabetic patients were less likely to undergo revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) (67.1% vs 68.7%; aOR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = .003). Diabetes was associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock (37.9% vs 36.8%; aOR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.28; P diabetes had a longer hospital stay (mean ± SEM: 11.6 ± 0.16 vs 10.9 ± 0.16 days; adjusted estimate 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiogenic shock and worse outcomes in those with cardiogenic shock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  3. Evaluating the effect of PTCA by exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jinghui

    1992-01-01

    In this study, 44 patients after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were followed up by exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging. In 28 patients with myocardial ischemia after PTCA, myocardial imaging of 75.0% patients reverted to normal or approximately normal. In 16 patients of myocardial infarction with ischemia after PTCA, myocardial imaging of only 37.5% patients reverted to normal or approximately normal, significantly less than myocardial ischemia. But the general efficacious incidence was similar in both groups. Most of 77 myocardial segments with complete or obvious redistribution returned to normal imaging after PTCA. During the follow-up coronary artery restenosis occurred in 6 cases, 5 of which were confirmed by coronary arteriography. Restenosis may be discovered as soon as possible, if a patient was reexamined by myocardial imaging 2-6 months after PTCA. The results of this study indicated that myocardial imaging is a noninvasive and reliable method for the assessment of PTCA therapeutic effect and follow up studies

  4. Does menopausal hormone therapy reduce myocardial infarction risk if initiated early after menopause? A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Germán D; Berglund, Anita; Gigante, Bruna; Landgren, Britt-Marie; de Faire, Ulf; Hallqvist, Johan; Leander, Karin

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to assess whether the timing of menopausal hormone therapy initiation in relation to onset of menopause and hormone therapy duration is associated with myocardial infarction risk. This study was based on the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study including 347 postmenopausal women who had experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction and 499 female control individuals matched for age and residential area. Odds ratios (with 95% CIs) for myocardial infarction were calculated using logistic regression. Early initiation of hormone therapy (within 10 y of onset of menopause or before age 60 y), compared with never use, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.58-1.30) after adjustments for lifestyle factors, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. For late initiation of hormone therapy, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.53-1.76). For hormone therapy duration of 5 years or more, compared with never use, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.35-1.18). For hormone therapy duration of less than 5 years, the odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.63-1.48). Neither the timing of hormone therapy initiation nor the duration of therapy is significantly associated with myocardial infarction risk.

  5. Spatial analysis of myocardial infarction in Iran: National report from the Iranian myocardial infarction registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction (MI is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Iran. No spatial analysis of MI has been conducted to date. The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of MI incidence and to identify the associated factors in Iran by province. Materials and Methods: This study has two parts. One part is prospective and hospital-based, and the other part is an ecological study. In this study, the data of 20,750 new MI cases registered in Iranian Myocardial Infarction Registry in 2012 were used. For spatial analysis in global and local, spatial autocorrelation, Moran′s I, Getis-Ord, and logistic regression models were used. Data were analyzed by Stata software and ArcGIS 9.3. Results: Based on autocorrelation coefficient, a specific pattern was observed in the distribution of MI incidence in different provinces (Moran′s I: 0.75, P < 0.001. Spatial pattern of incidence was approximately the same in men and women. MI incidence was clustering in six provinces (North Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Semnan, Golestan, and Mazandaran. Out of the associated factors with clustered MI in six provinces, temperature, humidity, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI could be mentioned. Hypertension, smoking, and BMI contributed to clustering with, respectively, 2.36, 1.31, and 1.31 odds ratio. Conclusion: Addressing the place-based pattern of incidence and clarifying their epidemiologic dimension, including spatial analysis, has not yet been implemented in Iran. Report on MI incidence rate by place and formal borders is useful and is used in the planning and prioritization in different levels of health system.

  6. Plasma Ceramides, Mediterranean Diet, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong D.; Toledo, Estefanía; Hruby, Adela; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.; Sun, Qi; Razquin, Cristina; Zheng, Yan; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Corella, Dolores; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Lapetra, José; Fito, Montserrat; Aros, Fernando; Serra-Majem, Luis; Lee, Chih-Hao; Clish, Clary B.; Liang, Liming; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Hu, Frank B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although in vitro studies and investigations in animal models and small clinical populations have suggested that ceramides may represent an intermediate link between over-nutrition and certain pathological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD), no prospective studies have investigated the association between plasma ceramides and risk of CVD. Methods The study population consisted of 980 participants from the PREDIMED trial, including 230 incident cases of CVD and 787 randomly selected participants at baseline (including 37 overlapping cases), followed for up to 7.4 years. Participants were randomized to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a MedDiet supplemented with nuts, or a control diet. Plasma ceramide concentrations were measured on a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics platform. The primary outcome was a composite of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or cardiovascular death. Hazard Ratios (HRs) were estimated with weighted Cox regression models, using Barlow weights to account for the case-cohort design. Results The multivariable HRs [95% confidence interval (CI)] comparing the extreme quartiles of plasma concentrations of C16:0, C22:0, C24:0 and C24:1 ceramides were 2.39 (1.49–3.83, P trend <0.001), 1.91 (1.21–3.01, P trend =0.003), 1.97 (1.21–3.01, P trend =0.004), and 1.73 (1.09–2.74, P trend =0.011), respectively. The ceramide score, calculated as a weighted sum of concentrations of four ceramides, was associated with a 2.18-fold higher risk of CVD across extreme quartiles (HR =2.18, 95% CI, 1.36–3.49, P trend <0.001). The association between baseline ceramide score and incident CVD varied significantly by treatment groups (P interaction =0.010). Participants with a higher ceramide score and assigned to either of the two active intervention arms of the trial showed similar CVD risk to those with a lower ceramide score, whereas participants

  7. Added prognostic value of ischaemic threshold in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging: a common-sense integration of exercise tolerance and ischaemia severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Cecilia [IRCCS AOU San Martino-National Institute for Cancer Research, CNR Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Section of Genoa c/o Nuclear Medicine, Pad. Sommariva, Genoa (Italy); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); Bauckneht, Matteo; Capitanio, Selene; Fiz, Francesco; Dib, Bassam; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa, IRCCS-AOU San Martino-National Institute for Cancer Research, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Health Science, Genoa (Italy); Daniele, Stefania; Cantoni, Valeria; Zampella, Emilia; Assante, Roberta; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy); Bruzzi, Paolo [IRCCS AOU San Martino-National Institute for Cancer Research, Epidemiology Unit, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Reversible ischaemia at radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) accurately predicts risk of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (major adverse cardiac events, MACE). This prognostic penetrance might be empowered by accounting for exercise tolerance as an indirect index of ischaemia severity. The present study aimed to verify this hypothesis integrating imaging assessment of ischaemia severity with exercise maximal rate pressure product (RPP) in a large cohort of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). We analysed 1,502 consecutive patients (1,014 men aged 59 ± 10 years) submitted to exercise stress/rest MPI. To account for exercise tolerance, the summed difference score (SDS) was divided by RPP at tracer injection providing a clinical prognostic index (CPI). Reversible ischaemia was documented in 357 patients (24 %) and was classified by SDS as mild (SDS 2-4) in 180, moderate (SDS 5-7) in 118 and severe (SDS >7) in 59. CPI values of ischaemic patients were clustered into tertiles with lowest and highest values indicating low and high risk, respectively. CPI modified SDS risk prediction in 119/357 (33 %) patients. During a 60-month follow-up, MACE occurred in 68 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that CPI significantly improved predictive power for MACE incidence with respect to SDS alone. Multivariate Cox analysis confirmed the additive independent value of CPI-derived information. Integration of ischaemic threshold and ischaemia extension and severity can improve accuracy of exercise MPI in predicting long-term outcome in a large cohort of patients with suspected or known CAD. (orig.)

  8. Incidence of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery: Experience at Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dyer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS is a newly recognised entity identified as an independent risk factor associated with increased 30-day all-cause mortality. MINS increases the risk of death in the perioperative period by ~10-fold. More than 80% of patients with MINS are asymptomatic, so the majority of diagnoses are missed. Awareness of MINS is therefore important for perioperative physicians.Objectives. To investigate the incidence of MINS after elective elevated-risk non-cardiac surgery at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (SA.Methods. Patients aged ≥45 years undergoing elective elevated-risk non-cardiac surgery were enrolled via convenience sampling. The new fifth-generation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood test was used postoperatively to identify MINS. Preoperative troponin levels were not measured.Results. Among 244 patients included in the study, the incidence of MINS was 4.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 2.8 - 8.5, which was not significantly different from that in a major international prospective observational study (VISION (8.0% (95% CI 7.5 - 8.4; p=0.080.Conclusions. Our SA cohort had a lower cardiovascular risk profile but a similar incidence of MINS to that described in international literature. The impact of MINS on morbidity and mortality is therefore likely to be proportionally higher in SA than in published international studies. The limited sample size and lower event rate weaken our conclusions. Larger studies are required to establish patient and surgical risk factors for MINS, allowing for revision of cardiovascular risk prediction models in SA. 

  9. States with low non-fatal injury rates have high fatality rates and vice-versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Burns, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    State-level injury rates or fatality rates are sometimes used in studies of the impact of various safety programs or other state policies. How much does the metric used affect the view of relative occupational risks among U.S. states? This paper uses a measure of severe injuries (fatalities) and of less severe injuries (non-fatal injuries with days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer-DART) to examine that issue. We looked at the correlation between the average DART injury rate (from the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses) and an adjusted average fatality rate (from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries) in the construction sector for states for 2003-2005 and for 2006-2008. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. The correlations between the fatal and non-fatal injury rates were between -0.30 and -0.70 for all construction and for the subsector of special trade contractors. The negative correlation was much smaller between the rate of fatal falls from heights and the rate of non-fatal falls from heights. Adjusting for differences in the industry composition of the construction sector across states had minor effects on these results. Although some have suggested that fatal and non-fatal injury rates should not necessarily be positively correlated, no one has suggested that the correlation is negative, which is what we find. We know that reported non-fatal rates are influenced by workers' compensation benefits and other factors. Fatality rates appear to be a more valid measure of risk. Efforts to explain the variations that we find should be undertaken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Factors associated with urban non-fatal road-accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitris; Carlucci, Fabio; Cirà, Andrea; Restaino, Marialuisa

    2018-02-05

    This paper reports on the factors associated with non-fatal urban-road accident severity. Data on accidents were gathered from the local traffic police in the City of Palermo, one of the six most populated cities in Italy. Findings from a mixed-effects logistic-regression model suggest that accident severity increases when two young drivers are involved, road traffic conditions are light/normal and when vehicles crash on a two-way road or carriageway. Speeding is more likely to cause slight or serious injury even when compared to a vehicle moving towards the opposite direction of traffic. An accident during the summer is more likely to result in a slight or serious injury than an accident during the winter, which is in line with evidence from Southern Europe and the Middle East. Finally, the severity of non-fatal accident injuries in an urban area of Southern Europe was significantly associated with speeding, the age of the driver and seasonality.

  11. Depression and Anxiety Screens as Predictors of 8-Year Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke in Primary Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jesse C; Hawkins, Misty A W; Khambaty, Tasneem; Perkins, Anthony J; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    Because depression and anxiety are typically studied in isolation, our purpose was to examine the relative importance of these overlapping emotional factors in predicting incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined depression and anxiety screens, and their individual items, as predictors of incident hard CVD events, myocardial infarction, and stroke for 8 years in a diverse sample of 2041 older primary care patients initially free of CVD. At baseline, participants completed self-report depression and anxiety screens. Data regarding CVD events were obtained from an electronic medical record system and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services analytic files. During follow-up, 683 (33%) experienced a CVD event. Cox proportional hazards models-adjusted for demographic and CVD risk factors-revealed that a positive anxiety screen, but not a positive depression screen, was associated with an increased risk of a hard CVD event in separate models (Years 0-3: anxiety hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-1.96, p anxiety HR = 0.99, CI = 0.81-1.21), p = .93; depression HR = 1.10, CI = 0.88-1.36, p = .41), as well as when entered into the same model (Years 0-3: anxiety HR = 1.53, CI = 1.20-1.95, p anxiety HR = 0.99, CI = 0.80-1.21, p = .99; depression HR = 1.03, CI = 0.82-1.29, p = .82). Analyses examining individual items and secondary outcomes showed that the anxiety-CVD association was largely driven by the feeling anxious item and the myocardial infarction outcome. Anxiety, especially feeling anxious, is a unique risk factor for CVD events in older adults, independent of conventional risk factors and depression. Anxiety deserves increased attention as a potential factor relevant to CVD risk stratification and a potential target of CVD primary prevention efforts.

  12. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... Patients who threaten deliberate self-harm and who have a history of previous NFSB, past psychiatric illness and physical or sexual abuse, are at a higher risk of this behaviour as compared to the general population.

  13. Prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia during exercise stress testing. Its relation to effort tolerance and myocardial perfusion abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, G; Sciammarella, M G; Rossetti, E E; Xuereb, R G; Xuereb, M; Bonetti, F; Carandente, O M; Margonato, A; Chierchia, S L

    1992-07-01

    The number of underperfused myocardial segments, the extent of coronary artery disease and the severity of impairment of coronary flow reserve were compared in 147 consecutive patients exhibiting painful or painless ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise testing. Of 147 patients, only 61 (41%) experienced angina (group 1) whilst 86 (59%) did not (group 2). In the two groups coronary disease was comparable for both extent and distribution, and neither the location of transient perfusion defects nor their relation to areas of old myocardial necrosis appeared to influence the presence or absence of chest pain. However, exercise duration, exercise time and rate-pressure product at the beginning of ischaemia were lower in group 1. Furthermore, a greater proportion of asymptomatic patients had only one ischaemic segment on 99mTc-MIBI perfusion scintigraphy. We conclude that: (1) in patients with effort angina and coronary disease, the incidence of electrocardiographic silent ischaemic events induced by exercise is similar to that observed in studies based on continuous ECG monitoring. (2) Exertional angina is more frequently associated with greater ischaemic areas and with more severe degrees of impairment of residual coronary flow reserve. (3) The presence of an old myocardial infarction does not appear to influence the incidence of ischaemic cardiac pain.

  14. The effect of valsartan, captopril, or both on atherosclerotic events after acute myocardial infarction: an analysis of the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, John; Solomon, Scott; Pieper, Karen

    2006-01-01

    failure, most treated with an ACE inhibitor). One of the main active controlled trials was confounded by a blood pressure difference between treatments. METHODS: We compared the effects of captopril, valsartan, and their combination on atherosclerotic events in 14,703 patients randomized in the Valsartan...... in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT). RESULTS: The number of individuals adjudicated as having a fatal or non-fatal MI in the captopril group was 559 (total investigator reported events 798), 587 (796) in the valsartan group, and 554 (756) in the combination group; valsartan versus captopril, p...... = 0.651 (0.965); combination versus captopril, p = 0.187 (0.350). Overall, all atherosclerotic events examined occurred at a similar frequency in the captopril and valsartan groups. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin receptor blockers appear to be as effective as ACE inhibitors in reducing atherosclerotic...

  15. Aspirin effect on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghali William A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin has been recommended for the prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular death in diabetic patients without previous cardiovascular disease. However, recent meta-analyses have prompted re-evaluation of this practice. The study objective was to evaluate the relative and absolute benefits and harms of aspirin for the prevention of incident MACE in patients with diabetes. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on seven studies (N = 11,618 reporting on the use of aspirin for the primary prevention of MACE in patients with diabetes. Two reviewers conducted a systematic search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and BIOSIS and hand searched bibliographies and clinical trial registries. Reviewers extracted data in duplicate, evaluated the quality of the trials, and calculated pooled estimates. Results A total of 11,618 participants were included in the analysis. The overall risk ratio (RR for MACE was 0.91 (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.82-1.00 with little heterogeneity among trials (I2 0.0%. Secondary outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.66-1.10, stroke (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.64-1.11, cardiovascular death (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.71-1.27, and all-cause mortality (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85-1.06. There were higher rates of hemorrhagic and gastrointestinal events. In absolute terms, these relative risks indicate that for every 10,000 diabetic patients treated with aspirin, 109 MACE may be prevented at the expense of 19 major bleeding events (with the caveat that the relative risk for the latter is not statistically significant. Conclusions The studies reviewed suggest that aspirin reduces the risk of MACE in patients with diabetes without cardiovascular disease, while also causing a trend toward higher rates of bleeding and gastrointestinal complications

  16. Long-term outcomes of left bundle branch block in high-risk survivors of acute myocardial infarction: the VALIANT experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Kent; Skali, Hicham; McMurray, John J V

    2006-01-01

    was to determine if new LBBB is an independent predictor of long-term fatal and nonfatal outcomes in high-risk survivors of MI by reviewing data from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial. METHODS: In VALIANT, 14,703 patients with LV systolic dysfunction and/or HF were randomized...... to valsartan, captopril, or both a mean of 5 days after MI. Baseline ECG data were available from 14,259 patients. We assessed the predictive value of new LBBB for death and major cardiovascular outcomes after 3 years, adjusting for multiple baseline covariates including LV ejection fraction. RESULTS...

  17. Prognostic implications of left ventricular mass and geometry following myocardial infarction: the VALIANT (VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion) Echocardiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anil; Meris, Alessandra; Skali, Hicham; Ghali, Jalal K; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Bourgoun, Mikhail; Velazquez, Eric J; McMurray, John J V; Kober, Lars; Pfeffer, Marc A; Califf, Robert M; Solomon, Scott D

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to understand prognostic implications of increased baseline left ventricular (LV) mass and geometric patterns in a high risk acute myocardial infarction. The LV hypertrophy and alterations in LV geometry are associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Quantitative echocardiographic analyses were performed at baseline in 603 patients from the VALIANT (VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion) echocardiographic study. The left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Patients were classified into 4 mutually exclusive groups based on RWT and LVMi as follows: normal geometry (normal LVMi and normal RWT), concentric remodeling (normal LVMi and increased RWT), eccentric hypertrophy (increased LVMi and normal RWT), and concentric hypertrophy (increased LVMi and increased RWT). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationships among LVMi, RWT, LV geometry, and clinical outcomes. Mean LVMi and RWT were 98.8 +/- 28.4 g/m(2) and 0.38 +/- 0.08. The risk of death or the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, reinfarction, heart failure, stroke, or resuscitation after cardiac arrest was lowest for patients with normal geometry, and increased with concentric remodeling (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9 to 4.9), eccentric hypertrophy (HR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.8), and concentric hypertrophy (HR: 5.4; 95% CI: 3.4 to 8.5), after adjusting for baseline covariates. Also, baseline LVMi and RWT were associated with increased mortality and nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes (HR: 1.22 per 10 g/m(2) increase in LVMi; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.30; p independent of LVMi. Increased baseline LV mass and abnormal LV geometry portend an increased risk for morbidity and mortality following high-risk myocardial infarction. Concentric LV hypertrophy carries the greatest risk of adverse cardiovascular events including death. Higher RWT was associated with an

  18. Myocardial infarction false alarm: initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Esha Das; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of a myocardial infarction "false alarm" and evaluate the efficacy of the initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia. We recruited patients who were admitted with suspected myocardial infarction from June to August 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed for the initial electrocardiogram, initial cardiac enzyme levels (creatinine kinase-MB and troponin T), and the final diagnosis upon discharge. The subjects were stratified into 2 groups: true myocardial infarction, and false alarm. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. Following admission and further evaluation, the diagnosis was revised from myocardial infarction to other medical conditions in 48 (38.4%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the initial ischemic electrocardiographic changes were 54.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Raised cardiac enzymes had a sensitivity of 44.3% and specificity of 95.8%. A significant proportion of patients in Malaysia are admitted with a false-alarm myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia was comparable to the findings of Western studies, but the cardiac enzymes had a much lower sensitivity.

  19. Alcohol and the risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, M; Rosenkranz, S; Erdmann, E; Böhm, M

    2001-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly demonstrated a beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the incidence of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and overall mortality. The latter increases with excessive alcohol consumption. Although most epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of alcohol consumption independent from the specific kind of alcoholic beverage, there is increasing evidence that wine and in particular red wine might contain pharmacological substances, which prevent atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction independent from the wine ethanol. Pathophysiological mechanisms mediating these beneficial effects include effects of wine phenols and tannins on LDL-cholesterol oxidation status, thrombocyte aggregation, endothelial function and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Identification and characterization of the pharmacologically active substances might provide the stage for the development of new substances to be used in the prevention of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction.

  20. Prognosis of patients with positive exercise test and normal myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(Ex-MPI) is regarded as a predictive technique particularly in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) capable of performing exercise testing. In clinical practice, we encounter equivocal situations of discordant findings between exercise ECG and MPI. We evaluated the prognosis of subjects with positive ECG and normal MPI findings, and predictive factors for cardiac events. 2571 Ex-MPI studies were reviewed over a period of 3 years. Subjects were followed for more than 2 years(24-56 months, mean 35{+-}10months) for cardiac events after study. The cardiac events were defined as hard events(cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction(MI)) and soft events(aggravation of CAD necessitating revascularization, congestive heart failure necessitating hospital admission). We evaluated age, sex, typical angina pain, rest ECG, hypertension, diabetes mellitus(DM), serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, smoking history, history of cerebrovascular disease(CVD) and peripheral artery disease(PAD), and rest left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) as clinical variables. Of 83 subjects with positive ECG and normal MPS findings, 6 were considered as false negative results confirmed with coronary angiography. There were 77 patients (mean age 52{+-}10 years, 39 males) with positive ECG and normal MPI results. During the follow-up period, of 77 there were 3 cardiac events (annual rate 1.9%), no cardiac death, 2 nonfatal MIs (annual rate 1.3%) and 1 soft event (annual rate 0.6%). 2/39 males(5.1%), and 1/38 females(2.6%) had cardiac events. All cardiac events were observed within 2 years. 1-year cardiac event rate was 0.6% and 2-year cardiac event rate was 1.9%. Among clinical factors, male sex, typical chest pain and smoking history at the time of MPI were predictive of cardiac events. Patients with positive ECG and negative EX-MPI results have low risk for cardiac events. Nevertheless, the cardiac events cannot be excluded totally in some

  1. Prognosis of patients with positive exercise test and normal myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B

    2004-01-01

    Exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(Ex-MPI) is regarded as a predictive technique particularly in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) capable of performing exercise testing. In clinical practice, we encounter equivocal situations of discordant findings between exercise ECG and MPI. We evaluated the prognosis of subjects with positive ECG and normal MPI findings, and predictive factors for cardiac events. 2571 Ex-MPI studies were reviewed over a period of 3 years. Subjects were followed for more than 2 years(24-56 months, mean 35±10months) for cardiac events after study. The cardiac events were defined as hard events(cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction(MI)) and soft events(aggravation of CAD necessitating revascularization, congestive heart failure necessitating hospital admission). We evaluated age, sex, typical angina pain, rest ECG, hypertension, diabetes mellitus(DM), serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, smoking history, history of cerebrovascular disease(CVD) and peripheral artery disease(PAD), and rest left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) as clinical variables. Of 83 subjects with positive ECG and normal MPS findings, 6 were considered as false negative results confirmed with coronary angiography. There were 77 patients (mean age 52±10 years, 39 males) with positive ECG and normal MPI results. During the follow-up period, of 77 there were 3 cardiac events (annual rate 1.9%), no cardiac death, 2 nonfatal MIs (annual rate 1.3%) and 1 soft event (annual rate 0.6%). 2/39 males(5.1%), and 1/38 females(2.6%) had cardiac events. All cardiac events were observed within 2 years. 1-year cardiac event rate was 0.6% and 2-year cardiac event rate was 1.9%. Among clinical factors, male sex, typical chest pain and smoking history at the time of MPI were predictive of cardiac events. Patients with positive ECG and negative EX-MPI results have low risk for cardiac events. Nevertheless, the cardiac events cannot be excluded totally in some

  2. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Pereira de Araujo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1 or positive (G2 for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%. During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016. The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022 and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.

  3. Geographical variation in cardiovascular incidence: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women shows regional variations not explained by common risk factors. Analysis of CVD incidence will provide insight into whether there is further divergence between regions with increasing age. Methods Seven-year follow-up data on 2685 women aged 59-80 (mean 69 at baseline from 23 towns in the UK were available from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Time to fatal or non-fatal CVD was analyzed using Cox regression with adjustment for risk factors, using multiple imputation for missing values. Results Compared to South England, CVD incidence is similar in North England (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.84, 1.31 and Scotland (0.93 (0.68, 1.27, but lower in Midlands/Wales (0.85 (0.64, 1.12. Event severity influenced regional variation, with South England showing lower fatal incident CVD than other regions, but higher non-fatal incident CVD. Kaplan-Meier plots suggested that regional divergence in CVD occurred before baseline (before mean baseline age of 69. Conclusions In women, regional differences in CVD early in adult life do not further diverge in later life. This may be due to regional differences in early detection, survivorship of women entering the study, or event severity. Targeting health care resources for CVD by geographic variation may not be appropriate for older age-groups.

  4. Intensive glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Lund, Søren; Gluud, Christian Nyfeldt

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of targeting intensive glycaemic control versus conventional glycaemic control on all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, microvascular complications, and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.......To assess the effect of targeting intensive glycaemic control versus conventional glycaemic control on all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, microvascular complications, and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  5. Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellström, Bengt C; Jardine, Alan G; Schmieder, Roland E

    2009-01-01

    . Secondary end points included death from all causes and individual cardiac and vascular events. RESULTS: After 3 months, the mean reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels was 43% in patients receiving rosuvastatin, from a mean baseline level of 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter......BACKGROUND: Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, a benefit of statins in such patients who are undergoing hemodialysis has not been proved. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, prospective...... trial involving 2776 patients, 50 to 80 years of age, who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. We randomly assigned patients to receive rosuvastatin, 10 mg daily, or placebo. The combined primary end point was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke...

  6. Exercise-induced ST-segment depression and myocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Myocardial scintigraphic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Taniguchi, Takuya; Kamitani, Tadaaki; Kawasaki, Shingo; Sugihara, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) sometimes develop myocardial ischemia during exercise in the absence of coronary lesions. The relationship between myocardial ischemia and ST-segment depression was investigated during exercise testing in patients with HCM. Regional hypoperfusion and/or transient left ventricular cavity dilation, a parameter of subendocardial hypoperfusion, were assessed on exercise 99 m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy in 42 patients with non-obstructive HCM. The scintigraphic results were further correlated with the ST-segment responses to exercise. Regional hypoperfusion or transient left ventricular cavity dilation were observed in 19 (45%) or 16 (38%) patients with HCM, respectively. The incidence of ST-segment depression ≥0.1 mV during exercise testing was similar in HCM patients with regional hypoperfusion, with transient left ventricular cavity dilation, and without hypoperfusion (42%, 38%, 38%, p=0.95). Furthermore, exercise-induced ST-segment depression ≥0.1 mV occurred similarly irrespective of symptoms, exercise tolerance, the degree or the site of hypertrophy, or the presence or absence of resting ST-segment depression. ST-segment depression during exercise testing was common in patients with HCM, but seems to be an unreliable marker of myocardial ischemia as assessed by exercise scintigraphy. (author)

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease, Basal Insulin Glargine, and Health Outcomes in People with Dysglycemia: The ORIGIN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Nylen, Eric S; Doumas, Michael; Probstfield, Jeff; Mann, Johannes F E; Gilbert, Richard E; Gerstein, Hertzel C

    2017-12-01

    Early stages of chronic kidney disease are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with established type 2 diabetes and macrovascular disease. The role of early stages of chronic kidney disease on macrovascular outcomes in prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes mellitus is not known. In the Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial, the introduction of insulin had no effect on cardiovascular outcomes compared with standard therapy. In this post hoc analysis of ORIGIN, we compared cardiovascular outcomes in subjects without to those with mild (Stages 1-2) or moderate chronic kidney disease (Stage 3). Τwo co-primary composite cardiovascular outcomes were assessed. The first was the composite end point of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes; and the second was a composite of any of these events plus a revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for heart failure. Several secondary outcomes were prespecified, including microvascular outcomes, incident diabetes, hypoglycemia, weight, and cancers. Complete renal function data were available in 12,174 of 12,537 ORIGIN participants. A total of 8114 (67%) had no chronic kidney disease, while 4060 (33%) had chronic kidney disease stage 1-3. When compared with nonchronic kidney disease participants, the risk of developing the composite primary outcome (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death) in those with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease was 87% higher; hazard ratio (HR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.71-2.04 (P chronic kidney disease 1-3 was also associated with a greater than twofold higher risk for both all-cause mortality (HR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.98-2.38; P chronic kidney disease had significantly higher risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction (50%), nonfatal stroke (68%), any stroke (84%), the above composite primary end point plus revascularization or heart failure requiring

  8. Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been associated to cardiovascular risk factors. However, the association between OSA and cardiovascular disease is still controversial. The objective of the present study was to verify the association between OSA and myocardial infarction (MI. This is a systematic review of the literature performed through electronic data sources MEDLINE/PubMed, PubMed Central, Web of Science and BVS -Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Virtual Health Library. The descriptors used were: 'obstructive sleep apnea' AND 'polysomnography' AND 'myocardial infarction' AND 'adults NOT 'treatment.' The present work analysed three prospective studies, selected from 142 articles. The studies followed a total sample of 5,067 OSA patients, mostly composed by male participants. All patients underwent night polysomnography, and all studies found an association between OSA and fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes. Thus, we were able to observe that 644 (12.7% of the 5,067 patients suffered MI or stroke, or required a revascularization procedure, and 25.6% of these cardiovascular events were fatal. MI was responsible for 29.5% of all 644 analysed outcomes. There is an association between OSA and MI, in male patients, and apnea and hypopnea index (AHI are the most reliable markers.

  9. Work-related nonfatal injuries in Alaska's aviation industry, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Samantha L; Moller, Kyle M; Nix, Nancy A; Lucas, Devin L; Snyder, Elizabeth H; O'Connor, Mary B

    2018-04-01

    Aviation is a critical component of life in Alaska, connecting communities off the road system across the state. Crash-related fatalities in the state are well understood and many intervention efforts have been aimed at reducing aircraft crashes and resulting fatalities; however, nonfatal injuries among workers who perform aviation-related duties have not been studied in Alaska. This study aimed to characterize hospitalized nonfatal injuries among these workers using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry. During 2000-2013, 28 crash-related and 89 non-crash injuries were identified, spanning various occupational groups. Falls were a major cause of injuries, accounting for over half of non-crash injuries. Based on the study findings, aviation stakeholders should review existing policies and procedures regarding aircraft restraint systems, fall protection, and other injury prevention strategies. To supplement these findings, further study describing injuries that did not result in hospitalization is recommended.

  10. Non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka: associated triggers and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue

    2015-11-24

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning is common in Sri Lanka. To date, most preventive strategies have focused on limitation of access to toxic pesticides, which has reduced the rates of fatal self-poisoning. However the ongoing phenomenon of non-fatal self-poisoning indicates the need for exploration of alternate preventive strategies. Self-poisoning in Sri Lanka has been described as impulsive, with little premeditation, but the motivations associated with this act have not been studied in depth. This research describes the triggers and motivations associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. It is anticipated that the findings would help guide future preventive strategies. Two studies were carried out, at Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, each using a different methodology - Study 1 consisted of qualitative semi-structured interviews, and Study 2 was a cross sectional survey. Both studies were conducted among those who had recently attempted self-poisoning, and explored associated triggers and motivations associated with the act of self-poisoning. There was no overlap between participants of the two studies. A total of 24 persons participated in the semi-structured interviews (Study 1), and 921 took part in the cross-sectional survey (Study 2). Interpersonal conflict was the most common trigger prior to the act of non-fatal self-poisoning. A mixture of motivations was associated with the act of self-poisoning, including intent to die, to escape, and difficulty tolerating distress associated with interpersonal conflict. Development of interpersonal skills and interpersonal problem solving skills, particularly in adolescents and young people, emerges as a key primary preventive strategy. Further, there is value in exploring and helping people to develop more adaptive strategies to cope with emotional distress associated with interpersonal conflict. While distress tolerance and interpersonal skill training strategies used in the West may be

  11. Incidence of and case fatality following acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians (2000-2004): a linked data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2010-12-01

    Despite Coronary Heart Disease exacting a heavy toll among Aboriginal Australians, accurate estimates of its epidemiology are limited. This study compared the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 28-day case fatality (CF) among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years from 2000-2004. Incident (AMI hospital admission-free for 15 years) AMI events and 28-day CF were estimated using person-based linked hospital and mortality data. Age-standardised incidence rates and case fatality percentages were calculated by Aboriginality and sex. Of 740 Aboriginal and 6933 non-Aboriginal incident events, 208 and 2352 died within 28 days, respectively. The Aboriginal age-specific incidence rates were 27 (males) and 35 (females) times higher than non-Aboriginal rates in the 25-29 year age group, decreasing to 2-3 at 70-74 years. The male:female age-standardised incidence rate ratio was 2.2 in Aboriginal people 25-54 years compared with 4.5 in non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal age-standardised CF percentages were 1.4 (males) and 1.1 (females) times higher at age 25-54 years and 1.5 times higher at age 55-74 years. These data suggest higher CF and, more importantly, AMI incidence contribute to the excess ischaemic heart disease mortality in Aboriginal Western Australians. The poorer cardiovascular health in Aboriginal women, particularly in younger age groups, should be investigated. Copyright © 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion as predictors of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladenheim, M.L.; Pollock, B.H.; Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.S.; Staniloff, H.M.; Forrester, J.S.; Diamond, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion on thallium scintigraphy to predict coronary events was assessed in 1,689 patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease but without prior myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 74 patients had a coronary event in the year after testing (12 cardiac deaths, 20 nonfatal infarctions and 42 referrals for bypass surgery more than 60 days after testing). Stepwise logistic regression identified only three independent predictors: the number of myocardial regions with reversible hypoperfusion (an index of the extent of hypoperfusion), the maximal magnitude of hypoperfusion (an index of the severity of hypoperfusion) and the achieved heart rate (an index of exercise performance). Both extent and severity were exponentially correlated with event rate (r greater than 0.97 and p less than 0.01 for each), whereas achieved heart rate was linearly correlated with event rate (r = 0.79 and p less than 0.05). On the basis of these data, a prognostic model was defined that employs extent and severity as stress-dependent orthogonal variables. Using this model, the predicted coronary event rate ranged over two orders of magnitude--from a low of 0.4% in patients able to exercise adequately without developing severe and extensive hypoperfusion at a low heart rate (less than 85% of their maximal predicted heart rate). Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion, therefore, are important independent variables of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

  13. Outcome of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) compared to non BVS drug eluting stent in the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) — A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Rabin; Patra, Soumya; Banerjee, Suvro; Pande, Arindam; Khan, Aftab; Mandol, Prakash Chandra; Ghosh, Debashish; De, Swapan Kumar; Das, Sankha Subhro; Nag, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background: The safety and efficacy of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) in the management of “ST” segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are yet to be established. Aims: To evaluate immediate and short term safety and efficacy of the everolimus-eluting ABSORB BVS compared with non BVS drug eluting stent (DES) in patients with STEMI. Methods: From December 2013 to December 2014, 220 patients with STEMI were included in this study. Among them, 35 patients treated with BVS were compared with a control group composed of 180 patients who underwent non BVS DES implantation in the same time period. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: stent thrombosis: death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel/lesion revascularization) before discharge and up to six months was evaluated. Results: 1 vessel disease was more frequent whereas, 2 and 3 vessel disease was less frequent in BVS group. Procedural characteristics were also similar between groups, except for the use of post dilation (p = 0.04). Procedural success, in-hospital, and up to six-month MACE rates were similar between both groups. Definite or probable stent thrombosis did not occur (according to the ARC criteria) in BVS patients, though two patients during the index admission and another two patients in the first month after DES implantation had stent thrombosis. Conclusion: The use of the ABSORB BVS for STEMI is feasible and associated with good procedural safety, and angiographic success rate.

  14. Outcome of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) compared to non BVS drug eluting stent in the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) — A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Rabin; Patra, Soumya, E-mail: dr_soumyapatra@rediffmail.com; Banerjee, Suvro; Pande, Arindam; Khan, Aftab; Mandol, Prakash Chandra; Ghosh, Debashish; De, Swapan Kumar; Das, Sankha Subhro; Nag, Raja

    2016-04-15

    Background: The safety and efficacy of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) in the management of “ST” segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are yet to be established. Aims: To evaluate immediate and short term safety and efficacy of the everolimus-eluting ABSORB BVS compared with non BVS drug eluting stent (DES) in patients with STEMI. Methods: From December 2013 to December 2014, 220 patients with STEMI were included in this study. Among them, 35 patients treated with BVS were compared with a control group composed of 180 patients who underwent non BVS DES implantation in the same time period. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: stent thrombosis: death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel/lesion revascularization) before discharge and up to six months was evaluated. Results: 1 vessel disease was more frequent whereas, 2 and 3 vessel disease was less frequent in BVS group. Procedural characteristics were also similar between groups, except for the use of post dilation (p = 0.04). Procedural success, in-hospital, and up to six-month MACE rates were similar between both groups. Definite or probable stent thrombosis did not occur (according to the ARC criteria) in BVS patients, though two patients during the index admission and another two patients in the first month after DES implantation had stent thrombosis. Conclusion: The use of the ABSORB BVS for STEMI is feasible and associated with good procedural safety, and angiographic success rate.

  15. Prognostic value of intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute myocardial ischemic event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, L.T.; Byers, S.; Shaw, L.; Barth, G.; Goodgold, H.; Chaitman, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients recovering from an acute coronary event were studied by intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy to evaluate the prognostic value and safety of the test in this patient subset. Forty-four patients (58%) had unstable angina and 33 (42%) had an acute myocardial infarction. One death occurred within 24 hours of testing. Sixty-eight patients were followed for an average of 12 months; 25, 31 and 23% had a fixed, reversible or combined thallium defect on their predischarge thallium scan. During follow-up, 10 patients died or had a nonfatal myocardial infarction; in each case, a reversible or combined myocardial thallium defect was present. Univariate analysis of 17 clinical, scintigraphic and angiographic variables showed that a reversible thallium defect and the angiographically determined extent of coronary artery disease were predictors of future cardiac events. The extent of coronary disease and global left ventricular ejection fraction were predictors of subsequent reinfarction or death. Logistic regression analyses revealed that a reversible thallium defect (p less than 0.001) and the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.009) were the only significant predictors of a cardiac event. When death or reinfarction were the outcome variables, the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.02) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p less than 0.06) were the only variables selected. Thus, intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute coronary ischemic syndrome is a useful and relatively safe noninvasive test to predict subsequent cardiac events

  16. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stergiopoulos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Stergiopoulos1, Joseph J Brennan2, Robin Mathews1, John F Setaro2, Smadar Kort11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or possibly beneficial effect of the hormone in men and women. However, several cardiovascular complications including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, stroke, pulmonary embolism, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported with supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. We report a case of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with traditional cardiac risk factors using supraphysiologic doses of supplemental, intramuscular testosterone. In addition, this patient also had polycythemia, likely secondary to high-dose testosterone. The patient underwent successful percutaneous intervention of the right coronary artery. Phlebotomy was used to treat the polycythemia acutely. We suggest that the chronic and recent “stacked” use of intramuscular testosterone as well as the resultant polycythemia and likely increased plasma viscosity may have been contributing factors to this cardiovascular event, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Physicians and patients should be aware of the clinical consequences of anabolic steroid abuse.Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, anabolic steroid use, polycythemia

  17. Usefulness of Myocardial Annular Velocity Change During Mental Stress to Predict Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease (From the Responses of Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Fawaz; Brummett, Beverly H; Boyle, Stephen H; Samad, Zainab; Babyak, Michael A; Alzaeim, Nabil; Wilson, Jennifer; Romano, Minna M D; Sun, Julia L; Ersboll, Mads; O'Connor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J; Jiang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is common and a prognostic factor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study aimed at examining associations between mental stress-induced myocardial annular velocity (MAV) and cardiovascular outcome in patients with CAD. MAV, specifically, diastolic early (e'), diastolic late (a'), and systolic (s') velocities were obtained at rest and during mental stress testing in 224 patients with clinically stable CAD. Using Cox regression models, age, sex, and baseline-adjusted mental stress-induced MAV measures were examined as predictors of a priori defined composite event term that comprised all-cause mortality and/or nonfatal cardiovascular events, resulting in an unplanned hospitalization (major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE]). Median follow-up was 4 years. The sample was predominantly male, Caucasian with New York Heart Association functional class I and a mean age of 63 ± 10.2 years. MS-induced changes in e' (hazard ratio [HR] = .73) and s' (HR = .73) were significant (p Mental stress-induced MAV changes independently predict an adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients with stable CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction 1971-1994 in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Lundberg, Mats; Diderichsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    The general trend in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the Stockholm area changed from increasing to decreasing around 1980. The objective of this study is to examine time trends in incidence in major socioeconomic strata, relative risk between socioeconomic groups and population risk...... attributable to socioeconomic differences during this period....

  19. Complete revascularisation versus treatment of the culprit lesion only in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease (DANAMI-3—PRIMULTI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engstrøm, Thomas; Kelbæk, Henning; Helqvist, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel coronary disease have a worse prognosis compared with individuals with single-vessel disease. We aimed to study the clinical outcome of patients with STEMI treated with fractional flow reserve (FFR...... electronically via a web-based system in permuted blocks of varying size by the clinician who did the primary PCI. All patients received best medical treatment. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal reinfarction, and ischaemia-driven revascularization of lesions in non...

  20. Nitrogen-13-labeled ammonia for myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, W.F.; Fill, H.R.; Harper, P.V.

