WorldWideScience

Sample records for incident hadron increases

  1. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  2. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  3. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godar, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290-320 nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321-400 nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to∼ 50 degree N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  4. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  5. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  6. Increased Incidence of Critical Illness in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Bernstein, Charles N; Peschken, Christine A; Hitchon, Carol A; Chen, Hui; Garland, Allan

    Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of comorbid disease. Despite the recognition of increased morbidity in psoriasis, the effects on health care utilisation remain incompletely understood. Little is known about the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission in persons with psoriasis. To compare the incidence of ICU admission and post-ICU mortality rates in a psoriasis population compared with a matched population without psoriasis. Using population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada, we identified 40 930 prevalent cases of psoriasis and an age-, sex-, and geographically matched cohort from the general population (n = 150 210). We compared the incidence of ICU admission between populations using incidence rates and Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity and compared mortality after ICU admission. Among incident psoriasis cases (n = 30 150), the cumulative 10-year incidence of ICU admission was 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%-5.8%), 21% higher than in the matched cohort (incidence rate ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15-1.27). In the prevalent psoriasis cohort, crude mortality in the ICU was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.9%-13.0%), 32% higher than observed in the matched population admitted to the ICU (8.7%; 95% CI, 8.3%-9.1%). Mortality rates after ICU admission remained elevated at all time points in the psoriasis cohort compared with the matched cohort. Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk for ICU admission and with an increased risk of mortality post-ICU admission.

  7. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine in a Danish nationwide study whether the incidence rate (IR) of thyrotoxicosis in children below 15 years of age has increased between 1998 and 2012 and to compare the results with previously published national data from 1982 to 1988. Furthermore, we...

  8. Charmed baryon search in hadronic interactions with 150 GeV/c incident protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spierenburg, W.

    1983-01-01

    The hadronic associated production of charmed particles in pBe-interactions at 150 GeV incident momentum is studied. The experiment exploits the fact that charmed particles are produced in pairs and that one of the pair can decay with a single electron in the final state. This electron is used as a tag on charmed particle production. An elaborate system has been developed to suppress the background due to electrons from photon conversion or from the Dalitz decay of mesons. Measuring instruments and data analysis are described. The author reviews the history of the charmed quark and the experimental status of charm observation. The emphasis is put on the observation and production mechanisms of charmed baryons. Finally he presents the results from his study of charmed baryon production. The measurement of known resonances and the capability of the experimental set-up to measure the Λsub(c) + is discussed. From the absence of a signal in the mass spectra of three different decay channels of the Λsub(c) + he derives a 90 percent C.L. upper limit of (57 +- 5) μb for Λsub(c) + D production. For the pK - π + decay channel he applied several kinematical Λsub(c) + D production models. The results are compared with those from other experiments studying the hadronic production of charmed baryons at approximately the same energy of 16.8 GeV. (Auth.)

  9. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  10. Possible etiologies of increased incidence of gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souther, Christina; Puapong, Devin P; Woo, Russell; Johnson, Sidney M

    2017-11-01

    Gastroschisis incidence has increased over the past decade nationally and in Hawaii. Pesticides have been implicated as potential causative factors for gastroschisis, and use of restricted use pesticides (RUPs) is widespread in Hawaii. This study was conducted to characterize gastroschisis cases in Hawaii and determine whether RUP application correlates with gastroschisis incidence. Gastroschisis patients treated in Hawaii between September, 2008 and August, 2015 were mapped by zip code along with RUP use. Spatial analysis software was used to identify patients' homes located within the pesticide application zone and agricultural land use areas. 71 gastroschisis cases were identified. 2.8% of patients were from Kauai, 64.8% from Oahu, 16.9% from Hawaii, 14.1% from Maui, and 1.4% from Molokai. RUPs have been used on all of these islands. 78.9% of patients lived in zip codes overlapping agricultural land use areas. 85.9% of patients shared zip codes with RUP-use areas. The majority of gastroschisis patients were from RUP-use areas, supporting the idea that pesticides may contribute to the development of gastroschisis, although limited data on specific releases make it difficult to apply these findings. As more RUP-use data become available to the public, these important research questions can be investigated further.

  11. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... to 2014. Material and methods: This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980–2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox......-standardized incidence of OC during the last 30 years in Denmark, and also an improvement in survival. The 5-year OS was significantly better in recent years even when we adjusted the analysis for relevant covariates....

  12. The increasing incidence of adolescent bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwintscher, Nathan P; Azarow, Kenneth S; Horton, John D; Newton, Christopher R; Martin, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Morbid obesity continues to be a significant problem within the United States