    1977-01-01

    Cyclotron-produced nitrogen-13 (half-life 10 min), as labeled ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/), has been evaluated as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent. The regional myocardial uptake of /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ has been shown to be proportional to regional tissue perfusion in animal studies. Intravenously administered /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ is rapidly cleared from the circulation, being extracted by the liver (15 percent), lungs, myocardium (2 percent--4 percent), brain, kidney, and bladder. Myocardial ammonia is metabolized mainly to glutamine via the glutamine synthetase pathway. Pulmonary uptake is substantial, but usually transient, except in smokers where clearance may be delayed. The positron annihilation irradiation (511 keV) of /sup 13/N may be imaged with a scintillation camera, using either a specially designed tungsten collimator or a pinhole collimator. After early technical problems with collimation and the production method of /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ were overcome, reproducible high quality myocardial images were consistently obtained. The normal myocardial image was established to be of a homogeneous ''doughnut'' configuration. Imaging studies performed in patients with varying manifestations of ischemic and valvular heart disease showed a high incidence of localized perfusion defects, especially in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Sequential studies at short intervals in patients with acute infarction showed correlation between alterations in regional perfusion and the clinical course of the patient. It is concluded that myocardial imaging with /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ and a scintillation camera provides a valid and noninvasive means of assessing regional myocardial perfusion. This method is especially suitable for sequential studies of acute cardiac patients at short intervals. Coincidence imaging of the 511 keV annihilation irradiation provides a tomographic and potentially quantitative assessment of the

  1. Prevalence and predictors of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J.; Kharagjitsingh, Antje V.; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in a cohort of truly asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using myocardial perfusion imaging by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Secondly, we determined which clinical characteristics may predict an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in this population. A total of 120 asymptomatic patients (mean age 53±10 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and one or more risk factors for coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging by means of adenosine 99m Tc sestamibi SPECT. Images were evaluated for the presence of perfusion abnormalities as well as other nonperfusion abnormalities that may indicate extensive ischaemia, including left ventricular dysfunction (defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction <45%), transient ischaemic dilatation and adenosine-induced ST segment depression. Multivariable analysis was performed using a backward selection strategy to identify potential predictors for an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study. Finally, all patients were followed up for 12 months to determine the occurrence of cardiovascular events: (1) cardiac death, (2) nonfatal myocardial infarction, (3) unstable angina requiring hospitalization, (4) revascularization, or (5) stroke. Of the 120 patients, 40 (33%) had an abnormal stress study, including myocardial perfusion abnormalities in 30 patients (25%). In 10 patients (8%), indicators of extensive (possibly balanced ischaemia) were observed in the absence of abnormal perfusion. The multivariable analysis identified current smoking, duration of diabetes and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio as independent predictors of an abnormal stress study. During a follow-up period of 12 months six patients (5%) had a cardiovascular event. The current study revealed

  2. Prevalence and predictors of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Kharagjitsingh, Antje V. [Medisch Centrum Haaglanden, Department of Internal Medicine, The Hague (Netherlands); Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in a cohort of truly asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using myocardial perfusion imaging by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Secondly, we determined which clinical characteristics may predict an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in this population. A total of 120 asymptomatic patients (mean age 53{+-}10 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and one or more risk factors for coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging by means of adenosine {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi SPECT. Images were evaluated for the presence of perfusion abnormalities as well as other nonperfusion abnormalities that may indicate extensive ischaemia, including left ventricular dysfunction (defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction <45%), transient ischaemic dilatation and adenosine-induced ST segment depression. Multivariable analysis was performed using a backward selection strategy to identify potential predictors for an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study. Finally, all patients were followed up for 12 months to determine the occurrence of cardiovascular events: (1) cardiac death, (2) nonfatal myocardial infarction, (3) unstable angina requiring hospitalization, (4) revascularization, or (5) stroke. Of the 120 patients, 40 (33%) had an abnormal stress study, including myocardial perfusion abnormalities in 30 patients (25%). In 10 patients (8%), indicators of extensive (possibly balanced ischaemia) were observed in the absence of abnormal perfusion. The multivariable analysis identified current smoking, duration of diabetes and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio as independent predictors of an abnormal stress study. During a follow-up period of 12 months six patients (5%) had a cardiovascular event. The current study

  3. Approach to chest pain and acute myocardial infarction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence accounts for 20 40% of the general population, with an incidence .... risk stratification for invasive v. conservative ... The optimal management of STEMI patients includes providing the fastest .... biochemical variables to estimate the short, intermediate and long .... Third universal definition of myocardial infarction.

  4. Impact of First Aid on Treatment Outcomes for Non-Fatal Injuries in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from an Injury and Demographic Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Islam, Md Irteja; Sharmin Salam, Shumona; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-Ur; Agrawal, Priyanka; Rahman, Aminur; Rahman, Fazlur; El-Arifeen, Shams; Hyder, Adnan A; Alonge, Olakunle

    2017-07-12

    Non-fatal injuries have a significant impact on disability, productivity, and economic cost, and first-aid can play an important role in improving non-fatal injury outcomes. Data collected from a census conducted as part of a drowning prevention project in Bangladesh was used to quantify the impact of first-aid provided by trained and untrained providers on non-fatal injuries. The census covered approximately 1.2 million people from 7 sub-districts of Bangladesh. Around 10% individuals reported an injury event in the six-month recall period. The most common injuries were falls (39%) and cuts injuries (23.4%). Overall, 81.7% of those with non-fatal injuries received first aid from a provider of whom 79.9% were non-medically trained. Individuals who received first-aid from a medically trained provider had more severe injuries and were 1.28 times more likely to show improvement or recover compared to those who received first-aid from an untrained provider. In Bangladesh, first-aid for non-fatal injuries are primarily provided by untrained providers. Given the large number of untrained providers and the known benefits of first aid to overcome morbidities associated with non-fatal injuries, public health interventions should be designed and implemented to train and improve skills of untrained providers.

  5. Acute myocardial infarction in a young patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Ata-ur-Rehman Quraishi

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is considered to be the disease of the fifth and sixth decade as seen in the West but an earlier age incidence is not infrequently encountered in the South Asian population. However, occurrence of MI in the teen-age still remains a rare happening. We are reporting a case of a teenager, who suffered a myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema on two separate occasions with ECG and biochemical evidence of myocardial infarction. An exercise stress test done in between the two episodes was negative at a workload of 13.5 METs. A coronary angiogram done after the second event revealed normal coronary arteries and a preserved left ventricular systolic and segmental function. Except for low HDL (high density lipoprotein) and mildly raised homocysteine levels, the patient did not have other conventional or novel risk factors for coronary artery disease. (author)

  6. Effects of acarbose on cardiovascular and diabetes outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance (ACE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rury R; Coleman, Ruth L; Chan, Juliana C N; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Feng, Huimei; Ge, Junbo; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Gray, Richard; Huo, Yong; Lang, Zhihui; McMurray, John J; Rydén, Lars; Schröder, Stefan; Sun, Yihong; Theodorakis, Michael J; Tendera, Michal; Tucker, Lynne; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Wei, Yidong; Yang, Wenying; Wang, Duolao; Hu, Dayi; Pan, Changyu

    2017-11-01

    The effect of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. We aimed to assess whether acarbose could reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events in Chinese patients with established coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance, and whether the incidence of type 2 diabetes could be reduced. The Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 4 trial, with patients recruited from 176 hospital outpatient clinics in China. Chinese patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned (1:1), in blocks by site, by a centralised computer system to receive oral acarbose (50 mg three times a day) or matched placebo, which was added to standardised cardiovascular secondary prevention therapy. All study staff and patients were masked to treatment group allocation. The primary outcome was a five-point composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, hospital admission for unstable angina, and hospital admission for heart failure, analysed in the intention-to-treat population (all participants randomly assigned to treatment who provided written informed consent). The secondary outcomes were a three-point composite outcome (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke), death from any cause, cardiovascular death, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal stroke, hospital admission for unstable angina, hospital admission for heart failure, development of diabetes, and development of impaired renal function. The safety population comprised all patients who received at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00829660, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN91899513. Between March 20, 2009

  7. Myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1989-01-01

    To investigate myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia, we performed exercise stress myocardial tomography with thallium-201 (Tl) in 85 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise stress myocardial tomography was obtained both immediately after exercise and three hours later. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence (Symptomatic Group, n=36) or absence (Silent Group, n=49) of chest pain during exercise stress. Clinical features (age, gender and history of myocardial infarction) and arteriographically determined severity of CAD were the same in both groups. The extent of myocardial ischemia (% Ischemia) estimated by exercise stress myocardial tomography was the same in each group (30±10 % in Silent Group, 28±12 % in Symptomatic Group, NS). The severity of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was expressed as a minimal value of myocardial Tl washout rate (minimal WOR) of each patient. Although exercise heart rate was identical in both groups, minimal WOR in Silent Group was significantly higher than that of Symptomatic Group (4±10% vs -16±14%, p<0.001). The study in patients who exhibited both silent and symptomatic ischemia showed the same results. These findings suggest that the severity of ischemia is a fundamental factor in determining the presence or absence of pain during exercise induced ischemia. (author)

  8. The electrocardiographic "triangular QRS-ST-T waveform" pattern in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Incidence, pathophysiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Alberto; D'Amico, Gianpiero; Brunello, Giulia; Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Migliore, Federico; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Bauce, Barbara; Iliceto, Sabino; Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    A specific ECG pattern of presentation of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), characterized by "triangular QRS-ST-T waveform" (TW), has been associated with poor in-hospital prognosis but longitudinal data on its incidence and clinical impact are lacking. We prospectively evaluated the incidence and prognostic meaning of the TW pattern in a cohort of consecutive STEMI patients. All STEMI patients who presented within 12h of symptoms onset and showed no complete bundle branch block or paced ventricular rhythm were included. The TW pattern was defined as a unique, giant wave (amplitude≥1mV) resulting from the fusion of the QRS complex, the ST-segment and the T-wave and showing a "triangular" morphology with a positive polarity in the leads exploring the ischemic region. Among 428 consecutive STEMI patients, 367 fulfilled the enrollment criteria. The TW pattern was identified in 5 of 367 patients (1.4%) on the admission ECG. This subset of STEMI patients with TW pattern significantly more often showed a left main coronary artery involvement (2/4, 50% vs 2/322, 0.6%; p<0.001), experienced ventricular fibrillation (5/5, 100% vs 35/362, 9.6% p<0.001), had cardiogenic shock (4/5, 80% vs. 14/362, 3.8%, p<0.001) and died during hospitalization (2/5, 40% vs 15/362, 4.1% p=0.02), compared with those with other ST-segment elevation ECG patterns. The TW pattern is an uncommon ECG finding, which reflects the presence of a large area of transmural myocardial ischemia and predicts cardiogenic shock accounting for high in-hospital mortality. When present, this ECG pattern should prompt aggressive therapeutic strategies, including mechanical support of circulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognostic value of high-dose dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging in 1,493 consecutive patients: assessment of myocardial wall motion and perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Elhmidi, Yacine; Steen, Henning; Schellberg, Dieter; Riedle, Nina; Ahrens, Johannes; Lehrke, Stephanie; Merten, Constanze; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Radeleff, Jannis; Zugck, Christian; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A

    2010-10-05

    This study sought to determine the prognostic value of wall motion and perfusion assessment during high-dose dobutamine stress (DS) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large patient cohort. DS-MRI offers the possibility to integrate myocardial perfusion and wall motion analysis in a single examination for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 1,493 consecutive patients with suspected or known CAD underwent DS-MRI, using a standard protocol in a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Wall motion and perfusion were assessed at baseline and during stress, and outcome data including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction ("hard events"), and "late" revascularization performed >90 days after the MR scans were collected during a 2 ± 1 year follow-up period. Fifty-three hard events, including 14 cardiac deaths and 39 nonfatal infarctions, occurred during the follow-up period, whereas 85 patients underwent "late" revascularization. Using multivariable regression analysis, an abnormal result for wall motion or perfusion during stress yielded the strongest independent prognostic value for both hard events and late revascularization, clearly surpassing that of clinical and baseline magnetic resonance parameters (for wall motion: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] of 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5 to 13.6] for hard events and of 3.1 [95% CI: 1.7 to 5.6] for late revascularization, and for perfusion: adjusted HR of 5.4 [95% CI: 2.3 to 12.9] for hard events and of 6.2 [95% CI: 3.3 to 11.3] for late revascularization, p < 0.001 for all). DS-MRI can accurately identify patients who are at increased risk for cardiac death and myocardial infarction, separating them from those with normal findings, who have very low risk for future cardiac events. (Prognostic Value of High Dose Dobutamine Stress Magnetic Resonance Imaging; NCT00837005). Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of newly diagnosed abnormal glucose regulation on long-term prognosis in low risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnoor Michael

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction and newly detected abnormal glucose regulation have been shown to have a less favourable prognosis compared to patients with normal glucose regulation. The importance and timing of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose regulation classified by an OGTT in-hospital and at three-month follow-up on clinical outcome in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI without known diabetes. Methods Patients (n = 224, age 58 years with a primary percutanous coronary intervention (PCI treated STEMI were followed for clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial re-infarction, recurrent ischemia causing hospital admission, and stroke. The patients were classified by a standardised 75 g OGTT at two time points, first, at a median time of 16.5 hours after hospital admission, then at three-month follow-up. Based on the OGTT results, the patients were categorised according to the WHO criteria and the term abnormal glucose regulation was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes. Results The number of patients diagnosed with abnormal glucose regulation in-hospital and at three-month was 105 (47% and 50 (25%, respectively. During the follow up time of (median 33 (27, 39 months, 58 (25.9% patients experienced a new clinical event. There were six deaths, 15 non-fatal re-infarction, 33 recurrent ischemia, and four strokes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival free of composite end-points showed similar results in patients with abnormal and normal glucose regulation, both when classified in-hospital (p = 0.4 and re-classified three months later (p = 0.3. Conclusions Patients with a primary PCI treated STEMI, without previously known diabetes, appear to have an excellent

  11. Dapagliflozin Compared to DPP-4 inhibitors is Associated with Lower Risk of Cardiovascular Events and All-cause Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes Patients (CVD-REAL Nordic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Nyström, Thomas; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the sodium glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor (SGLT-2i) dapagliflozin versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) regarding risk associations of MACE (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke or cardiovascular [CV] mortality), hospital events for heart failure (HHF), ...

  12. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  13. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  14. Early morning awakening and nonrestorative sleep are associated with increased minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chen, Ching-Min; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Tsai, Jen-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between a composite measure of insomnia and occupational or fatal accidents has been investigated previously; however, little is known regarding the effect of various insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. We investigated the predicting role of insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. Data from the 2005 Taiwan Social Development Trend Survey of 36,473 Taiwanese aged ≥18 years were analyzed in 2013. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and nonrestorative sleep (NRS) were investigated. A minor non-fatal accident was defined as any mishap such as forgetting to turn off the gas or faucets, accidental falls, and abrasions or cuts occurring during work and leisure time in the past month that do not require immediate medical attention. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) of minor non-fatal accidents (as a binary variable) for each insomnia symptom compared with those of people presenting no symptoms, while controlling for possible confounders. EMA and NRS increased the odds of minor non-fatal accidents occurring during work and leisure time (adjusted OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.08-1.32 and adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.17-1.37, respectively). EMA and NRS are two symptoms that are significantly associated with an increased likelihood of minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time after adjusting for of a range of covariates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A high diet quality is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular events in the Malmö diet and cancer cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hlebowicz

    Full Text Available To investigate if diet quality is related to incidence of cardiovascular (CV events.A diet quality index based on the 2005 Swedish Nutrition Recommendations and the Swedish Dietary Guidelines was created and included six dietary components: saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish and shellfish, dietary fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. The index ranked 17126 participants (59% women of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (Sweden on their dietary intakes. Total index score was categorized as low, medium or high. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model associations between index score categories and index components with risk of incident CV events, with adjustment for potential confounders. The incidence of first CV events (non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke or death from ischemic heart disease was monitored from baseline (1991-1996 until December 31, 2008; 703 CV events occurred in women and 1093 in men.A high diet quality was associated with decreased risk of CV events when compared to a low diet quality. In multivariate analysis, the risk reduction was 32% (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.73 in men and 27% (hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.91 in women. When examined separately and mutually adjusted for each other, the individual components were either not associated with CV risk or marginally decreased risks were seen.High quality diets in line with current recommendations may reduce the risk of CV events. This study illustrates the importance of considering a combination of dietary factors when evaluating diet-disease associations.

  16. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W Philip T; Caterson, Ian D; Coutinho, Walmir; Finer, Nick; Van Gaal, Luc F; Maggioni, Aldo P; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Sharma, Arya M; Shepherd, Gillian M; Rode, Richard A; Renz, Cheryl L

    2010-09-02

    The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established. We enrolled in our study 10,744 overweight or obese subjects, 55 years of age or older, with preexisting cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or both to assess the cardiovascular consequences of weight management with and without sibutramine in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular events. All the subjects received sibutramine in addition to participating in a weight-management program during a 6-week, single-blind, lead-in period, after which 9804 subjects underwent random assignment in a double-blind fashion to sibutramine (4906 subjects) or placebo (4898 subjects). The primary end point was the time from randomization to the first occurrence of a primary outcome event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitation after cardiac arrest, or cardiovascular death). The mean duration of treatment was 3.4 years. The mean weight loss during the lead-in period was 2.6 kg; after randomization, the subjects in the sibutramine group achieved and maintained further weight reduction (mean, 1.7 kg). The mean blood pressure decreased in both groups, with greater reductions in the placebo group than in the sibutramine group (mean difference, 1.2/1.4 mm Hg). The risk of a primary outcome event was 11.4% in the sibutramine group as compared with 10.0% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.31; P=0.02). The rates of nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke were 4.1% and 2.6% in the sibutramine group and 3.2% and 1.9% in the placebo group, respectively (hazard ratio for nonfatal myocardial infarction, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.57; P=0.02; hazard ratio for nonfatal stroke, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.77; P=0.03). The rates of cardiovascular death and death from any cause were not increased. Subjects with preexisting

  17. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, J M

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  18. Features and risk factors of nonfatal injury among the rural children: a survey of seven schools in a mountain area in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Quan Shi

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the patterns and risk factors of nonfatal injuries among rural mountain-area children in southwest China.A stratified sampling method was used to recruit rural children aged 8 to 17 years (mainly 9-14 years from 7 schools. Self-reported injuries during the past 12 months and relevant concerns were collected from June to December 2012 by using a structured questionnaire in a class interview.The mean age of the 2,854 children was 12.2 ± 1.5 years. The probability of annual injury was 16.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 15.3-18.1%, with slightly higher injury risk for boys than girls (17.7% vs. 16.0%; P>0.05. The top 3 causes of injuries were falls (37.3%, animal-related incidents (20.6%, and burns (14.9%. The main injury risk factors included being involved in a violent episode (odds ratio [OR] 1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.66, P = 0.007, maltreatment by parents or guardians (1.42, 1.17-1.72, P<0.001, and being from a single-child family (1.30, 1.10-1.66, P = 0.039. Older age was a protective factor (0.81, 0.76-0.87, P<0.001.The incidence of nonfatal injury among rural children was high, and falls were the leading cause. Younger children and boys from poor-care and poor-living environments were at increased risk of injury, which requires urgent attention. Injury prevention programs targeting these issues are needed in this mountain area and similar rural regions of China.

  19. The Myocardial Unfolded Protein Response during Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B. Thorp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a progressive and disabling disease. The incidence of heart failure is also on the rise, particularly in the elderly of industrialized societies. This is in part due to an increased ageing population, whom initially benefits from improved, and life-extending cardiovascular therapy, yet ultimately succumb to myocardial failure. A major cause of heart failure is ischemia secondary to the sequence of events that is dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. In the case of heart failure postmyocardial infarction, ischemia can lead to myocardial cell death by both necrosis and apoptosis. The extent of myocyte death postinfarction is associated with adverse cardiac remodeling that can contribute to progressive heart chamber dilation, ventricular wall thinning, and the onset of loss of cardiac function. In cardiomyocytes, recent studies indicate that myocardial ischemic injury activates the unfolded protein stress response (UPR and this is associated with increased apoptosis. This paper focuses on the intersection of ischemia, the UPR, and cell death in cardiomyocytes. Targeting of the myocardial UPR may prove to be a viable target for the prevention of myocyte cell loss and the progression of heart failure due to ischemic injury.

  20. Non-fatal workplace violence workers' compensation claims (1993-1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, L; Webster, B S

    1998-06-01

    More is known about fatal workplace violence than non-fatal workplace violence (NFWV). This study provides descriptive information on the number and cost of NFWV claims filed with a large workers' compensation carrier. NFWV claims from 51 US jurisdictions were selected either by cause codes or by word search from the accident-description narrative. Claims reported in 1993 through 1996 were analyzed to report the frequency, cost, gender, age, industry, and nature of injury. An analysis of a random sample of 600 claims provided information on perpetrator type, cause of events, and injury mechanism. A total of 28,692 NFWV claims were filed during the study period. No cost was incurred for 32.5% of the claims, and 15.5% received payments for lost work. As a percentage of all claims filed by industry, schools had the highest percentage (11.4%) of NFWV claims, and banking had the highest percentage (11.5%) of cost. The majority of claims in the banking random sample group (93%) were due to stress. In the random sample, 90.3% of claims were caused by criminals (51.8%) or by patients, clients, or customers (38.5%). Only 9.7% were caused by an employee (9.2%) or a personal acquaintance of the employee (0.5%). Employers should acknowledge that NFWV incidents occur, recognize that the majority of perpetrators are criminals or clients rather than employees, and develop appropriate prevention and intervention programs.

  1. Clinical and angiographic characteristics of young adult patients recovered from acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in young adults is a relatively rare. In majority of the studies, age of 45 years is used as cut-off line in definition of the young patients with coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction. Studies have shown that younger population aged less than 40 years represents only 2-8% of all patients with myocardial infarction. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the specificities of clinical and angiographic characteristics of the patients recovered from acute myocardial infarction, younger than 45 years at the moment of attack, by comparing their clinical and angiographic characteristics with those of patients older than 65 years, who recovered from acute myocardial infarction. Method. The study included 78 patients recovered from acute myocardial infarction, 33 patients were younger than 45 years (40.7 ± 3.9 years, 25 (75.7% men and eight (24.2% female, and 45 patients were older than 65 years (68.2 ± 4.2 years, 32 (71.3% men and 13 women. Detailed history taking, physical examination, permanent ECG monitoring, laboratory analyses, X-ray examination, echocardiography and selective coronarography of all patients were performed. Results. Patients younger than 45 years had a significantly higher incidence of STEMI (p 0.05 Multivessel disease existed at 54.5% under the age of 45 and 77.8% older than 65 years (p0.05. The disease of left main coronary artery had 6.1% of patients younger than 45 and 22.2% of patients older than 65 years (p0.05 Were without significant coronary artery stenosis Comparing risk factors for coronary artery disease in patients younger than 45 years and older than 65 years, we find: hypertension in 48.5% vs. 88.9% (p0.05, diabetes mellitus in 21.2% vs. 55.5% (p 0.05, and stress in 18.2% vs. 2.2% (p <0.01. Conclusion. Patients with myocardial infarction younger than 45 years are predominantly male and have a significantly higher incidence of infarction

  2. Empirical validation of the New Zealand serious non-fatal injury outcome indicator for 'all injury'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cryer, Colin; Davie, Gabrielle S; Gulliver, Pauline J

    2018-01-01

    Our purpose was to empirically validate the official New Zealand (NZ) serious non-fatal 'all injury' indicator. To that end, we aimed to investigate the assumption that cases selected by the indicator have a high probability of admission. Using NZ hospital in-patient records, we identified serious...... injury diagnoses were calculated and inference made to New Zealand. The admission probabilities were 0.82, 0.89 and 0.90 for the regions of Canada, Denmark and Greece, respectively. This work provides evidence that the threshold set for the official New Zealand serious non-fatal injury indicator for 'all...

  3. Secondary prevention after cerebral ischaemia of presumed arterial origin: is aspirin still the touchstone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Algra (Ale); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); J. van Gijn (Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPatients who have had a transient ischaemic attack or nondisabling ischaemic stroke of presumed arterial origin have an annual risk of death from all vascular causes, non-fatal stroke, or non-fatal myocardial infarction that ranges between 4% and 11% without treatment. In the

  4. The Contemporary Incidence and Sequelae of Rhabdomyolysis Following Extirpative Renal Surgery: A Population Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi-Hammerschmidt, Francisco; Tinay, Ilker; Allard, Christopher B; Su, Li-Ming; Preston, Mark A; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kibel, Adam S; Wang, Ye; Chung, Benjamin I; Chang, Steven L

    2016-02-01

    We evaluate the contemporary incidence and consequences of postoperative rhabdomyolysis after extirpative renal surgery. We conducted a population based, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent extirpative renal surgery with a diagnosis of a renal mass or renal cell carcinoma in the United States between 2004 and 2013. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate 90-day mortality (Clavien grade V), nonfatal major complications (Clavien grade III-IV), hospital readmission rates, direct costs and length of stay. The final weighted cohort included 310,880 open, 174,283 laparoscopic and 69,880 robotic extirpative renal surgery cases during the 10-year study period, with 745 (0.001%) experiencing postoperative rhabdomyolysis. The presence of postoperative rhabdomyolysis led to a significantly higher incidence of 90-day nonfatal major complications (34.7% vs 7.3%, p rhabdomyolysis (incidence risk ratio 1.83, 95% CI 1.56-2.15, p rhabdomyolysis (vs laparoscopic approach, OR 2.43, p rhabdomyolysis (p rhabdomyolysis developing. Our study confirms that postoperative rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon complication among patients undergoing extirpative renal surgery, but has a potentially detrimental impact on surgical morbidity, mortality and costs. Male gender, comorbidities, obesity, prolonged surgery (more than 5 hours) and a robotic approach appear to place patients at higher risk for postoperative rhabdomyolysis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonska Beata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. Results The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. Conclusions School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

  6. Sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hee; Park, Tai Que; Chae, Yoo Soon; Kim, Yang Sook [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    To assess the difference of the diagnostic sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-Pyrophosphate (PYP) myocardial scintigraphy in acute transmural infarction and acute subendocardial infarction, we analyzed 38 patients with a confirmed transmural infarct, 10 with a subendocardial infarct, 2 with old myocardial infarct, and 10 with other cardiovascular disease (2 unstable angina, 6 stable angina, 1 Prinzmetal angina, and 1 atrial fibrillation) according to Berman's criteria for scintigraphic assessment and then come to conclusion; When only focal myocardial uptake wa used as a criteria for positivity, the diagnostic sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-PYP scintigraphy in acute subendocardial myocardial infarction was only 40% (4/10) compared with 86.8% (33/38) of acute transmural myocardial infarction. There was no case that was interpreted as focal myocardial uptake in 2 old myocardial infarction and 10 other cardiovascular disease. The incidence of complication was higher in doughnut pattern of myocardial uptake 50% (3/6) than in non-doughnut focal patterns 19.4% (6/31). It is concluded that focal myocardial uptake is a sensitive indicator suggesting acute myocardial necrosis and that {sup 99m}Tc-PYP myocardial scintigraphy is a sensitive technique for diagnosing acute transmural myocardial infarction, but a insensitive method in acute subendocardial infarction, and that the doughnut pattern of myocardial uptake an provide clues to the patient's future course.

  7. Work-related nonfatal injuries in Alaska’s aviation industry, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Samantha L.; Moller, Kyle M.; Nix, Nancy A.; Lucas, Devin L.; Snyder, Elizabeth H.; O’Connor, Mary B.

    2018-01-01

    Aviation is a critical component of life in Alaska, connecting communities off the road system across the state. Crash-related fatalities in the state are well understood and many intervention efforts have been aimed at reducing aircraft crashes and resulting fatalities; however, nonfatal injuries among workers who perform aviation-related duties have not been studied in Alaska. This study aimed to characterize hospitalized nonfatal injuries among these workers using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry. During 2000–2013, 28 crash-related and 89 non-crash injuries were identified, spanning various occupational groups. Falls were a major cause of injuries, accounting for over half of non-crash injuries. Based on the study findings, aviation stakeholders should review existing policies and procedures regarding aircraft restraint systems, fall protection, and other injury prevention strategies. To supplement these findings, further study describing injuries that did not result in hospitalization is recommended. PMID:29606800

  8. Myocardial imaging with cesium-130

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.V.; Resnekov, L.; Stark, V.; Odeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Recently comparative studies using nitrogen-13 ammonia and cesium-130 have shown strikingly different myocardial localization patterns in the same subjects with ischemic heart disease. Initial localization of ammonia, an avidly extracted agent, reflects the perfusion pattern in viable myocardial tissue. The myocardial localization of cesium ion, taking place more slowly over 15 to 20 minutes, is apparently much less flow dependent, causing uptake defects shown with ammonia to be largely filled in. Cesium thus appears to provide information on the extent of the viable myocardial mass, apart from perfusion. Cesium-130 (t1/2 30 m) decays by positron emission and electron capture. The whole body radiation absorbed dose, assuming uniform distribution, is 24 mrad/mCi. While abundant production of Cs-130 results from proton bombardment of natural xenon [Xe-130(rho,n)Cs-130] at 15 MeV, small amounts of Cs-129, -131, and -132 are also produced, and enriched Xe-130 is not available. Alternatively almost completely uncontaminated Cs-130 is available by alpha bombardment of natural I-127. Anhydrous sodium iodide is dissolved in acetone and a thin layer (≅20 mg per centimeter squared) is evaporated onto the gold plated tip of the internal target backing which is oscillated vertically to spread out the area upon which the beam is incident. The target surface is inclined 2.5 degrees to the beam giving a power density of about 400 watts per centimeter squared at 100μA which is adequately handled by water cooling. A 30-minute bombardment yields 4 to 5 mCi of Cs-130 which is dissolved directly from the target. This approach appears to offer a new and helpful method for evaluating ischemic heart disease by permitting evaluation of viable myocardial mass

  9. Variable effects of prevalence correction of population denominators on differentials in myocardial infarction incidence: a record linkage study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the impact of prevalence correction of population denominators on myocardial infarction (MI) incidence rates, rate ratios, and rate differences in Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years during the study period 2000-2004. Person-based linked hospital and mortality data sets were used to estimate the number of prevalent and first-ever MI cases each year from 2000 to 2004 using a 15-year look-back period. Age-specific and -standardized MI incidence rates were calculated using both prevalence-corrected and -uncorrected population denominators, by sex and Aboriginality. The impact of prevalence correction on rates increased with age, was higher for men than women, and substantially greater for Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people. Despite the systematic underestimation of incidence, prevalence correction had little impact on the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal age-standardized rate ratios (6% and 4% underestimate in men and women, respectively), although the impact on rate differences was more marked (12% and 6%, respectively). The percentage underestimate of differentials was greater at older ages. Prevalence correction of denominators, while more accurate, is difficult to apply and may add modestly to the quantification of relative disparities in MI incidence between populations. Absolute incidence disparities using uncorrected denominators may have an error >10%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlates of Alaska Native Fatal and Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors 1990-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Lisa; Hill, Ryan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Factors correlated with suicidal behavior in a predominately Alaska Native region of Alaska are described, and the correlates relating to fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors in this indigenous population are distinguished. Suicide data from the region (1990-2001) were aggregated and compared to 2000 U.S. Census Data using chi-squared tests.…

  11. Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients undergoing open heart surgery: a comparison of serial myocardial imaging with cardiac enzymes, electrocardiography, and vectocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, I.S.; Parisi, A.F.; Tow, D.E.; Barsamian, E.M.; Sasahara, A.A.; McCaughan, D.; Clemson, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    In 44 consecutive patients undergoing elective open heart surgery (OHS), serial electrocardiograms (ECG), vectorcardiograms (VCG), serum CPK, cardiac isoenzymes (CPKMB), and myocardial images using Tc-99m pyrophosphate were obtained, before and after the operation, for the detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Twenty-nine patients developed one or more positive tests postoperatively. Two patients had positive myocardial scintiscans; both had other evidence of infarction. Conversely, the appearance of CPKMB, or new ECG and VCG changes, occurred frequently without evidence of infarction, and were not associated with the development of a positive scintiscan. The results show that false-negative results are infrequent in patients imaged early after OHS, and that cardiac surgical procedures do not cause a high incidence of false-positive scintigrams. Consequently, radionuclide imaging for AMI offers an important adjunct for excluding acute infarction following open heart surgery

  12. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Myocardial Bridge Menu Topics Topics FAQs Myocardial Bridge En español Your heart is made of muscle, ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  13. A registry-based follow-up study, comparing the incidence of cardiovascular disease in native Danes and immigrants born in Turkey, Pakistan and the former Yugoslavia: do social inequalities play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreasen Anne H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI between native Danes and immigrants born in Turkey, Pakistan and the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, we examined whether different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES, such as employment, income and housing conditions influenced potential differences. Methods In this registry-based follow-up study individuals were identified in a large database that included individuals from two major regions in Denmark, corresponding to about 60% of the Danish population. Incident cases of CVD and AMI included fatal and non-fatal events and were taken from registries. Using Cox regression models, we estimated incidence rates at 5-year follow-up. Results Immigrant men and women from Turkey and Pakistan had an increased incidence of CVD, compared with native Danish men. In the case of AMI, a similar pattern was observed; however, differences were more pronounced. Pakistanis and Turks with a shorter duration of residence had a lower incidence, compared with those of a longer residence. Generally, no notable differences were observed between former Yugoslavians and native Danes. In men, differences in CVD and AMI were reduced after adjustment for SES, in particular, among Turks regarding CVD. In women, effects were particularly reduced among Yugoslavians in the case of CVD and in Turks in the case of CVD and AMI after adjustment for SES. Conclusions In conclusion, country of birth-related differences in the incidence of CVD and AMI were observed. At least some of the differences that we uncovered were results of a socioeconomic effect. Duration of residence also played a certain role. Future studies should collect and test different indicators of SES in studies of CVD among immigrants.

  14. Incidence and costs of hip fractures vs strokes and acute myocardial infarction in Italy: comparative analysis based on national hospitalization records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piscitelli P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Prisco Piscitelli,1,2 Giovanni Iolascon,3 Alberto Argentiero,2 Giovanna Chitano,2 Cosimo Neglia,2 Gemma Marcucci,1 Manuela Pulimeno,2 Marco Benvenuto,2 Santa Mundi,2 Valentina Marzo,2 Daniela Donato,4 Angelo Baggiani,4 Alberto Migliore,5 Mauro Granata,6 Francesca Gimigliano,3 Raffaele Di Blasio,7 Alessandra Gimigliano,3 Lorenzo Renzulli,7 Maria Luisa Brandi,1 Alessandro Distante,2,4 Raffaele Gimigliano3,71University of Florence, Florence Italy; 2ISBEM Research Centre, Brindisi, Italy; 3Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 4University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 5Fatebenefratelli St Peter’s Hospital, Rome, Italy; 6St Filippo Neri Hospital, Rome, Italy; 7Casa di Cura Santa Maria del Pozzo, Somma Vesuviana, ItalyObjectives: As osteoporotic fractures are becoming a major health care problem in countries characterized by an increasing number of older adults, in this study we aimed to compare the incidence and costs of hip fragility fractures in Italian elderly people versus those of major cardiovascular diseases (strokes and acute myocardial infarctions [AMI] occurring in the whole adult population.Methods: We analyzed hospitalization records maintained at the national level by the Italian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of hip fractures (ICD-9-CM codes 820–821, AMI (code 410, hemorrhagic (codes 430, 431, 432 and ischemic strokes (codes 433–434, and TIA (code 435 between 2001–2005. Cost analyses were based on diagnosis-related groups.Results: The incidence of hip fractures in elderly people has increased (+12.9% between 2001 and 2005, as well as that of AMI (+20.2% and strokes (hemorrhagic: +9.6%; ischemic: +14.7 occurring in the whole adult population; conversely, hospitalization due to TIA decreased by a rate of 13.6% between 2001 and 2005. In 2005, the hospital costs across the national health care system that were associated with hip fragility fractures in the elderly were comparable to those of strokes (both hemorrhagic and

  15. Normal stress-only myocardial single photon emission computed tomography predicts good outcome in patients with coronary artery stenoses between 40 and 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhixin; Liu, Yangqing; Xin, Chaofan; Zhou, Yanli; Wang, Cheng; Zhao, Zhongqiang; Li, Chunxiang; Li, Dianfu

    2016-09-01

    Normal stress myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) usually indicates good physiologic function of all coronary lesions, and also indicates a good outcome. We hypothesize that it can still predict good outcome in patients with coronary stenoses between 40 and 70%. A group of patients who underwent stress myocardial SPECT after coronary angiography were consecutively recruited in our center. Patients were eligible if they had one or more coronary stenoses between 40 and 70%. Patients with coronary stenoses greater than 50% diameter of left main or greater than 70% diameter of nonleft main epicardial vessels, and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 50% were excluded. The outcome was defined as major adverse events, including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization. Patients' survival curves were constructed accorded to the method of Kaplan and Meier and compared using the log-rank test. A study cohort of 77 patients was enrolled. According to the summed stress score, 43 patients were assigned to the perfusion defect group and 34 patients were assigned to the perfusion normal group. The follow-up duration was 6.4±0.3 years. In the perfusion normal group, only one of 34 (2.9%) patients developed major adverse events. In the perfusion defect group, six of 43 (14%) developed major adverse events, P-value of 0.041. It is safe to defer a percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with coronary stenoses between 40 and 70% and normal stress myocardial SPECT.

  16. Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial revascularization: a randomized trial of prophylactic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyras, D H; Stothert, J C; Kaiser, G C; Barner, H B; Codd, J E; Willman, V L

    1979-02-01

    The success of prophylactic digitalization in reducing the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) was studied in 140 randomly grouped, consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization operations. The test group received either 1 or 1.5 mg. of digoxin the day before operation and were maintained postoperatively on 0.25 mg. of digoxin daily. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of SVT in the treated patients (17 of 61 or 27.8 percent) vs. the untreated patients (nine of 79 or 11.4 percent). There was no significant difference in SVT with the two digitalization dosage levels (31.6 percent with 1 mg. vs. 21.7 percent with 1.5 mg.). Prophylactic digitalization demonstrates no benefit in the prevention of SVT following myocardial revascularization and may, in fact, predispose the patient to these arrhythmias.

  17. Illicit use of opioid substitution drugs: prevalence, user characteristics, and the association with non-fatal overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line; Lillehagen, Mats; Gjersing, Linn; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic

    2015-02-01

    Diversion of opioid substitution drugs (OSD) is of public concern. This study examined the prevalence, frequency, and predictors of illicit OSD use in a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) and assessed if such use was associated with non-fatal overdoses. Semi-annual cross-sectional interviews conducted in Oslo, Norway (2006-2013), from 1355 street-recruited IDUs. Hurdle, logistic, and multinomial regression models were employed. Overall, 27% reported illicit OSD use in the past four weeks; 16.8% methadone, 12.5% buprenorphine, and 2.9% both drugs. Almost 1/10 reported at least one non-fatal overdose in the past four weeks, and roughly 1/3 reported such experience in the past year. Use of additional drugs tended to be equally, or more prevalent among illicit OSD users than other IDUs. In terms of illicit OSD use being a risk factor for non-lethal overdoses, our results showed significant associations only for infrequent buprenorphine use (using once or less than once per week). Other factors associated with non-fatal overdoses included age, education, homelessness, as well as the benzodiazepines, stimulants, and heroin use. Users of diverted OSD may represent a high-risk population, as they used more additional drugs and used them more frequently than other IDUs. However, illicit OSD use may be less harmful than previously assumed. After accounting for an extensive set of covariates, only infrequent illicit buprenorphine use, but not methadone use, was associated with non-fatal overdoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors of late cardiogenic shock and mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obling, Laust; Frydland, Martin; Hansen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of cardiogenic shock (CS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is as high as 10%. The majority of patients are thought to develop CS after admission (late CS), but the incidence in a contemporary STEMI cohort admitted for primary percutaneo...

  19. Usefulness of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Mami

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was assessed in patients with exercise-induced asymptomatic myocardial ischemia (silent ischemia) and compared with exercise-induced symptomatic myocardial ischemia (symptomatic ischemia). Patients with single vessel coronary artery disease (51 with angina pectoris, 40 with old myocardial infarction) and evidence of stress-induced ischemia on thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) underwent successful PTCA. Thirty-seven percent of angina patients and 60% of infarction patients showed asymptomatic exercise-induced ischemia. There was no significant difference in population characteristics between silent and symptomatic patients. Patients with silent angina had significantly higher percentage thallium uptake and washout rate than symptomatic patients. After PTCA, both percentage diameter stenosis and percentage thallium uptake were improved in all patients with angina irrespective of the presence or absence of symptoms. There were no significant differences in percentage thallium uptake and washout rate between patients with silent and symptomatic infarction. After PTCA, percentage diameter stenosis, percentage thallium uptake, and washout rate improved in all infarction patients irrespective of the symptoms. Zero percent of silent angina patients, 12% of symptomatic angina patients, 12% of silent infarction patients, 19% of symptomatic infarction patients had cardiac events during about 4.5 years after PTCA. The incidence of cardiac events did not significantly differ in any patient group. PTCA improved myocardial perfusion in all patients, and the incidence of cardiac events did not differ between the silent and symptomatic groups. Revascularization with PTCA is suitable for patients with silent as well as symptomatic ischemia. (author)

  20. Fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes: results from a purposively sampled census of seven rural subdistricts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi S; Rahman, Akm Fazlur; Arifeen, Shams El; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-08-01

    90% of the global burden of injuries is borne by low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, details of the injury burden in LMICs are less clear because of the scarcity of data and population-based studies. The Saving of Lives from Drowning project, implemented in rural Bangladesh, did a census on 1·2 million people to fill this gap. This Article describes the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal injuries from the study. In this study, we used data from the baseline census conducted as part of the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) project. The census was implemented in 51 unions from seven purposively sampled rural subdistricts of Bangladesh between June and November, 2013. Sociodemographic, injury mortality, and morbidity information were collected for the whole population in the study area. We analysed the data for descriptive measures of fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes. Age and gender distribution, socioeconomic characteristics, and injury characteristics such as external cause, intent, location, and body part affected were reported for all injury outcomes. The census covered a population of 1 169 593 from 270 387 households and 451 villages. The overall injury mortality rate was 38 deaths per 100 000 population per year, and 104 703 people sustained major non-fatal injuries over a 6-month recall period. Drowning was the leading external cause of injury death for all ages, and falls caused the most number of non-fatal injuries. Fatal injury rates were highest in children aged 1-4 years. Non-fatal injury rates were also highest in children aged 1-4 years and those aged 65 years and older. Males had more fatal and non-fatal injuries than females across all external causes except for burns. Suicide was the leading cause of injury deaths in individuals aged 15-24 years, and more than 50% of the suicides occurred in females. The home environment was the most common location for most injuries. The burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries

  1. Very high coronary artery calcium score with normal myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging is associated with a moderate incidence of severe coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuoness, Salem A.; Goha, Ahmed M.; Romsa, Jonathan G.; Akincioglu, Cigdem; Warrington, James C.; Datta, Sudip; Gambhir, Sanjay; Urbain, Jean-Luc C.; Vezina, William C. [London Health Sciences Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London, ON (Canada); Massel, David R. [London Health Sciences Centre, Division of Cardiology, London, ON (Canada); Martell, Rafael [Private Practice, London, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has limitations in the presence of balanced multivessel disease (MVD) and left main (LM) coronary artery disease, occasionally resulting in false-normal results despite the high cardiovascular risk associated with this condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of severe coronary artery disease (CAD) in the presence of a very high Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (>1,000) in stable symptomatic patients without known CAD but with normal MPI results. A total of 2,659 prospectively acquired consecutive patients were referred for MPI and evaluation of CAC score by CT. Of this patient population, 8 % (222/2,659) had ischemia without myocardial infarction (MI) on MPI and 11 % (298/2,659) had abnormal MPI (MI and/or ischemia). On presentation 1 % of the patients (26/2,659) were symptomatic, had a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI results. The definition of normal MPI was strict and included a normal hemodynamic response without ischemic ECG changes and normal imaging, particularly absence of transient ischemic dilation. All of these 26 patients with a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI findings underwent cardiac catheterization. Of these 26 patients, 58 % (15/26) had severe disease (≥70 % stenosis) leading to revascularization. Of this group, 47 % (7/15) underwent percutaneous intervention, and 53 % (8/15) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. All of these 15 patients had either MVD (14/15) or LM coronary artery disease (1/15), and represented 0.6 % (15/2,659) of all referred patients (95 % CI 0.3 - 0.9 %). The majority, 90 % (8/9), had severe CAD with typical chest pain. A very high CAC score (>1,000) with normal MPI in a small subset of symptomatically stable patients was associated with a moderate incidence of severe CAD (95 % CI 37 - 77 %). Larger studies and/or a meta-analysis of small studies are needed to more precisely estimate the incidence of CAD in this population. This study also supports

  2. Impact of a partial smoke-free legislation on myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and case-fatality in a population-based registry: the REGICOR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Agüero

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of death, and smoking its strongest modifiable risk factor. Our aim was to determine the impact of the Spanish 2006 partial smoke-free legislation on acute myocardial infarction (AMI incidence, hospitalization and mortality rates, and 28-day case-fatality in Girona, Spain.Using a population-based registry (the REGICOR Study, we compared population incidence, hospitalization, and mortality rates, and 28-day case-fatality in the pre- and post-ban periods (2002-2005 and 2006-2008, respectively by binomial regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors. We also analyzed the ban's impact on the outcomes of interest using the AMI definitions of the American Heart Association (AHA/European Society of Cardiology (ESC and the World Health Organization (WHO-Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular diseases (MONICA.In the post-ban period, AMI incidence and mortality rates significantly decreased (relative risk [RR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-0.97 and RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.71-0.94, respectively. Incidence and mortality rates decreased in both sexes, especially in women, and in people aged 65-74 years. Former and non-smokers (passive smokers showed diminished incidence rates. Implementation of the ban was not associated with AMI case-fatality. Models tended to be more significant with the WHO-MONICA than with the AHA/ESC definition.The 2006 Spanish partial smoke-free legislation was associated with a decrease in population AMI incidence and mortality, particularly in women, in people aged 65-74 years, and in passive smokers. These results clarify the association between AMI mortality and the enactment of a partial smoke-free legislation and reinforce the effectiveness of smoking regulations in preventing CHD.

  3. Detection of myocardial ischemia with myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Anh, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus(DM) is a critical disease associated with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis accounts for 65-80% of all deaths in diabetic patients and patients with DM are known to show high prevalence of coronary artery diseases(CAD). We evaluated the incidence of scintigraphic evidence of CAD in diabetic patients and results were compared with cardiovascular symptoms and clinical factors. 169 patients with DM(mean age 629years, 68 males) were referred for evaluation of CAD between Jan 2002 and Dec 2003. 101(60%) patients were with chest pain and 68(40%) were asymptomatic. Patients underwent exercise(n=6) or adenosine stress(n=163) SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(MPI). Exclusion criteria included history of documented myocardial infarction, prior revascularization, clinically significant valvular heart disease, left-bundle branch block on rest ECG. We evaluated symptoms associated with cardiac problem and other clinical and laboratory data to reveal correlation with presence of CAD. MPI were assessed visually and semi-quantitatively with C-Equal program. Myocardial ischemia was detected in 52(31%) patients. Among them, 41 had 1-vessel and 9 had 2-vessel disease. In 52 patients with ischemia, 28(54%) were male and 24(46%) were female. 20/68(29%) asymptomatic and 32/101(32%) symptomatic patients had ischemia. Higher prevalence of neuropathy, hypertension, higher blood glucose level, HbA1c and CRP was noted in patients with myocardial ischemia. Serum levels of cholesterol and LDL was not significantly different between patients with ischemia and with normal MPI findings. Abnormal MPI findings were not related with gender and age. These results show a high prevalence of abnormal MPI results in diabetic patients regardless of symptoms. Screening stress MPI in diabetic patients should be indicated irrespective of symptoms, especially in patients with neuropathy, hypertension, higher level of blood glucose, or increased CRP

  4. Detection of myocardial ischemia with myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Anh, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus(DM) is a critical disease associated with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis accounts for 65-80% of all deaths in diabetic patients and patients with DM are known to show high prevalence of coronary artery diseases(CAD). We evaluated the incidence of scintigraphic evidence of CAD in diabetic patients and results were compared with cardiovascular symptoms and clinical factors. 169 patients with DM(mean age 629years, 68 males) were referred for evaluation of CAD between Jan 2002 and Dec 2003. 101(60%) patients were with chest pain and 68(40%) were asymptomatic. Patients underwent exercise(n=6) or adenosine stress(n=163) SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(MPI). Exclusion criteria included history of documented myocardial infarction, prior revascularization, clinically significant valvular heart disease, left-bundle branch block on rest ECG. We evaluated symptoms associated with cardiac problem and other clinical and laboratory data to reveal correlation with presence of CAD. MPI were assessed visually and semi-quantitatively with C-Equal program. Myocardial ischemia was detected in 52(31%) patients. Among them, 41 had 1-vessel and 9 had 2-vessel disease. In 52 patients with ischemia, 28(54%) were male and 24(46%) were female. 20/68(29%) asymptomatic and 32/101(32%) symptomatic patients had ischemia. Higher prevalence of neuropathy, hypertension, higher blood glucose level, HbA1c and CRP was noted in patients with myocardial ischemia. Serum levels of cholesterol and LDL was not significantly different between patients with ischemia and with normal MPI findings. Abnormal MPI findings were not related with gender and age. These results show a high prevalence of abnormal MPI results in diabetic patients regardless of symptoms. Screening stress MPI in diabetic patients should be indicated irrespective of symptoms, especially in patients with neuropathy, hypertension, higher level of blood glucose, or increased CRP.

  5. Effect of selected Hofmeister salts on textural and rheological properties of nonfat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankey, J A; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2011-09-01

    Three Hofmeister salts (HS; sodium sulfate, sodium thiocyanate, and sodium chloride) were evaluated for their effect on the textural and rheological properties of nonfat cheese. Nonfat cheese, made by direct acidification, were sliced into discs (diameter=50 mm, thickness=2 mm) and incubated with agitation (6 h at 22°C) in 50 mL of a synthetic Cheddar cheese aqueous phase buffer (pH 5.4). The 3 HS were added at 5 concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 M) to the buffer. Post-incubation, cheese slices were air dried and equilibrated in air-tight bags for 18 h at 5°C before analysis. Small amplitude oscillatory rheology properties, including the dynamic moduli and loss tangent, were measured during heating from 5 to 85°C. Hardness was determined by texture profile analysis. Acid-base buffering was performed to observe changes in the indigenous insoluble (colloidal) calcium phosphate (CCP). Moisture content decreased with increasing HS concentration. Cheeses incubated in high concentrations of SCN(-) softened earlier (i.e., loss tangent=1) compared with other HS treatments. Higher melting temperature values were observed for cheeses incubated in high concentrations of SO(4)(2-). Hardness decreased in cheeses incubated in buffers with high concentrations of SCN(-). The indigenous CCP profile of nonfat cheese was not greatly affected by incubation in Cl(-) or SCN(-), whereas buffers with high concentrations of SO(4)(2-) reduced the acid-base buffering contributed by CCP. The use of high concentrations (1.0M) of SCN(-) for incubation of cheeses resulted in a softer protein matrix at high temperatures due to the chaotropic effect of SCN(-), which weakened hydrophobic interactions between CN. Cheese samples incubated in 1.0M SO(4)(2-) buffers exhibited a stiffer protein matrix at high temperatures due to the kosmotropic effect of SO(4)(2-), which helped to strengthen hydrophobic interactions in the proteins during the heating step. This study showed that HS

  6. Myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with myocardial bridging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wei; Qiu Hong; Yang Weixian; Wang Feng; He Zuoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging was used to assess myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridging. Methods: Ninety-six patients with myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery documented by coronary angiography were included in this study. All under- went exercise or pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion SPECT assessing myocardial ischemia. None had prior myocardial infarction. One year follow-up by telephone interview was performed in all patients. Results The mean stenotic severity of systolic phase on angiography was (65 ± 19)%. In the SPECT study, 20 of 96 (20.8%) patients showed abnormal perfusion. This percentage was significantly higher than that of stress electrocardiogram (ECG). The higher positive rate of SPECT perfusion images was showed in the group of patients with severe systolic narrowing (≥75%) than that with mild-to-moderate systolic narrowing (50% vs 6.3%, P<0.001). The prevalence of abnormal image was significantly higher in ELDERLY PEOPLE; patients with STT change on rest ECG than in those with normal rest ECG (54.2% vs 9.7%, P<0.001). During follow-up, one patient with abnormal SPECT perfusion image sustained angina and accepted percutaneous coronary intervention, and no cardiac event occurred in patients with normal images. Conclusions: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging can be used effectively for assessing myocardial ischemia and has potential prognostic value for patients with myocardial bridging. (authors)

  7. Comparison of the clinical symptoms of myocardial infarction in the middle-aged and elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Taghipour; Hamid Sharif Nia; Mohammad Ali Soleimani; Mitra Hekmat Afshar; Samaneh Shahidi Far

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction is a fatal symbol of cardiovascular diseases, which usually occurs in people over 45 years. However, the incidence of factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and metabolic syndrome has increased the risk of developing early cardiovascular diseases in the middle-aged people. This study was conducted to compare the clinical manifestation of myocardial infarction in the middle-aged and elderly people. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the...

  8. Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

    2015-04-01

    There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Immigrants as crime victims: Experiences of personal nonfatal victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2010-04-01

    Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18-4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77-4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30-44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on recurrent myocardial infarction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Li, Muwei; Gao, Chuanyu; Wang, Xianpei; Qi, Datun; Liu, Jun; Jin, Qiangsong

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the long-term outcomes of Chinese patients with previous myocardial infarction, we studied 864 patients with previous myocardial infarction, including 251 with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 613 without type 2 diabetes mellitus, over a median follow-up time of 2.9 years. The type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were subdivided into 95 insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and 156 non-insulin-treated diabetes mellitus subjects. The crude incidences (per 1000 patient-years) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects versus the non-type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects were 43.7 versus 25.1 for recurrent myocardial infarction, 68.7 versus 28.3 for all-cause death and 99.8 versus 49.9 for the composite end point (i.e. recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause death). Cox regression analysis showed that the adjusted hazard ratios for recurrent myocardial infarction, all-cause death and their combination were 1.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.74), 1.90 (1.25-2.90) and 1.72 (1.23-2.40), respectively. Significant associations were also observed between insulin treatment and all-cause death. Our findings suggested that type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction, all-cause death and the composite end point among previous myocardial infarction patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Improved early risk stratification of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention using a combination of serum soluble ST2 and NT-proBNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwook Yu

    Full Text Available Although soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2 in serum is known to be associated with ischemic heart disease and heart failure, data regarding its prognostic impact in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is limited. We evaluated the prognostic impacts of serum sST2 and other serum biomarkers in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI.Consecutive all 323 patients with STEMI that underwent primary PCI were enrolled. Blood tests and samples were obtained in an emergency room. The primary endpoint was 1-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs, defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization.Mean age was 59.1±13.1 years (men 84%. MACCE (20 cardiovascular deaths, 7 non-fatal MI, 4 non-fatal stroke, 7 ischemia-driven revascularizations occurred in 38 patients (12%. After adjusting for confounding factors, Cox regression analysis revealed that high serum sST2 (>75.8 ng/mL mean value, adjusted hazard ratio 2.098, 95% CI 1.008-4.367, p = 0.048 and high serum NT-proBNP level (>400 pg/mL, adjusted hazard ratio 2.606, 95% CI 1.086-6.257, p = 0.032 at the time of presentation independently predicted MACCE within a year of primary PCI. Furthermore, when high serum sST2 level was combined with high serum NT-proBNP level, the hazard ratio of MACCE was highest (adjusted hazard ratio 7.93, 95% CI 2.97-20.38, p<0.001.Elevated serum levels of sST2 or NT-proBNP at the time of presentation were found to predict 1-year MACCE independently and elevated serum levels of sST2 plus NT-proBNP were associated with even poorer prognosis in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

  12. Effect of stenosed and occluded coronary arteries on immediate and late myocardial uptake of thallium-201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitsakis, D; Layton, C A; Battersby, W; Johns, M; Stockley, A V

    1981-01-01

    Exercise and redistribution myocardial scintigraphy using thallium-201 was compared with the left ventricular angiogram and with the presence of stenosis or occlusion of coronary arteries on angiography. Irreversible scintigraphic defects representing areas of myocardial infarction were found in all patients with occlusion of the left anterior descending artery but nearly one-third of patients with stenosis of that artery also showed evidence of infarction. For the right coronary or circumflex arteries the incidence of infarction was 82% with vessel occlusion and 57% with vessel stenosis. Of abnormally contracting segments on the left ventricular angiogram, 95% showed irreversible scintigraphic defects but 33% of normally contracting segments supplied by a diseased artery also showed this. Myocardial infarction is not uncommon in patients with angina even in the absence of coronary occlusion. The incidence is underestimated by the left ventricular angiogram. These findings are of importance in the assessment of patients with coronary disease and their evaluation before coronary artery surgery. PMID:7272129

  13. Fatal and nonfatal risk associated with recycle of D&D-generated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boren, J.K.; Ayers, K.W.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    As decontamination and decommissioning activities proceed within the U.S. Department of Energy Complex, vast volumes of uncontaminated and contaminated concrete will be generated. The current practice of decontaminating and landfilling the concrete is an expensive and potentially wasteful practice. Research is being conducted at Vanderbilt University to assess the economic, social, legal, and political ramifications of alternate methods of dealing with waste concrete. An important aspect of this research work is the assessment of risk associated with the various alternatives. A deterministic risk assessment model has been developed which quantifies radiological as well as non-radiological risks associated with concrete disposal and recycle activities. The risk model accounts for fatal as well as non-fatal risks to both workers and the public. Preliminary results indicate that recycling of concrete presents potentially lower risks than the current practice. Radiological considerations are shown to be of minor importance in comparison to other sources of risk, with conventional transportation fatalities and injuries dominating. Onsite activities can also be a major contributor to non-fatal risk.

  14. Reduction incidence of myocardial infarction associated with a national legislative ban on smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, S; Papini, P; Gaelone, D; Spizzichino, L; De Campora, E; Gnavi, R; Saitto, C; Binkin, N; Laurendi, G

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess change in admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period immediately subsequent to the coming into force of law no. 3/2003 ''Protection of the health of non-smokers''. Four Italian regions (Piedmont, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lazio and Campania) took part in the study. Data regarding admissions for AMI were taken from the daily discharge papers of patients aged between 40 and 64 (cod. ICD9-CM 410.), in the period 10 January-10 March 2001-2005. Repeated admissions were excluded. Admission rates standardised by age and overall total, and specifically by region, age and gender were calculated. The hypothesis of a significant reduction between 2005 and 2004 was also checked. The results showed a decrease in the number of cases and in the standardised rates between 2004 and 2005. The number of admissions estimated with a linear regression model for 2005 was significantly higher than that really observed (+13%). The decrease between the 2005 and 2004 rates was noteworthy for all four regions. Analysis by gender shows that the effect is observed only in male patients and in the age classes 45-49 and 50-54. This study shows that there has been an appreciable reduction in the incidence of heart attacks in the period immediately subsequent to the coming into force of the non-smoking Law in the populations surveyed, and that this reduction mainly regards men of working age. The reduction reverses a trend that has been evident for a number of years, namely that of a decidedly upward trend in the number of admissions for AMI.

  15. Predictive value of noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis for incident myocardial infarction - The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, IM; Bots, ML; Hofman, A; del Sol, AI; van der Kuip, DAM; Witteman, JCM

    2004-01-01

    Background - Several noninvasive methods are available to investigate the severity of extracoronary atherosclerotic disease. No population- based study has yet examined whether differences exist between these measures with regard to their predictive value for myocardial infarction (MI) or whether a

  16. Case studies of hydrogen sulphide occupational exposure incidents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate

    2014-12-15

    The UK Health and Safety Executive has investigated several incidents of workplace accidents involving hydrogen sulphide exposure in recent years. Biological monitoring has been used in some incidents to determine the cause of unconsciousness resulting from these incidents and as a supporting evidence in regulatory enforcement. This paper reports on three case incidents and discusses the use of biological monitoring in such cases. Biological monitoring has a role in identifying hydrogen sulphide exposure in incidents, whether these are occupational or in the wider environment. Sample type, time of collection and sample storage are important factors in the applicability of this technique. For non-fatal incidents, multiple urine samples are recommended at two or more time points between the incident and 15 h post-exposure. For routine occupational monitoring, post-shift samples should be adequate. Due to endogenous levels of urinary thiosulphate, it is likely that exposures in excess of 12 ppm for 30 min (or 360 ppm/min equivalent) would be detectable using biological monitoring. This is within the Acute Exposure Guideline Level 2 (the level of the chemical in air at or above which there may be irreversible or other serious long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) for hydrogen sulphide. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between the mismatch of 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography and autonomic nervous system activity in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kishida, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Koichi; Takano, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the mismatch of thallium-201 (Tl) and iodine-123-beta-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and autonomic nervous system activity in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. The subjects were 40 patients (34 males, 6 females) who underwent examinations by 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl myocardial SPECT imaging and 24-hour Holter monitoring within a 3-day period 3 weeks after the onset of their first MI. R-R intervals were analyzed every hour over a period of 24 hours by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). High frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) were defined as markers of cardiac vagal activity in the former and the LF/HF ratio as sympathetic activity. Greater or more extensive decreases in the BMIPP image than that in the Tl image were defined as a positive mismatch. Patients were divided into positive and negative mismatch groups of 20 patients each. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in age, sex, site of infarction, max CK (creatine kinase), max CK-MB, or left ventricular ejection fraction. The incidences of clinical signs suggesting residual myocardial ischemia were significantly greater in the positive than in the negative mismatch group (P 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl myocardial SPECT 3 weeks after a first acute myocardial infarction with uncomplicated moderate or severe heart failure and decreased heart rate variability are related to residual myocardial ischemia. A combined assessment of heart rate variability in 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and perfusion-metabolism mismatch in 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl myocardial SPECT is useful for determining residual myocardial ischemia in the follow-up of those with acute myocardial infarction. (author)

  18. Alcohol intake in relation to non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, Cristian; Wood, Angela; Muller, David

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption (at baseline and over lifetime) and non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. DESIGN: Multicentre case-cohort study. SETTING: A study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) determinants within the European Prospecti...

  19. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  20. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria, and we quantified IR by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Prevalence of MetSyn was 21% according to IDF criteria and 16% according to NCEP criteria. Accordingly, we defined IDF-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 21% of the HOMA-IR distribution......, smoking, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and with IDF-HOMA-IR and IDF-MetSyn included in the same model, the relative risk of an end point was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 to 2.29) for IDF-HOMA-IR and 1.16 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.60) for IDF-MetSyn. The corresponding figures for NCEP......, and NCEP-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 16% of the HOMA-IR distribution. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of CV end points (CV death, nonfatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal stroke) amounted to 233 cases. In proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, gender...

  1. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine Willum; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria, and we quantified IR by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Prevalence of MetSyn was 21% according to IDF criteria and 16% according to NCEP criteria. Accordingly, we defined IDF-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 21% of the HOMA-IR distribution......, and NCEP-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 16% of the HOMA-IR distribution. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of CV end points (CV death, nonfatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal stroke) amounted to 233 cases. In proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, gender......, smoking, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and with IDF-HOMA-IR and IDF-MetSyn included in the same model, the relative risk of an end point was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 to 2.29) for IDF-HOMA-IR and 1.16 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.60) for IDF-MetSyn. The corresponding figures for NCEP-HOMA-IR...

  2. Characteristic findings of exercise ECG test, perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography in patients with exercise induced myocardial stunning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Park, Hun Sik; Lee, Jae Tae; Chae, Shung Chull; Lee, Kyu Bo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    Transient wall motion abnormality and contractile dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) can be observed in patients with coronary artery disease due to post-stress myocardial stunning. To understand clinical characteristics of stress induced LV dysfunction, we have compared the findings of exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography between subjects with and without post-stress LV dysfunction. Among subjects who underwent exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within a month of interval, we enrolled 36 patients with post-stress LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was {>=}5% lower than rest (stunning group) and 16 patients with difference of post-stress and rest LVEF was lesser than 1% (non-stunning group) for this study. Treadmill exercise stress gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed with dual head SPECT camera using 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI and coronary angiography was also performed by conventional Judkins method. Stunning group had a significantly higher incidence of hypercholesterolemia than non-stunning group(45.5 vs 7.1%, p=0.01). Stunning group also had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and lower incidence of hypertension, but these were not statistically significant. Stunning group had larger and more severe perfusion defect in stress perfusion myocardial SPECT than non-stunning group(extent 18.2 vs 9.2%, p=0.029; severity 13.5 vs 6.9, p=0.040). Stunning group also had higher degree of reversibility of perfusion defect, higher incidence of positive exercise stress test and higher incidence of having severe stenosis(80{approx}99%) in coronary angiography than non-stunning group, but these were not statistically significant. In stunning group, all of 4 patients without perfusion defect had significant coronary artery stenosis and had received revascularization treatment. Patients with post-stress LV dysfunction had larger and more severe perfusion defect and severe coronary artery stenosis than

  3. Three-dimension structure of ventricular myocardial fibers after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Libin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the pathological changes of three-dimension structure of ventricular myocardial fibers after anterior myocardial infarction in dog heart. Methods Fourteen acute anterior myocardial infarction models were made from healthy dogs (mean weight 17.6 ± 2.5 kg. Six out of 14 dogs with old myocardial infarction were sacrificed, and their hearts were harvested after they survived the acute anterior myocardial infarction for 3 months. Each heart was dissected into ventricular myocardial band (VMB, morphological characters in infarction region were observed, and infarct size percents in descending segment and ascending segment were calculated. Results Six dog hearts were successfully dissected into VMB. Uncorresponding damages in myocardial fibers of descending segment and ascending segment were found in apical circle in anterior wall infarction. Infarct size percent in the ascending segment was significantly larger than that in the descending segment (23.36 ± 3.15 (SD vs 30.69 ± 2.40%, P = 0.0033; the long axis of infarction area was perpendicular to the orientation of myocardial fibers in ascending segment; however, the long axis of the infarction area was parallel with the orientation of myocardial fibers in descending segment. Conclusions We found that damages were different in both morphology and size in ascending segment and descending segment in heart with myocardial infarction. This may provide an important insight for us to understand the mechanism of heart failure following coronary artery diseases.

  4. On the possibility of nonfat frying using molten glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khusaibi, Mohammed; Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-01-01

    Fried products impose a health concerns due to considerable amount of oil they contain. Production of snack foods with minimal oil content and good management of oil during frying to minimize the production of toxic compounds continue to be challenging aims. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of producing a fat-free food snack by replacing frying oil with a nonfat medium. Glucose was melted and its temperature was then brought to 185 °C and used to fry potato strips, to obtain a product referred here as glucose fries. The resulting product was compared with French fries prepared conventionally under conditions that resulted in similar final moisture content. The resulting products were also examined for crust formation, texture parameters, color development and glucose content. Stereo microscope images showed that similar crusts were formed in the glucose fries and French fries. Texture parameters were found to be similar for both products at 5 and 2 mm penetration depth. The maximum hardness at 2 mm penetration depth was also similar for both products, but different from cooked potato. The color development that characterized French fries was also observed in glucose fries. The glucose content in glucose fries was found to be twice the content of French fries, which is to be expected because glucose absorbed or adhered to the surface. In conclusion, glucose fries, with similar texture and color characteristics to that of French fries, can be prepared by using a nonfat frying medium. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine—no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine—MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m 2 . Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical

  6. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk...

  7. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (Phoney (1%) significantly reduced (PHoney (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (Phoney produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects.

  8. Effects of steal-prone anatomy on intraoperative myocardial ischemia. The SPI Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J M; Hollenberg, M; O'Kelly, B F; Kao, A; Mangano, D T

    1992-11-01

    Our study objective was to determine whether the presence of steal-prone anatomy conferred an increased risk in the development of intraoperative myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery steal of collateral blood flow has been demonstrated for many vasodilators, including isoflurane, the most commonly used inhalational anesthetic agent in the United States. It has been postulated that patients with steal-prone anatomy (total occlusion of one coronary artery that is supplied distally by collateral flow from another coronary artery with a > or = 50% stenosis) may be particularly at risk for the development of intraoperative myocardial ischemia when an anesthetic with a vasodilator property is being administered. We evaluated the risk of myocardial ischemia under isoflurane anesthesia (vs. a high dose narcotic technique using sufentanil) using continuous intraoperative electrocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography in patients with and without steal-prone anatomy undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Sixty-two (33%) of the 186 patients had steal-prone anatomy: in 5 (8%) the collateral-supplying vessel was > or = 50% to 69% stenosed, in 24 (39%) it was > or = 70% to 89% stenosed and in 33 (53%) it was > or = 90% stenosed. The incidence of ischemia (transesophageal echocardiography or intraoperative electrocardiography, or both) was similar in patients with and without steal-prone coronary anatomy (18 [29%] of 62 patients vs. 39 [31%] of 124 patients, p = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = -0.13 to 0.17). The incidence of intraoperative ischemia was similar in patients who received isoflurane or sufentanil anesthesia (20 [32%] of 62 patients vs. 37 [30%] of 124 patients, p = 0.87). The incidence of tachycardia and hypotension was low (increases in heart rate = 9.8%, and decreases in systolic blood pressure = 10.8% of total monitoring time during the prebypass period compared with preoperative baseline values). The incidence of adverse cardiac outcome was

  9. Myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Jyoji; Yasuda, Hisakazu; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi

    1980-01-01

    sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate (PYP) scintigraphy and 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy were utilized for the diagnoses of the presence, the region, and the extent of myocardial infarction. Exercise 201 Tl myocardial scintigrams and exercise radionuclide ventriculography were utilized for diagnosis of coronary artery lesions in angina pectoris. Radionuclide ventriculography was used to investigate effects of coronary artery lesions on cardiac function and hemodynamics. In order to select adequate treatments for myocardial infarction and estimate the prognosis, it was necessary to detect the presence, the region, and the extent of acute myocardial infarction and to investigate effects of partial infarction on hemodynamics by using radionuclide imaging. Exercise myocardial scintigraphy could be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly for diagnosis of coronal artery disease. Therefore, this method could be applied widely. It was possible to use this method as a screening test of coronary artery diseases for the diagnoses of asymptomatic patients who showed ST changes in ECG, the patients with cardiac neurosis and the patency after a reconstructive surgery of coronary artery. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Effort–Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Nyberg, Solja T.; Lunau, Thorsten; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Fahlén, Göran; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Knutsson, Anders; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J. M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Virtanen, Marianna; Zins, Marie; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease. Methods: This multicohort study (the “IPD-Work” consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease at baseline was assessed by validated effort–reward imbalance and job strain questionnaires. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Study-specific estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis. Results: At baseline, 31.7% of study members reported effort–reward imbalance at work and 15.9% reported job strain. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 1,078 coronary events were recorded. After adjustment for potential confounders, a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.35) was observed for effort–reward imbalance compared with no imbalance. The hazard ratio was 1.16 (1.01–1.34) for having either effort–reward imbalance or job strain and 1.41 (1.12–1.76) for having both these stressors compared to having neither effort–reward imbalance nor job strain. Conclusions: Individuals with effort–reward imbalance at work have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and this appears to be independent of job strain experienced. These findings support expanding focus beyond just job strain in future research on work stress. PMID:28570388

  11. Prognostic significance of stress myocardial gated SPECT among Japanese patients referred for coronary angiography: A study of data from the J-ACCESS database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    The J-ACCESS [Japanese investigation of prognosis based on gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)] study found that quantitative gated myocardial SPECT (QGS) is valuable for predicting the prognosis of Japanese patients with known or suspected ischaemic heart disease. The present study evaluates the incremental prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with QGS among patients referred for coronary angiography (CAG). Among 4,031 Japanese patients registered at 117 hospitals for the J-ACCESS study, we selected 1,011 who underwent CAG within 3 months before or after MPI with QGS. Summed stress, rest and difference scores (SSS, SRS and SDS) were generated from myocardial perfusion images using a 20-segment scoring system. Myocardial ischaemia was judged visually. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were determined by QGS. Numbers of diseased (> 75% stenosis) coronary vessels (CDV) were assessed by CAG. All patients were followed up for 3 years to determine cardiac events (CE) including cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and severe heart failure. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic ability included age, cardiac risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and prior myocardial infarction), angiographic findings and the QGS parameters as independent variables. Cardiac events occurred more frequently with increasing numbers of coronary vessel lesions (p=0.0016). Cox univariate analysis revealed that diabetes, CDV, SSS, SDS, EDV, ESV and EF were significant predictors (Wald {chi}{sup 2}=5.99, 12.9, 8.39, 9.11, 35.5, 42.1 and 31.1, respectively), whereas multivariate analysis selected only ESV and SDS as significant predictors (Wald {chi}{sup 2}=36.4, 8.4; p = 0.0038, p < 0.001). MPI with QGS, especially with gated functional data, has incremental prognostic value in addition to angiographic findings. MPI with QGS findings predominantly contribute to the

  12. Postoperative myocardial infarction documented by technetium pyrophosphate scan using single-photon emission computed tomography: Significance of intraoperative myocardial ischemia and hemodynamic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.C.; Chung, F.; Burns, R.J.; Houston, P.L.; Feindel, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to document postoperative myocardial infarction (PMI) by technetium pyrophosphate scan using single-photon emission computed tomography (TcPPi-SPECT) in 28 patients undergoing elective coronary bypass grafting (CABG). The relationships of intraoperative electrocardiographic myocardial ischemia, hemodynamic responses, and pharmacological requirements to this incidence of PMI were correlated. Radionuclide cardioangiography and TcPPi-SPECT were performed 24 h preoperatively and 48 h postoperatively. A standard high-dose fentanyl anesthetic protocol was used. Twenty-five percent of elective CABG patients were complicated with PMI, as documented by TcPPi-SPECT with an infarcted mass of 38.0 +/- 5.5 g. No significant difference in demographic, preoperative right and left ventricular function, number of coronary vessels grafted, or aortic cross-clamp time was observed between the PMI and non-PMI groups. The distribution of patients using preoperative beta-adrenergic blocking drugs or calcium channel blocking drugs was found to have no correlation with the outcome of PMI. As well, no significant differences in hemodynamic changes or pharmacological requirements were observed in the PMI and non-PMI groups during prebypass or postbypass periods, indicating careful intraoperative control of hemodynamic indices did not prevent the outcome of PMI in these patients. However, the incidence of prebypass ischemia was 39.3% and significantly correlated with the outcome of positive TcPPi-SPECT, denoting a 3.9-fold increased risk of developing PMI. Prebypass ischemic changes in leads II and V5 were shown to correlate with increased CPK-MB release (P less than 0.05) and tends to occur more frequently with lateral myocardial infarction

  13. Postoperative myocardial infarction documented by technetium pyrophosphate scan using single-photon emission computed tomography: Significance of intraoperative myocardial ischemia and hemodynamic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, D.C.; Chung, F.; Burns, R.J.; Houston, P.L.; Feindel, C.M. (Toronto Hospital, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to document postoperative myocardial infarction (PMI) by technetium pyrophosphate scan using single-photon emission computed tomography (TcPPi-SPECT) in 28 patients undergoing elective coronary bypass grafting (CABG). The relationships of intraoperative electrocardiographic myocardial ischemia, hemodynamic responses, and pharmacological requirements to this incidence of PMI were correlated. Radionuclide cardioangiography and TcPPi-SPECT were performed 24 h preoperatively and 48 h postoperatively. A standard high-dose fentanyl anesthetic protocol was used. Twenty-five percent of elective CABG patients were complicated with PMI, as documented by TcPPi-SPECT with an infarcted mass of 38.0 +/- 5.5 g. No significant difference in demographic, preoperative right and left ventricular function, number of coronary vessels grafted, or aortic cross-clamp time was observed between the PMI and non-PMI groups. The distribution of patients using preoperative beta-adrenergic blocking drugs or calcium channel blocking drugs was found to have no correlation with the outcome of PMI. As well, no significant differences in hemodynamic changes or pharmacological requirements were observed in the PMI and non-PMI groups during prebypass or postbypass periods, indicating careful intraoperative control of hemodynamic indices did not prevent the outcome of PMI in these patients. However, the incidence of prebypass ischemia was 39.3% and significantly correlated with the outcome of positive TcPPi-SPECT, denoting a 3.9-fold increased risk of developing PMI. Prebypass ischemic changes in leads II and V5 were shown to correlate with increased CPK-MB release (P less than 0.05) and tends to occur more frequently with lateral myocardial infarction.

  14. The predictive value of fatigue for nonfatal ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    IHD were asked if they felt fatigued. Information on IHD diagnosis and all-cause mortality was register based. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to test the association at 4-year follow-up. Results Fatigue was associated with hospitalization for nonfatal IHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.98, 95...

  15. Immigration, myocardial infarction, and type 1 diabetes in Sweden : use of the migration and health cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the risks for and time trends of first-time myocardial infarction and type 1 diabetes mellitus, and the equity of admission to specialized care and evidence-based treatments after first-time myocardial infarction in association with country of birth, socioeconomic position, sex, and age. The Migration & Health Cohort was used in all four papers. This cohort was built by linkage between Swedish national registers to study the incidences of cancer, d...

  16. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Attributable to Elevated Levels of Total Cholesterol Among Hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, Nicole L.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Although cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) among hypertensives, the burden of CHD among hypertensives that may be due to elevated cholesterol has not been well documented. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of incident myocardial infarction

  17. MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING - CLINICAL AND ANGIOGRAPHIC PROFILE IN LAST 5 YEARS; A STUDY OF 129 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash S P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study : To assess the clinical and angiographical profile of myocardial bridging from consecutive coronary angiograms done over last 5 years at Medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. To assess the risk of cardiovascular events and the risk of accelerated atherosclerosis in isolated myocardial bridging. Methods : Consecutive coronary angiograms done at Medical college Thiruvananthapuram from 04/02/2005 to 31/03/2010 were reviewed for myocardial bridging. A total of 10492 coronary angiograms were reviewed. Myocardial bridges with systolic lumen reduction of more than 50% were considered for analysis. Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA was used for analysis. Clinical presentation as well as correlation with structural heart disease and coronary heart disease was assessed. Results: Incidence of myocardial bridges was 1.23%. Of the 129 patients with myocardial bridges 63 ( 48.8% had associated significant coronary artery disease. Remaining 66 (51.2% patients presented with isolated bridges. Out of these 66 patients with isolated myocardial bridges, 7 (10.6% patients presented with acute myocardial infarction and 3 (4.5% presented with cardiac arrhythmias. Of the 63 patients with significant coronary disease 11 (17.5% patients had single vessel disease and they had the culprit lesion and myocardial bridge seen in the same vessel. Most common location of myocardial bridge was mid LAD (64.9% followed by distal LAD (23.8%. Length of bridge was 20 mm in 35.7%. Mean percentage of systolic obliteration by the bridge was 74.5%. 100% systolic obliteration was seen in 7.79% of isolated bridges and in 9.79% of bridges with CAD. Among 120 rhuematic heart disease patients who underwent coronary angiogram, 10 (8.3% patients had myocardial bridging. 12.1% of all HCM patients who underwent coronary angiograms had myocardial bridging. Conclusion: Myocardial bridging can be lethal- can accelerate atherosclerosis, can precipitate acute MIs and life

  18. Diffuse Myocardial Uptake of 99mTc-HDP in Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, Koray; Sadic, Murat; Korkmaz, Meliha; Comak, Aylin; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Koca, Goekhan

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue uptake is a rare finding in bone scintigraphy, with an incidence of 2%. Although the mechanism has not yet been fully clarified, several causes have been reported for this unusual uptake pattern. This paper presents a case of diffuse myocardial accumulation of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-HDP) without either solid/visceral organ or soft tissue with multiple myeloma (MM) in skeletal scintigraphy. A 93-year-old man with hypertension and chronic heart failure for 14 years underwent bone scanning due to a 2-month history of back pain within a 1-year period of MM. Three hours later, 99m Tc-HDP late static images showed diffuse myocardial radiotracer accumulation and there were no other sites of abnormal soft tissue or visceral uptake. Myocardial accumulation had disappeared on 24-h delayed static images. This accumulation was thought to be related with AL-type amyloidosis associated with MM

  19. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  20. Drugs taken in fatal and non-fatal self-poisoning : A study in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    This study compared the number and type of substances taken in deliberate self-poisoning with fatal (n=127) and non-fatal (n=521) outcome. The aims were (i) to describe substances typically involved in self-poisoning in England and Wales, (ii) to examine the role of drug 'cocktails' and (iii) to

  1. Clinical significance of late high-degree atrioventricular block in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after an acute myocardial infarction--a Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification After Acute Myocardial Infarction (CARISMA) substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Uffe Jakob Ortved; Jøns, Christian; Jørgensen, Rikke Mørch

    2011-01-01

    High-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) is a frequent complication in the acute stages of a myocardial infarction associated with an increased rate of mortality. However, the incidence and clinical significance of HAVB in late convalescent phases of an AMI is largely unknown. The aim of this st...... of this study was to assess the incidence and prognostic value of late HAVB documented by continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in post-AMI patients with reduced left ventricular function....

  2. Statins reduce new-onset atrial fibrillation in a first-time myocardial infarction population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Gislason, Gunnar H; Greve, Anders M

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of statins on reducing new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in a large real-world post-myocardial infarction (MI) population. Subsequently, to test if different statin doses, various types and compliance affected the incidence of new-onset AF post MI. METHODS: All patients...

  3. Long-term secondary prevention of acute myocardial infarction (SEPAT) - guidelines adherence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergatoudes, Constantinos; Thunström, Erik; Rosengren, Annika; Björck, Lena; Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Falk, Kristin; Fu, Michael

    2016-11-17

    A number of registry studies have reported suboptimal adherence to guidelines for cardiovascular prevention during the first year after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, only a few studies have addressed long-term secondary prevention after AMI. This study evaluates prevention guideline adherence and outcome of guideline-directed secondary prevention in patients surviving 2 years after AMI. Patients aged 18-85 years at the time of their index AMI were consecutively identified from hospital discharge records between July 2010 and December 2011 in Gothenburg, Sweden. All patients who agreed to participate in the study (16.2%) were invited for a structured interview, physical examinations and laboratory analysis 2 years after AMI. Guideline-directed secondary preventive goals were defined as optimally controlled blood pressure, serum cholesterol, glucose, regular physical activity, smoking cessation and pharmacological treatment. The mean age of the study cohort (n = 200) at the index AMI was 63.0 ± 9.7 years, 79% were men. Only 3.5% of the cohort achieved all six guideline-directed secondary preventive goals 2 years after infarction. LDL therapy was used by 97% of the patients, beta-blockers by 83.0%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers by 76.5% and statins by 88.5%. During follow-up, non-fatal adverse cardiovascular events (cardiac hospitalization, recurrent acute coronary syndrome, angina pectoris, new percutaneous coronary intervention, new onset of atrial fibrillation, post-infarct heart failure, pacemaker implantation, stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), cardiac surgery and cardiac arrest) occurred in 47% of the cohort and readmission due to cardiac causes in 30%. Our data showed the failure of secondary prevention in our daily clinical practice and high rate of non-fatal adverse cardiovascular events 2 years after AMI.

  4. Increasing prevalence despite decreasing incidence of ischeamic heart disease and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Davidsen, Michael; Andersen, Lisbeth V.

    2015-01-01

    of these changes on the prevalence of IHD is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in incidence and prevalence in 2000-2009 are presented, using nationwide data from public registers. An incident case is defined as a subject registered with a diagnosis of IHD/AMI and without a prior diagnosis for the past 20...... years (beginning in 1980). A prevalent case is defined as a subject surviving the first year after the incident diagnosis. Regarding IHD, age-standardised incidence rates declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 for both sexes (females 445 to 340/100,000, males 822 to 678/100,000), reflecting...

  5. HbA1c below 7% as the goal of glucose control fails to maximize the cardiovascular benefits: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin; Huang, Rong; Lu, Sen; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Haixia; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-09-22

    Whether lowering glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level below 7.0% improves macro-vascular outcomes in diabetes remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of relatively tight glucose control resulting in a follow-up HbA1c level of less or more than 7.0% on cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic patients. We systematically searched Medline, Web of science and Cochrane Library for prospective randomized controlled trials published between Jan 1, 1996 and July 1, 2015 that recorded cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering drugs or strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data from 15 studies involving 88,266 diabetic patients with 4142 events of non-fatal myocardial infarction, 6997 of major cardiovascular events, 3517 of heart failure, 6849 of all-cause mortality, 2084 of non-fatal stroke, 3816 of cardiovascular death were included. A 7% reduction of major cardiovascular events was observed only when relatively tight glucose control resulted in a follow-up HbA1c level above 7.0% (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98; I(2) = 33%), however, the patients can benefit from reduction incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction only when the follow-up HbA1c value below 7.0% (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Apart from the HbA1c value above 7.0% (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.40), the application of thiazolidinediones (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14-1.69) also increased the risk of heart failure, while the gliptins shows neutral effects to heart failure (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.97-1.34). Relatively tight glucose control has some cardiovascular benefits. HbA1c below 7.0% as the goal to maximize the cardiovascular benefits remains suspended.

  6. Childhood Misfortune, Personality, and Heart Attack: Does Personality Mediate Risk of Myocardial Infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Patricia M; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2016-03-12

    Previous research has revealed a link between childhood experiences and adult health, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clear. To elucidate this relationship, we investigated the pathway from childhood misfortune to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) via individual differences in personality. Longitudinal data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, which sampled 3,032 men and women aged 25-74 years at baseline. Big 5 personality traits and multiple measures of childhood misfortune were used to assess whether personality mediated the effect of childhood misfortune on MI risk. A series of proportional hazards models revealed that neuroticism mediated the effect of additive childhood misfortune on adult MI risk. Childhood misfortune may be formative in the development of personality, which, subsequently, can be consequential to health. These findings highlight the salient roles of early-life experiences and personality to shape health and aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Myocardial adaptations to recreational marathon training among middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilinski, Jodi L; Contursi, Miranda E; Isaacs, Stephanie K; Deluca, James R; Lewis, Gregory D; Weiner, Rory B; Hutter, Adolph M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Troyanos, Christopher; Dyer, K Sophia; Baggish, Aaron L

    2015-02-01

    Myocardial adaptations to exercise have been well documented among competitive athletes. To what degree cardiac remodeling occurs among recreational exercisers is unknown. We sought to evaluate the effect of recreational marathon training on myocardial structure and function comprehensively. Male runners (n=45; age, 48±7 years; 64% with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor) participated in a structured marathon-training program. Echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and laboratory evaluation were performed pre and post training to quantify changes in myocardial structure and function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and traditional cardiac risk parameters. Completion of an 18-week running program (25±9 miles/wk) led to increased cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption, 44.6±5.2 versus 46.3±5.4 mL/kg per minute; Precreational marathon training is associated with biventricular dilation, enhanced left ventricular diastolic function, and favorable changes in nonmyocardial determinants of cardiovascular risk. Recreational marathon training may, therefore, serve as an effective strategy for decreasing incident cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Improved outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction during the last 20 years are related to implementation of evidence-based treatments: experiences from the SWEDEHEART registry 1995–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szummer, Karolina; Wallentin, Lars; Lindhagen, Lars; Alfredsson, Joakim; Erlinge, David; Held, Claes; James, Stefan; Kellerth, Thomas; Lindahl, Bertil; Ravn-Fischer, Annica; Rydberg, Erik; Yndigegn, Troels; Jernberg, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Impact of changes of treatments on outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in real-life health care has not been documented. Methods and results All STEMI cases (n = 105.674) registered in the nation-wide SWEDEHEART registry between 1995 and 2014 were included and followed for fatal and non-fatal outcomes for up to 20 years. Most changes in treatment and outcomes occurred from 1994 to 2008. Evidence-based treatments increased: reperfusion from 66.2 to 81.7%; primary percutaneous coronary intervention: 4.5 to 78.0%; dual antiplatelet therapy from 0 to 89.6%; statin: 14.1 to 93.6%; beta-blocker: 78.2 to 91.0%, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme/angiotensin-2-receptor inhibitors: 40.8 to 85.2% (P-value for-trend <0.001 for all). One-year mortality decreased from 22.1 to 14.1%. Standardized incidence ratio compared with the general population decreased from 5.54 to 3.74 (P < 0.001). Cardiovascular (CV) death decreased from 20.1 to 11.1%, myocardial infarction (MI) from 11.5 to 5.8%; stroke from 2.9 to 2.1%; heart failure from 7.1 to 6.2%. After standardization for differences in demography and baseline characteristics, the change of 1-year CV-death or MI corresponded to a linear trend of 0.915 (95% confidence interval: 0.906–0.923) per 2-year period which no longer was significant, 0.997 (0.984–1.009), after adjustment for changes in treatment. The changes in treatment and outcomes were most pronounced from 1994 to 2008. Conclusion Gradual implementation of new and established evidence-based treatments in STEMI patients during the last 20 years has been associated with prolonged survival and lower risk of recurrent ischaemic events, although a plateauing is seen since around 2008. PMID:29020314

  9. World Health Organization definition of myocardial infarction: 2008-09 revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Shanthi; Thygesen, Kristian; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Giampaoli, Simona; Mähönen, Markku; Ngu Blackett, Kathleen; Lisheng, Liu

    2011-02-01

    WHO has played a leading role in the formulation and promulgation of standard criteria for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction since early 1970s. The revised definition takes into consideration the following: well-resourced settings can use the ESC/ACC/AHA/WHF definition, which has new biomarkers as a compulsory feature; in resource-constrained settings, a typical biomarker pattern cannot be made a compulsory feature as the necessary assays may not be available; the definition must also have provision for diagnosing non-fatal events with incomplete information on cardiac biomarkers and the ECG; to facilitate epidemiologic monitoring definition must recognize fatal events with incomplete or no information on cardiac biomarkers and/or ECG and/or autopsy and/or coronary angiography. Category A definition is the same as ESC/ACC/AHA/WHF definition of MI, and can be applied to settings with no resource constraints. Category B definition of MI is to be applied whenever there is incomplete information on cardiac bio-markers together with symptoms of ischaemia and the development of unequivocal pathological Q waves. Category C definition (probable MI) is to be applied when individuals with MI may not satisfy Category A or B definitions because of delayed access to medical services and/or unavailability of electrocardiography and/or laboratory assay of cardiac biomarkers. In these situations, the term probable MI should be used when there is either ECG changes suggestive of MI or incomplete information on cardiac biomarkers in a person with symptoms of ischaemia with no evidence of a non-coronary reason. This article presents the 2008-09 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of myocardial infarction (MI) developed at a WHO expert consultation.

  10. Cancer risk of patients discharged with acute myocardial infarct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    We studied whether common shared environmental or behavioral risk factors, other than tobacco smoking, underlie both atherosclerotic diseases and cancer. We identified a group of 96,891 one-year survivors of acute myocardial infarct through the Danish Hospital Discharge Register between 1977...... and 1989. We calculated the incidence of cancer in this group by linking it to the Danish Cancer Registry for the period 1978-1993. There was no consistent excess over the expected figures for any of the categories of cancer not related to tobacco smoking. Specifically, the rates of colorectal cancer...... in acute myocardial infarct patients were similar to those of the general population, as were the rates for hormone-related cancers, including endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancers. We found a moderate increase in the risk for tobacco-related cancers, which was strongest for patients with early...

  11. Creatinine, eGFR and association with myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease and early death in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, Kirstine L; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that moderately elevated plasma creatinine levels and decreased levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and early death in the general population. METHODS: We...... studied 10,489 individuals with a plasma creatinine measurement and calculated eGFR from the Danish general population, of which 1498 developed myocardial infarction, 3001 ischemic heart disease, and 7573 died during 32 years follow-up. RESULTS: Cumulative incidences of myocardial infarction and ischemic...... heart disease as a function of age increased with increasing levels of creatinine, and survival decreased (log-rank trends: creatinine levels

  12. Trends in Nonfatal Agricultural Injury in Maine and New Hampshire: Results From a Low-Cost Passive Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erika; Bell, Erin; Hirabayashi, Liane; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is a dangerous industry, and although data on fatal injuries exist, less is known about nonfatal injuries. The purpose of this study is to describe trends in agricultural morbidity in Maine and New Hampshire from 2008 to 2010 using a newly established passive surveillance system. This passive system is supplied by injury cases gathered from prehospital care reports and hospital data. Demographics and specifics of the event were recorded for each incident case. The average age of injured people in Maine and New Hampshire was 41.7. Women constituted 43.8% of all agricultural injuries. Machinery- (n = 303) and animal- (n = 523) related injuries accounted for most agricultural incidents. Of all injured women, over 60% sustained injuries due to animal-related causes. Agricultural injuries were spread across the two states, with clustering in southern New Hampshire and south central Maine, with additional injuries in the Aroostook County area, which is located in the northeast part of the state. Seasonal variation in agricultural injuries was evident with peaks in the summer months. There was some overlap between the agricultural and logging industry for tree-related work. Our methods are able to capture traumatic injury in agriculture in sufficient detail to prioritize interventions and to evaluate outcomes. The system is low-cost and has the potential to be sustained over a long period. Differences in rates of animal- and machinery-related injuries suggest the need for state-specific safety prioritization.

  13. Diffuse Myocardial Uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP in Multiple Myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, Koray; Sadic, Murat; Korkmaz, Meliha; Comak, Aylin; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Koca, Goekhan [Ministry of Health Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    Soft tissue uptake is a rare finding in bone scintigraphy, with an incidence of 2%. Although the mechanism has not yet been fully clarified, several causes have been reported for this unusual uptake pattern. This paper presents a case of diffuse myocardial accumulation of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP) without either solid/visceral organ or soft tissue with multiple myeloma (MM) in skeletal scintigraphy. A 93-year-old man with hypertension and chronic heart failure for 14 years underwent bone scanning due to a 2-month history of back pain within a 1-year period of MM. Three hours later, {sup 99m}Tc-HDP late static images showed diffuse myocardial radiotracer accumulation and there were no other sites of abnormal soft tissue or visceral uptake. Myocardial accumulation had disappeared on 24-h delayed static images. This accumulation was thought to be related with AL-type amyloidosis associated with MM.

  14. Myocardial ischemia in severe aortic regurgitation despite angiographically normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksoy, S.; Cam, N.; Guney, M.R.; Gurkan, U.; Oz, D.; Poyraz, E.; Eksik, A.; Agirbasli, M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aortic regurgitation frequently present with angina pectoris. The exact pathophysiology for angina in aortic regurgitation is not clear. Left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial blood supply-demand mismatch have been the suggested mechanisms to explain ischemia. However, no conclusive clinical study exists to define the incidence of ischemia in patients with severe aortic regurgitation and normal coronary arteries. We, therefore, investigated the frequency of myocardial ischemia in relation to left ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation in patients with severe aortic regurgitation and normal coronary arteries. We reviewed the medical records of all patients (n=311) with aortic valve replacement due to aortic regurgitation between 2007 and 2010. We selected subjects with normal coronary arteries (n=182) for the study purpose, and we identified 35 patients who underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy prior to the coronary angiography (19 female and 16 male subjects; age 45.0±8.9 years). Left ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation were detected in 9 (26%) and 5 (14%) patients, respectively. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy showed evidence of ischemia in 10 (29%) patients with normal coronary arteries. The presence of ischemia did not relate to the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and/or dilatation. As a potential mechanism, aortic regurgitation causes backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle, hence disturbs coronary flow dynamics. In conclusion, myocardial ischemia is common (nearly one-third) among patients with severe aortic regurgitation even in the absence of coronary obstruction, left ventricular hypertrophy and/or dilatation. (author)

  15. Add-On Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Mortality in Myocardial Infarction: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent C. H. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM is widely used as an adjunct to biomedicine (BM in treating myocardial infarction (MI. This meta-analysis of RCTs evaluated the efficacy of combined CHM-BM in the treatment of MI, compared to BM alone. Sixty-five RCTs (12,022 patients of moderate quality were identified. 6,036 patients were given CHM plus BM, and 5,986 patients used BM only. Combined results showed clear additional effect of CHM-BM treatment in reducing all-cause mortality (relative risk reduction (RRR = 37%, 95% CI = 28%–45%, I2=0.0% and mortality of cardiac origin (RRR = 39%, 95% CI = 22%–52%, I2=22.8. Benefits remained after random-effect trim and fill adjustment for publication bias (adjusted RRR for all-cause mortality = 29%, 95% CI = 16%–40%; adjusted RRR for cardiac death = 32%, 95% CI = 15%–46%. CHM is also found to be efficacious in lowering the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial reinfarction, heart failure, angina, and occurrence of total heart events. In conclusion, addition of CHM is very likely to be able to improve survival of MI patients who are already receiving BM. Further confirmatory evaluation via large blinded randomized trials is warranted.

  16. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempts: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghi M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Jerrold F Rosenbaum,3 Cesare Cerri,1,4 Cesare M Cornaggia1,51Psychiatry Clinic, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry, Salvini Hospital, Rho, Italy; 3Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zucchi Clinical Institute, Carate Brianza, Italy; 5Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Mantua, ItalyObjectives: This review aimed to identify the evidence for predictors of repetition of suicide attempts, and more specifically for subsequent completed suicide.Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2009, and we excluded studies investigating only special populations (eg, male and female only, children and adolescents, elderly, a specific psychiatric disorder and studies with sample size fewer than 50 patients.Results: The strongest predictor of a repeated attempt is a previous attempt, followed by being a victim of sexual abuse, poor global functioning, having a psychiatric disorder, being on psychiatric treatment, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse or dependence. For other variables examined (Caucasian ethnicity, having a criminal record, having any mood disorders, bad family environment, and impulsivity there are indications for a putative correlation as well. For completed suicide, the strongest predictors are older age, suicide ideation, and history of suicide attempt. Living alone, male sex, and alcohol abuse are weakly predictive with a positive correlation (but sustained by very scarce data for poor impulsivity and a somatic diagnosis.Conclusion: It is difficult to find predictors for repetition of nonfatal suicide attempts, and even more difficult to identify predictors of completed suicide. Suicide ideation and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence, which are, along with depression, the most consistent predictors for initial nonfatal

  17. IDENTIFIKASI SINYAL ECG IRAMA MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA DENGAN PENDEKATAN FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar A N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart is one of vital organs in human body. Incidence of heart disease can be fatal for the patient. Myocardial ischemia, the disease that is often suffered by the human, is a disease due to clogged heart arteries blood vessels. One of the ways to detect this disease is by reading the graph output of electrocardiogram (ECG signal. ECG signal represents the condition and activity of the heart. Specialized knowledge, accuration and expertise are required to read ECG graph. To help expert or doctor, expert system based on artificial intelligent, such as Fuzzy Logic approach, can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy and thoroughness. Fuzzy logic can be applied because of it flexibility to understand the linguistic variables used in identifying myocardial ischemia disease.

  18. Usual Alcohol Consumption and Risks for Nonfatal Fall Injuries in the United States: Results From the 2004-2013 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung M; Yoon, Young-Hee

    2017-07-29

    Acute alcohol consumption is known to be a risk factor for fall injuries. The study sought to determine whether usual alcohol consumption increases the risk for nonfatal fall injuries. Data from 289,187 sample adults in the 2004-2013 U.S. National Health Interview Surveys were analyzed. Of these, 3,368 (∼1%) reported a total of 3,579 fall-injury episodes requiring medical consultation in the past 3 months. Latent class analysis based on four contextual indicators identified four ecological subtypes of fall injury within two age groups (18-49 and 50+). Five drinking patterns (i.e., lifetime abstainer, former drinker, low-risk drinker, increased-risk drinker, and highest-risk drinker) were categorized according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) low-risk drinking guidelines. Controlling for potential confounders, negative binomial regression estimated the adjusted rates of any type and subtypes of fall injury, by gender, for each drinking pattern relative to lifetime abstainer. Compared with lifetime abstainers, the adjusted rate of any fall injury for adults ages 18-49 was significantly higher among highest-risk drinkers (men: incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.60, 4.20]; women: IRR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.24, 2.91]) and increased-risk drinkers (men: IRR = 1.94, 95% CI [1.25, 3.00]; women: IRR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.11, 2.07]). Furthermore, highest-risk drinkers had higher adjusted rates of either leisure- or sports-related fall injuries than lifetime abstainers. Alcohol consumption exceeding NIAAA's low-risk drinking guidelines is associated with elevated rates of nonfatal fall injuries. Findings underscore the importance of adhering to these recommendations.

  19. Effects of valsartan on ventricular arrhythmia induced by programmed electrical stimulation in rats with myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kun-Li; Li, Yi-Gang; Zhang, Peng-Pai; Chen, Ren-Hua; Yu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The impact of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on electrical remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI) remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of valsartan on incidence of ventricular arrhythmia induced by programmed electrical stimulation (PES) and potential link to changes of myocardial connexins (Cx) 43 expression and distribution in MI rats. Fifty-nine rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham (n = 20), MI (n = 20) and MI + Val (20 mg/kg/day per gavage, n = 19). After eight weeks, the incidence of PES-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) and fibrillation (VF) was compared among groups. mRNA and protein expressions of Cx43, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in the LV border zone (BZ) and non-infarct zone (NIZ) were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Connexins 43 protein and collagen distribution were examined by immunohistochemistry in BZ and NIZ sections from MI hearts. Valsartan effectively improved the cardiac function, reduced the prolonged QTc (163.7 ± 3.7 msec. versus 177.8 ± 4.5 msec., P valsartan. The mRNA and protein expressions of Cx43 in BZ were significantly reduced after MI and up-regulated by valsartan. Increased collagen deposition and reduced Cx43 expression in BZ after MI could be partly attenuated by Valsartan. Valsartan reduced the incidence of PES-induced ventricular arrhythmia, this effect was possibly through modulating the myocardial AT1R and Cx43 expression. PMID:22128836

  20. Assessment of myocardial viability by exercise stress myocardial tomography with 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1992-01-01

    Exercise stress (Ex) and redistribution (RD) myocardial tomography with Tl-201 has been widely used for evaluating myocardial viability. But recent studies have demonstrated that reinjection (ReI) study following RD study is necessary for detecting reversible ischemic myocardium. On the other hand, decreased myocardial washout of Tl-201 after Ex is an indicator of myocardial ischemia. So we have studied the usefulness of myocardial Tl-201 washout rate (WOR) for the evaluation of myocardial viability by comparing it with ReI images. Ex and RD myocardial tomographies were obtained immediately after Ex and 3 hours later. After RD study a small amount of Tl-201 was injected and ReI imaging was repeated. We studied 64 myocardial segments (in 58 patients with coronary artery disease) in which Ex-induced perfusion defects persisted in RD images. According to the changes of perfusion defects between Ex, RD and ReI images, they were classified into 3 types: Type I; perfusion defect on the RD image was identical to ReI image (75%). Type I was divided into 2 subgroups whether perfusion defect at Ex was unchanged (Ia, 42%) or improved (Ib, 33%) on the RD image. Type II; perfusion defect at Ex was reduced on the RD image and it improved furthermore at ReI image (17%). Type III; perfusion defect was the same at Ex and RD but it was reduced on the ReI image (8%). WOR less than 30% was defined as abnormal when Ex heart rate exceeded 120 bpm and lung-myocardial Tl-201 uptake ratio was less than 0.45. The differentiation between Type Ia and Type III is of great importance. History of myocardial infarction, effort angina and Ex induced ST depression could not differentiate these 2 groups. WOR abnormality was observed in all of Type III, but WOR was normal in Type Ia. In conclusion, WOR abnormality in Ex-RD myocardial imaging is useful for evaluating myocardial viability. ReI imaging is necessary for the precise evaluation of viable muscle mass and for inadequate Ex. (author)

  1. Different Causes of Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Type 1, Type 2, and Myocardial Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Sascha; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S; Gerke, Oke; Hosbond, Susanne; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Thygesen, Kristian; Mickley, Hans

    2018-05-01

    Data outlining the mortality and the causes of death in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, and those with myocardial injury are limited. During a 1-year period from January 2010 to January 2011, all hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication were prospectively studied. Patients with at least one cardiac troponin I value >30 ng/L underwent case ascertainment and individual evaluation by an experienced adjudication committee. Patients were classified as having type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, or myocardial injury according to the criteria of the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Follow-up was ensured until December 31, 2014. Data on mortality and causes of death were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Overall, 3762 consecutive patients were followed for a mean of 3.2 years (interquartile range 1.3-3.6 years). All-cause mortality differed significantly among categories: Type 1 myocardial infarction 31.7%, type 2 myocardial infarction 62.2%, myocardial injury 58.7%, and 22.2% in patients with nonelevated troponin values (log-rank test; P causes, vs 42.6% in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (P = .015) and 41.2% in those with myocardial injury (P causes of death did not differ substantially between patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and those with myocardial injury. Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury exhibit a significantly higher long-term mortality compared with patients with type 1 myocardial infarction . However, most patients with type 1 myocardial infarction die from cardiovascular causes in contrast to patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury, in whom noncardiovascular causes of death predominate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1.

  3. Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1

  4. A randomized study to compare bioactive titanium stents and everolimus-eluting stents in diabetic patients (TITANIC XV): 1-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mínguez, José R; Nogales-Asensio, Juan M; Doncel-Vecino, Luis J; Merchán-Herrera, Antonio; Pomar-Domingo, Francisco; Martínez-Romero, Pedro; Fernández-Díaz, José A; Valdesuso-Aguilar, Raúl; Moreu-Burgos, José; Díaz-Fernández, José

    2014-07-01

    Up to 25% of patients who undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention show some limitation in the use of drug-eluting stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate if titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents could be a good alternative to everolimus-eluting stents in diabetic patients. A total of 173 diabetic patients with lesions at moderate risk of restenosis (exclusion criteria: diameter 28 mm in vessels < 3mm, chronic occlusion) were randomized to a titanium group (83 patients) or an everolimus group (90 patients). Baseline characteristics were well balanced; 28.3% of patients were insulin dependent. At 1 year, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat target vessel revascularization) was significantly higher in the titanium group than in the everolimus group (total, 14.5% vs 4.4%; P = .02; noninsulin-dependent subgroup, 9.7% vs 3.2%; P = .14; insulin-dependent subgroup, 28.6% vs 7.1%; P = .04). The incidence of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or any revascularization was 16.9% in the titanium group and 7.8% in the everolimus group (P = .06). Target lesion and vessel revascularizations occurred in 8.4% compared with 3.3% (P = .15) and in 13.3% compared with 3.3% (P = .01) in the titanium and everolimus groups, respectively. Angiographic follow-up at 9 months showed significantly less late lumen loss in the everolimus group (in-segment, 0.52 [standard deviation, 0.58) mm vs -0.05 [0.32] mm; in-stent, 0.76 [0.54] mm vs 0.13 [0.31] mm; P < .0001). The everolimus-eluting stent is superior to the titanium stent for clinical and angiographic end points in diabetic patients with lesions at moderate risk of restenosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Does C-reactive Protein Add Prognostic Value to GRACE Score in Acute Coronary Syndromes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Vasconcelos, Isis; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Silva, André; Oliveira, Ruan; Carvalhal, Manuela; Freitas, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The incremental prognostic value of plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in relation to GRACE score has not been established in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with non-ST segment elevation. To test the hypothesis that CRP measurements at admission increases the prognostic value of GRACE score in patients with ACS. A total of 290 subjects, consecutively admitted for ACS, with plasma material obtained upon admission CRP measurement using a high-sensitivity method (nephelometry) were studied. Cardiovascular outcomes during hospitalization were defined by the combination of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal refractory angina. The incidence of cardiovascular events during hospitalization was 15% (18 deaths, 11 myocardial infarctions, 13 angina episodes) with CRP showing C-statistics of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.51-0.70, p = 0.034) in predicting these outcomes. After adjustment for the GRACE score, elevated CRP (defined as the best cutoff point) tended to be associated with hospital events (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.92 to 3.88, p = 0.08). However, the addition of the variable elevated CRP in the GRACE model did not result in significant increase in C-statistics, which ranged from 0.705 to 0.718 (p = 0.46). Similarly, there was no significant reclassification of risk with the addition of CRP in the predictor model (net reclassification = 5.7 %, p = 0.15). Although CRP is associated with hospital outcomes, this inflammatory marker does not increase the prognostic value of the GRACE score

  6. Does C-reactive Protein Add Prognostic Value to GRACE Score in Acute Coronary Syndromes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos, E-mail: lccorreia@terra.com.br; Vasconcelos, Isis; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Silva, André; Oliveira, Ruan; Carvalhal, Manuela; Freitas, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia Maria [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Hospital São Rafael, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The incremental prognostic value of plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in relation to GRACE score has not been established in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with non-ST segment elevation. To test the hypothesis that CRP measurements at admission increases the prognostic value of GRACE score in patients with ACS. A total of 290 subjects, consecutively admitted for ACS, with plasma material obtained upon admission CRP measurement using a high-sensitivity method (nephelometry) were studied. Cardiovascular outcomes during hospitalization were defined by the combination of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal refractory angina. The incidence of cardiovascular events during hospitalization was 15% (18 deaths, 11 myocardial infarctions, 13 angina episodes) with CRP showing C-statistics of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.51-0.70, p = 0.034) in predicting these outcomes. After adjustment for the GRACE score, elevated CRP (defined as the best cutoff point) tended to be associated with hospital events (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.92 to 3.88, p = 0.08). However, the addition of the variable elevated CRP in the GRACE model did not result in significant increase in C-statistics, which ranged from 0.705 to 0.718 (p = 0.46). Similarly, there was no significant reclassification of risk with the addition of CRP in the predictor model (net reclassification = 5.7 %, p = 0.15). Although CRP is associated with hospital outcomes, this inflammatory marker does not increase the prognostic value of the GRACE score.

  7. Study progress of cardiac MRI technology in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Hao

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most common diseases that cause disability and death around the world. Correctly and effectively assessing the myocardial viability after myocardial infarction can reduce the disabled rate and mortality rate. At present, many methods could be used to assess myocardial viability. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) technology has a lot of advantages compared to other methods. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of CMR in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction, and compared CMR with other technologies. (authors)

  8. The diagnosis of silent myocardial ischemia. Motion-Frozen (or morphing) myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Ye, Bo; Xie, Wenhui; Zhang, Daoliang; Lei, Bei; Ye, Xiaodan

    2016-01-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is typically defined as objective evidence of myocardial ischemia in patients without subjective ischemia symptoms. Currently, coronary artery angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) can visually demonstrate the morphology, trend and extent of coronary stenosis and is commonly used in clinical screening of CAD. Myocardial perfusion imaging can be used not only to identify whether anatomical stenosis causes myocardial dysfunction, but to also assess the risk stratification and prognosis of myocardial disease (MD). Myocardial perfusion imaging using morphing combined with CTCA can simultaneously show the relationship between CAD and myocardial ischemia from an anatomical and functional aspect. This allows earlier diagnosis of asymptomatic CAD myocardial ischemia, accurate identification of the culprit vessels, and could prevent unnecessary interventional therapy. The 1-day dobutamine stress/resting met-hod is also one of the methods used. The combination of CTCA and the morphing technique can provide anatomical and functional information on coronary arteries at the same time, significantly improving the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MD.

  9. Screening for silent myocardial ischemia caseof diabetics : interest of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahri, Haifa

    2007-01-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Its diagnosis by noninvasive means such as myocardial SPECT would improve the management of these patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of silent myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic diabetics and their evolution. As a result, the myocardial SPECT is a reliable tool for screening for silent myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients. Its prognostic value allows to stratify the cardiac risk and guide therapeutic management. Its integration into a screening strategy in Tunisia seems limited by its low availability and cost. The latter could be reduced by better patient selection.

  10. Impact of fasting on the presentation and outcome of myocardial infarction during the month of Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Almansori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is practiced by millions of Muslims during the month of Ramadan. The available data show that the incidence of acute coronary syndromes during or outside the month of Ramadan is similar. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fasting on acute myocardial infarction. We conducted a chart review to look retrospectively at the effect of fasting on outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in 78 patients (40 patients in the fasting group and 38 patients in the non-fasting group. We found a non-significant difference favoring the fasting state in the degree of elevation of troponin and creatine phosphokinase, but a statistically significant difference favoring the fasting group in the duration of hospital stay after acute myocardial infarction (7.1±4.3 vs 9.8±5.3 days; P=0.015. In conclusion, fasting may have a cardio-protective effect on patients with acute myocardial infarction and is associated with shorter hospital stay.

  11. Whey protein concentrate and gum tragacanth as fat replacers in nonfat yogurt: chemical, physical, and microstructural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziznia, S; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Rahimi, J

    2008-07-01

    The effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and gum tragacanth (GT) as fat replacers on the chemical, physical, and microstructural properties of nonfat yogurt was investigated. The WPC (7.5, 15, and 20 g/L) and GT (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/L) were incorporated into the skim milk slowly at 40 to 45 degrees C with agitation. The yogurt mixes were pasteurized at 90 degrees C for 10 min, inoculated with 0.1% starter culture, and incubated at 42 degrees C to pH 4.6, then refrigerated overnight at 5 degrees C. A control nonfat yogurt and control full fat yogurt were prepared as described, but without addition of WPC and GT. Increasing amount of WPC led to the increase in total solids, total protein, acidity, and ash content, whereas GT did not affect chemical parameters. Increasing WPC caused a more compact structure consisting of robust casein particles and large aggregates. Firmness was increased and susceptibility to syneresis was decreased as WPC increased. No significant difference was observed for firmness and syneresis of yogurt fortified with GT up to 0.5 g/L compared with control nonfat yogurt. Increasing the amount of gum above 0.5 g/L produced softer gels with a greater tendency for syneresis than the ones prepared without it. Addition of GT led to the coarser and more open structure compared with control yogurt.

  12. Periodontitis and myocardial hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-01

    There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.

  13. Study on fatal and nonfatal cancer cases occurred in different regions of SÃO Paulo City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Dias, Bruna T.M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Lee, Seung M.; Diz, Maria D.P.E.; Fernandes, Marco A.R.

    2017-01-01

    São Paulo city has presented an increasing change regarding the causes of mortality. An overview of the distribution and types of cancer in different populations can be obtained from official databases that collect general data de Base Populacional (RCBP) provides data description of patients and monitors the profile of cancer from patients. The system aims to know the incidence of malignant neoplasm. The database named Registros de Câncer incidence in a given population. The RCBP of the city of São Paulo is coordinated by the Department of Epidemiology of the School of Public Health, University of São Paulo .The RCBP allows the assessment of data from all areas of São Paulo. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of data about the cases of fatal and nonfatal cancer in several areas of the city of São Paulo (Midwest, East, North, Southeast and South) in order to establish a comparison among the occurrences of the disease in those areas. The review will be an efficient tool to identify the profile of cancer cases in the city of São Paulo, mainly in the areas where most hospitals, which provide therapy and imaging services that use radiation, are located. Based on the data review a future epidemiological study may be conducted seeking to identify the main types of cancer that may be directly or indirectly related to radiation such as leukemia, thyroid, breast, and bone cancer. The existence of several other risk factors that may interfere with the development of any type of cancer, such as individual lifestyle and genetic predisposition must be considered. (author)

  14. Study on fatal and nonfatal cancer cases occurred in different regions of SÃO Paulo City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Dias, Bruna T.M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Lee, Seung M., E-mail: tasallesc@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Diz, Maria D.P.E., E-mail: maria.pilar@hc.fm.usp.br [Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), São Paulo SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMU/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina/Dermatologia

    2017-07-01

    São Paulo city has presented an increasing change regarding the causes of mortality. An overview of the distribution and types of cancer in different populations can be obtained from official databases that collect general data de Base Populacional (RCBP) provides data description of patients and monitors the profile of cancer from patients. The system aims to know the incidence of malignant neoplasm. The database named Registros de Câncer incidence in a given population. The RCBP of the city of São Paulo is coordinated by the Department of Epidemiology of the School of Public Health, University of São Paulo .The RCBP allows the assessment of data from all areas of São Paulo. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of data about the cases of fatal and nonfatal cancer in several areas of the city of São Paulo (Midwest, East, North, Southeast and South) in order to establish a comparison among the occurrences of the disease in those areas. The review will be an efficient tool to identify the profile of cancer cases in the city of São Paulo, mainly in the areas where most hospitals, which provide therapy and imaging services that use radiation, are located. Based on the data review a future epidemiological study may be conducted seeking to identify the main types of cancer that may be directly or indirectly related to radiation such as leukemia, thyroid, breast, and bone cancer. The existence of several other risk factors that may interfere with the development of any type of cancer, such as individual lifestyle and genetic predisposition must be considered. (author)

  15. Evaluation of latent cardiac disease in diabetic patients with Tl-201 exercise myocardial scintigram and blood pool scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takeo; Kasai, Ryutaro; Ikebe, Nobuhiko; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Yamasawa, Ikuhiro; Ibukiyama, Chiharu; Notoya, Yoko

    1990-01-01

    To find latent heart disease in diabetic patients, 142 diabetic patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) no hypertension and normal ECG (DM group); (2) hypertension recognized clinically (HT group); (3) myocardial damage on ECG (MD group); (4) group associated with the previous 2 (HT+MD group). In all groups Tl-201 exercise myocardial scintigrams and blood pool scintigrams were taken for comparative analysis. Positive rates of SPECT were 27.7% (23/83) in the DM group, 30.0% (9/30) in the HT group, 50.0% (6/12) in the MD group, and 70.6% (12/17) in the HT+MD group. The rate in the HT+MD group was significantly higher than in that of the DM and HT groups (p<0.001, p<0.01). Blood pool scintigrams revealed that in the HT+MD group, as compared with the normal control group, both 1/3 FF and PFR were significantly depressed, in addition to significant TPF prolongation in the former (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.05). These findings suggest that in diabetic patients hypertension and myocardial damage would lead to a high incidence of abnormality in SPECT and left ventricular rapid filling dysfunction. This indicate a high incidence of latent cardiac disease which can be recognized in diabetic patients by stress myocardial and blood pool scintigrams. (author)

  16. Prognostic value of abnormal exercise myocardial perfusion imaging and its types in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Pan Zhongyun; Lin JInghui; Zhang Chunli; Nie Tao; Wang Yanfu

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of abnormal exercise myocardial perfusion imaging and its types in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 69 patients with CAD underwent exercise myocardial perfusing imaging and exercise ECG test. The images of all of them were abnormal. 45 patients were angiographically proved CAD. Follow-up period ranged from 6∼110 months and even longer than 12 months for patients with no cardiac events (CE). Results: CE occurred in 15 patients during the follow-up period. The CE incidence was 8.7% per year. Cox regression analysis revealed that there was a good correlation between the number of myocardial segments with reversible defects and future CE. Comparing the results of 13 patients with small extent irreversible defects with the data obtained from normal subjects reported previously, there was no significant difference between two no-CE rates (x 2 = 0.09, P>0.05). Conclusions: Normal myocardial images and irreversible defects involving rather small areas predicted an excellent prognosis. The better predictor of future CE is the quantity of myocardial segments with reversible defect

  17. The Effect of Child Access Prevention Laws on Non-Fatal Gun Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone; Sara Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many states have passed child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold the gun owner responsible if a child gains access to a gun that is not securely stored. Previous CAP law research has focused exclusively on gun-related deaths even though most gun injuries are not fatal. We use annual hospital discharge data from 1988-2001 to investigate whether CAP laws decrease non-fatal gun injuries. Results from Poisson regressions that control for various hospital, county and state characteristics, i...

  18. The clinical application value of myocardial perfusion imaging in evaluating coronary artery myocardial bridge patients with symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuetao; Fu Ning; Ding Xuemei; Lu Cunzhi; Zhu Feng; Wang Guanmin; Huang Yijie; Wang Linguang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Myocardial bridge is a common inborn coronary artery anomaly, myocardial bridge may be associated with myocardial ischemia. Only a few patients with coronary artery myocardial bridge were evaluated with nuclear medicine techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nuclear cardiology with myocardial perfusion technique in symptomatic myocardial bridge patients. Methods Nineteen myocardial bridge patients with the symptoms of chest pain and chest distress were analyzed retrospectively. 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion images (both exercise and rest) were performed in all. Imaging results were compared with the results of movement electrocardiogram (ECG) and coronary arteriography. The t test or χ 2 test was used to statistically analyze the data with Stata 7.0 software. Results: Of the 19 patients, 18 patients had myocardial bridge locating at the left anterior descending artery, 1 patient at the left anterior descending and left circumflex artery, the mean angiographic systolic occlusion within the myocardial bridge was (65.4 ± 22.1)%. Of these 19 patients, Exercise-rest 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging defined positive myocardial ischemia in 10 and negative in 9 patients. Of the 10 patients with 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging defined myocardial ischemia, 8 had reversible radioactive defect of partial anterior wall and (or) apex, 1 had reversible defect of post lateral wall and post septal wall, and 1 had reversible defect of inferior wall. The positive predictive value of myocardial perfusion imaging was 52.6% (10/19), which was higher than movement ECG [21.1% (4/19), χ 2 = 4.07, P 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial periusion imaging defined myocardial ischemia. Six cases with Grade II stenosis, two were 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging defined myocardial ischemia. Eight cases with Grade III stenosis, seven were 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging defined myocardial

  19. Postoperative deep venous thrombosis in Japan. Incidence and prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, K.; Shirai, N.; Hayashi, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Hirose, M.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative deep venous thrombosis was investigated using the iodine-125-fibrinogen method in 256 patients undergoing major surgery. Deep venous thrombosis was found in 49 patients (15.3 percent), and nonfatal pulmonary embolism developed in one of seven patients in whom the thrombus extended to the popliteal vein. The same investigation was performed in 110 patients who wore a graduated compression stocking on one leg, with the other leg serving as a control. Deep venous thrombosis was found in 4 of 110 stockinged legs (3.6 percent) and in 16 of 110 control legs (14.5 percent). The incidence of deep venous thrombosis decreased significantly in patients who wore the stocking. An increase in femoral venous flow velocity was found in the stockinged legs by the Doppler method. The mean velocity of venous return by xenon-133 clearance was significantly greater in the stockinged legs than in the control legs. These findings were considered to support the efficacy of graduated compression stockings for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis

  20. Myocardial infarction among women with early-stage breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Lars E.; Liedberg, Anette; Hammar, Niklas; Dalberg, Kristina

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the possible impact of the irradiation on the risk of acute myocardial infarction among breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The incidence of and mortality from acute myocardial infarction was assessed in a group of 684 women with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed during 1976-1987 who had been treated with breast conserving surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy given with tangential photon fields. In 94% of the patients the total dose was between 48-52 Gy given with 2 Gy daily fractions 5 days per week for a total treatment period of about 4 (1(2)) - 5 (1(2)) weeks. In 88% of the patients the target volume included the breast parenchyma alone. In the remaining patients regional nodal areas were also irradiated. A concurrent group of 4,996 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without postoperative radiation therapy was used as a reference. Results: After a median follow-up of 9 years (range: 5-16 years) 12 conservatively treated patients (1.8%) had developed an acute myocardial infarction and 5 (0.7%) had died due to this disease. The age-adjusted relative hazard of acute myocardial infarction for the conservative group vs. the mastectomy group was 0.6 (95% C.I.: 0.4-1.2) and for death due to this disease 0.4 (0.2-1.1). The incidence of acute myocardial infarction among the conservatively treated women was similar irrespective of tumor laterality. Conclusions: There was no indication of an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction with the radiation therapy among the women treated with conservative surgery. However, due to the small number of events the study could not exclude the possibility that cardiac problems may arise in some patients with left-sided cancers who have their heart located anteriorly in the mediastinum. Individual, three-dimensional dose planning represents one method to identify such patients and is basic to technical changes

  1. Intracranial hemorrhage complicating thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglietta, J.P.; Boyko, O.B.; O'Connor, C.M.; Aldrich, H.; Massey, E.W.; Heinz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the incidence and types of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 1,696 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Thirteen of 1,696 patients experienced ICH, and their nonenhanced brain CT scans were reviewed. Their mean age was 62 years (range, 53-74 years), and nine of 13 were male. Six patients received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), four streptokinase, two urokinase, and one tPA and urokinase. The hemorrhages were classified according to CT location: intraparenchymal (IPH), subarachnoid (SAH), subdural (SDH), and intraventricular (IVH). The incidence of ICH was 0.76%. There were 31 hemorrhages in 13 patients. Twelve hemorrhages were IPH, 10 were SDH, seven were SAH, and two were IVH. Excluding IVH, 24 of 29 hemorrhages (83%) were supratentorial

  2. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Injury, and Nonelevated Troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponins have emerged as the preferred biomarkers for detecting myocardial necrosis and diagnosing myocardial infarction. However, current cardiac troponin assays do not discriminate between ischemic and nonischemic causes of myocardial cell death. Thus, when an increased...... troponin value is encountered in the absence of obvious myocardial ischemia, a careful search for other clinical conditions is crucial. METHODS: In 2010 to 2011, we prospectively studied hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication. An acute myocardial infarction...... was diagnosed in cases of a cardiac troponin I increase or decrease pattern with at least 1 value >30 ng/L (99th percentile) together with myocardial ischemia. Myocardial injury was defined as cardiac troponin I values >30 ng/L, but without signs or symptoms indicating overt cardiac ischemia. Patients with peak...

  3. Cause-specific cardiovascular risk associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among myocardial infarction patients--a nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Schjerning Olsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs increase mortality and morbidity after myocardial infarction (MI. We examined cause-specific mortality and morbidity associated with NSAIDs in a nationwide cohort of MI patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: By individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalization and drug dispensing from pharmacies in Denmark, patients aged >30 years admitted with first-time MI during 1997-2009 and their subsequent NSAID use were identified. The risk of three cardiovascular specific endpoints: cardiovascular death, the composite of coronary death and nonfatal MI, and the composite of fatal and nonfatal stroke, associated with NSAID use was analyzed by Cox proportional hazard analyses. Of 97,698 patients included 44.0% received NSAIDs during follow-up. Overall use of NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-1.49. In particular use of the nonselective NSAID diclofenac and the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (HR 1.96 [1.79-2.15] and HR1.66 [1.44-1.91], respectively with a dose dependent increase in risk. Use of ibuprofen was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (HR 1.34[1.26-1.44], whereas naproxen was associated with the lowest risk of (e.g., HR 1.27[1.01-1.59]. CONCLUSION: Use of individual NSAIDs is associated with different cause-specific cardiovascular risk and in particular rofecoxib and diclofenac were associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. These results support caution with use of all NSAIDs in patients with prior MI.

  4. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Carla; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Bots, Michiel L; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; van Rossem, Lenie; van Dis, Ineke; Capewell, Simon; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2012-08-07

    Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age-gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR) of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.36) in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42-1.47) in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45-74 years and in women aged 65-84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden of AMI was low. Absolute socioeconomic inequalities in AMI were highest in

  5. Analysis of acute myocardial infarction occurance in Saratov region using GIS-technologies and prognostic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SokolovI.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The research objective: To find estimation tools of incidence of acute myocardial infarction at the regional level and to optimize organization of medical assistance to patients with acute coronary pathology. Materials. With the use of statistics of territorial distribution of acute myocardial infarction incidence in the region and GIS-TECHNOLOGIES the statistical analysis and mathematical modelling of the spatially-organizational data has been carried out. Results. On the basis of the received results the prognostic model of development of acute coronary pathology has been generated. Measures on optimization of organization of medical assistance to patients with an acute coronary pathology have been stated. Conclusion. Methods of intellectual support of the doctor may become effective in formation of organizational structure of the system of stage-by-stage qualified and specialized aid to patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  6. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion SPECT versus exercise electrocardiography in patients with ST-segment depression on resting electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Andrea; Hachamovitch, Rory; Kang, Xingping; Gransar, Heidi; Sciammarella, Maria G; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Cohen, Ishac; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S

    2005-01-01

    The value of exercise-induced ST-segment depression for the prognostic evaluation of patients with 1 mm of ST depression or greater on the resting electrocardiogram is controversial. Patients who underwent exercise myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) and had resting ST depression of 1 mm or greater with a nondiagnostic exercise electrocardiographic response (n = 1122) were followed up for 3.4 +/- 2.3 years. Those with paced rhythm, pre-excitation, left bundle branch block, or myocardial revascularization within the first 60 days after MPS were excluded. Additional exercise-induced ST-segment depression was considered significant if > or = 2 mm MPS was scored semiquantitatively by use of a 20-segment model of the left ventricle; the percentage of myocardium involved with stress defects (% myo) was derived by normalizing to the maximal possible score of 80. Hard events were defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac death. A Cox analysis was used to determine independent predictors of hard events among clinical, exercise, and nuclear variables. Hard event rates increased as a function of % myo for either patients with exercise-induced ST depression (1.4%/y for normal MPS vs 4.1%/y for % myo >10%, P 10%, P = .0001). Age, diabetes mellitus, shortness of breath as the presenting symptom, and % myo were independent predictors of hard events. Exercise-induced ST depression was predictive of hard events only when it was 3 mm or greater. The presence and extent of perfusion defects, reflected in the % myo, had incremental prognostic value over clinical variables and also over all degrees of exercise-induced ST depression. Although MPS effectively risk-stratifies patients with resting ST depression of 1 mm or greater, the prognostic value of exercise-induced ST depression is limited in these patients, with a small added risk when severe (> or = 3 mm).

  7. RIPHeart (Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery) Study: Myocardial Dysfunction, Postoperative Neurocognitive Dysfunction, and 1 Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybohm, Patrick; Kohlhaas, Madeline; Stoppe, Christian; Gruenewald, Matthias; Renner, Jochen; Bein, Berthold; Albrecht, Martin; Cremer, Jochen; Coburn, Mark; Schaelte, Gereon; Boening, Andreas; Niemann, Bernd; Sander, Michael; Roesner, Jan; Kletzin, Frank; Mutlak, Haitham; Westphal, Sabine; Laufenberg-Feldmann, Rita; Ferner, Marion; Brandes, Ivo F; Bauer, Martin; Stehr, Sebastian N; Kortgen, Andreas; Wittmann, Maria; Baumgarten, Georg; Meyer-Treschan, Tanja; Kienbaum, Peter; Heringlake, Matthias; Schoen, Julika; Treskatsch, Sascha; Smul, Thorsten; Wolwender, Ewa; Schilling, Thomas; Fuernau, Georg; Bogatsch, Holger; Brosteanu, Oana; Hasenclever, Dirk; Zacharowski, Kai

    2018-03-26

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been suggested to protect against certain forms of organ injury after cardiac surgery. Previously, we reported the main results of RIPHeart (Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery) Study, a multicenter trial randomizing 1403 cardiac surgery patients receiving either RIPC or sham-RIPC. In this follow-up paper, we present 1-year follow-up of the composite primary end point and its individual components (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke and acute renal failure), in a sub-group of patients, intraoperative myocardial dysfunction assessed by transesophageal echocardiography and the incidence of postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction 5 to 7 days and 3 months after surgery. RIPC neither showed any beneficial effect on the 1-year composite primary end point (RIPC versus sham-RIPC 16.4% versus 16.9%) and its individual components (all-cause mortality [3.4% versus 2.5%], myocardial infarction [7.0% versus 9.4%], stroke [2.2% versus 3.1%], acute renal failure [7.0% versus 5.7%]) nor improved intraoperative myocardial dysfunction or incidence of postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction 5 to 7 days (67 [47.5%] versus 71 [53.8%] patients) and 3 months after surgery (17 [27.9%] versus 18 [27.7%] patients), respectively. Similar to our main study, RIPC had no effect on intraoperative myocardial dysfunction, neurocognitive function and long-term outcome in cardiac surgery patients undergoing propofol anesthesia. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01067703. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Normal myocardial perfusion scan portends a benign prognosis independent from the pretest probability of coronary artery disease. Sub-analysis of the J-ACCESS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Yosihiro; Fukuyama, Takaya; Nishimura, Sigeyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the usefulness of gated stress/rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to predict ischemic cardiac events in Japanese patients with various estimated pretest probabilities of coronary artery disease (CAD). Of the 4031 consecutively registered patients for a J-ACCESS (Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT) study, 1904 patients without prior cardiac events were selected. Gated stress/rest myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed and segmental perfusion scores and quantitative gated SPECT results were derived. The pretest probability for having CAD was estimated using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/American College of Physicians- American Society of Internal Medicine guideline data for the management of patients with chronic stable angina, which includes age, gender, and type of chest discomfort. The patients were followed up for three years. During the three-year follow-up period, 96 developed ischemic cardiac events: 17 cardiac deaths, 8 nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 71 clinically driven revascularization. The summed stress score (SSS) was the most powerful independent predictor of all ischemic cardiac events (hazard ratio 1.077, confidence interval (CI) 1.045-1.110). Abnormal SSS (>3) was associated with a significantly higher cardiac event rate in patients with an intermediate to high pretest probability of CAD. Normal SSS (≤3) was associated with a low event rate in patients with any pretest probability of CAD. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is useful for further risk-stratification of patients with suspected CAD. The abnormal scan result (SSS>3) is discriminative for subsequent cardiac events only in the groups with an intermediate to high pretest probability of CAD. The salient result is that normal scan results portend a benign prognosis independent from the pretest probability of CAD. (author)

  9. Diagnostic value of exercise induced 18F-FDG myocardial metabolism scintigraphy in myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rui; He Zuoxiang; Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Tian Yueqin; Guo Feng; Wei Hongxing; Wu Yongjian; Qin Xuewen; Gao Runlin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of exercise induced myocardial imaging with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in myocardial ischemia. Methods: Twenty-six patients with known or suspected coronary artery, disease (CAD) and with no prior myocardial infarction underwent simultaneous myocardial perfusion and metabolism imaging following intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -methoxy-isobutylisonitrile ( 99 Tc m -sestamibi) and 18 F-FDG at peak exercise. Subsequently rest perfusion imaging and coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in all patients. Exercise 18 F-FDG myocardial imaging was compared with 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging and CAG. Results: In 22 patients with ≥50% narrowing over l coronary artery, 18 had perfusion abnormalities (sensitivity 82%), whereas 20 had abnormal myocardial 18 F-FDG uptake (sensitivity 91%, P>0.05). Patients with reversible (12 cases) or partial reversible (3 cases) perfusion abnormalities had increased myocardial 18 F-FDG uptake in abnormal perfusion segments. Compared with CAG, perfusion defect was seen in myocardial segments corresponding to 25 vascular territories of 51 vessels with ≥50% narrowing in 22 patients in 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging (sensitivity 49%), whereas increased 18 F-FDG uptake was seen in 34 vascular territories (sensitivity 67%, P=0.008). Conclusions: Exercise induced myocardial ischemia can be imaged directly with 18 F-FDG. Combined exercise 18 F-FDG and 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging provides a better assessment of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as compared with exercise-rest perfusion imaging. (authors)

  10. Localization and quantification of acute myocardial infarction by myocardial perfusion tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiufang; Min Changgeng; Lin Zhihu; Ke Ruoyi

    1994-01-01

    The authors reported the result of the quantification and localization of 30 clinically confirmed acute myocardial infarction patients in comparison with that of ECG. A left ventricle model was used to correct the area calculated by the method of Bull's eye. The result indicated that the infarction area calculated by the corrected Bull's eye method correlated closely with that determined by the ECG QRS scoring method (r = 0.706, P<0.01). Myocardial infarctions of all 30 patients were detected by both ECG and myocardial perfusion tomographic imaging. The accuracy of localization of myocardial infarction by myocardial perfusion imaging was similar to that of ECG in the anterior wall, anterior septum, anterior lateral and inferior wall, but superior to that of ECG in the apex, posterior lateral, posterior septum, and posterior wall

  11. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...

  12. Bevacizumab increases the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with metastatic breast or colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kapelakis

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to conventional chemotherapy for metastatic breast or colorectal cancer increases the incidence of cardiovascular events, which is mainly due to the increased prevalence of myocardial infarction and thromboembolic events.

  13. Direct Evidence that Myocardial Insulin Resistance following Myocardial Ischemia Contributes to Post-Ischemic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jia; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Chengfeng; Yang, Weidong; Gao, Chao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yan; Cui, Qin; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling; Wang, Jing; Quon, Michael J; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A close link between heart failure (HF) and systemic insulin resistance has been well documented, whereas myocardial insulin resistance and its association with HF are inadequately investigated. This study aims to determine the role of myocardial insulin resistance in ischemic HF and its underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) developed progressive left ventricular dilation with dysfunction and HF at 4 wk post-MI. Of note, myocardial insulin sensitivity was decreased as early as 1 wk after MI, which was accompanied by increased production of myocardial TNF-α. Overexpression of TNF-α in heart mimicked impaired insulin signaling and cardiac dysfunction leading to HF observed after MI. Treatment of rats with a specific TNF-α inhibitor improved myocardial insulin signaling post-MI. Insulin treatment given immediately following MI suppressed myocardial TNF-α production and improved cardiac insulin sensitivity and opposed cardiac dysfunction/remodeling. Moreover, tamoxifen-induced cardiomyocyte-specific insulin receptor knockout mice exhibited aggravated post-ischemic ventricular remodeling and dysfunction compared with controls. In conclusion, MI induces myocardial insulin resistance (without systemic insulin resistance) mediated partly by ischemia-induced myocardial TNF-α overproduction and promotes the development of HF. Our findings underscore the direct and essential role of myocardial insulin signaling in protection against post-ischemic HF. PMID:26659007

  14. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability after reperfusion. Myocardial viability assessed by 15O-water-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukagoshi, Joichi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability in the ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 60-, 90-, and 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in the areas in which regional contractility was severely impaired (ehocardiographically akinetic or dyskinetic) in the early reperfusion period by 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET) 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion. An MBF ratio of ischemic to nonischemic regions 12 hours after reperfusion was inversely correlated with the amount of histologically determined tissue necrosis (r=-0.74). The regional contractility recovered 4 weeks later in the areas where an MBF ratio was 0.48 or greater, but did not recover in the areas with a lower MBF ratio. Thus, myocardial viability can be appropriately predicted in the early phase of myocardial perfusion by PET with 15 O-water even in the absence of metabolic imaging. (author)

  15. Future cardiac events in patients with ischemic ECG changes during adenosine infusion as a myocardial stress agent and normal cardiac scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Hamid; Niaz, Khalid; Hatazawa, Jun; Gasmelseed, Ahmed; Samiri, Hussain Al; Al Othman, Maram; Hammad, Mai Al

    2017-11-01

    We sought to determine the prognostic importance of adenosine-induced ischemic ECG changes in patients with normal single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion images (MPI). We carried out a retrospective analysis of 765 patients undergoing adenosine MPI between January 2013 and January 2015. Patients with baseline ECG abnormalities and/or abnormal scan were excluded. Overall, 67 (8.7%) patients had ischemic ECG changes during adenosine infusion in the form of ST depression of 1 mm or more. Of these, 29 [43% (3.8% of all patients)] had normal MPI (positive ECG group). An age-matched and sex-matched group of 108 patients with normal MPI without ECG changes served as control participants (negative ECG group). During a mean follow-up duration of 33.3±6.1 months, patients in the positive ECG group did not have significantly more adverse cardiac events than those in the negative ECG group. One (0.9%) patient in the negative ECG group had a nonfatal myocardial infarction (0.7% annual event rate after a negative MPI). Also in this group, two (1.8%) patients admitted with a diagnosis of CAD where they have been ruled out by angiography. A fourth case in this, in the negative ECG group, was admitted because of heart failure that proved to be secondary to a pulmonary cause and not CAD. A case only in the positive ECG group was admitted as a CAD that was ruled out by coronary angiography. Patients with normal myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in whom ST-segment depression develops during adenosine stress test appear to have no increased risk for future cardiac events compared with similar patients without ECG evidence of ischemia.

  16. Impact of glycemic variability on the occurrence of periprocedural myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after coronary intervention in patients with stable angina pectoris at 6months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jinggang; Xu, Ji; Hu, Shaodong; Hao, Hengjian; Yin, Chunlin; Xu, Dong

    2017-08-01

    We explored the impact of glycemic variability on the occurrence of periprocedural myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after coronary intervention in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) at 6months follow-up. From May 2015 to April 2016, a total of 746 patients with SAP were divided to high glycemic variability group (H group) (n=261) and low glycemic variability group (L group) (n=485). The primary end point was incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction and MACE at 6months follow-up. The occurrence of periprocedural myocardial infarction occurred in 18.8% of patients in H group and in 12.4% in L group (P=0.03). The incidence of MACE at 6months follow-up was 9.6% in H group and 4.5% in L group (P=0.01). Multivariable analysis suggested that high glycemic variability conferred a 53% risk increment of 6months follow-up MACE (odds ratio 2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.85-5.38; P=0.01). The trial shows that higher blood glucose variability was correlated with higher incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction and MACE at 6months follow-up. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Tl myocardial SPECT demonstrates importance of collateral circulation in patients with myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Fukunori

    1997-01-01

    The influence of collateral circulation on the preservation of myocardial viability and the efficacy of drug therapy and PTCA were evaluated by exercise 201 Tl myocardial SPECT before and after treatment. Thirty-five patients with a history of myocardial infarction resulting from total or subtotal obstruction of the responsible coronary artery were divided into four groups, according to the method of the treatment and the degree of collateral blood flow. Patients in groups A and B received drug therapy and displayed developed and undeveloped collateral circulation, respectively. Groups C and D received PTCA and displayed developed and undeveloped collateral circulation, respectively. Tl myocardial SPECT was performed before treatment to record the extent of redistribution to the occluded region, the degree of myocardial viability and the nature and extent of the ischemic lesion. In group A, myocardial perfusion improved, although redistribution remained in all cases, while in group B, 4 of 7 cases improved after drug therapy. In group C, myocardial perfusion improved in all cases, and redistribution disappeared in 7 of 12 cases. 5 of 6 cases improved in group D after PTCA. After drug therapy, the %Tl uptake in the infarcted region improved significantly in initial and delayed images of patients in group A. The differences in initial and delayed images in group B before and after drug therapy were not significant. In contrast, groups C and D both registered significant improvement in initial and delayed images after PTCA. The washout rate improved significantly in groups A, C and D after their respective treatments. These results suggest that developed collateral circulation helps to preserve myocardial viability in cases of myocardial infarction. Myocardial perfusion improved after drug therapy in cases with developed collateral circulation, and in patients with developed and undeveloped collateral circulation receiving PTCA. (K.H.)

  18. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  19. Myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Hisada, Kinichi

    1982-01-01

    Among the various methods of image diagnosis of the cardiovascular disorder, nuclear cardiology provides noninvasive means for evaluation of myocardial perfusion as well as morphological and functional informations. In this article, clinical application and image diagnosis of myocardial scintigraphy including Tl-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomography with Tl-201, acute myocardial infarction scintigraphy with Tc-99m-pyrophosphate and Ga-67 imaging of the heart, were discussed. Multiplanar imaging of the heart with Tl-201 after stress and at redistribution was the accepted method for detection and evaluation of the ischemic heart disease. Although it achieved high sensitivity and specificity for ischemic heart disease, detection of the small ischemia and quantation of the regional Tl-201 accumulation were difficult with conventional multiplanar imaging. Application of emission computed tomography improved detectability and quantitativity of the ischemia. However, 7-pinhole tomography did not increase the diagnostic accuracy significantly. It had limited clinical applicability due to poor quantitativity in spite of improved image contrast and its tomographic nature. Advantage and limitation of these tomographic imaging and multiplanar imaging were discussed. Problems and prognostic significance of pyrophosphate imaging of the acute myocardial infarction were also discussed. Visualization of the heart with Ga-67 was helpful for identification of the tumor or inflammation of the heart as well as evaluation of the effect of the therapy. (author)

  20. High-degree atrioventricular block complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Uffe Jakob Ortved; Hvelplund, Anders; Pedersen, Sune

    2012-01-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) has replaced thrombolysis as treatment-of-choice for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the incidence and prognostic significance of high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) in STEMI patients in the pPCI era has been only...... sparsely investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, predictors and prognostic significance of HAVB in STEMI patients treated with pPCI....

  1. Automated quantitative coronary computed tomography correlates of myocardial ischaemia on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Michiel A. de; Boogers, Mark J.; Veltman, Caroline E.; El-Naggar, Heba M.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Delgado, Victoria; Broersen, Alexander; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Kroft, Lucia J.; Younis, Imad Al; Reiber, Johan H.; Scholte, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Automated software tools have permitted more comprehensive, robust and reproducible quantification of coronary stenosis, plaque burden and plaque location of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) data. The association between these quantitative CTA (QCT) parameters and the presence of myocardial ischaemia has not been explored. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the association between QCT parameters of coronary artery lesions and the presence of myocardial ischaemia on gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission CT (SPECT). Included in the study were 40 patients (mean age 58.2 ± 10.9 years, 27 men) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who had undergone multidetector row CTA and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT within 6 months. From the CTA datasets, vessel-based and lesion-based visual analyses were performed. Consecutively, lesion-based QCT was performed to assess plaque length, plaque burden, percentage lumen area stenosis and remodelling index. Subsequently, the presence of myocardial ischaemia was assessed using the summed difference score (SDS ≥2) on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Myocardial ischaemia was seen in 25 patients (62.5 %) in 37 vascular territories. Quantitatively assessed significant stenosis and quantitatively assessed lesion length were independently associated with myocardial ischaemia (OR 7.72, 95 % CI 2.41-24.7, p 2 = 20.7) and lesion length (χ 2 = 26.0) to the clinical variables and the visual assessment (χ 2 = 5.9) had incremental value in the association with myocardial ischaemia. Coronary lesion length and quantitatively assessed significant stenosis were independently associated with myocardial ischaemia. Both quantitative parameters have incremental value over baseline variables and visually assessed significant stenosis. Potentially, QCT can refine assessment of CAD, which may be of potential use for identification of patients with myocardial ischaemia. (orig.)

  2. Nonfatal Suicidal Behavior among Chinese Women Who Have Been Physically Abused by Their Male Intimate Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…

  3. Myocardial Protection in Mitral Valve Surgery: Comparison Between Minimally Invasive Approach and Standard Sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Jean-Sébastien; Couture, Pierre; Fortier, Annik; Rochon, Antoine G; Ayoub, Christian; Viens, Claudia; Laliberté, Éric; Bouchard, Denis; Pellerin, Michel; Deschamps, Alain

    2018-04-01

    To compare antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia administration in minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMS) and open mitral valve surgery (OMS) for myocardial protection. Retrospective study. Tertiary care university hospital. The study comprised 118 patients undergoing MIMS and 118 patients undergoing OMS. The data of patients admitted for MIMS from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed. Patients undergoing isolated elective OMS from 2004 to 2006 were used as a control group. Cardioplegia in the MIMS group was delivered via the distal port of the endoaortic clamp and an endovascular coronary sinus catheter positioned using echographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia were used in OMS. Data regarding myocardial infarction (MI) (creatine kinase [CK]-MB, troponin T, electrocardiography); myocardial function; and hemodynamic stability were collected. There was no difference in the perioperative MI incidence between both groups (1 in each group, p = 0.96). No statistically significant difference was found for maximal CK-MB (35.9 µg/L [25.1-50.1] v 37.9 µg/L [28.6-50.9]; p = 0.31) or the number of patients with CK-MB levels >50 µg/L (29 v 33; p = 0.55) or CK-MB >100 µg/L (3 v 4; p = 0.70) between the OMS and MIMS groups. However, maximum troponin T levels in the MIMS group were significantly lower (0.47 µg/L [0.32-0.79] v 0.65 µg/L [0.45-0.94]; p = 0.0007). No difference in the incidence of difficult weaning from bypass and intra-aortic balloon pump use between the MIMS and OMS groups was found. Antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia administration during MIMS and OMS provided comparable myocardial protection. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Justification for intravenous magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H S

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are magnesium-deficient and develop an additional transient decrease in serum magnesium concentrations (S-Mg c) during the acute phase of the infarct. Animal experiments, as well as studies on humans, have indicated.......v. magnesium therapy on mortality and incidence of arrhythmias in patients with AMI has been evaluated. Magnesium treatment more than halved the acute mortality and incidence of arrhythmias requiring treatment in three of the four intervention studies. The mechanisms behind the beneficial effect of magnesium...... therapy are probably multifactorial; a direct depressive effect on the cardiac conducting system; a peripheral dilatory effect on the arteries, reducing the afterload on the myocardium; a reduced infarct size; an ion-stabilizing effect, maintaining stable intra and extracellular concentrations...

  5. Diabetes mellitus and cardiogenic shock in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, M G; Boesgaard, S; Torp-Pedersen, C

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiogenic shock is the leading cause of in-hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigates the importance of age and preexisting diabetes mellitus on the incidence and prognosis of cardiogenic shock in a large group of consecutive patients with MI. METHODS...... nondiabetics and 10.6% among diabetics. Age, wall motion index, reinfarction, and the absence of thrombolytic treatment were significant independent predictors of mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock. Intriguingly, diabetes was not a significant predictor for short- and long-term mortality...... AND RESULTS: Baseline characteristics and in-hospital complications to the infarction were prospectively recorded in 6676 patients with MI. Ten-year mortality was collected. Diabetes was present in 10.8% of the total population. A total of 443 developed cardiogenic shock with an incidence of 6.2% among...

  6. Sudden death in patients with myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Scott D; Zelenkofske, Steve; McMurray, John J V

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of sudden death from cardiac causes is increased among survivors of acute myocardial infarction with reduced left ventricular systolic function. We assessed the risk and time course of sudden death in high-risk patients after myocardial infarction. METHODS: We studied 14......,609 patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both after myocardial infarction to assess the incidence and timing of sudden unexpected death or cardiac arrest with resuscitation in relation to the left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: Of 14,609 patients, 1067 (7 percent) had an event...... percent confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.18 percent) after 2 years. Patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30 percent or less were at highest risk in this early period (rate, 2.3 percent per month; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 2.8 percent). Nineteen percent of all sudden deaths...

  7. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in New Zealand: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Ashton, Janelle; Herbison, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The cardiovascular safety of sibutramine is currently under review by medicines regulatory authorities worldwide after the SCOUT (Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome Trial) showed an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients taking sibutramine. Further data regarding the cardiovascular safety of sibutramine in a general population are now required. To quantify the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in postmarketing use. Observational prospective cohort study of patients dispensed sibutramine during a 3-year period (2001-4) and followed up for at least 1 year after their last prescription. The study included record-linkage to national mortality datasets to identify fatal events. Postmarketing 'real-life' use of sibutramine in a general population in New Zealand. All New Zealand patients dispensed a prescription for sibutramine in a 3-year period (for whom a National Health Identification number could be validated). 15 686 patients were included in the record linkage study for fatal events. A subgroup of 9471 patients was followed up by intensive methods for non-fatal events. (i) Rate of death from all causes and from cardiovascular events; and (ii) rates of non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events. Total exposure to sibutramine for 15 686 patients in the validated cohort was 5431 treatment-years. The rate of death from all causes in this cohort was 0.13 (95% CI 0.05, 0.27) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The rate of death from a cardiovascular event was 0.07 (95% CI 0.02, 0.19) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The most frequent non-fatal cardiovascular events in the intensively followed up cohort were hypertension, palpitations, hypotensive events and tachycardia. Risk of death from a cardiovascular event in this general population of patients prescribed sibutramine was lower than has been reported in other overweight/obese populations. The results of this study suggest that further

  8. L’ÉTUDE CLINIQUE DU MOIS TECOS : confirmation de la sécurité cardiovasculaire de la sitagliptine

    OpenAIRE

    SCHEEN, André; PAQUOT, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Summary : The cardiovascular safety of sitagliptin has been evaluated in TECOS («Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin»). TECOS recruited patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of cardiovascular disease who received, as add-on to their usual therapy, either sitagliptin (n = 7.257) or placebo (n = 7.266), with a median follow-up of 3 years. The primary cardiovascular outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or ho...

  9. Shift work and 20-year incidence of acute myocardial infarction: results from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Kauhanen, Jussi; Krause, Niklas

    2016-09-01

    It remains unclear whether different types of shift work impose similar risks for cardiovascular events in middle-aged workers, especially those with pre-existing ischaemic heart disease (IHD). This study investigated the relations between different shift types and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among men with and without pre-existing IHD, respectively. We analysed data on 1891 men, aged 42-60 years at baseline, in the prospective Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort, using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for demographic, biological, behavioural and psychosocial job factors. We evaluated the associations of baseline shift work with 20-year incidence of AMI, and their modification by pre-existing IHD, using both stratified analysis and models with product terms between shift work and IHD. Travelling work (at least 3 nights per week away from home) was strongly positively associated with AMI among men with IHD (HR=2.45, 95% CI 1. 08 to 5.59) but not among men without (HR=0.93, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.00). No clear associations were found between other types of shift work and AMI for both men with and without IHD. On both additive and multiplicative scales, baseline IHD status positively modified the association of travelling work with AMI (relative excess risk for interaction=3.23, 95% CI -0.50 to 6.97, p for multiplicative interaction=0.044). We found mixed results for the associations between different types of shift work and AMI among those with and without pre-existing IHD. Future research should investigate these associations and effect modification for a broad spectrum of work schedules. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Myocardial contusion in patients with blunt chest trauma as evaluated by thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, L.; Rouby, J.J.; Viars, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty five patients suffering from blunt chest trauma were studied to assess the diagnosis of myocardial contusion using thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy. Thirty-eight patients had consistent scintigraphic defects and were considered to have a myocardial contusion. All patients with scintigraphic defects had paroxysmal arrhythmias and/or ECG abnormalities. Of 38 patients, 32 had localized ST-T segment abnormalities; 29, ST-T segment abnormalities suggesting involvement of the same cardiac area as scintigraphic defects; 21, echocardiographic abnormalities. Sixteen patients had segmental hypokinesia involving the same cardiac area as the scintigraphic defects. Fifteen patients had clinical signs suggestive of myocardial contusion and scintigraphic defects. Almost 70 percent of patients with blunt chest trauma had scintigraphic defects related to areas of myocardial contusion. When thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy directly showed myocardial lesion, two-dimensional echocardiography and standard ECG detected related functional consequences of cardiac trauma

  11. Incidence and predictors of target lesion failure in a multiethnic Asian population receiving the SYNERGY coronary stent: A prospective all-comers registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Kristanto, William; Liu, Li; Chan, Siew-Pang; Loh, Poay Huan; Tay, Edgar L; Chan, Koo Hui; Chan, Mark Y; Lee, Chi-Hang; Low, Adrian F; Tan, Huay Cheem; Loh, Joshua P

    2018-03-07

    To evaluate the target lesion failure (TLF) rate of the SYNERGY stent in all-comers, multiethnic Asian population. Currently, most drug eluting stents deliver anti-proliferative drugs from a durable polymer which is associated with a risk of late stent thrombosis. The novel everolimus-eluting, platinum chromium SYNERGY stent is coated with a bioabsorbable abluminal polymer that resolves within 4 months. This was a prospective, single center registry of consecutive patients treated with the SYNERGY stent between December 2012 and April 2015. The primary outcome was the incidence of TLF, defined as the combination of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 1 year. A total of 807 patients received the SYNERGY stent during the study period. One-year clinical outcome data was available for 765 patients (94.8%) and were considered for statistical analysis. The mean age was 60.7 ± 10.8 years, and 83.4% were males. Patients with acute myocardial infarction consisted of 50.3% (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 23.0%, Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 27.3%) of the study population. The treated lesions were complex (ACC/AHA type B2/C: 72.7%). The primary end point of TLF at 1 year was 5.8%. Rates of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, and TLR were 4.2, 1.0, and 1.3%, respectively, at 1 year. Predictors of the incidence and time to early TLF were female gender, Malay ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction at presentation, a prior history of coronary artery bypass surgery and the presence of lesion calcification. The incidence of definite stent thrombosis was 0.4% at 1 year. In this registry, the use of the SYNERGY stent was associated with low rates of TLF at 1 year. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Exercise induced ST elevation and residual myocardial ischemia in previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of stress induced ST elevation on infarcted area in 65 patients with previous myocardial infarction (single vessel disease) who had stress thallium scan. Stress induced ST changes on infarcted area were compared with quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia (thallium ischemic score; TIS) and extent of myocardial infarction (defect score; DS) derived from circumferential profile analysis. In patients with previous myocardial infarction in less than 3 month from the onset (n = 36), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and extent of abnormal LV wall motion were not significantly different between patients with stress induced ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 26) and those with stress induced ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 10), while, in patients with previous myocardial infarction in more than 3 month (n = 29), patients with stress induced ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 15) showed left ventricular dyskinesis more frequently than those with ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 14). In addition, the former showed significantly higher DS and significantly lower TIS than the latter. In patients with previous myocardial infarction in less than 3 month, patients with ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 15) with prominent upright T wave (n = 15) had transient thallium defect in infarcted area in 73 % and they had significantly higher LVEF and TIS than those with ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 11). These results indicated that ST elevation in infarcted area reflect different significance according to the recovery of injured myocardium and stress induced ST elevation with prominent upright T wave in infarcted area reflect residual myocardial ischemia in less than 3 month from the onset of myocardial infarction. (author)

  13. The effect of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy on the incidence of myocardial infarction in patients with psoriasis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Dalia; Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2018-02-01

    Psoriasis has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). The data on the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors on MI in psoriasis are scarce. To evaluate the effect of TNF inhibitors on the risk of MI in psoriasis patients compared with methotrexate (MTX) and topical agents. Data were obtained from the Electronic Health Records database of Farwaniya Hospital from psoriasis patients seen from January 2008 to December 2014. Patients were categorized into TNF inhibitor, MTX and topical cohorts. The study included 4762 psoriasis patients. Both TNF inhibitor and MTX cohorts showed a statistically lower rate of MI compared with topical cohort. However, there was no statistically significant difference in MI rate between TNF inhibitor and MTX cohorts (P = .32). The probability of MI was lower in TNF inhibitor responders compared with non-responders (p = .001). The use of TNF inhibitors in psoriasis showed a significant reduction in the risk of MI compared with topical agents and a non-significant reduction compared with MTX. Responders to TNF inhibitor therapy showed a reduction in MI rate compared with non-responders.

  14. Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Moyses de Oliveira; Figueiredo, Geraldo L.; Simoes, Marcus V.; Pyntia, Antonio O.; Marin Neto, Jose Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial and explains the occurrence of angina, in about 50% of patients. The pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia may be explained by the increase of the ventricular mass and relative paucity of the coronary microcirculation; the elevated ventricular filling pressures and myocardial stiffness causing a compression of the coronary microvessels; the impaired coronary vasodilator flow reserve caused by anatomic and functional abnormalities; and the systolic compression of epicardial vessel (myocardial bridges). Myocardial ischemia must be investigated by perfusion scintigraphic methods since its presence influences the prognosis and has relevant clinical implications for management of patients. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and documented myocardial ischemia usually need to undergo invasive coronary angiography to exclude the presence of concomitant atherosclerotic coronary disease. (author)

  15. Preliminary Study on Non-Fatal Occupational Injury among Operational Workers in Malaysia Palm Oil Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Rumaizah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-fatal occupational injury had becoming major global concern and its consequences to safety and health would be heavily burdening. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the distribution of non-fatal occupational injury among specific group of workers in palm oil mill and to acknowledge potential factors of injury causation. A questionnaire survey was designed to assess injury involvement during the employment period among operational workers of palm oil mill located in Southern Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty three (n= 33 workers volunteered and completed the questionnaire. Prevalence of injury among palm oil mill workers was 39.4% with sprain and burn were the common types of injury reported. Press Plant workers reported to have high cases of injuries. Majority of workers (78.8% stated noise was the main hazard in the palm oil mill, followed by heat hazard. Press Plant was identified as one of the specific risk group in palm oil mill based on the rate of injury occurrences reported by the workers. Exposure to noise hazard was estimated to be one of the potential factors of injury causation and further study should be made to measure the risk of hazard.

  16. Factor VII and incidence of myocardial infarction in a Japanese population: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takuya; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Kario, Kazuomi; Kayaba, Kazunori; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    The role of factor VII (FVII) as a risk factor in myocardial infarction (MI) has been the subject of numerous studies. However, it remains uncertain whether the FVII levels are associated with development of MI. The subjects were 4142 men and women whose activated FVII (FVIIa) and FVII coagulant (FVIIc) levels were measured in the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study. Subjects were divided into tertiles by FVIIa and FVIIc levels, and Cox's proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for MI. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% confidential interval [CI]) for FVIIa in men were 0.67 (0.67-1.78) in tertile 2 (T2), and 0.52 (0.17-1.60) in T3. In women, the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 0.18 (0.02-1.60) in T2, and 0.39 (0.07-2.20) in T3. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for FVIIc in men were 0.54 (0.21-1.36) in T2, and 0.20 (0.04-0.91) in T3. In women, the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 0.44 (0.07-2.85) in T2, and 0.35 (0.06-2.22) in T3. We used T1 as a reference for all measures. Our findings revealed a significant association between low FVIIc level and incidence of MI in men. The FVIIa and FVIIc levels were inversely related to increased MI risk, but did not reach statistical significance. Future studies are needed to confirm this association. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Automated quantitative coronary computed tomography correlates of myocardial ischaemia on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Michiel A. de; Boogers, Mark J.; Veltman, Caroline E. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of The Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); El-Naggar, Heba M.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Delgado, Victoria [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Broersen, Alexander; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Dijkstra, Jouke [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, Lucia J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Younis, Imad Al [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Reiber, Johan H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Medis medical imaging systems B.V., Leiden (Netherlands); Scholte, Arthur J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Automated software tools have permitted more comprehensive, robust and reproducible quantification of coronary stenosis, plaque burden and plaque location of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) data. The association between these quantitative CTA (QCT) parameters and the presence of myocardial ischaemia has not been explored. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the association between QCT parameters of coronary artery lesions and the presence of myocardial ischaemia on gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission CT (SPECT). Included in the study were 40 patients (mean age 58.2 {+-} 10.9 years, 27 men) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who had undergone multidetector row CTA and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT within 6 months. From the CTA datasets, vessel-based and lesion-based visual analyses were performed. Consecutively, lesion-based QCT was performed to assess plaque length, plaque burden, percentage lumen area stenosis and remodelling index. Subsequently, the presence of myocardial ischaemia was assessed using the summed difference score (SDS {>=}2) on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Myocardial ischaemia was seen in 25 patients (62.5 %) in 37 vascular territories. Quantitatively assessed significant stenosis and quantitatively assessed lesion length were independently associated with myocardial ischaemia (OR 7.72, 95 % CI 2.41-24.7, p < 0.001, and OR 1.07, 95 % CI 1.00-1.45, p = 0.032, respectively) after correcting for clinical variables and visually assessed significant stenosis. The addition of quantitatively assessed significant stenosis ({chi} {sup 2} = 20.7) and lesion length ({chi} {sup 2} = 26.0) to the clinical variables and the visual assessment ({chi} {sup 2} = 5.9) had incremental value in the association with myocardial ischaemia. Coronary lesion length and quantitatively assessed significant stenosis were independently associated with myocardial ischaemia. Both quantitative parameters have

  18. Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: A Multicohort Study of 90,164 Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes; Nyberg, Solja T; Lunau, Thorsten; Fransson, Eleonor I; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Fahlén, Göran; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Knutsson, Anders; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Virtanen, Marianna; Zins, Marie; Batty, G David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease. This multicohort study (the "IPD-Work" consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease at baseline was assessed by validated effort-reward imbalance and job strain questionnaires. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Study-specific estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis. At baseline, 31.7% of study members reported effort-reward imbalance at work and 15.9% reported job strain. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 1,078 coronary events were recorded. After adjustment for potential confounders, a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.35) was observed for effort-reward imbalance compared with no imbalance. The hazard ratio was 1.16 (1.01-1.34) for having either effort-reward imbalance or job strain and 1.41 (1.12-1.76) for having both these stressors compared to having neither effort-reward imbalance nor job strain. Individuals with effort-reward imbalance at work have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and this appears to be independent of job strain experienced. These findings support expanding focus beyond just job strain in future research on work stress.

  19. Socially disadvantaged city districts show a higher incidence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions with elevated cardiovascular risk factors and worse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Seide, S; Wienbergen, H; Fiehn, E; Stehmeier, J; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R; Pohlabeln, H; Fach, A

    2017-09-22

    The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-morbidity is subject of ongoing scientific investigations. This study was to explore the association between SES in different city-districts of Bremen/Germany and incidence, severity, treatment modalities and prognosis for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). Since 2006 all STEMI-patients from the metropolitan area of Bremen are documented in the Bremen STEMI-registry. Utilizing postal codes of their home address they were assigned to four groups in accordance to the Bremen social deprivation-index (G1: high, G2: intermediate high, G3: intermediate low, G4: low socioeconomic status). Three thousand four hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with STEMI admitted between 2006 and 2015 entered analysis. City areas with low SES showed higher adjusted STEMI-incidence-rates (IR-ratio 1.56, G4 vs. G1). This elevation could be observed in both sexes (women IRR 1.63, men IRR 1.54) and was most prominent in inhabitants  3000 U/l, OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and severe impairment of LV-function post-STEMI (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). Long term follow-up revealed that lower SES was associated with higher major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE)-rates after 5 years: G1 30.8%, G2 35.7%, G3 36.0%, G4 41.1%, p (for trend) = 0.02. This worse prognosis could especially be shown for young STEMI-patients (<50 yrs. of age) 5-yr. mortality-rates(G4 vs. G1) 18.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.03 and 5-year-MACCE-rates (G4 vs. G1) 32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.02. This registry-data confirms the negative association of low socioeconomic status and STEMI-incidence, with higher rates of smoking and obesity, more extensive infarctions and worse prognosis for the socio-economically deprived.

  20. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging in acute-myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackers, F.J.Th.; Lie, K.I.; Sokole, E.B.; Wellens, H.J.J.; Samson, G.; Schoot, J.B. van der

    1980-01-01

    Thallium-201 scintigraphy has proven to be an early and highly sensitive technique to detect myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction. During the early phase of acute myocardial infarction, patients may be hemodynamically and electrically unstable. Therefore, scintigraphy is performed preferably at the bed side in the Coronary Care Unit using a mobile gamma camera. Additionally, in order to shorten imaging time in these often critically ill patients, the authors recommend injecting no less than 2 mCi of 201 Tl. Using this dosage, the imaging time per view will be approximately five minutes. Routinely, three views are taken: the first view is a supine 45 0 left-anterior-oblique view, followed by a supine anterior view and finally a left-lateral view, the latter with the patient turned on the right side. (Auth.)

  1. Evaluation of left ventricular function in patient with old myocardial infarction by 201-thallium myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kanji; Shimohara, Yasuaki; Ito, Misao; Okada, Keisei [Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori

    1984-08-01

    Correlation between the ratio of myocardial defect calculated by 201-thallium myocardial scintigraphy and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by gated blood pool scintigraphy and the maximum level of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) was studied in 70 patients with old myocardial infarction. There was a significant correlation between the defect ratio and the LVEF or CPK level in patients with anterior or septal myocardial infarction. In all patients with inferior myocardial infarction in whom no defect was seen, the LVEF was more than 40%. However, no distinct correlation between the defect ratio and the LVEF or CPK level was obtained in cases of inferior myocardial infarction.

  2. Depression, anxiety and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tully, Phillip J; Winefield, Helen R; Baker, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    anhedonia, anxious arousal and general distress/negative affect symptom dimensions. Incident MACCE was defined as fatal or non-fatal; myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, repeat revascularization, heart failure, sustained arrhythmia, stroke or cerebrovascular accident, left ventricular failure......BACKGROUND: Although depression and anxiety have been implicated in risk for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), a theoretical approach to identifying such putative links is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between theoretical...... and mortality due to cardiac causes. Time-to-MACCE was determined by hazard modelling after adjustment for EuroSCORE, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, heart failure and peripheral vascular disease. RESULTS: In the total sample, there were 698 cumulative person years of survival for analysis with a median...

  3. Validity of the Framingham point scores in the elderly: results from the Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael T; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Wolbers, Marcel; Stijnen, Theo; Bucher, Heiner C; Hunink, M G Myriam; Witteman, Jacqueline C M

    2007-07-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends assessing 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals free of established CHD with the Framingham Point Scores (FPS). Individuals with a risk >20% are classified as high risk and are candidates for preventive intervention. We aimed to validate the FPS in a European population of elderly subjects. Subjects free of established CHD at baseline were selected from the Rotterdam study, a population-based cohort of subjects 55 years or older in The Netherlands. We studied calibration, discrimination (c-index), and the accuracy of high-risk classifications. Events consisted of fatal CHD and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Among 6795 subjects, 463 died because of CHD and 336 had nonfatal myocardial infarction. Predicted 10-year risk of CHD was on average well calibrated for women (9.9% observed vs 10.1% predicted) but showed substantial overestimation in men (14.3% observed vs 19.8% predicted), particularly with increasing age. This resulted in substantial number of false-positive classifications (specificity 70%) in men. In women, discrimination of the FPS was better than that in men (c-index 0.73 vs 0.63, respectively). However, because of the low baseline risk of CHD and limited discriminatory power, only 33% of all CHD events occurred in women classified as high risk. The FPS need recalibration for elderly men with better incorporation of the effect of age. In elderly women, FPS perform reasonably well. However, maintaining the rational of the high-risk threshold requires better performing models for a population with low incidence of CHD.

  4. Prognostic Impact of In-Hospital and Postdischarge Heart Failure in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulo, Gerhard; Igland, Jannicke; Nygård, Ottar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heart failure (HF) is a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We explored the excess mortality associated with HF as an early or late complication of AMI and describe changes over time in such excess mortality. Methods and Results: All patients hospitalized with a...... or late complication of AMI—has a negative impact on patients' survival. Changes in the excess mortality associated with HF are driven by modest improvements in survival among AMI patients with HF as compared to those without HF.......Background: Heart failure (HF) is a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We explored the excess mortality associated with HF as an early or late complication of AMI and describe changes over time in such excess mortality. Methods and Results: All patients hospitalized...... with an incident AMI and without history of prior HF hospitalization were followed up to 1 year after AMI discharge for episodes of HF. New HF episodes were classified as in‐hospital HF if diagnosed during the AMI hospitalization or postdischarge HF if diagnosed within 1 year after discharge from the incident AMI...

  5. Assessment of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with angina pectoris and diabetes mellitus using 123I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuki; Tanabe, Takuji; Yuba, Tatsuya; Doue, Tomoki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Katoh, Shuuji; Sugihara, Hiroki; Azuma, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Masao

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effect of myocardial ischemia and diabetes mellitus (DM) on the myocardial fatty acid metabolism using 123 I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy. We performed 123 I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy in 50 patients with myocardial ischemia and without DM (AP), in 30 patients with myocardial ischemia and DM (AP+DM), 12 patients with DM and without myocardial ischemia (DM), and in 10 normal subjects (N). Myocardial uptake rate of 123 I-BMIPP was obtained using the time activity curve. Myocardial washout rate of 123 I-BMIPP was calculated using the polar images of early and delayed SPECT images. Myocardial uptake rate of 123 I-BMIPP (%) were AP: 4.9±0.6, AP+DM: 5.5±0.5, DM 5.7±0.5 and N: 5.0±0.4. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial uptake rate was increased in AP+DM and DM. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial washout rate (%) were AP: 30.2±4.3, AP+DM: 24.5±3.9, DM: 16.1±2.8 and N: 19.4±3.2. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial washout rate was increased in AP and AP+DM. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial washout rate was increased particularly in patients with multi-vessels disease. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial washout rate was decreased in DM. The present study suggested that diabetes mellitus increased myocardial fatty acid uptake and decreased myocardial fatty acid washout, and that myocardial ischemia increased myocardial fatty acid washout. (author)

  6. Role of myocardial perfusion imaging in evaluating thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Myocardial thallium-201 scintigraphy is being increasingly employed as a method for assessing the efficacy of coronary reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction. New thallium uptake after intracoronary tracer administration after successful recanalization indicates that nutrient blood flow has been successfully restored. One may also presume that some myocardial salvage occurred if thallium administered in this manner is transported intracellularly by myocytes with intact sarcolemmal membranes. However, if one injects thallium by way of the intracoronary route immediately after reperfusion, the initial uptake of thallium in reperfused myocardium may predominantly represent hyperemic flow and regional thallium counts measured may not be proportional to the mass of viable myocytes. When thallium is injected intravenously during the occlusion phase the degree of redistribution after thrombolysis is proportional to the degree of flow restoration and myocardial viability. When thallium is injected for the first time intravenously immediately after reperfusion, an overestimation of myocardial salvage may occur because of excess thallium uptake in the infarct zone consequent to significant hyperemia. Another approach to myocardial thallium scintigraphy in patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy is to administer two separate intravenous injections before and 24 hours or later after treatment. Finally, patients with acute myocardial infarction who receive intravenous thrombolytic therapy are candidates for predischarge exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy for risk stratification and detection of residual ischemia

  7. Left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); J. Tuomilehto; D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; P.C. Elwood; S. Malyutina; A. Freire de Concalves; J. Sivenius; A. di Carlo; P. Lagiou

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between electrocardiographically assessed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fatal, non-fatal, haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating in EUROSTROKE. METHODS: EUROSTROKE is a

  8. Related factors and incidence risk of acute myocardial infarction among the people with disability: A national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Chiu, Li-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-11-06

    Cardiovascular disease has always been a leading cause of death worldwide. Because the mobility of people with disability is relatively decreased, their risk of cardiovascular disease is increased. This study investigated the risks and relevant factors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among people with disability. This is a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data analysis. This study focused on 798,328 people with disability who were aged 35 and above during 2002-2008 and were registered in the National Disability Registration Database; the relevant medical data from 2000 to 2011 were acquired from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A Cox proportional hazards model was adopted for analyzing the relative AMI risks among different disability types and finding latent risk factors. The results indicated that the AMI incidence rate (per 1000 patient-years) among people with disability was 2.48. Men had an AMI incidence rate of 2.68 per 1000 patient-years, which was significantly higher than that of women (2.21; pdisability aged 65 and above had an AMI risk that was 5.01-6.03 times the risk for people with disability aged below 45. Disabled indigenous people had a relatively higher AMI risk (HR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19-1.52). The AMI risk for people with disability with a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 4 and above was 5.89 times (95% CI=5.56-6.25) the risk for those with a CCI of 0. Compared with people with physical disabilities, people with visual impairment and people with dysfunctional primary organs had significantly higher AMI risks (HR=1.15; HR=1.66). This study found that people with disability who were male, aged 65 and above, married, indigenous, with physical disabilities, with high comorbidity, or with high disability levels had relatively higher AMI risks than other people with disability. The research outcomes can be used as references by public health authorities to improve the engagement of people with disability in AMI

  9. Short-term fasting reduces the extent of myocardial infarction and incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šnorek, M.; Hodyc, D.; Šedivý, V.; Ďurišová, J.; Skoumalová, A.; Wilhelm, J.; Neckář, Jan; Kolář, František; Herget, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2012), s. 567-574 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : myocardial ischemia/reperfusion * arrhythmias * infarction * fasting * ketone bodies Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  10. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopman Carla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI: 1.32 – 1.36 in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47 in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden

  11. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability after reperfusion. Myocardial viability assessed by [sup 15]O-water-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Joichi (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability in the ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 60-, 90-, and 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in the areas in which regional contractility was severely impaired (ehocardiographically akinetic or dyskinetic) in the early reperfusion period by [sup 15]O-water positron emission tomography (PET) 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion. An MBF ratio of ischemic to nonischemic regions 12 hours after reperfusion was inversely correlated with the amount of histologically determined tissue necrosis (r=-0.74). The regional contractility recovered 4 weeks later in the areas where an MBF ratio was 0.48 or greater, but did not recover in the areas with a lower MBF ratio. Thus, myocardial viability can be appropriately predicted in the early phase of myocardial perfusion by PET with [sup 15]O-water even in the absence of metabolic imaging. (author).

  12. The relation between angina and myocardial ischemia during exercise stress in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1988-01-01

    To examine the mechanism of occurrence of anginal chest pain from the aspect of myocardial ischemia, myocardial Tl-201 SPECT scans were obtained immediately and 3 hr after exercise (Ex) in 35 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The extent of ischemia was defined as the percentage of ischemic segments to the entire left ventricle. The minimum washout (WO) rate correlated well with the ratio of Tl uptake in the ischemic area to that in the normal area during Ex in the other 9 patients having single vessel CAD without previous history of myocardial infarction. This suggested that the miminum WO rate reflects the severity of Ex-induced ischemia. According to the development of angina during Ex, patients were classified as having either symptomatic ischemia (n = 16) or silent ischemia (n = 19). In regard to age, sex, a history of myocardial infarction, severity of CAD, and the extent of Ex-induced ischemia, there was no difference between the two groups. The minimum WO rate and the incidence of Ex-induced ST depression were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in the group with symptomatic ischemia than that with silent ischemia. The severity of Ex-induced ischemia has important implications for the development of anginal chest pain. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichte, H [Zentralkrankenhaus Gauting (Germany, F.R.). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.

    1977-04-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy with /sup 201/thallium is a non-invasive method for detection of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Redistribution-analysis as a sequential-scintigraphy of an exercise-scan permits to distinguish between myocardial scars and coronary vessel disease.

  14. Assessment of myocardial viability using multidetector computed tomography in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.; Choi, B.J.; Kang, D.K.; Sun, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prognostic value of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to predict follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery after reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) as defined by echocardiography. Materials and methods: After reperfusion therapy for acute MI, 71 patients underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT and follow-up echocardiography. MDCT findings were compared with echocardiographic findings using kappa statistics. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) and the odds ratios (ORs) of early perfusion defects (EPD), delayed enhancement (DE), and residual perfusion defects (RPD) for predicting follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery were calculated on a segmental basis. Results: The presence of transmural EPD (EPD TM ) or RPD showed good agreement (k = 0.611 and 0.658, respectively) with follow-up myocardial dysfunction, while subendocardial EPD (EPD sub ) or subendocardial DE (DE sub ) showed fair agreement with follow-up myocardial dysfunction (k = 0.235 and 0.234, respectively). The AUC of RPD (0.796) was superior (p TM (0.761) and DE TM (0.771). The presence of EPD TM , DE TM , and RPD were significant, independent positive predictors of follow-up myocardial dysfunction (OR = 6.4, 1.9, and 9.8, respectively). EPD TM was a significant, independent negative predictor of myocardial functional recovery (OR = 0.13). Conclusion: Abnormal myocardial attenuation on two-phase MDCT after reperfusion therapy may provide promising information regarding myocardial viability in patients with acute MI.

  15. Early spontaneous intermittent myocardial reperfusion during acute myocardial infarction is associated with augmented thrombogenic activity and less myocardial damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.W.; Andreotti, F.; Hackett, D.R.; Tousoulis, D.; Kluft, C.; Maseri, A.; Davies, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated the influence of early spontaneous intermittent reperfusion on the extent of myocardial damage and its relation to endogenous hemostatic activity, Background. In the early phase of acute myocardial infarction coronary occlusion is often intermittent, even before

  16. Myocardial adrenergic nerve activity in valvular diseases assessed by iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Yoshihiro; Fukuyama, Takaya

    1997-01-01

    Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging was used to assess myocardial adrenergic nerve activity in patients with heart failure. MIBG planar images were obtained in 94 patients. The uptake of MIBG, calculated as the heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio in the immediate image (15 min), showed a significant decrease only in patients with severe heart failure due to cardiomyopathy, but was not changed in those with valvular diseases. Storage and release of MIBG, calculated as the percentage myocardial MIBG washout from 15 min to 4 hours after isotope injection, was substantially accelerated in both patients with cardiomyopathy and valvular diseases in proportion to the severity of heart failure. These data suggest that, in severe heart failure associated with cardiomyopathy, norepinephrine uptake is reduced. Also, myocardial adrenergic nerve activity is accelerated in proportion to the severity of heart failure independent of the underlying cause. MIBG images were analyzed in 20 patients with mitral stenosis with the same methods to clarify whether myocardial adrenergic nerve activity is different in patients with heart failure without left ventricular volume or pressure overload. Myocardial uptake of MIBG did not show any significant difference. The percentage myocardial MIBG washout was increased in patients with severe heart failure. The closest correlation was between myocardial washout and cardiac output. In heart failure due to mitral stenosis, myocardial adrenergic nerve activity is intensified. Decrease in cardiac output associated with mitral stenosis acts as a potent stimulus for this intensification. (author)

  17. Vitamin E deficiency fails to affect myocardial performance during in vivo ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J S; Powers, S K; Demirel, H A; Hamilton, K L; Jessup, J; Vincent, H K; Shanely, R A

    2000-12-01

    Vitamin E content of cardiac tissue has been proposed to play a major role in the damage caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). Previous studies using in vitro models have examined vitamin E deficiency and I-R-induced myocardial damage with equivocal results. The purpose of this study was to use an in vivo model of myocardial I-R to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency on myocardial I-R-induced damage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (4-mo old) were assigned to either: 1) control diet (CON), or 2) vitamin E deficient diet (VE-DEF). The CON diet was prepared to meet AIN-93M standards, which contains 75 IU vitamin E/kg diet. The VE-DEF diet was the AIN-93M diet prepared with tocopherol stripped corn oil and no vitamin E. Following a 14-week feeding period, significant differences (p CON = 48.2 +/- 3.5; VE-DEF = 12.4 +/- 1.4 micrograms VE/g wet weight). Animals from both experimental groups were subjected to an in vivo I-R protocol consisting of 25 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion. No group differences (p > 0.05) existed in cardiac performance (peak arterial pressure or ventricular work) or the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias during the I-R protocol. VE-DEF animals had significantly higher (p CON animals. These data suggest that although vitamin E deficiency increases oxidative damage resulting from myocardial I-R, it does not affect cardiac performance during the insult.

  18. Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Stegger, Jakob Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) measured at one point in time is positively associated with the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is not clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the risk of MI in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated...

  19. Myocardial Hemorrhage After Acute Reperfused ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Ahmed, Nadeem; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C.; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, M. Mitchell; Davie, Andrew; Mahrous, Ahmed; Mordi, Ify; Rauhalammi, Samuli; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ford, Ian; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The success of coronary reperfusion therapy in ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly limited by failure to restore microvascular perfusion. Methods and Results— We performed a prospective cohort study in patients with reperfused ST-segment–elevation MI who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance 2 days (n=286) and 6 months (n=228) post MI. A serial imaging time-course study was also performed (n=30 participants; 4 cardiac magnetic resonance scans): 4 to 12 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 7 months post reperfusion. Myocardial hemorrhage was taken to represent a hypointense infarct core with a T2* value of hemorrhage 2 days post MI was associated with clinical characteristics indicative of MI severity and inflammation. Myocardial hemorrhage was a multivariable associate of adverse remodeling (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.64 [1.07–6.49]; P=0.035). Ten (4%) patients had a cardiovascular cause of death or experienced a heart failure event post discharge, and myocardial hemorrhage, but not microvascular obstruction, was associated with this composite adverse outcome (hazard ratio, 5.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.25–27.74; P=0.025), including after adjustment for baseline left ventricular end-diastolic volume. In the serial imaging time-course study, myocardial hemorrhage occurred in 7 (23%), 13 (43%), 11 (33%), and 4 (13%) patients 4 to 12 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 7 months post reperfusion. The amount of hemorrhage (median [interquartile range], 7.0 [4.9–7.5]; % left ventricular mass) peaked on day 2 (Phemorrhage and microvascular obstruction follow distinct time courses post ST-segment–elevation MI. Myocardial hemorrhage was more closely associated with adverse outcomes than microvascular obstruction. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02072850. PMID:26763281

  20. Homocyst(e)ine and risk of cardiovascular disease in the multiple risk factor intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W; Shaten, B J; Hempel, J D; Cutler, J A; Kuller, L H

    2000-01-01

    A nested case-control study was undertaken involving men participating in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Serum samples from 712 men, stored for upto 20 years, were analysed for homocyst(e)ine. Cases involved non-fatal myocardial infractions, identified through the active phase of the study, which ended on February 28, 1982, and deaths due to coronary heart disease, monitored through 1990. The non-fatal myocardial infarction occurred within 7 years of sample collection, whereas the majority of coronary heart disease deaths occurred more than 11 years after sample collection. Mean homocyst(e)ine concentrations were in the expected range and did not differ significantly between case patients and control subjects: myocardial infarction cases, 12.6 micromol/L; myocardial infarction controls, 13.1 micromol/L; coronary heart disease death cases, 12.8 micromol/L; and coronary heart disease controls, 12.7 micromol/L. Odds ratios versus quartile 1 for coronary heart disease deaths and myocardial infarctions combined were as follows: quartile 2, 1.03; quartile 3, 0.84; and quartile 4, 0.92. Thus, in this prospective study, no association of homocyst(e)ine concentration with heart disease was detected. Homocyst(e)ine levels were weakly associated with the acute-phase (C-reactive) protein. These results are discussed with respect to the suggestion that homocyst(e)ine is an independent risk factor for heart disease.

  1. Effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability, vascular tone, and incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in the canine heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Bjerrum, P J

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability for a small hydrophilic indicator, postischaemic vascular tone, and the occurrence of arrhythmias in the canine heart in vivo.......The aim was to examine the effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability for a small hydrophilic indicator, postischaemic vascular tone, and the occurrence of arrhythmias in the canine heart in vivo....

  2. Heart failure complicating myocardial infarction. A report of the Peruvian Registry of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (PERSTEMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Diaz, Manuel; Araoz-Tarco, Ofelia; Alarco-León, Walter; Aguirre-Zurita, Oscar; Rosales-Vidal, Maritza; Rebaza-Miyasato, Patricia

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the incidence, associated factors, and 30-day mortality of patients with heart failure (HF) after ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Peru. Observational, cohort, multicentre study was conducted at the national level on patients enrolled in the Peruvian registry of STEMI, excluding patients with a history of HF. A comparison was made with the epidemiological characteristics, treatment, and 30 day-outcome of patients with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) heart failure after infarction. Of the 388 patients studied, 48.7% had symptoms of HF, or a left ventricular ejection fraction 75 years, anterior wall infarction, and the absence of electrocardiographic signs of reperfusion were the factors related to a higher incidence of HF. The hospital mortality in Group 1 was 20.6%, and the independent factors related to higher mortality were age>75 years, and the absence of electrocardiographic signs of reperfusion. Heart failure complicates almost 50% of patients with STEMI, and is associated with higher hospital and 30-day mortality. Age greater than 75 years and the absence of negative T waves in the post-reperfusion ECG are independent factors for a higher incidence of HF and 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2014-01-01

    myocardial infarction, hypercholesterolemia, high p-creatinine, and diabetes mellitus. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for type 2 myocardial infarction was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0). With shock as the only exception, mortality was independent of the triggering conditions leading to type....../119) in those with type 2 myocardial infarction and 26% (92/360) in those with type 1 myocardial infarction (P high age, prior myocardial infarction, type 2...... 2 myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction is high, reaching approximately 50% after 2 years. Further descriptive and survival studies are needed to improve the scientific evidence on which treatment of type 2 myocardial infarction is based....

  4. VO(2peak), myocardial hypertrophy, and myocardial blood flow in endurance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Marko S; Heinonen, Ilkka; Luotolahti, Matti; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-08-01

    Endurance training induces cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, leading to enhanced endurance capacity and exercise performance. Previous human studies have shown contradictory results in functional myocardial vascular adaptations to exercise training, and we hypothesized that this may be related to different degrees of hypertrophy in the trained heart. We studied the interrelationships between peak aerobic power (V˙O2peak), myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during adenosine-induced vasodilation, and parameters of myocardial hypertrophy in endurance-trained (ET, n = 31) and untrained (n = 17) subjects. MBF and myocardial hypertrophy were studied using positron emission tomography and echocardiography, respectively. Both V˙O2peak (P negatively with adenosine-stimulated MBF, but when LV mass was taken into account as a partial correlate, this correlation disappeared. The present results show that increased LV mass in ET subjects explains the reduced hyperemic myocardial perfusion in this subject population and suggests that excessive LV hypertrophy has negative effect on cardiac blood flow capacity.

  5. Non-fatal injuries among Pacific infants in Auckland: data from the Pacific Islands families first two years of life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Paterson, Janis; Percival, Teuila

    2006-03-01

    Child injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. While Pacific infant death rates are relatively high in New Zealand, little is known about non-fatal injury rates. We seek to describe maternally reported injury in Pacific infants aged between 0-24 months. A cohort of Pacific infants born during 2000 in Auckland, New Zealand, was followed. Maternal home interviews were conducted at 6 weeks, 12 months and 24 months postpartum and injury events were recalled. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to analysis the longitudinal data. The inception cohort included 1398 infants at 6 weeks, 1241 infants at 12 months and 1161 infants at 24 months. The age-specific injury incidence per 1000 person-years exposure was estimated at 48 (95% CI: 23, 88) injuries for infants aged 0-6 weeks, 106 (95% CI: 88, 127) injuries for infants aged 7 weeks-12 months and 174 (95% CI: 151, 199) injuries for infants aged 13-24 months. In the multivariable GEE model, older infants (P culturally appropriate prevention strategies for all Pacific families with young children is required to reduce injury rates for Pacific infants in New Zealand.

  6. Evaluation of myocardial bridging by coronary computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Rabelo, Daniel Rocha; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz, E-mail: marciovlbarros@uol.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Garretto, Luiza Samarane; Paula, Marcela Mascarenhas De; Carvalho, Marina Oliveira; Alves, Marina Rangel Moreira Barros [Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana (FASEH), Vespasiano, MG (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The myocardial bridge (MB) is defined as a segment of an epicardial coronary artery that has an intramural course in the myocardium. Although MB is clinically silent in most cases, has been associated with myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death. Coronary conventional angiography is the gold standard for detection of MB, but is invasive and cannot be sufficiently sensitive compared to autopsy studies. Recently, multislice computed tomography of coronary arteries (MCTCA) has allowed the detection of coronary artery course, including PM. Objectives: to evaluate MB prevalence in patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing MCTCA and to evaluate the predictive value of this method at medium term. Methods: during the period 2008 to 2011, 498 consecutive patients were examined by TMC for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, being conducted to evaluate the presence of BM and followed for a mean follow-up of 23 months for the occurrence of cardiovascular hard events (death, hospitalization or revascularization). Results: patients mean age was 55.3 ± 14.2, being male 71.1%. Among the patients, 7.6% (38 patients) showed MB. Main findings included angina pectoris in 40% and a positive stress test in 34%. 34.2% had atherosclerotic disease, and one patient had significant coronary stenosis. During follow-up, no patients showed adverse events. Conclusion: MCTCA is a noninvasive technique with high accuracy in anatomical evaluation of the coronary arteries and may be particularly useful to assess the incidence, location and morphology of myocardial bridging in vivo. (author)

  7. Variations of CHI3L1, levels of the encoded glycoprotein YKL-40 and prediction of fatal and non-fatal ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Thomsen, Stine Brinkloev; Linneberg, Allan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of CHI3L1 are associated with inter-individual YKL-40 levels and YKL-40 is associated with an increased mortality and is elevated in patients with cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CHI3L1, serum YKL-40...... levels and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and first-time incidence of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 SNPs of CHI3L1 were genotyped and serum YKL-40 was measured in 2656 Danes representative of the general population. Median...

  8. Myocardial revascularization in the elderly patient: with or without cardiopulmonary bypass?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglézias José Carlos Rossini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if there is advantage in myocardial revascularization the elderly without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in relation to the use of the same, being considered the viability of complete myocardial revascularization (MR and the hospital morbidity and mortality. METHOD: We prospectively studied a hundred consecutive, no randomized patients, with age > or = 70 years, submitted to the primary and isolated myocardial revascularization between January and December of 2000. The patients were divided in two groups, G1 - 50 patients operated with CPB and G2 - 50 patients operated without CPB. Univariate testing of variables was performed with chi-squared analysis in the SPSS 10.0 Program and a p value less than 0.005 was considered significant. RESULTS: There was no renal failure or myocardial infarction (MI in both groups; the incidence of respiratory failure was identical in the two groups (4%; two patient of G1 they had Strokes, and 12 presented low output syndrome, occurrences not registered in G2. The need of ventilatory support > 24 hs was not significant between groups. Medium time of hospital stay was 21.8 and 11.7 days respectively (NS and the survival after 30 days were similar in the two groups. The patients' of G1 eighty percent had more than two approached arteries, against only 48% of G2 (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Because the largest number of grafts in the patients of G1, we can affirm that the use of CPB can provide a larger probability of complete RM.

  9. Recognized Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Associated With Improved In-Hospital Outcomes After ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohananey, Divyanshu; Villablanca, Pedro A; Gupta, Tanush; Agrawal, Sahil; Faulx, Michael; Menon, Venugopal; Kapadia, Samir R; Griffin, Brian P; Ellis, Stephen G; Desai, Milind Y

    2017-07-20

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and stroke. However, the association of OSA with outcomes in patients hospitalized for ST-elevation myocardial infarction remains controversial. We used the nation-wide inpatient sample between 2003 and 2011 to identify patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction and then used the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification code 327.23 to identify a group of patients with OSA. The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes were in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay and hospital charges. Our cohort included 1 850 625 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, of which 1.3% (24 623) had documented OSA. OSA patients were younger and more likely to be male, smokers, and have chronic pulmonary disease, depression, hypertension, known history of coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, obesity, and renal failure ( P ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with recognized OSA had significantly decreased mortality compared with patients without OSA. Although patients with OSA had longer hospital stays and incurred greater hospital charges, there was no difference in incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Incidence of myocardial infarction among Swedish and immigrant smoking women: can physical activity modify the risk? An epidemiological study on the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Raj Kumar; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Janzon, Ellis

    2013-11-01

    Sweden has shown a decreasing tendency in the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), except among middle-aged women. The incidence among middle-aged immigrant women is less explored. To determine if foreign-born women have a higher risk of MI as compared to women born in Sweden. Furthermore, to examine if physical activity (PA) modifies the risk of MI regardless of immigration status and smoking habits. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study was used for analyses. A total of 16,776 women aged 45-73 years participated. The mean follow-up time was 13.8±4 years. Mean age was 57.4±7.9 years. No difference was found in incidence of MI between Swedish and immigrant women (p=0.72). For current smokers among Swedish women, the relative risk (RR) with no/low PA was 2.93 (95% CI 2.07-4.14) and with moderate/high PA, the RR was 2.21 (95% CI 1.61-3.03) with no/low PA-never smoker as the reference group. Among immigrant smoking women, the RR with no/low PA was 4.56 (95% CI 1.62-12.8) and with moderate/high PA, the RR was 3.27 (95% CI 1.21-8.84) with no/low PA-never smoker as the reference group. PA reduces the risk of MI in non-smokers as well as in smokers, regardless of immigration status. Furthermore, PA was even more beneficial for women born outside Sweden. Against this background, immigrant women ought to get special consideration and attention from both caregivers and public health workers.

  11. Myocardial viability in cases with persistent perfusion defects on the dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigram. A comparative study with autopsy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Masafumi; Mashima, Saburo; Ohkawa, Shin-ichiro; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of myocardial infarction among persistent perfusion defects in dipyridamole-stress thallium scintigraphy by inspecting autopsied hearts and to evaluate whether the regional thallium activity of a scintigraphic defect can predict the presence of infarction. Autopsied hearts were compared with dipyridamole myocardial scintigrams undertaken during life in 27 patients (mean age 85±8 years). The time interval from stress testing until death was 428±351 days. Regional thallium uptake of delayed perfusion defect was calculated on the short axis images. The grade of regional myocardial fibrosis in autopsy specimens was also quantified to correlate with the corresponding regional thallium uptake. In 6 of 15 (40%) regions with persistent defects on the scintigram, myocardial infarction was not found at autopsy. Regional thallium-201 uptake of delayed defects < 50% diagnosed infarction with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80%. A linear correlation (r=-0.67) was observed between percent thallium-201 uptake and the degree of myocardial fibrosis. In conclusion, perfusion defects at 4-hour imaging in dipyridamole-stress testing may overestimate the presence of myocardial infarction and regional thallium-201 activity is helpful in distinguishing between defects with and without infarction. (author)

  12. SURGERY OF SYMPTOMATIC MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maghamipour N. Safaei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial bridging with systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD may be associated with myocardial ischemia. In symptomatic myocardial bridging unresponsive to medical treatment, surgical unroofing of the left LAD can be performed. Little information is available about the long-term prognosis of patients with this coronary anomaly after the surgical unroofing, so we decided to evaluate the result of this operation. A total of 26 patients underwent surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging. Patients had a myocardial bridge of at least 3 cm in length in the middle of LAD and with more than 70% compression during systole. Unroofing was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 and with off pump technique in 10 patients. In 6 patients repeat angiographies for control of myotomy were done. In one of them a nonsignificant 20% narrowing was seen. Postoperative scintigraphic and angiographic studies demonstrated restoration of coronary flow and myocardial perfusion without residual myocardial bridges under beta-stimulation in 24 patients. Two patients had residual narrowing. With off pump technique, 1 patient had perforation of the right ventricle and 1 patient underwent reoperation because of incomplete unroofing during the first operation. None of the patients with cardiopulmonary bypass technique had residual chest pain or other complications. Surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe and easy procedure with low operative risk and with excellent functional results.

  13. Myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the exercise stress test in diagnosing asymptomatic myocardial ischemia, exercise radionuclide imaging remains useful for detecting silent ischemia in numerous patient populations, including those who are totally asymptomatic, those who have chronic stable angina, those who have recovered from an episode of unstable angina or an uncomplicated myocardial infarction, and those who have undergone angioplasty or received thrombolytic therapy. Studies show that thallium scintigraphy is more sensitive than exercise electrocardiography in detecting ischemia, i.e., in part, because perfusion defects occur more frequently than ST depression and before angina in the ischemic cascade. Thallium-201 scintigraphy can be performed to differentiate a true- from a false-positive exercise electrocardiographic test in patients with exercise-induced ST depression and no angina. The development of technetium-labeled isonitriles may improve the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging. 11 references

  14. Application of myocardial perfusion quantitative imaging for the evaluation of therapeutic effect in canine with myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Hong; Chen Ju; Liu Sheng; Zeng Shiquan

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial blood perfusion (MBP) ECT and quantitative analysis were performed in 10 canines with experimental acute myocardial infarct (AMI). The accuracy of main myocardial quantitative index, including defect volume (DV) and defect fraction (DF), was estimated and correlated with histochemical staining (HS) of infarcted area. Other 21/AMI canines were divided into Nd:YAG laser trans-myocardial revascularization treated group LTMR and control group. All canines were performed MBP ECT after experimental AMI. Results found that the infarcted volume (IV) measured by HS has well correlated (r 0.88) with DV estimated by myocardial quantitative analysis. But the DF values calculated by both methods was not significantly different (t = 1.28 P > 0.05). In LTMR group 27.5% +- 3.9%, the DF is smaller than control group 32.1% +- 4.6% (t = 2.49 P 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT and quantitative study can accurately predict the myocardial blood flow and magnitude of injured myocardium. Nd:YAG LTMR could improve myocardial blood perfusion of ischemic myocardium and decrease effectively the infarct areas

  15. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro

    1990-01-01

    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV F on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author)

  16. Polycythemia vera: the natural history of 1213 patients followed for 20 years. Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    To reassess the natural history of polycythemia vera and to obtain reliable estimates of both incidence of thrombosis and survival for use in defining the sample size for therapeutic clinical trials. Retrospective cohort study of patients with polycythemia who had been followed for 20 years. 11 Italian hematology institutions. 1213 patients with polycythemia vera, which was diagnosed according to criteria established by the Polycythemia Vera Study Group and commonly used in clinical practice. All-cause mortality, venous and arterial thrombosis, and hematologic and nonhematologic neoplastic disease. Myocardial infarction and stroke were classified as major thrombotic events, and venous and peripheral arterial thrombosis were considered minor thrombotic events. The number of patients who died and the number of those who had major thrombotic events (combined end point) were used as a comprehensive measure of the benefit-risk ratio associated with the use of myelosuppressive agents. 634 fatal and nonfatal arterial and venous thromboses were recorded in 485 patients (41%); 36% of these episodes occurred during follow-up in 230 patients (19%), and 64% occurred either at presentation or before diagnosis. Thrombotic events occurred more frequently in the 2 years preceding diagnosis, suggesting a causal relation between the latent myeloproliferative disorder and the vascular event. The incidence of thrombosis during follow-up was 3.4%/y; older patients or those with a history of thrombosis had a higher risk for thrombosis. Overall mortality was 2.9/100 patients per year; thrombotic events and hematologic or nonhematologic cancers had similar effects on mortality. Patients receiving chemotherapy died three to four times more frequently than those not receiving chemotherapy. The increased risk for cancer in patients receiving myelosuppressive agents was seen approximately 6 years after diagnosis. In addition, the combined end point, computed as the sum of the hardest

  17. Exercise and rest Tl-201 myocardial SPECT, and low dose dobutamine echocardiography to assess myocardial viability in patients with myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Takuji; Ishida, Yoshio; Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Kawano, Shigeo; Beppu, Shintaro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate viability of infarcted myocardium, findings of Tl-201 myocardial SPECT were compared with those of low-dose dobutamine (DOB) echocardiography. The subjects were 19 patients with myocardial infarction (23 infarcted zones), consisting of 16 men and 3 women. Findings on myocardial SPECT were classified as evidence of myocardial viability (14 zones, Group A) and no evidence of myocardial viability (9 zones, Group B). For both groups, wall motion and regional % uptake (%UP) were obtained. DOB echocardiography revealed an improvement in 5 of 8 akinesis zones in Group A. In addition, one other zone was found improved by follow-up examination. Six hypokinesis zones were all found improved on DOB echocardiography. Out of a total of 14 akinesis or hypokinesis zones, 11 (79%) showed improvement on DOB echocardiography in Group A. In Group B, all akinesis zones remained unchanged on DOB echocardiography, although one zone was improved by follow-up examination. In 11 zones in which wall motion was improved on DOB echocardiography, %UT was increased by an average of 58% on 4 hr-delayed images and 70% on resting images. The corresponding figures for 12 zones which did not improve on DOB echocardiography were 49% and 50% on the average, respectively. In conclusion, low-dose DOB echocardiography appeared to reflect viability of severely infarcted myocardium, although it had a slightly lower sensitivity than convensional Tl-201 myocardial SPECT in its ability to detect. (N.K.)

  18. Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pérez Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data indicate that chronic use of coxibs leads to an increased occurrence of thrombotic cardiovascular events. This raises the question as to whether traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs might also produce similar hazards. Our aim has been to evaluate the association between the chronic use of tNSAIDs and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI in patients. Methods We performed a nested case-control analysis with 4,975 cases of acute MI and 20,000 controls, frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and calendar year. Results Overall, current use of tNSAID was not associated with an increased risk of MI (RR:1.07;95%CI: 0.95–1.21. However, we found that the relative risk (RR of MI for durations of tNSAID treatment of >1 year was 1.21 (95% CI, 1.00–1.48. The corresponding RR was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.06–1.70 for non-fatal MI. The effect was independent from dose. The small risk associated with long-term use of tNSAIDs was observed among patients not taking low-dose aspirin (RR: 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01–1.65. The effect of long-term use for individual tNSAIDs ranged from a RR of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.47–1.62 with naproxen to 1.38 (95% CI, 1.00–1.90 with diclofenac. Conclusion This study adds support to the hypothesis that chronic treatment with some tNSAIDs is associated with a small increased risk of non-fatal MI. Our data are consistent with a substantial variability in cardiovascular risks between individual tNSAIDs.

  19. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  20. Hypertension impairs myocardial blood perfusion reserve in subjects without regional myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Onishi, Katsuya; Kurita, Tairo

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of myocardial perfusion MRI can provide noninvasive assessments of myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR), which is associated with endothelial function. Endothelial function is influenced by various factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, renal dysfunction and anemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which risk factor is the strongest effector of MPR in subjects without regional myocardial ischemia. We studied 110 patients (66 years ±10, male 68%, hypertension 76%, diabetes mellitus (DM) 40% and dyslipidemia 65%) without regional myocardial ischemia. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stress and rest first-pass perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired with a 1.5-T MR system, and MPR was calculated as the ratio of stress to rest myocardial blood flow (MBF). Average rest MBF in 110 patients was 1.07±0.62 ml min -1 g -1 , whereas stress MBF was 3.15±1.93 ml min -1 g -1 and the MPR was 3.33±1.82. Rest MBF correlated significantly with hematocrit, whereas stress MBF showed a strong correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR). MPR was associated with hypertension, age, e-GFR, hematocrit and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). In multiple regression analysis, hypertension (P=0.003, β=-0.274) showed the strongest correlation with MPR among other risk factors, such as diabetes (P=ns), dyslipidemia (P=ns), e-GFR (P=ns), LVMI (P=0.007, β=-0.248) and hematocrit (P=ns) after adjusting age and gender. Hypertension is the most important effector of MPR in subjects without myocardial ischemia. (author)

  1. Hypertension impairs myocardial blood perfusion reserve in subjects without regional myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Onishi, Katsuya; Kurita, Tairo [Mie Univ., Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Quantitative analysis of myocardial perfusion MRI can provide noninvasive assessments of myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR), which is associated with endothelial function. Endothelial function is influenced by various factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, renal dysfunction and anemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which risk factor is the strongest effector of MPR in subjects without regional myocardial ischemia. We studied 110 patients (66 years {+-}10, male 68%, hypertension 76%, diabetes mellitus (DM) 40% and dyslipidemia 65%) without regional myocardial ischemia. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stress and rest first-pass perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired with a 1.5-T MR system, and MPR was calculated as the ratio of stress to rest myocardial blood flow (MBF). Average rest MBF in 110 patients was 1.07{+-}0.62 ml min{sup -1} g{sup -1}, whereas stress MBF was 3.15{+-}1.93 ml min{sup -1} g{sup -1} and the MPR was 3.33{+-}1.82. Rest MBF correlated significantly with hematocrit, whereas stress MBF showed a strong correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR). MPR was associated with hypertension, age, e-GFR, hematocrit and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). In multiple regression analysis, hypertension (P=0.003, {beta}=-0.274) showed the strongest correlation with MPR among other risk factors, such as diabetes (P=ns), dyslipidemia (P=ns), e-GFR (P=ns), LVMI (P=0.007, {beta}=-0.248) and hematocrit (P=ns) after adjusting age and gender. Hypertension is the most important effector of MPR in subjects without myocardial ischemia. (author)

  2. Proposed classification scale for radiological incidents and accidents; Elaboration d'une echelle de classement des incidents et accidents radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-15

    The scale proposed in this report is intended to facilitate communication concerning the severity of incidents and accidents involving the exposure of human beings to ionising radiations. Like the INES, it comprises eight levels of severity and uses the same terms (accident, incident, anomaly, serious and major) for keeping the public and the media informed. In a radiological protection context, the severity of an event is considered as being directly proportional to the risk run by an individual (the probability of developing fatal or non-fatal health effects) following exposure to ionising radiation in an incident or accident situation. However for society, other factors have to be taken into account to determine severity. The severity scale proposed is therefore based on assessment of the individual radiological risk. A severity level corresponding to exposure of a member of the public in an incident or accident situation is determined on the basis of risk assessment concepts and methods derived from international consensus on dose/effect relationships for both stochastic and deterministic effects. The severity of all the possible exposure situations - worker exposure, collective exposure, potential exposure - is determined using a system of weighting in relation to situations involving members of the public. In the case of this scale, to indicate the severity of an event, it is proposed to make use of the most penalizing level of severity, comparing: - the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of deterministic effects and the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of stochastic effects, when the event gives rise to both types of risk; - the severity for members of the public and the severity for exposed workers, when both categories of individuals are involved; - the severity on the proposed radiological protection scale and that obtained using the INES, when radiological protection and nuclear safety aspects are associated with

  3. Evaluation of myocardial abnormalities in collagen diseases by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Kagoshima, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kiyotaka (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate myocardial abnormalities in patients with collagen diseases by exercise and rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams. A total of 65 patients without ischemic ECG changes, consisting of 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 18 with polymyositis (PM), 8 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and 21 with Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS), was enrolled in this study. Reversible exercise-induced defects scintigraphically suggesting myocardial ischemia were noted in 8 cases of SLE, 4 cases of PM, 4 cases of PSS, and 3 cases of SjS. Nineteen patients had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization, 8 of whom had normal coronary angiograms. Fixed hypoperfusion areas were observed in one case of SLE, 6 cases of PM and 3 cases of SjS. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigram disclosed hypoperfusion areas which were not induced by exercise in 2 cases of SLE, 3 cases of PM, one case of PSS and 5 cases of SjS. Echocardiogram showed no significant differences in ejection fraction and % fractional shortening between the disease groups and healthy control group. These findings suggest that patients with collagen diseases have abnormalities of coronary circulation at the level of the intramural vasculature before cardiac function impairment, myocardial fibrosis and functional abnormalities at the cell membrane. (author).

  4. Nonfatal agricultural work-related injuries: A case study from Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Pranav, P K; Biswas, M

    2018-01-01

    Occupational injuries are a major problem in agriculture worldwide. In the Northeast region of India, most of the farm operations are carried out manually with hand operated tools and equipment. These tools also cause some nonfatal accidents. In the absence of reliable data on accidents in this region, injury prevention policy cannot be madeOBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to survey injury causing agricultural accidents occurring during 2010 to 2013 in Arunachal Pradesh of the northeast region to know their magnitude, causes and severity. In this study, four districts of Arunachal Pradesh namely Papum Pare, Lower Subansiri, West Siang and East Siang were chosen using purposive sampling. From each district, 15 villages were selected. In these villages, a total of 50614 agricultural workers participated and 174 and 48 injuries were found for male and female workers respectively. A case-control study was carried out in Arunachal Pradesh. The questionnaire-based approach was used for data collection. The questionnaire contains detailed information on the demographic and injury characteristics. The Demographic information included gender, age, educational background, etc. and injury characteristics included the nature of the injury, the body part injured, and type of tools and equipment that caused the injury. The results showed that farm tools and equipment-related accidents were maximum i.e. 144 (60%) caused due to dao followed by 19 from spade (8%), 18 from sickle (7%) and 8 from axe (3%). The foot and legs were the most frequently injured body parts. From this study, it was also revealed that male agricultural workers are more affected as compared to their female counterparts. Agricultural accident incident rate (AIR) was found to be 589 per 1,00,000 workers per year. The AIR for males is 462 per 100,000 workers per year which is 3.6 times higher than female workers. The root causes of accidents are the use of traditional tools and equipment in various

  5. Comparison of blood biochemics between acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis and simple acute myocardial infarction models in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Shaochun; Yu Xiaofeng; Wang Jia; Zhou Jinying; Xie Haolin; Sui Dayun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To construct the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis and study the difference on blood biochemics between the acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis and the simple acute myocardial infarction models. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, acute blood stasis model group, acute myocardial infarction sham operation group, acute myocardial infarction model group and of acute myocardial infarction model with blood stasis group. The acute myocardial infarction models under the status of the acute blood stasis in rats were set up. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were detected, the activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of prostacycline (PGI2), thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) and endothelin (ET) in plasma were determined. Results: There were not obvious differences in MDA, SOD, GSH-Px and FFA between the acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis in rats and the simple acute myocardial infarction models (P 2 and NO, and the increase extents of TXA 2 , ET and TNF-α in the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis were higher than those in the simple acute myocardial infarction models (P 2 and NO, are significant when the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis and the simple acute myocardial infarction models are compared. The results show that it is defective to evaluate pharmacodynamics of traditional Chinese drug with only simple acute myocardial infarction models. (authors)

  6. Quantitative myocardial blood flow with Rubidium-82 PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Christoffer E; Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows assessment of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/min/g). Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): e.g. in 1) identificat......Positron emission tomography (PET) allows assessment of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/min/g). Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): e.g. in 1...... global MFR and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and together with new diagnostic possibilities from measuring the longitudinal myocardial perfusion gradient, cardiac (82)Rb PET faces a promising clinical future. This article reviews current evidence on quantitative (82)Rb PET's ability...

  7. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  8. Multifactorial intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Christensen, Robin; Persson, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    clinics in Denmark. The primary end point after 5 years of follow-up is a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and cardiac revascularisation. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of patients achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ....5 mmol/L, glycated haemoglobin blood pressure ... rheumatological nurse-administered set-up of behaviour modification and pharmacological therapy targeting (1) hyperlipidaemia, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycaemia and (4) microalbuminuria (intervention group). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is approved by the local ethics committee (DK-S-2014007...

  9. Elevated estimated arterial age is associated with metabolic syndrome and low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Kruger, Ruan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arterial age can be estimated from equations relating arterial stiffness to age and blood pressure in large cohorts. We investigated whether estimated arterial age (eAA) was elevated in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or known cardiovascular disease (CVD), which factors were...... of metabolic syndrome, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation, or Framingham risk score. From age, mean blood pressure, and cfPWV, eAA and estimated cfPWV (ePWV) were calculated. In 2006, the combined cardiovascular endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke...

  10. Ezetimibe Added to Statin Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael A; Giugliano, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial involving 18,144 patients who had been hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome within the preceding 10 days and had LDL cholesterol levels of 50 to 100 mg per deciliter (1.3 to 2.6 mmol per liter) if they were receiving lipid-lowering therapy...... was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, coronary revascularization (≥30 days after randomization), or nonfatal stroke. The median follow-up was 6 years. RESULTS: The median time-weighted average LDL cholesterol level during the study...

  11. Myocardial scintigraphy: methods and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy comprises perfusion imaging using TI-201 or - more recently - Tc-99m-labeled compounds with high affinity to myocytes. Imaging with these agents has become an important procedure in the detection of coronary artery disease, particularly in patients with non-diagnostic stress-ECG, in the functional evaluation of coronary stenoses after angiographical documentation in order to meet the adequate therapy decision, in therapy monitoring and follow-up, in the post infarction assessment of myocardial viability and differentiation between severe ischemia and scar and, occasionally, in acute ischemia. The use of positron emitters does not offer significant advantages for mere perfusion imaging, but is indispensable for the scintigraphic investigation of certain aspects of myocardial metabolism, particularly for the differentiation of viable ischemic wall segments from irreversibly damaged tissue. Imaging of myocardial necrosis has been improved by the introduction of labeled antimyosin antibody fragments and offers a considerable clinical potential in the diagnosis of myocarditis and cardiac transplant rejection. Neurohumoral aspects are increasingly involved in our understanding of myocardial failure. Scintigraphy of innervation/neurotransmission contributes to the investigation of pathophysiological alterations in myocardial insufficiency and in heart transplants. (orig.) [de

  12. Improving prediction of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population using apolipoprotein B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels predict fatal myocardial infarction. Whether apoB also predicts nonfatal ischemic cardiovascular events is unclear. We tested the following hypotheses: apoB predicts ischemic cardiovascular events, and apoB is a better predictor of ischemic cardiovascular events tha...

  13. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, K; McIlroy, D; Kasza, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed associations between intraoperative neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia, and a composite primary outcome of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, at 30 days post-randomization in POISE-2 Trial subjects. METHODS: 10 010 high-risk noncardiac surgical pat...

  14. Preliminary data on the prognostic value of a new protocol of ultra-fast myocardial scintigraphy with less radiation in CZT gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ronaldo; Peclat, Thais; Amaral, Ana Carolina; Nakamoto, Aline; Lavagnoli, Daniel; Oliveira, Felipe; De Lorenzo, Andrea, E-mail: ronlima@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Background: Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is one of the most used imaging methods for the evaluation of patients for coronary artery disease (CAD) due to its diagnostic and prognostic value. Two of its main limitations are radiation use and scan duration. However, CZT cameras (CZT-C) have allowed tracer dose and scan time reductions. However, the prognostic value of these new protocols is not known. Objective: To determine the prognostic value of a new, ultrafast, low dose protocol in a CZT-C. Population: Patients with suspect CAD undergoing MPS from 11/2011 to 6/2012 were studied. Methods: They had a 1-day Tc-99m sestamibi protocol starting with rest study (5 mCi dose) followed by stress (15 mCi). Acquisition times were 6 and 3 minutes respectively. MPS studied were classified as normal or abnormal and perfusion scores (SSS, SRS and SDS) were calculated. Patients were accompanied by 6-month phone calls. Events were defined as death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and late revascularization (> 60 days after MPS) and analyzed with the Cox method. Results: 792 patients were followed for 21.3 ± 3.7 months. Age was 65.2 ± 12.7 years, 50.3% were male and body mass index was 26.9 ± 4.7. Hypertension was the most frequent risk factor (59.5%), followed by hypercholesterolemia (51.9%) and diabetes (23.3%). Exercise was used in 438 (55.3%); 618 (78%) MPS studies were normal. Mean dosimetry was 6 mSv and mean scan time, 48 ± 11 minutes. During follow-up, there were 12 deaths, 4 nonfatal infarctions, 42 angioplasties and 5 coronary artery bypass surgeries. Annual hard event rate was higher in patients with abnormal MPS (3.0% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.01), as well as the frequency of patients undergoing late revascularization (10.8% vs 1.9%, p < 0.001). SSS and SDS were higher in patients with hard events compared to those without events (7.8 ± 8.8 vs 2.9 ± 5.7; 3.3 ± 5.7 vs 0.7 ± 2.2, p < 0.01) and among revascularized patients compared to non-revascularized (7.1 ± 7

  15. Proposed classification scale for radiological incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The scale proposed in this report is intended to facilitate communication concerning the severity of incidents and accidents involving the exposure of human beings to ionising radiations. Like the INES, it comprises eight levels of severity and uses the same terms (accident, incident, anomaly, serious and major) for keeping the public and the media informed. In a radiological protection context, the severity of an event is considered as being directly proportional to the risk run by an individual (the probability of developing fatal or non-fatal health effects) following exposure to ionising radiation in an incident or accident situation. However for society, other factors have to be taken into account to determine severity. The severity scale proposed is therefore based on assessment of the individual radiological risk. A severity level corresponding to exposure of a member of the public in an incident or accident situation is determined on the basis of risk assessment concepts and methods derived from international consensus on dose/effect relationships for both stochastic and deterministic effects. The severity of all the possible exposure situations - worker exposure, collective exposure, potential exposure - is determined using a system of weighting in relation to situations involving members of the public. In the case of this scale, to indicate the severity of an event, it is proposed to make use of the most penalizing level of severity, comparing: - the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of deterministic effects and the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of stochastic effects, when the event gives rise to both types of risk; - the severity for members of the public and the severity for exposed workers, when both categories of individuals are involved; - the severity on the proposed radiological protection scale and that obtained using the INES, when radiological protection and nuclear safety aspects are associated with

  16. Evaluation of myocardial involvement in Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Naoki; Sotobata, Iwao; Okada, Mitsuhiro

    1985-01-01

    Myocardial involvement in progressive muscular dystrophy of the Duchenne type was evaluated in 19 patients using thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging. A qualitative analysis was performed from five projection images by three experienced physicians. Distinct perfusion defects were shown in 13 patients, especially in the LV posterolateral or posterior wall (11 patients). There was no significant relationship between the presence of perfusion defects and the skeletal muscle involvements or thoracic deformities assessed by transmission computed tomography. Extensive perfusion defects were shown in 2 patients who died of congestive heart failure 1 to 2 years after the scintigraphic study. Progression of the myocardial scintigraphic abnormalities were considered to be minimal in 7 of 9 patients who underwent two serial scintigraphic studies over 2 to 3 years. It was concluded that thallium myocardial perfusion imaging is a useful clinical technique to assess myocardial involvement in Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy. (author)

  17. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of the myocardial scar fallowing acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatić Vujadin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The heart has traditionally been considered as a static organ without capacity of regeneration after trauma. Currently, the more and more often asked question is whether the heart has any intrinsic capacities to regenerate myocytes after myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to present the existence of the preserved muscle fibers in the myocardial scar following myocardial infarction as well as the presence of numerous cells of various size and form that differently reacted to the used immunohistochemical antibodies. Methods. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of myocardial sections taken from 177 patients who had died of acute myocardial infarction and had the myocardial scar following myocardial infarction, were carried out. More sections taken both from the site of acute infarction and scar were examined by the following methods: hematoxylin-eosin (HE, periodic acid schiff (PAS, PAS-diastasis, Masson trichrom, Malory, van Gieson, vimentin, desmin, myosin, myoglobin, alpha actin, smoth muscle actin (SMA, p53, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, Ki-67, actin HHF35, CD34, CD31, CD45, CD45Ro, CD8, CD20. Results. In all sections taken from the scar region, larger or smaller islets of the preserved muscle fibers with the signs of hypertrophy were found. In the scar, a large number of cells of various size and form: spindle, oval, elongated with abundant cytoplasm, small with one nucleus and cells with scanty cytoplasm, were found. The present cells differently reacted to histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Large oval cells showed negative reaction to lymphocytic and leukocytic markers, and positive to alpha actin, actin HHF35, Ki-67, myosin, myoglobin and desmin. Elongated cells were also positive to those markers. Small mononuclear cells showed positive reaction to lymphocytic markers. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel walls

  18. Estimating cardiovascular disease incidence from prevalence: a spreadsheet based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Feng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease incidence and prevalence are both core indicators of population health. Incidence is generally not as readily accessible as prevalence. Cohort studies and electronic health record systems are two major way to estimate disease incidence. The former is time-consuming and expensive; the latter is not available in most developing countries. Alternatively, mathematical models could be used to estimate disease incidence from prevalence. Methods We proposed and validated a method to estimate the age-standardized incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, with prevalence data from successive surveys and mortality data from empirical studies. Hallett’s method designed for estimating HIV infections in Africa was modified to estimate the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI in the U.S. population and incidence of heart disease in the Canadian population. Results Model-derived estimates were in close agreement with observed incidence from cohort studies and population surveillance systems. This method correctly captured the trend in incidence given sufficient waves of cross-sectional surveys. The estimated MI declining rate in the U.S. population was in accordance with the literature. This method was superior to closed cohort, in terms of the estimating trend of population cardiovascular disease incidence. Conclusion It is possible to estimate CVD incidence accurately at the population level from cross-sectional prevalence data. This method has the potential to be used for age- and sex- specific incidence estimates, or to be expanded to other chronic conditions.

  19. Fatty acid myocardial imaging using 123I-β-methyl-iophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP): Comparison of myocardial perfusion and fatty acid utilization in canine myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Sago, Masayoshi; Kihara, Koichi; Oka, Hisashi; Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Katabuchi, Tetsuro; Hayashi, Makoto; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Noda, Hiroyuki; Takano, Hisateru

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism in canine myocardial infarction, 16 dogs were studied using thallium and 123 I-β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP). Eight dogs (group A) had left anterior coronary arterial occlusion (6 h ligation), 6 dogs (group B) had reperfusion (3 h ligation and 1 h reperfusion) and 2 dogs served as the normal control. Myocardial imaging with BMIPP was excellent, owing to its higher uptake and longer retention in myocardium and rapid blood disappearance in addition to diminished liver and lung uptake. The mean half time value which was generated from the BMIPP myocardial washout curve, was significantly larger in the reperfused myocardium. The gamma camera imaging showed uncoupling of BMIPP and thallium (BMIPP uptake greater than thallium uptake) in five dogs in group B. On the other hand, all dogs in group A had a persistent defect in BMIPP and thallium uptake. Our findings indicate that the combination of BMIPP and thallium for myocardial imaging supply different information about the zone of infarction and ischemia, which may be useful for the assessment of myocardial viability. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of primary coronary percutaneous coronary intervention between Diabetic Men and Women with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng-Liang; Liu, Yang; Hao, Zhen-Xuan; Geng, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Jing, Song-Bin; Ba, Ning; Guo, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the short-term efficacy and safety of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in female diabetic patients complicated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of 169 diabetic patients with AMI who underwent primary PCI were selected and divided into group A (52 females) and group B (117 males). The clinical data, characteristics of coronary artery lesions, lengths of hospital stay, and incidences of complications were then compared between two groups. The average age, history of hyperlipidemia, double branch lesions, triple branch lesions, and left main lesions were significantly higher in group A than in group B (P paid to the therapy of diabetic women with acute myocardial infarction as well as the control of risk factors.

  1. Myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Silber, S.; Klein, U.; Rudolph, W.

    1980-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy is an important non-invasive method for assessment of coronary artery disease. Other applications of the method such as delineation of the right ventricular free wall in right ventricular overload, or the detection of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies or myocardial infiltrations are of subordinate importance. In heart disease such as congestive cardiomyopathy and mitral valve prolapse thallium-201 uptake defects have been described, the clinical implications of these findings, however, cannot be adequately interpreted at this time. Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 is an active process, dependent on and proportional to perfusion. Differentiation between myocardial ischemia and myocardial scar is based on the presence or absence of thallium-201 'redistribution'. That is, in the presence of acute reversible ischemia there is increased thallium-201 uptake in the post-ischemic phase in previously hypoperfused myocardium and, subsequently, equilibrium of the initially registered activity differences. 'Redistribution' has also been described in the resting scintigram of patients with severe coronary artery disease and chronic hypoperfusion. (orig.) [de

  2. Cause and motivation in cases of non-fatal drug overdoses in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfab, R; Eyer, F; Jetzinger, E; Zilker, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Drug overdose (OD) is a frequent incident among opiate addicts. Survivors of ODs are at risk for additional and eventually fatal ODs. ODs may be classified as accidental (aOD) or deliberate (dOD). Investigations into the connection between OD and suicide attempts have led to insconsistent results. (1) to determine how many non-fatal ODs were dODs and how many were aODs; (2) to determine how many cases of dODs were motivated by explicit or by ambivalent suicidal intentions; (3) to determine how many cases of aODs had causes that might respond to preventative measures; (4) to compare the addiction histories of dODs and aODs; (5) to compare the drugs causing the ODs; and (6) to compare the severity of the ODs in both groups. Prospective study utilizing a standardized questionnaire to evaluate opiate-addicted patients admitted to our treatment unit for OD. All cases underwent standardized drug testing to identify drug use patterns. Seventy-four cases of OD underwent standardized interviews after awakening. Forty-three percent of the cases were dOD. Cases of dOD had significantly more OA in substitution programs, more previous ODs, and more often consumed methadone and cocaine. Among dODs, 22.5% had suicidal intention and 9.6% were ambivalent about committing suicide; background motivations were most often conflicts with spouses. Fifty-seven percent of the cases were aOD. Cases of aODs had significantly more potential lethal intoxications and had heroin detected more frequently. aODs happened with unexpected pure heroin (46%), in combination with alcohol (36%), as relapse after abstinence (40%) or after institutionalized treatment (19%). This group should be accessible for targeted education.

  3. Quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow by measurement of fractional myocardial uptake of 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Ishii, Yasushi; Torizuka, Kanji; Kadota, Kazunori; Kambara, Hirofumi

    1980-01-01

    Fractional Myocardial uptake of 201 Tl was measured for the quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease (CAD). 10 normals and 28 CAD, 7 of which have less than 50% stenosis (CAD I) and 21 of which have more than 50% stenosis (CAD II) in the proximal portion of coronary arteries, were studied at rest and with submaximal exercise loading by bicycle ergometer. After intravenous injection of 201 Tl, its rapid transport process was recorded during the initial 5 minutes by a scintillation camera and a minicomputer. Total injected dosage (T) was obtained from the counts of the entire chest region during the initial passage of the tracer through the heart and lung. Myocardial uptake (M) was counted with the same geometry from the subsequent accumulation within the myocardial region with subtraction of the background activities in the upper mediastinal region (B). The fractional myocardial uptake of 201 Tl ((M-B)/T) is assumed to be proportional to the fractional myocardial blood flow to cardiac output (MBF/CO) according to the indicator fractionation principle. The average value of MBF/CO at rest in CAD (4.11 +- 1.12%) was significantly greater than in normals (3.36 +- 0.49%), which may be caused by an increased left ventricular mass in CAD. Change rate of MBF/CO on the exercise loading was significantly less in CAD I (1.36 +- 0.14) and in CAD II (1.11 +- 0.21) than in normals (1.75 +- 0.11). MBF/CO increased proportionally to the increment of the double product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure by exercise loading in normals, whereas it didn't in CAD. The sensitivity of this method was superior to the stress electrocardiogram and the stress myocardial perfusion imaging, not only in CAD II but also in CAD I. This result indicated that this type of global assessment of the myocardial reserve capacity is valuable in addition to the simple stress myocardial perfusion imaging. (author)

  4. Nonfatal splenic haematoma and pancytopenia in an ass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, I; Rodríguez, M J; Martos, N; Zilberschtein, J; Ruíz, I

    2004-08-01

    This report describes a case of nonfatal idiopathic splenic haematoma and pancytopenia in a female ass, a condition that has not been previously reported in this species. A 12-year-old female ass weighing 225 kg was presented with signs of anorexia, depression and prominent abdominal distension. At the onset of clinical signs there was evidence of anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. A large mass was palpated per rectum. The mass was confluent with the spleen and extended across the entire width of the abdomen. Percutaneous transabdominal ultrasonography and laparoscopy under general anaesthesia confirmed the diagnosis of splenic haematoma. The ass was treated initially with intravenous polyionic fluids; vitamins, trace elements and aminoacids; clanobutin; and penicillin and gentamicin, and was transfused with whole blood. After 5 days of hospitalisation the ass appeared brighter, and after 10 days the animal was discharged to recuperate at pasture. Six months later the animal's demeanour and appetite had improved. Repeat ultrasonographic examination showed persistence of the mass, but its thickness had decreased by 2 to 3 cm. A small mineralised area suggesting organisation of the haematoma was also detected. The haematological parameters had returned to normal values and the ass was clinically normal.

  5. [Clinical significance of myocardial 123I-BMIPP imaging in patients with myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, M; Kurihara, T; Shindoh, T; Honda, M

    1997-03-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of fatty acid metabolism in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), we performed myocardial imaging with 123I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and we compared these findings with exercise stress (Ex) and resting myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) and left ventricular wall motion index (WMI) which were obtained by left ventriculography. We studied 55 patients with MI, 14 patients with recent MI (RMI) and 41 patients with old MI (OMI), and myocardial images were divided into 17 segments and myocardial uptake of the radionuclide was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (maximal abnormality). In 28 patients we compared segmental defect score (SDS) with WMI which were obtained by centerline method at the corresponded segments. As a whole, the mean total defect scores (TDSs) of BMIPP and Ex were similar and they were greater than the mean TDS of resting perfusion. In 30 patient (55%) TDS of BMIPP was greater than that of TDS of resting perfusion. In 24 patients perfusion abnormality developed by Ex and the location of BMIPP abnormality coincided with the abnormality of Ex. But in the other 6 patients Ex did not induce any abnormality and they were all RMI and infarcted coronary artery was patent. However in the group with TDS of BMIPP identical to TDS of resting perfusion (25 patients), 92% did not show myocardial perfusion abnormality after Ex. In the comparison of SDS and WMI, myocardial segments were divided into 3 groups; both SDSs of BMIPP and resting perfusion were normal or borderline abnormality (Group 1, 82 segments), SDS of resting perfusion was normal or borderline and SDS of BMIPP was definitely abnormal (Group 2, 10 segments) and both SDSs of BMIPP and resting perfusion were definitely abnormal (Group 3, 48 segments). In Group 1, WMS (-0.41 +/- 0.77) was significantly (p acid metabolism may appear in viable myocardium such as jeopardized myocardium and myocardium which

  6. Correlation of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and peripheral artery disease with cardiovascular events in patients using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies generally suggest an excellent prognosis for cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been established as the risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, whether these risk factors significantly predict cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of these risk factors in patients with normal stress MPI. Patients with normal stress MPI (n=372, male=215 and female=157, age=69 years, CKD without hemodialysis=95, diabetes=99, PAD=19, previous coronary artery disease=116) were followed up for 14 months. Normal stress MPI was defined as a summed stress score of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 20 of 372 patients (5.4%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, insulin use, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CKD, left ventricular ejection fraction and pharmacological stress tests were significant predictors of cardiovascular events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes and CKD were independent and significant predictors for cardiovascular events, and their number was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio=21.7, P<0.001). PAD, diabetes and CKD are coexisting, independent and significant risk factors for cardiovascular events, CKD being the strongest predictor. The number of coexisting risk factors is important in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI. (author)

  7. Design of a trial evaluating myocardial cell protection with cariporide, an inhibitor of the transmembrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger: the Guard During Ischemia Against Necrosis (GUARDIAN trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder John S

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Synopsis Background Direct myocardial cell protection in patients with unstable angina or evolving myocardial infarction (MI could prevent cell necrosis or reduce its extent, and minimize the risk of MI and death associated with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs and coronary artery bypass surgery. The myocardial NHE plays a critical role in mediating the progression of ischemia to necrosis by promoting intracellular accumulation of sodium and calcium in exchange for hydrogen. Blockage of the system in various experimental models of ischemia and reperfusion had a strong antinecrotic effect. The present paper describes a trial that was intended to investigate the potential clinical benefit of cariporide, a potent and selective inhibitor of the NHE, in a large spectrum of at-risk patients. Trial design The GUARDIAN trial was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, four-arm trial that compared three cariporide dosages with placebo in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI and in patients undergoing a high-risk PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 11 590 patients with one of the three possible entry diagnoses were enroled in 23 countries. The trial was designed as a combined phase 2/phase 3 study. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of cariporide in reducing all-cause mortality and/or MI across the various entry populations 36 days after randomization. Three different doses of cariporide were compared with placebo. Secondary end-points were death or non-fatal MI at 10 days and 6 months, and cardiac events related to left ventricular dysfunction. The extent of MI was also assessed by peak elevation in creatinine kinase (CK-MB and a ratio of peak elevation to normal values. The sample size was driven by a total event rate of 1200 patients experiencing a primary end-point, powered to detect a 25% risk reduction in any of the three treatment groups compared with

  8. Evaluation of myocardial abnormalities in patients with collagen diseases by thallium-201 myocardial scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate myocardial lesions in patients with collagen diseases by rest and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphies. A total of 76 patients without ischemic ECG changes, consisting of 27 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 17 cases of polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM[center dot]DM), 11 cases of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and 21 cases of Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS), were enrolled in this study. Reversible exercise-induced defects suggesting myocardial ischemia were noted in 12 cases of SLE, 5 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 3 cases of PSS, and 3 cases of SjS. Of the 23 patients who had exercise-induced defects, 9 patients showed normal coronary angiograms by cardiac catheterization. Fixed hypoperfusion areas were observed in 5 cases of SLE, 6 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 4 cases of PSS and 3 cases of SjS. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy disclosed hypoperfusion areas, which were not induced by exercise, in 1 case of SLE, 4 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 1 case of PSS and 5 cases of SjS. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed on 20 patients. Myocardial lesions in PM[center dot]DM and PSS were more severe and wide spread than in SLE. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening evaluated by echocardiography had no significant differences between each disease group and the healthy control group. These findings suggest that patients with collagen diseases show the presence of abnormalities of coronary circulation at the level of the intramyocardial vasculature in the stage before impairment of cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis and functional abnormalities of the cell membrane level that were not dependent on myocardial ischemia. (author).

  9. Brief strategic therapy in first myocardial infarction patients with increased levels of stress: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Jadwiga Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of interventions targeting chronic stress levels on clinical outcomes among myocardial infarction (MI) patients with increased levels of stress. To examine the impact of the addition of brief strategic therapy (BST) to usual care (UC) on clinical outcomes in first MI patients with increased levels of stress. Eighty-one patients were randomly assigned to BST in conjunction with UC (medical treatment, risk factor information, and guidance on unhealthy behavior change) or to UC. The outcome measures were scores on the Perceived Stress Scale, reinfarction and cardiac mortality rates, and scores on the Health Survey. Measures were taken before, post-treatment, and at two follow-ups. Patients subjected to BST showed reduced perceived stress at post-treatment and maintained decreased levels at follow-ups. At 1-year follow-up, they had a lower rate of non-fatal reinfarction, and at 2.5-year follow-up, they had a lower rate of fatal reinfarction. Their mental and physical health was improved at post-treatment and this was sustained at follow-ups. The addition of BST to UC favorably influences the disease course after MI in patients with increased levels of stress.

  10. The myocardial perfusion imaging of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation treated acute myocardial infarction in pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Miao; Hou Xiancun; Li Yaomei; Zhou Peng; Qi Chunmei; Wu Weihuan; Li Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on acute myocardial infarction in pig with myocardial perfusion imaging. Methods: Acute myocardial infarction models were established by 21 minitype Chinese pigs and were divided into two groups. After 10 days, experimental group (n=11) was transplanted with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell at the infarct areas, and the control group (n=10) with incubation solution. Before and eight weeks after transplantation, both groups were examined by 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging and with semi-quantitative analysis. Besides, echocardiogram and immunohistochemistry were also performed. Results: There was significant difference of total myocardial perfusion abnormal segments (46 vs 26), infarct areas [(34±12)% vs (21±10)%] and myocardial ischemia score [(20.0±4.3) vs (12.1±3.6)] between two groups (P<0.05). Also, there were accordant results with echocardiogram and immunohistochemistry findings. Conclusions: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation may improve blood perfusion and viability of the ischemic areas: Myocardial perfusion imaging can accurately observe the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplanted at the infarct areas. (authors)

  11. Usefulness of myocardial parametric imaging to evaluate myocardial viability in experimental and in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosoglou, G; Hansen, A; Bekeredjian, R; Filusch, A; Hardt, S; Wolf, D; Schellberg, D; Katus, H A; Kuecherer, H

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate whether myocardial parametric imaging (MPI) is superior to visual assessment for the evaluation of myocardial viability. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was assessed in 11 pigs before, during, and after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and in 32 patients with ischaemic heart disease by using intravenous SonoVue administration. In experimental studies perfusion defect area assessment by MPI was compared with visually guided perfusion defect planimetry. Histological assessment of necrotic tissue was the standard reference. In clinical studies viability was assessed on a segmental level by (1) visual analysis of myocardial opacification; (2) quantitative estimation of myocardial blood flow in regions of interest; and (3) MPI. Functional recovery between three and six months after revascularisation was the standard reference. In experimental studies, compared with visually guided perfusion defect planimetry, planimetric assessment of infarct size by MPI correlated more significantly with histology (r2 = 0.92 versus r2 = 0.56) and had a lower intraobserver variability (4% v 15%, p < 0.05). In clinical studies, MPI had higher specificity (66% v 43%, p < 0.05) than visual MCE and good accuracy (81%) for viability detection. It was less time consuming (3.4 (1.6) v 9.2 (2.4) minutes per image, p < 0.05) than quantitative blood flow estimation by regions of interest and increased the agreement between observers interpreting myocardial perfusion (kappa = 0.87 v kappa = 0.75, p < 0.05). MPI is useful for the evaluation of myocardial viability both in animals and in patients. It is less time consuming than quantification analysis by regions of interest and less observer dependent than visual analysis. Thus, strategies incorporating this technique may be valuable for the evaluation of myocardial viability in clinical routine.

  12. Regional myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction assessed by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Brunken, R.; Grover-McKay, M.; Krivokapich, J.; Child, J.; Tillisch, J.H.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography has been shown to distinguish between reversible and irreversible ischemic tissue injury. Using this technique, 13 patients with acute myocardial infarction were studied within 72 hours of onset of symptoms to evaluate regional blood flow and glucose metabolism with nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia and fluorine (F)-18 deoxyglucose, respectively. Serial noninvasive assessment of wall motion was performed to determine the prognostic value of metabolic indexes for functional tissue recovery. Segmental blood flow and glucose utilization were evaluated using a circumferential profile technique and compared with previously established semiquantitative criteria. Relative N-13 ammonia uptake was depressed in 32 left ventricular segments. Sixteen segments demonstrated a concordant decrease in flow and glucose metabolism. Regional function did not change over time in these segments. In contrast, 16 other segments with reduced blood flow revealed maintained F-18 deoxyglucose uptake consistent with remaining viable tissue. The average wall motion score improved significantly in these segments (p less than 0.01), yet the degree of recovery varied considerably among patients. Coronary anatomy was defined in 9 of 13 patients: patent infarct vessels supplied 8 of 10 segments with F-18 deoxyglucose uptake, while 10 of 13 segments in the territory of an occluded vessel showed concordant decreases in flow and metabolism (p less than 0.01). Thus, positron emission tomography reveals a high incidence of residual tissue viability in ventricular segments with reduced flow and impaired function during the subacute phase of myocardial infarction. Absence of residual tissue metabolism is associated with irreversible injury, while preservation of metabolic activity identifies segments with a variable outcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Statins in cardiac surgery | Drummond | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcomes of interest were postoperative mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, acute renal injury, cerebrovascular events, and atrial fibrillation. An a priori decision was taken to conduct a subgroup analysis of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and valve replacement surgery. Results: Statins were associated ...

  14. Higher plasma levels of advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    -grade inflammation, and arterial stiffness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 169 individuals with diabetic nephropathy and 170 individuals with persistent normoalbuminuria who were free of CVD at study entry and in whom levels of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low...... or endothelial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, or arterial stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of AGEs are associated with incident fatal and nonfatal CVD as well as all-cause mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes, independently of other risk factors and of several potential AGEs...

  15. The incidence and economic burden of injuries in Jiangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X; Zeng, G; Linnan, H W; Jing, R; Zhu, X; Corso, P; Liu, P; Linnan, M

    2016-09-01

    This study estimated the incidence, direct medical and non-medical costs, and productivity losses due to morbidity and mortality across multiple strata for injuries that occurred in Jiangxi, China. Cross-sectional study. Data came from the Jiangxi injury survey, a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 100,010 households. The major economic costs of injuries were divided into direct costs and indirect costs. Direct costs encompass medical costs and direct non-medical costs. Indirect costs refer to the productivity losses due to injury-related morbidity and mortality. In 2005, about one of 18 residents in Jiangxi, China, experienced an injury. Overall, fall, animal bite, and road traffic crash (RTC) injuries accounted for more than 66% of all injuries, while fall, RTC, drowning, and self-harm injuries accounted for 80% of fatal injuries. Average cost per case for a fatal injury was 163,389 RMB ($20,171) for lost productivity and 2800 RMB ($346) in direct medical & non-medical costs. A non-fatal injury resulting in hospitalisation or permanent disability on average caused 5221 RMB ($643) in direct costs and 18,437 RMB ($2276) in lost productivity and, an additional loss of three school days. A non-hospitalised non-fatal injury on average caused 303 ($37) RMB in direct costs and 491 RMB ($61) in lost productivity and, an additional loss of 0.5 school days. The unequivocal evidence of the substantial health and financial burden of injuries indicates to Chinese policy makers that more research and efforts are needed to find efficacious and cost-effective interventions targeting injury. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rivaroxaban as an Antithrombotic Agent in a Patient With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Seecheran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of left ventricular (LV thrombi in the setting of an anterior myocardial infarction has declined significantly since the advent of primary percutaneous coronary intervention coupled with contemporary antithrombotic strategies in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STE-ACS. Despite oral anticoagulation with the currently accepted, standard-of-care vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, major bleeding complications still arise. Rivaroxaban is a novel, direct oral factor X anticoagulant that has several advantageous properties, which can attenuate bleeding risk. We present a case in which a patient successfully underwent a 3-month course of rivaroxaban in addition to his dual antiplatelet regimen of aspirin and ticagrelor for his STE-ACS and LV thrombus with resultant complete dissolution.

  17. Clinical usefulness of technetium-99m pyrophosphate and Tl-201 myocardial imaging for the estimation of myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akio; Sato, Akihiko; Miyakoda, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Toshiya; Itatsu, Hidetaka; Ueda, Osamu; Sakurai, Kuniteru; Kawai, Naoki; Sotobata, Iwao

    1985-04-01

    A correlative study was performed between the infarct size estimated by either technetium-99 pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) or Tl-201 myocardial imaging, and the cumulative total creatinine phosphokinase activity (..sigma..CPK) or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in 40 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Tc-PYP infarct area (TcIA) and mean Tl-201 uptake ratio (MUR) were calculated as indices of myocardial infarct size. LVEF was evaluated by first pass method using Tc-PYP in the acute phase of myocardial infraction. In 23 patients with anterior myocardial infarction, a significant correlation was shown between either TcIA or anterior-wall MUR and ..sigma..CPK (r=0.81 and r=-0.69, respectively) and also between either TcIA or anterior-wall MUR and LVEF (r=-0.84 and r=0.80, respectively). In 17 patients with inferior myocardial infarction without additional involvement of right ventricular wall, inferior-wall MUR correlated with ..sigma..CPK (r=-0.74). No statically significant correlation was shown between TcIA and ..sigma..CPK, and also between either TcIA or inferior-wall MUR and LVEF. In conclusion, the infarct size estimated with Tc-PYP or Tl-201 myocardial imaging could be a useful clinical indicator of the severity of acute myocardial infarction especially in anterior wall. (author).

  18. Clinical Significance of Reverse Redistribution Phenomenon on Delayed Tc-99m Tetrofosmin Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Ah; Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Jeong, Jin Won; Kim, Nam Ho; Yun, Kyeong Ho

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical significance of reverse redistribution (RR) phenomenon detected on delayed Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction after revascularization. A Tc-99m tetrofrosmin myocardial SPECT was performed in 67 consecutive patients after revascularization for acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial SPECT imaging was performed for early imaging at 40 min and for delayed imaging at 180 min after reinjection at myocardial stress. Regional myocardial uptakes were scored by 4-point scoring in the left ventricular wall divided into 17 segments. Reverse redistribution was defined as an increase of more than 2 point in the activity score on the delayed image. Follow-up myocardial SPECT and coronary angiography (CAG) were performed 9 months later. On myocardial SPECT performed following revascularization, RR was observed in 100 of all 319 segments (31%) and in 43 patients (64%). The abnormalities of perfusion and regional wall motion were more severe in the patients with RR compared to those without RR (p<0.05). On follow-up myocardial SPECT, the myocardial perfusion, regional wall motion, and myocardial thickness were significantly improved in the patients with RR (p<0.05) however, these changes were not significant in those without RR. There was no significant difference between the patients with RR and those without RR in the occurrence of restenosis on CAG. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the regions showing the RR phenomenon on delayed Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT may reflect viable myocardium and indicate recovery of salvaged myocardium

  19. High prevalence of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia: Correlates of overdose and implications for overdose prevention from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazazi, Alexander R; Zelenev, Alexei; Fu, Jeannia J; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-07-01

    Overdose is the leading cause of death among opioid users, but no data are available on overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. We present the first estimates of the prevalence and correlates of recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Klang Valley to assess health outcomes associated with injection drug use. Self-reported history of non-fatal overdose in the previous 6 months was the primary outcome. Sociodemographic, behavioral and structural correlates of non-fatal overdose were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Most injected daily (91.3%) and were male (96.3%) and ethnically Malay (90.4%). Overall, 20% of participants had overdosed in the prior 6 months, and 43.3% had ever overdosed. The RDS-adjusted estimate of the 6-month period prevalence of overdose was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9-16.6%). Having injected for more years was associated with lower odds of overdose (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.6 per 5 years of injection, CI: 0.5-0.7). Rushing an injection from fear of the police nearly doubled the odds of overdose (AOR 1.9, CI: 1.9-3.6). Alcohol use was associated with recent non-fatal overdose (AOR 2.1, CI: 1.1-4.2), as was methamphetamine use (AOR 2.3, CI: 1.3-4.6). When adjusting for past-month drug use, intermittent but not daily methadone use was associated with overdose (AOR 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.9). This study reveals a large, previously undocumented burden of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia and highlights the need for interventions that might reduce the risk of overdose, such as continuous opioid substitution therapy, provision of naloxone to prevent fatal overdose, treatment of polysubstance use, and working with police to improve the risk environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  20. Quantitative assessment of 201TlCl myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa

    1987-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of the quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial tomography by SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) was performed in comparison with visual evaluation. The method of quantitative analysis has been already reported in our previous paper. In this study, the program of re-standardization in the case of lateral myocardial infarction was added. This program was useful mainly for the evaluation of lesions in the left circumflex coronary artery. Regarding the degree of diagnostic accuracy of myocardial infarction in general, quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images was highest followed by visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images, and visual evaluation of myocardial planar images. However, in the case of anterior myocardial infarction, visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images has almost the same detectability as quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images. In the case of infero-posterior myocardial infarction, quantitative evaluation was superior to visual evaluation. As for specificity, quantitative evaluation of SPECT images was slightly inferior to visual evaluation of SPECT images. An infarction map was made by quantitative analysis and this enabled us to determine the infarction site, extent and degree according to easily recognizable patterns. As a result, the responsible coronary artery lesion could be inferred correctly and the calculated infarction score could be correlated with the residual left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. (author)

  1. The association of visceral adiposity with cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Cronin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD suffer from a high incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE. Visceral adiposity has been implicated in promoting CVEs. This study aimed to assess the association of relative visceral adipose volume with incident cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study including 260 patients with PAD who presented between 2003 and 2012. Cases were patients with diagnosed PAD including symptomatic lower limb athero-thrombosis and asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA. Abdominal visceral to total adipose volume ratio (relative visceral adipose volume was estimated from CTAs using a previously validated workstation protocol. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded at entry. The association of visceral adiposity with major CVEs (death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke was examined using Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses. RESULTS: A total of 92 major CVEs were recorded in 76 patients during a median follow-up of 2.8 (IQR 1.2 to 4.8 years, including myocardial infarction (n = 26, stroke (n = 10 and death (n = 56. At 3 years the incidence of major CVEs stratified by relative visceral adipose volume quartiles were 15% [Quartile (Q 1], 17% (Q2, 11% (Q3 and 15% (Q4 (P = 0.517. Relative visceral adipose volume was not associated with major CVEs after adjustment for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that visceral adiposity does not play a central role in the predisposition for major CVEs in patients with PAD.

  2. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cui

    Full Text Available To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province.A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI.A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77% and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P scale and EPQ-RSC(L scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094-0.800, age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032-0.900, work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328-0.774, workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385-0.919, length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287-3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230-3.504 and EPQ-RSC(E score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334-0.867.Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers' behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so that the enterprises could set achievable targets

  3. The ‘MAP strategy’ (Maximum aspiration of atherothrombus and adjunctive glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor utilization combined with prolonged inflation of balloon/stent for preventing no-reflow in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A retrospective analysis of seventy-one cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Potdar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘No-reflow’ phenomenon is a common occurrence in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. A three-component ‘MAP strategy’ was designed to prevent no-reflow by addressing both intralesional and intraluminal thrombus in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. In this analysis, we observed Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI flow grade 3 or 2 in all patients, with no incidence of no-reflow. Myocardial blush grade (MBG 3 or 2 was observed in most (87.32% patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was improved, without any incidence of death up to 9-month follow-up. All patients safely tolerated the strategy-driven prolonged, 35-s inflation of the balloon/stent.

  4. Effect of nicorandil on the myocardial tissue perfusion and myocardial cell injury in patients with diabetes after PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Li Ren1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of nicorandil on the myocardial tissue perfusion and myocardial cell damage in patients with diabetes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Methods: 68 patients with coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus who received PCI in our hospital between May 2011 and September 2015 were collected and then divided into observation group and control group (n=34 according to the single-blind randomized control method. Control group of patients received PCI alone, and the observation group of patients received nicorandil therapy after PCI. After treatment, real-time myocardial ultrasound contrast was used to evaluate the myocardial perfusion of two groups of patients; blood biochemical analyzer was used to detect the contents of peripheral blood myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes; the ELISA method was used to detect the contents of serum oxidative stress indicators; RIA method was used to detect the contents of serum apoptosis molecules. Results: After treatment, the myocardial tissue perfusion parameters plateau peak intensity (A, slope rate of curve (β and myocardial blood flow (A×β levels of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; peripheral blood myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, troponin I (cTnI and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT contents of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum vitamin E (VitE and vitamin C (VitC contents of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group while malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs, soluble apoptosis-associated factor (sFas and soluble apoptosis-associated factor ligand (sFasL contents were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjuvant nicorandil therapy can improve the myocardial perfusion and reduce the myocardial cell injury in patients with coronary

  5. The business cycle and the incidence of workplace injuries: evidence from the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The current study explored the association between the business cycle and the incidence of workplace injuries to identify cyclically sensitive industries and the relative contribution of physical capital and labor utilization within industries. Bureau of Labor Statistics nonfatal injury rates from 1976 through 2007 were examined across five industry sectors with respect to several macroeconomic indicators. Within industries, injury associations with utilization of labor and physical capital over time were tested using time series regression methods. Pro-cyclical associations between business cycle indicators and injury incidence were observed in mining, construction, and manufacturing but not in agriculture or trade. Physical capital utilization was the highest potential contributor to injuries in mining while labor utilization was the highest potential contributor in construction. In manufacturing each effect had a similar association with injuries. The incidence of workplace injury is associated with the business cycle. However, the degree of association and the mechanisms through with the business cycle affects the incidence of workplace injuries was not the same across industries. The results suggest that firms in the construction, manufacturing, and mining industries should take additional precautionary safety measures during cyclical upturns. Potential differences among industries in the mechanisms through which the business cycle affects injury incidence suggest different protective strategies for those industries. For example, in construction, additional efforts might be undertaken to ensure workers are adequately trained and not excessively fatigued, while safety procedures continue to be followed even during boom times. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Epidemiology and trends in non-fatal self-harm in three centres in England: 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Helen; Hawton, Keith; Waters, Keith; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Navneet

    2010-12-01

    Self-harm is a common reason for presentation to a general hospital, with a strong association with suicide. Trends in self-harm are an important indicator of community psychopathology, with resource implications for health services and relevance to suicide prevention policy. Previous reports in the UK have come largely from single centres. To investigate trends in non-fatal self-harm in six general hospitals in three centres from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England, and to relate these to trends in suicide. Data on self-harm presentations to general hospital emergency departments in Oxford (one), Manchester (three) and Derby (two) were analysed over the 8-year period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2007. Rates of self-harm declined significantly over 8 years for males in three centres (Oxford: -14%; Manchester: -25%; Derby: -18%) and females in two centres (Oxford: -2% (not significant); Manchester: -13%; Derby: -17%), in keeping with national trends in suicide. A decreasing proportion and number of episodes involved self-poisoning alone, and an increasing proportion and number involved other self-injury (e.g. hanging, jumping, traffic related). Episodes involving self-cutting alone showed a slight decrease in numbers over time. Trends in alcohol use at the time of self-harm and repetition within 1 year were stable. There were decreasing rates of non-fatal self-harm over the study period that paralleled trends in suicide in England. This was reflected mainly in a decline in emergency department presentations for self-poisoning.

  7. Road traffic noise, air pollution and myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Theo; Björk, Jonas; Mattisson, Kristoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Rittner, Ralf; Gustavsson, Per; Jakobsson, Kristina; Östergren, Per-Olof; Albin, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Both road traffic noise and air pollution have been linked to cardiovascular disease. However, there are few prospective epidemiological studies available where both road traffic noise and air pollution have been analyzed simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between road traffic noise, air pollution and incident myocardial infarction in both current (1-year average) and medium-term (3-year average) perspective. This study was based on a stratified random sample of persons aged 18-80 years who answered a public health survey in Skåne, Sweden, in 2000 (n = 13,512). The same individuals received a repeated survey in 2005 and 2010. Diagnoses of myocardial infarction (MI) were obtained from medical records for both inpatient and outpatient specialized care. The endpoint was first MI during 2000-2010. Participants with prior myocardial infarction were excluded at baseline. Yearly average levels of noise (L DEN) and air pollution (NO x ) were estimated using geographic information system for residential address every year until censoring. The mean exposure levels for road traffic noise and air pollution in 2005 were L DEN 51 dB(A) and NO x 11 µg/m(3), respectively. After adjustment for individual confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, alcohol consumption, civil status, year, country of birth and physical activity), a 10-dB(A) increase in current noise exposure did not increase the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MI, 0.99 (95 % CI 0.86-1.14). Neither did a 10-μg/m(3) increase in current NO x increase the risk of MI, 1.02 (95 % CI 0.86-1.21). The IRR for MI associated with combined exposure to road traffic noise >55 dB(A) and NO x >20 µg/m(3) was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.90-1.64) compared to noise or air pollution at moderate average exposure levels.

  8. Evaluation of myocardial damage in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Takuhisa; Shibuya, Noritoshi; Hashiba, Kunitake; Oku, Yasuhiko; Mori, Hideki; Yano, Katsusuke.

    1993-01-01

    Myocardial damage and cardiopulmonary functions in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) were assessed using thallium-201 myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and technetium-99m multigated radionuclide angiography. Twenty-five patients with DMD were divided into 4 groups according to percent of perfusion defect (%PD) calculated by the bull's-eye method and age. PD was detected in 24 (96.0%) of 25 patients with DMD, and it spread from the left ventricular lateral wall to the anterior wall and/or interventricular septum. PD was detected even in a 6-year-old DMD boy. Patients in Group I (%PD≥10% and age<15 years old) were shown to have a higher risk of left-sided heart failure without respiratory failure. Patients in Group II (%PD≥10 and age≥15) showed decreased pulmonary function and worsened arterial blood gas values as compared with Group IV (%PD<10 and age≥15). There was no significant difference in cardiac function among the 4 groups. It is postulated that myocardial damage in Group II patients is dependent primarily on a deficiency of dystrophin and on chronic respiratory failure, and that some of them are at risk of cardiopulmonary failure. It is concluded that myocardial SPECT is useful for the early diagnosis of myocardial damage and evaluation of cardiopulmonary function in DMD patients. (author)

  9. Glitazoners plads i diabetesbehandlingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Ole E; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    in the frequency of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction was demonstrated in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, there were side effects in terms of cardial insufficiency and edema. Though this study provides some clear cut answers, it also raises a lot of questions....

  10. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  11. Cardiovascular safety of linagliptin in type 2 diabetes: a comprehensive patient-level pooled analysis of prospectively adjudicated cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Marx, Nikolaus; Neubacher, Dietmar; Seck, Thomas; Patel, Sanjay; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2015-05-21

    The cardiovascular (CV) safety of linagliptin was evaluated in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Pre-specified patient-level pooled analysis of all available double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, ≥ 12 weeks' duration (19 trials, 9459 subjects) of linagliptin versus placebo/active treatment. Primary end point: composite of prospectively adjudicated CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalization for unstable angina (4P-MACE). Hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) was also evaluated; adjudication of CHF was introduced during the phase 3 program (8 trials; 3314 subjects). 4P-MACE was assessed in placebo-controlled trials (subgroup of 18 trials; 7746 subjects). Investigator-reported events suggestive of CHF from 24 placebo-controlled trials (including trials 4P-MACE incidence rates: 13.4 per 1000 patient-years, linagliptin (60 events), 18.9, total comparators (62 events); overall hazard ratio (HR), 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.12). HR for adjudicated hospitalization for CHF (n = 21): 1.04 (0.43-2.47). For placebo-controlled trials, 4P-MACE incidence rates: 14.9 per 1000 patient-years, linagliptin (43 events), 16.4, total comparators (29 events); overall HR, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.68-1.75). Occurrence of investigator-reported events suggestive of CHF was low for linagliptin- (26 events, 0.5%; serious: 16 events, 0.3%) and placebo-treated (8 events, 0.2%; serious: 6 events, 0.2%) patients. Linagliptin is not associated with increased CV risk versus pooled active comparators or placebo in patients with T2DM.

  12. Effect of Supplemental Vitamin E for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekelle, Paul G; Morton, Sally C; Jungvig, Lara K; Udani, Jay; Spar, Myles; Tu, Wenli; Suttorp, Marika J; Coulter, Ian; Newberry, Sydne J; Hardy, Mary

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate and synthesize the evidence on the effect of supplements of vitamin E on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN Systematic review of placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis where justified. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Eighty-four eligible trials were identified. For the outcomes of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and blood lipids, neither supplements of vitamin E alone nor vitamin E given with other agents yielded a statistically significant beneficial or adverse pooled relative risk (for example, pooled relative risk of vitamin E alone = 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84 to 1.10]; 0.97 [95% CI, 0.80 to 1.90]; and 0.72 [95% CI, 0.51 to 1.02] for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and nonfatal myocardial infarction, respectively. CONCLUSIONS There is good evidence that vitamin E supplementation does not beneficially or adversely affect cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:15061748

  13. Myocardial imaging in acute myocardial infarction using β-methyl-p-(123I)-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Itano, Midoriko; Kondo, Tomohiro

    1992-01-01

    Myocardial imaging using β-methyl-p-( 123 I)-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) was performed in 11 patients with acute myocardial infarction. The left ventricular images were divided into 12 segments, and myocardial images with BMIPP were compared with coronary angiography (CAG), thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy (Tl) and wall motion obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography (WM). When the culprit lesion was at the proximal point of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), all segments showed depressed uptake. In 3 cases with single vessel disease of the LAD, inferior wall of the basis showed reduced uptake of BMIPP despite the location of the culprit lesion. In cases with discordant uptake between the two tracers, BMIPP frequently showed more severely depressed uptake than Tl in the subacute phase, although the uptake of BMIPP correlated with that of Tl (τ=0.82, p<0.001). In such cases, the discordance was related to the improvement in WM from the acute phase to the convalescent phase. BMIPP uptake correlated with WM in the subacute phase (τ=0.50, p<0.001). BMIPP showed more severely depressed uptake while WM showed mild asynergy in most cases in which discordance was found between the BMIPP and WM findings. However, there was no correlation between the change in WM from the acute to subacute phases, or the uptakes of BMIPP and Tl alone. We concluded that the myocardial condition can be evaluated in detail in acute myocardial infarction by comparing the findings of BMIPP with those of Tl and WM. (author)

  14. A non-fatal case of invasive zygomycete (Lichtheimia corymbifera) infection in an allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant recipient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eickhardt, Steffen; Braendstrup, Peter; Clasen-Linde, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Post-transplant infections in allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients often have severe consequences. This is especially the case when dealing with zygomycete infections where the result is often fatal. A major problem when dealing with zygomycete infections is the need...... for an accurate and fast diagnosis as the phylum is highly resistant towards the conventional antifungals. We herein describe a non-fatal case of Lichtheimia corymbifera infection in an allo-HCT recipient....

  15. Ventricular septal rupture, right ventricular free wall rupture, hemopericardium, cardiac tamponade, cardiogenic shock, and death in a patient with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction during transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A El Kady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of mechanical complications related to myocardial infarction has decreased due to various factors over the last few decades. Patients admitted for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI may respond well to thrombolytic therapy before being taken up for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention depending on the facilities available at the specific center. Unfortunately, some patients develop complications of myocardial infarction during hospital stay or postdischarge. We present a patient admitted with acute STEMI responding well to thrombolytic therapy. During transthoracic echocardiography of the patient in Intensive Care Unit, the patient developed ventricular septal rupture, right ventricular free wall rupture, hemopericardium, cardiac tamponade, and cardiogenic shock and expired.

  16. Association between albuminuria, atherosclerotic plaques, elevated pulse wave velocity, age, risk category and prognosis in apparently healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Blyme, Adam

    2014-01-01

    atherosclerotic plaques or albuminuria defined as urine albumin/creatinine ratio at least 90th percentile of 0.73/1.06 mg/mmol men/women. In 2006, the composite endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke and hospitalization for ischemic heart disease was recorded (n.......4, 20.6% or 7.9, 8.2, 16.6, 19.5% or 6.6, 7.6, 9.8, 20.0%) increased, all P high SCORE or intermediate or high FRS (all P ..., with moderate SCORE or with high-intermediate or high FRS (all P high FRS (P 

  17. Detecting Myocardial Ischemia With 99mTechnetium-Tetrofosmin Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Markoula, Sofia; Sioka, Chrissa; Zouroudi, Sofia; Spiliotopoulou, Maria; Naka, Katerina K; Michalis, Lampros K; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Kyritsis, Athanassios P

    2017-10-01

    To assess the myocardial status in patients with stroke, employing myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with 99m Technetium-tetrofosmin ( 99m Tc-TF)-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Fifty-two patients with ischemic stroke were subjected to 99m Tc-TF-SPECT MPI within 1 month after stroke occurrence. None of the patients had any history or symptoms of coronary artery disease or other heart disease. Myocardial perfusion imaging was evaluated visually using a 17-segment polar map. Myocardial ischemia (MIS) was defined as present when the summed stress score (SSS) was >4; MIS was defined as mild when SSS was 4 to 8, and moderate/severe with SSS ≥9. Patients with SSS >4 were compared to patients with SSS SSS >9 were compared to patients with SSS SSS, with the oldest age exhibiting the highest SSS ( P = .01). The association of age with SSS remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis ( P = .04). The study suggested that more than half of patients with stroke without a history of cardiac disease have MIS. Although most of them have mild MIS, we suggest a thorough cardiological evaluation in this group of patients for future prevention of severe myocardial outcome.

  18. Ventricular and myocardial scintiscanning: Methodical fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standke, R.; Hoer, G.; Maul, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is concerned with non invasive procedures to quantitate global and regional left ventricular function (Radionuclide ventriculography), also the imaging of vitally perfused myocardium (Myocardial scintigraphy) is achieved. A gammacamera and a minicomputer are necessary. Radionuclide ventriculography enables the analysis of global and regional time dependent left ventricular volume curves and hence the evaluation of contraction and contractility of the heart muscle. The basis is a sequence of scans covering an average heartcycle. This sequence may be produced either by first pass or equilibrium technique. Myocardial scintigraphy at rest images vital myocardium, scans immediately after exercise represent the interference of myocardial perfusion and muscle mass. The regional difference (Redistribution) between normalized exercise- and rest scans provide quantitative parameters to detect impairment of exercise-induced myocardial perfusion anomalies. The procedures of sectorial analysis of left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Impact of metabolic disorders on the relation between overweight/obesity and incident myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S S; Andersson, C; Berger, S M

    2015-01-01

    and smoking, the risk of the composite outcome of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke was assessed with metabolic disorders (i.e. hypertensive conditions, abnormal glucose metabolism and/or dyslipidaemia) included as time-dependent variables. RESULTS: The population comprised 261,489 women with median...

  20. Effect of collateral circulation on myocardial protection in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin myocardial single photon emission computed tomography and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Michi; Kondo, Makoto; Abe, Yoshiteru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Matsuoka, Ryota; Araki, Makoto; Tanio, Hitoshi; Doyama, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of myocardial blood flow from collateral vessels into the infarct area has been estimated by coronary angiography. In patients with acute myocardial infarction with Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 0 flow, myocardial tracer uptake on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images can predict the collateral blood flow in the infarct area if technetium (Tc)-99m-tetrofosmin was administered before recanalization. The present study investigated whether collateral blood flow evaluated by myocardial scintigraphy is a good predictor of myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The study group consisted of 30 patients (mean age 65±14 years, 23 males, 7 females) with first acute myocardial infarction and coronary angiography evidence of total occlusion (TIMI 0) within 12 hr after the onset. All patients had one vessel disease related to infarction and TIMI 3 flow after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Tc-99m-tetrofosmin was injected intravenously before the PCI. The regional severity score index (RSSI) was obtained from SPECT using the 17 segment method with the four-point scoring system. Myocardial viability was evaluated by the RSSI obtained from thallium-glucose-insulin infusion SPECT after 1 week and regional wall motion score index obtained from echocardiography during the chronic phase. The patients were divided into two groups according to the angiographic collateral finding. There were no differences in RSSI on thallium-glucose-insulin SPECT and regional wall motion score between the good collateral group (n=8) and poor collateral group (n=22). Myocardial Tc-99m-tetrofosmin RSSI was similar in these groups. On the other hand, the patients were divided according to Tc-99m-tetrofosmin scintigraphic evaluation before PCI. RSSI on thallium-glucose-insulin SPECT was significantly greater (0.7±0.5 vs 1.5±0.4, p<0.01) and regional wall motion score was significantly less (1.46±0.50 vs 2.08±0.78, p<0

  1. Incidence, predicting factors, and clinical outcomes of periprocedural myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion in the era of new-generation drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Kim, Seunghwan; Ahn, Chul-Min; Kim, Jung-Sun; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo

    2017-12-20

    This study aimed to examine predictors and clinical outcomes of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) after chronic total occlusion (CTO) intervention. There are limited data on the clinical implications of PMI after CTO intervention in the new-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) era. We enrolled 337 patients who underwent CTO intervention and met the study criteria. We evaluated the incidence and predictors of PMI, defined as an increase in creatine kinase-MB ≥3× the upper limit of normal (ULN) after intervention and compared the occurrence rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE, defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, target-vessel revascularization, or cerebrovascular accidents) between the PMI and non-PMI groups. PMI occurred in 23 (6.8%) patients after CTO intervention. Significant independent predictors were previous bypass surgery [odds ratio (OR) = 5.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-25.92; P = 0.03], Japan-CTO score ≥3 (OR = 7.06, 95%CI = 2.57-19.39; P PMI group had a significantly higher MACCE rate than the non-PMI group (23.7 vs. 5.6%, P = 0.008 by log-rank test). PMI was an independent predictor of MACCE (HR = 4.26, 95%CI = 1.35-13.43; P = 0.01). The MACCE rate gradually increased in a CK-MB-dependent fashion and was highest in patients with ≥10× ULN (P = 0.005). Previous bypass surgery, high Japan-CTO score, side branch occlusion, and longer procedure time were strongly related to PMI occurrence after CTO intervention. PMI was significantly associated with worse clinical outcomes in the new-generation DES era. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation and Relationship With Cardiovascular Events, Heart Failure, and Mortality A Community-Based Study From the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermond, Rob A.; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Verweij, Niek; Tieleman, Robert G.; Van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Rienstra, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Important improvements have been made in treatment of diseases associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Incidence rates and risk factors may have changed with the aging of the population and changing lifestyles. Currently,

  3. The Influence of findings of coronary artery on myocardial salvage in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, Midoriko; Naruse, Hitoshi; Morita, Masato; Kawamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    201 Tl stress myocardial scintigraphy was performed in convalescent patients with acute myocardial infarction, to evaluate the influence of stenosis and collateral circulation of coronary artery in acute phase, on myocardial salvage in chronic phase. In 14 cases of unsuccessful coronary revascularization (complete occlusion), a complete defect of thallium imaging in chronic phase was seen in only one case of four cases with good collateral circulation, while eight of 10 cases with poor collateral circulation. In 16 cases with collateral circulation, six cases showed a complete defect, although the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. However, in cases of good collateral circulation, no case showed a complete defect when the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. The myocardial salvage is quite possible (p<0.05), when the coronary angiography in acute phase showed the forward flow (99% or 90% of stenosis) before coronary revascularization and/or good collateral circulation (Rentrop 2deg or 3deg). (author)

  4. Characteristics of 201Tl myocardial SPECT and left ventriculography in patients with acute diagonal branch myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Katou, Kazuzo; Ogasawara, Ken; Kirigaya, Hajime

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of 201 Tl myocardial SPECT and ventriculography were studied in 13 patients with acute diagonal branch myocardial infarction. Rest 201 Tl myocardial SPECT and left ventriculography were underwent in chronic phase. In 5 patients electrocardiogram (ECG) changes in acute phase were not definite. In 6 patients it was difficult to identify the obstructed coronary artery with coronary angiography in acute phase. Mean value of maximum creatine phosphokinese (CPK) was 854 (458-1,774) U/l. It seemed to be difficult to diagnose acute diagonal branch myocardial infarction with ECG and/or coronary angiography. In all patients defects were noted on 201 Tl SPECT. Defects were small and noted in the central anterior wall and not in the septum. In 2 patients defects were noted at apex. In left ventriculography dyskinetic motion was noted in 10 patients; one patient showed apical aneurysm and 3 patients showed anterior wall aneurysm. In 3 patients anterior wall showed akinesis. It was concluded that 201 Tl myocardial SPECT were useful for detecting diagonal branch lesion. In case of diagonal branch myocardial infarction size of defects were small and defects were not noted in the septum, however aneurysmal motion was frequently noted. (author)

  5. Estimating the Population Impact of Lp(a) Lowering on the Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshar, Mehdi; Kamstrup, Pia R; Williams, Ken

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is the most common genetic dyslipidemia and is a causal factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and aortic stenosis (AS). We sought to estimate the population impact of Lp(a) lowering that could be achieved in primary prevention using the therapies in developm......OBJECTIVE: High lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is the most common genetic dyslipidemia and is a causal factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and aortic stenosis (AS). We sought to estimate the population impact of Lp(a) lowering that could be achieved in primary prevention using the therapies...... as measures of the population impact. For MI, the event rate was 4.0% versus 2.8% for high versus low Lp(a) (relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-1.46). The attributable risk was 1.26% (95% CI, 1.24-1.27), corresponding to 31.3% (95% CI, 31.0-31.7) of the excess MI risk in those with high...... and 7.8% for AS. CONCLUSIONS: Lp(a) lowering among the top 20% of the population distribution for Lp(a) could prevent 1 in 14 cases of MI and 1 in 7 cases of AS, suggesting a major impact on reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease. Targeting the top 10% could prevent 1 in 20 MI cases and 1 in 12...

  6. Myocardial scintigraphy with /sup 201/Tl and quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Y; Kanbara, H; Yonekura, Y; Kadota, K; Fujita, T [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-12-01

    A newly introduced radionuclide for myocardial imaging, /sup 201/Tl, was studied. Twenty-two subjects consisting of 7 normals, 12 with ischemic heart disease and 3 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were selected. On intravenous administration of /sup 201/Tl(1.5 to 20. mCi), initial transit of the tracer through the heart, as well as subsequent uptake by the myocardium, were recorded by a scintillation camera. The later process showed the distribution of the myocardial blood flow (MBF). A normal myocardial scintigraphy revealed the left-sided myocardial mass predominantly, whereas the right side or the septum predominated in the case of tetralogy of fallot (T/F) or idiopathic hypertrophic subuaortic stenosis (IHSS). An ischemic or infarcted area of the myocardium in ischemic heart disease (IHD) was compatible with electrocardiographic findings, and revealed defects even in an equivocal case on ECG. Since the ratio of radioactivity taken up by the myocardium (U) to the total injected dosis (I) is assumed to be proportional to the fractional MBF of cardiac output (CO), MBF/CO is calculated by ratio of the radioactivity selected from myocardial region on the later recording to that from the entire region on the initial transit of the tracer bolus. The average MBF/CO of normals was 4.4 +- 0.5%, IHD 4.0 +- 0.8% and HCM 5.5 +- 1.2%. On exercise loading, a significant increase of this value was observed in normals, whereas no change was observed in IHD.

  7. The natural history of prevalent ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, F C; Whincup, P H; Wannamethee, S G; Shaper, A G; Walker, M; Ebrahim, S

    2000-07-01

    To describe the long-term outcome of different forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged men. 7735 men aged 40-59, randomly selected from 24 general practices in Britain were classified into one of seven ischaemic heart disease groups according to a questionnaire and electrocardiogram (ECG): I=diagnosed myocardial infarction; II=unrecognized myocardial infarction; III= diagnosed angina; IV=angina symptoms; V=possible myocardial infarction symptoms; VI=ECG ischaemia or possible myocardial infarction; VII=no evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The association of disease group with a range of fatal and non-fatal outcomes during 15 years of follow-up was assessed. At baseline 25% of men had evidence of ischaemic heart disease (groups I-VI). Risks of major ischaemic heart disease events, total and cardiovascular mortality, stroke, and major cardiovascular events tended to increase strongly from group VII to I. Diagnosed myocardial infarction was associated with a much poorer prognosis than all other groups (including unrecognized infarction) for all cardiovascular outcomes other than stroke. The relative risk associated with ischaemic heart disease at baseline declined dramatically over time. However, men with myocardial infarction who survived event-free for 10 years continued to experience a high excess risk in the subsequent 5 years, in contrast to event-free survivors of angina and other ischaemic heart disease. Adjusted to an average age of 50, the percentage of men surviving for 15 years free of a new major cardiovascular event was 44 for diagnosed myocardial infarction, 52 for unrecognized myocardial infarction, 66 for diagnosed angina, 68 for angina symptoms, 73 for possible myocardial infarction symptoms, 73 for ECG ischaemia, and 79 for no ischaemic heart disease. Comparison of outcome between prevalent and incident myocardial infarction illustrated the improved prognosis of men surviving the initial years after their event

  8. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujinović, Almira; Kulenović, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Gojak, Refet

    2013-11-01

    Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the "tunnel" segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33%) above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64 ± 9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23 ± 1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel.

  9. Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Heart Disease in Overweight and Obesity With and Without Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Overweight and obesity likely cause myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether coexisting metabolic syndrome is a necessary condition is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that overweight and obesity with and without metabolic syndrome...... syndrome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios for incident MI and IHD according to combinations of BMI category and absence or presence of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: During a median of 3.6 years' follow-up, we recorded 634 incident MI and 1781 incident IHD events. For MI, multivariable adjusted...... hazard ratios vs normal weight individuals without metabolic syndrome were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.00-1.61) in overweight and 1.88 (95% CI, 1.34-2.63) in obese individuals without metabolic syndrome and 1.39 (95% CI, 0.96-2.02) in normal weight, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.35-2.15) in overweight, and 2.33 (95% CI, 1...

  10. Trends in Modifiable Risk Factors Are Associated With Declining Incidence of Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Acute Coronary Heart Disease in a Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannsverk, Jan; Wilsgaard, Tom; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Rasmussen, Knut; Thelle, Dag S; Njølstad, Inger; Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Bønaa, Kaare Harald

    2016-01-05

    Few studies have used individual person data to study whether contemporary trends in the incidence of coronary heart disease are associated with changes in modifiable coronary risk factors. We identified 29 582 healthy men and women ≥25 years of age who participated in 3 population surveys conducted between 1994 and 2008 in Tromsø, Norway. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for coronary heart disease overall, out-of-hospital sudden death, and hospitalized ST-segment-elevation and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We measured coronary risk factors at each survey and estimated the relationship between changes in risk factors and changes in incidence trends. A total of 1845 participants had an incident acute coronary heart disease event during 375 064 person-years of follow-up from 1994 to 2010. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of total coronary heart disease decreased by 3% (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.0; Pcoronary risk factors accounted for 66% (95% confidence interval, 48-97; Pcoronary heart disease. Favorable changes in cholesterol contributed 32% to the decline, whereas blood pressure, smoking, and physical activity each contributed 14%, 13%, and 9%, respectively. We observed a substantial decline in the incidence of coronary heart disease that was driven by reductions in out-of-hospital sudden death and hospitalized ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Changes in modifiable coronary risk factors accounted for 66% of the decline in coronary heart disease events. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Regional Longitudinal Myocardial Deformation Provides Incremental Prognostic Information in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Biering-Sørensen

    Full Text Available Global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS has recently been demonstrated to be a superior prognosticator to conventional echocardiographic measures in patients after myocardial infarction (MI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of regional longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to GLS, conventional echocardiography and clinical information.In total 391 patients were admitted with ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and subsequently examined by echocardiography. All patients were examined by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI and two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSE.During a median-follow-up of 5.3 (IQR 2.5-6.1 years the primary endpoint (death, heart failure or a new MI was reached by 145 (38.9% patients. After adjustment for significant confounders (including conventional echocardiographic parameters and culprit lesion, reduced longitudinal performance in the anterior septal and inferior myocardial regions (but not GLS remained independent predictors of the combined outcome. Furthermore, inferior myocardial longitudinal deformation provided incremental prognostic information to clinical and conventional echocardiographic information (Harrell's c-statistics: 0.63 vs. 0.67, p = 0.032. In addition, impaired longitudinal deformation outside the culprit lesion perfusion region was significantly associated with an adverse outcome (p<0.05 for all deformation parameters.Regional longitudinal myocardial deformation measures, regardless if determined by TDI or 2DSE, are superior prognosticators to GLS. In addition, impaired longitudinal deformation in the inferior myocardial segment provides prognostic information over and above clinical and conventional echocardiographic risk factors. Furthermore, impaired longitudinal deformation outside the culprit lesion perfusion region seems to be a paramount marker of adverse outcome.

  12. ST segment elevation after myocardial infarction: Viability or ventricular dysfunction? Comparison with myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalela, William Azem; Soares, J. Jr.; Meneghetti, J.C.; Olivera, C.G.; Moffa, P.J.; Falcao, A.M.; Ramires, J.A.F.

    2004-01-01

    The detection of viable myocardium after myocardial infarction is an important indication for revascularization. We compared exercise-induced ST segment elevation with reversibility at Thallium-201 SPECT scintigraphy and regional wall motion assessment by ventriculography. Thirty two patients with previous myocardial infarction and with left ventricular ejection fraction of < 50% were studied. Patients underwent coronary angiography and Thallium-201 SPECT scintigraphy with re-injection protocol before and after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Group I comprised 11 patients with ST segment elevation during treadmill stress testing. Group II comprised 21 patients without ST segment elevation. Minimal or moderate hypokinesis was present in 2 patients of Group I and in 4 patients of Group II. Nine patients of Group I and 17 patients of Group II had severe hypokinetic, akinetic or dyskinetic myocardium. Scintigraphy revealed reversibility in the myocardial infarction area in 4 patients from Group I (36.4%) and 11 (52.4%) patients from Group II. Improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass grafting was observed in 4 patients from Group I and 8 patients from Group II. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of ST segment elevation were 33.3, 70.6, 55.2, 44.5 and 60% respectively. It was concluded that exercise-induced ST segment elevation after myocardial infarction is present more frequently in cases of severe regional myocardial dysfunction. (author)

  13. Acute and subacute stent thrombosis after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction : incidence, predictors and clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesstermans, A. A. C. M.; van Werkum, J. W.; Zwart, B.; van der Heyden, J. A.; Kelder, J. C.; Breet, N. J.; van't Hof, A. W. J.; Koolen, J. J.; Brueren, B. R. G.; Zijlstra, F.; ten Berg, J. M.; Dambrink, Jan Hendrik Everwijn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Early coronary stent thrombosis occurs most frequent after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objectives: To identify the specific predictors of, respectively, acute and subacute stent thrombosis in patients after

  14. The expression of myocardial injury in cold induced myocardial imaging and echocardiography of systematic scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jiugen; Zhu Xiaojun; Jiang Ningyi; Chen Shaoxiong

    1999-01-01

    The study was performed with cold-induced 99m Tc(MIBI) myocardial imaging (MI) in 23 patients with systematic scleroderma. The left ventricular function and wall motion were also observed by dimensional echocardiography (UCG). 14 patients had myocardial perfusion abnormalities visualized by MI, including 5 cases with fixed defects of 9 segments, 3 cases with reversible defects of 6 segments and 6 cases with both fixed and reversible one of 14 segments. The positive rate in myocardial imaging had no significant differences between patients with and without Raynaud's phenomenon (0.5>P>0.25). Compared with baseline, the ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output were significantly decreased during cold-induced in patients with abnormal myocardial scintigraphy (P<0.05), and had significant difference compared with normal group (P<0.05). 4 cases with cold-induced reversible perfusion defects had anatomically correlated regional ventricular hypokinesia in UCG

  15. Prognostic impact of physical activity prior to myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlersen, Hanne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina

    2017-01-01

    the course of myocardial infarction by reducing case fatality and the subsequent risk of heart failure and mortality. Methods: A total of 14,223 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were assessed at baseline in 1976-1978; 1,664 later developed myocardial infarction (mean age at myocardial...... estimated by logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for age at myocardial infarction and other potential confounders. Results: A total of 425 (25.5%) myocardial infarctions were fatal. Higher levels of LTPA prior to myocardial infarction were associated with lower case fatality...

  16. Daylight savings time and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amneet; Seth, Milan; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown a transient increase in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after daylight savings time (DST) in the spring as well as a decrease in AMI after returning to standard time in the fall. These findings have not been verified in a broader population and if extant, may have significant public health and policy implications. We assessed changes in admissions for AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2) database for the weeks following the four spring and three fall DST changes between March 2010 and September 2013. A negative binomial regression model was used to adjust for trend and seasonal variation. There was no difference in the total weekly number of PCIs performed for AMI for either the fall or spring time changes in the time period analysed. After adjustment for trend and seasonal effects, the Monday following spring time changes was associated with a 24% increase in daily AMI counts (p=0.011), and the Tuesday following fall changes was conversely associated with a 21% reduction (p=0.044). No other weekdays in the weeks following DST changes demonstrated significant associations. In the week following the seasonal time change, DST impacts the timing of presentations for AMI but does not influence the overall incidence of this disease.

  17. Imaging techniques for myocardial inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.B.; Henkin, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders which results in morbidity and mortality in young individuals. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of these patients have histologic evidence of myocarditis which is potentially treatable with immunosuppression. The identification of myocardial inflammation may therefore lead to development of therapeutic regimens designed to treat the cause rather than the effect of the myocardial disease. Ultimately, this may result in improvement in the abysmal prognosis of DC. The currently accepted technique for identification of active myocardial inflammation is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is not perfect, however, since pathologic standards for the diagnosis of myocarditis have not been established. Furthermore, focal inflammation may give rise to sampling error. The inflammation-avid radioisotope gallium-67 citrate has been used as an adjunct to biopsy improving the yield of myocarditis from 7 percent to 36 percent. Serial imaging correlates well to biopsy results. Future studies are designed to study the applicability of lymphocyte labelling techniques to myocardial inflammatory disease

  18. Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: incident cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years. DESIGN: Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data. SETTING: 40 primary care practices in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease, 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted hazard ratios for acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, death from ischaemic heart disease, and all cause mortality, adjusted for demographics, lifestyle risk factors, and comorbidity at cohort entry. RESULTS: Mean age was 62.3 (SD 11.3). Male sex was associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 2.97), death from ischaemic heart disease (2.80, 1.73 to 4.53), and all cause mortality (1.82, 1.33 to 2.49). Increasing age was associated with acute myocardial infarction (1.04, 1.02 to 1.06, per year of age increase), death from ischaemic heart disease (1.09, 1.06 to 1.11, per year of age increase), and all cause mortality (1.09, 1.07 to 1.11, per year of age increase). Smoking was associated with subsequent acute myocardial infarction (1.94, 1.31 to 2.89), death from ischaemic heart disease (2.12, 1.32 to 3.39), and all cause mortality (2.11, 1.52 to 2.95). Obesity was associated with death from ischaemic heart disease (2.01, 1.17 to 3.45) and all cause mortality (2.20, 1.52 to 3.19). Previous stroke was associated with all cause mortality (1.78, 1.13 to 2.80) and chronic kidney disease with death from ischaemic heart disease (5.72, 1.74 to 18.79). Men were more likely than women to have coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty after a diagnosis of angina; older people were less likely to

  19. The association of atopy with incidence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2015-01-01

    analyzed by Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis and adjusted for study cohort, gender, education, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking habits, physical activity during leisure time, serum lipids, and blood pressure. The prevalence of atopy was 26.9 % (n = 3,994). There were 1......Allergy is a systemic inflammatory disease that could theoretically affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes through inflammatory pathways or mast cell-induced coronary spasm. Whether allergy is associated with an increased risk of CVD and diabetes is largely unknown. We......-specific IgE positivity to inhalant allergens. The Danish National Diabetes Register enabled identification of incident diabetes. Likewise, the Danish Registry of Causes of Death and the Danish National Patient Register provided information on fatal and non-fatal ischemic heart disease and stroke. Data were...

  20. Effects of human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic complications on myocardial nutrient metabolism, blood flow, and oxygen consumption: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cade W Todd

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the general population, peripheral metabolic complications (MC increase the risk for left ventricular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART are associated with MC, left ventricular dysfunction, and a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than the general population. We examined whether myocardial nutrient metabolism and left ventricular dysfunction are related to one another and worse in HIV infected men treated with cART vs. HIV-negative men with or without MC. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study of myocardial glucose and fatty acid metabolism and left ventricular function in HIV+ and HIV-negative men with and without MC. Myocardial glucose utilization (GLUT, and fatty acid oxidation and utilization rates were quantified using 11C-glucose and 11C-palmitate and myocardial positron emission tomography (PET imaging in four groups of men: 23 HIV+ men with MC+ (HIV+/MC+, 42 ± 6 yrs, 15 HIV+ men without MC (HIV+/MC-, 41 ± 6 yrs, 9 HIV-negative men with MC (HIV-/MC+, 33 ± 5 yrs, and 22 HIV-negative men without MC (HIV-/MC-, 25 ± 6 yrs. Left ventricular function parameters were quantified using echocardiography. Results Myocardial glucose utilization was similar among groups, however when normalized to fasting plasma insulin concentration (GLUT/INS was lower (p Conclusion Men with metabolic complications, irrespective of HIV infection, had lower basal myocardial glucose utilization rates per unit insulin that were related to left ventricular diastolic impairments, indicating that well-controlled HIV infection is not an independent risk factor for blunted myocardial glucose utilization per unit of insulin. Trial Registration NIH Clinical Trials NCT00656851

  1. Quantitative aspects of myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion measurements have traditionally been performed in a quantitative fashion using application of the Sapirstein, Fick, Kety-Schmidt, or compartmental analysis principles. Although global myocardial blood flow measurements have not proven clinically useful, regional determinations have substantially advanced our understanding of and ability to detect myocardial ischemia. With the introduction of thallium-201, such studies have become widely available, although these have generally undergone qualitative evaluation. Using computer-digitized data, several methods for the quantification of myocardial perfusion images have been introduced. These include orthogonal and polar coordinate systems and anatomically oriented region of interest segmentation. Statistical ranges of normal and time-activity analyses have been applied to these data, resulting in objective and reproducible means of data evaluation

  2. Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of 201 Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of 201 Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy

  3. Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fernanda; Sakamoto, Yuri Saho; Salles, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated to cardiovascular risk factors. However, the association between OSA and cardiovascular disease is still controversial. The objective of the present study was to verify the association between OSA and myocardial infarction (MI). This is a systematic review of the literature performed through electronic data sources MEDLINE/PubMed, PubMed Central, Web of Science and BVS -Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Virtual Health Library). The descriptors used were: 'obstructive sleep apnea' AND 'polysomnography' AND 'myocardial infarction' AND 'adults NOT 'treatment.' The present work analysed three prospective studies, selected from 142 articles. The studies followed a total sample of 5,067 OSA patients, mostly composed by male participants. All patients underwent night polysomnography, and all studies found an association between OSA and fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes. Thus, we were able to observe that 644 (12.7%) of the 5,067 patients suffered MI or stroke, or required a revascularization procedure, and 25.6% of these cardiovascular events were fatal. MI was responsible for 29.5% of all 644 analysed outcomes. There is an association between OSA and MI, in male patients, and apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) are the most reliable markers. Resumo A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) tem sido associada a fatores de risco cardiovascular, porém a relação entre a AOS e doença cardiovascular ainda é controversa. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a associação entre AOS e infarto do miocárdio (IM). Revisão sistemática de literatura por meio das fontes de dados eletrônicas MEDLINE/PubMed, PubMed Central, Web of Science e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). Os descritores utilizados foram: "obstructive sleep apnea" AND "polysomnography" AND "myocardial infarction" AND "adults" NOT "treatment".O presente trabalho analisou três estudos prospectivos, selecionados dentre 142 artigos encontrados. Os estudos

  4. Acute myocardial infarctation in patients with critical ischemia underwent lower limb revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esdras Marques Lins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD of the lower limbs. Patients with PAOD often also have obstructive atherosclerosis in other arterial sites, mainly the coronary arteries. This means that patients who undergo infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia have a higher risk of AMI. There are, however, few reports in the literature that have assessed this risk properly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia of the lower limbs caused by PAOD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients who underwent 82 infrainguinal bypass operations, from February 2011 to July 2012 were studied. All patients had electrocardiograms and troponin I blood assays during the postoperative period (within 72 hours. RESULTS: There were abnormal ECG findings and elevated blood troponin I levels suggestive of AMI in five (6% of the 82 operations performed. All five had conventional surgery. The incidence of AMI as a proportion of the 52 conventional surgery cases was 9.6%. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: There was a 6% AMI incidence among patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass due to PAOD. Considering only cases operated using conventional surgery, the incidence of AMI was 9.6%.

  5. Estimation of regional myocardial sympathetic neuronal function with I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial images in patients with cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Kato, Kazuzo; Nakano, Hajime; Igarashi, Masaki; Ueno, Takashi; Hirosawa, Koshichiro; Kusakabe, Kiyoko.

    1989-01-01

    Myocardial SPECT images with I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were obtained in 10 patients with cardiomyopathy under stable state. For myocardial imaging, MIBG and Tl-201 (Tl) were simultaneously injected and collected. The ratio of MIBG to Tl (M/T ratio) in ROI was obtained with 50% cut off levels in order to eliminate background activity. The patients were divided into three major groups: (l) those who had the M/T ratio ranging from 0.8 to l.20 at rest and had marked defects in the infero-lateral region on delayed MIBG images, where pathophysiologically accelerated regional sympathetic neuronal function was suspected (n=5), (II) those who had increased M/T ratios (l.6 and l.7) in the basal septal wall (n=3), and (III) those who had decreased M/T ratios (0.7 and 0.75) in the apical septal wall, where depletion of myocardial norepinephrine was suspected (n=2). These findings indicate the potential of myocardial MIBG images to evaluate myocardial distribution of norepinephrine, i.e. myocardial sympathetic neuronal function. Certain shortcomings, such as an increased background due to dual isotopes and an increased pulmonary uptake of MIBG, require further study on quantitative methods. (Namekawa, K)

  6. Comparison with myocardial perfusion MRI and myocardial perfusion SPECT in the diagnostic performance of coronary artery disease. A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Kunihiro; Kubota, Makoto; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic abilities of stress myocardial perfusion MRI (myocardial perfusion MRI) and myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a meta-analysis method. We investigated the diagnostic abilities of MRI and SPECT in similar subject groups in reports written in English or Japanese. The reports to be used for analysis were selected according to a ''screening standard,'' which was established in advance. After consolidating the data from the selected reports, we compared the integrated odds ratio, the point estimation values of sensibility/specificity, and the summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. For the analysis, six reports were selected (subjects: 153, coronary-artery target sites: 447). Meta-analysis revealed that the diagnostic ability of myocardial perfusion MRI was superior to that of myocardial perfusion SPECT regarding each of the parameters. This is considered to be supportive evidence of the usefulness of myocardial perfusion MRI. (author)

  7. A non-fatal case of invasive zygomycete (Lichtheimia corymbifera) infection in an allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhardt, Steffen; Braendstrup, Peter; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Jensen, Karl E; Alhede, Morten; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Høiby, Niels; Vindeløv, Lars; Moser, Claus

    2013-05-01

    Post-transplant infections in allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients often have severe consequences. This is especially the case when dealing with zygomycete infections where the result is often fatal. A major problem when dealing with zygomycete infections is the need for an accurate and fast diagnosis as the phylum is highly resistant towards the conventional antifungals. We herein describe a non-fatal case of Lichtheimia corymbifera infection in an allo-HCT recipient. © 2012 The Authors APMIS © 2012 APMIS.

  8. Myocardial Blood Volume Is Associated with Myocardial Oxygen Consumption: An Experimental Study with CMR in a Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Zhang, Haosen; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Misselwitz, Bernd; Abendschein, Dana R.; Gropler, Robert J.; Zheng, Jie

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the feasibility of cardiovascular MR (CMR) to determine regional myocardial perfusion and O2 metabolism, and assess the role of myocardial blood volume (MBV) on oxygen supply. BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease presents as an imbalance of myocardial oxygen supply and demand. We have developed relevant CMR methods to determine the relationship of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBV to oxygen consumption (MVO2) during pharmacologic hyperemia. METHODS Twenty-one mongrel dogs were studied with varying stenosis severities imposed on the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. MBF and MBV were determined by CMR first-pass perfusion, while the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and MVO2 were determined by the myocardial Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) effect and Fick’s law, respectively. MR imaging was performed at rest, and during either dipyridamole-induced vasodilation or dobutamine-induced hyperemia. Regional differences in myocardial perfusion and oxygenation were then evaluated. RESULTS Dipyridamole and dobutamine both led to 145–200% increases in MBF and 50–80% increases in MBV in normal perfused myocardium. As expected, MVO2 increased more significantly with dobutamine (~175%) than dipyridamole (~40%). Coronary stenosis resulted in an attenuation of MBF, MBV, and MVO2 in both the LAD-subtended stenosis region and the left circumflex subtended remote region. Liner regression analysis showed that MBV reserve appears to be more correlated with MVO2 reserve during dobutamine stress than MBF reserve, particularly in the stenotic regions. Conversely, MBF reserve appears to be more correlated with MVO2 reserve during dipyridamole, although neither of these differences was significant. CONCLUSIONS Noninvasive evaluation of both myocardial perfusion and oxygenation by CMR facilitates direct monitoring of regional myocardial ischemia and provides a valuable tool for better understanding microvascular pathophysiology. These

  9. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  10. Changes over time in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and use of lipid-lowering drugs in HIV-infected individuals and impact on myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C A; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Friis-Moller, N

    2008-01-01

    for CVD and the use of lipid-lowering therapy in HIV-infected individuals and assessed the impact of any changes on the incidence of myocardial infarction. METHODS: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study is a collaboration of 11 cohorts of HIV-infected patients that included follow...... was more common for those with abnormal lipid values and those with traditional risk factors for CVD (male sex, older age, higher body mass index [calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], family and personal history of CVD, and diabetes mellitus). After...... controlling for these, use of lipid-lowering drugs became relatively less common over time. The incidence of myocardial infarction (0.32 cases per 100 person-years [PY]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.35 cases per 100 PY) appeared to remain stable. However, after controlling for changes in risk factors...

  11. delta-Opioid-induced pharmacologic myocardial hibernation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangshao; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry

    2006-12-01

    Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an event of global myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, which is associated with severe postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and fatal outcome. Evidence has demonstrated that mammalian hibernation is triggered by cyclic variation of a delta-opiate-like compound in endogenous serum, during which the myocardial metabolism is dramatically reduced and the myocardium tolerates the stress of ischemia and reperfusion without overt ischemic and reperfusion injury. Previous investigations also proved that the delta-opioid agonist elicited the cardioprotection in a model of regional ischemic intact heart or myocyte. Accordingly, we were prompted to search for an alternative intervention of pharmacologically induced myocardial hibernation that would result in rapid reductions of myocardial metabolism and therefore minimize the myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Prospective, controlled laboratory study. University-affiliated research laboratory. In the series of studies performed in the established rat and pig model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the delta-opioid receptor agonist, pentazocine, was administered during ventricular fibrillation. : The myocardial metabolism reflected by the concentration of lactate, or myocardial tissue PCO2 and PO2, is dramatically reduced during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. These are associated with less severe postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and longer duration of postresuscitation survival. delta-Opioid-induced pharmacologic myocardial hibernation is an option to minimize the myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  12. Sgarbossa criteria and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Neha; Bathina, Jaya; Kranis, Mark; Angelis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block is difficult. present a case of acute myocardial infarction with LBBB diagnosed and treated using the Sgarbossa criteria.

  13. Return to work and risk of subsequent detachment from employment after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Laerke; Numé, Anna Karin; Charlot, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background--Limited data are available on return to work and subsequent detachment from employment after admission for myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results--Using individual-level linkage of data from nationwide registries, we identified patients of working age (30-65 years) discharged...... after first-time MI in the period 1997 to 2012, who were employed before admission. To assess the cumulative incidence of return to work and detachment from employment, the Aalen Johansen estimator was used. Incidences were compared with population controls matched on age and sex. Logistic regression...... was applied to estimate odds ratios for associations between detachment from employment and age, sex, comorbidities, income, and education level. Of 39 296 patients of working age discharged after first-time MI, 22 394 (56.9%) were employed before admission. Within 1 year 91.1% (95% confidence interval [CI...

  14. Changes of blood and myocardial tissue contents of IGF-I after development of acute myocardial infarction in rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Heng; Wei Youquan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of IGF-I contents in blood and myocardium after experimental acute myocardial infarction in rat models. Methods: Rat models of acute myocardial infarction were prepared with intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. Eight models were sacrificed 48h later and another 8 models were sacrificed 14 days after preparation. Serum and myocardium homogenate contents of IGF-I were measured with RIA in these models as well as 8 control rats. Results: The serum and myocardial contents of IGF-I increased in the models sacrificed at 48h, but were not significantly higher than those in the controls (P>0.05). At 14 th day, the levels were significantly higher than those in controls and at 48h (both P<0.05). The serum and myocardial contents of IGF-I were mutually correlated in the controls and 14 day models (r=0.9987, r=0.9992; P<0.01). Conclusion After myocardial infarction, the serum and myocardial IGF-I contents increased along with the course of disease in the rat models. (authors)

  15. Risk Factors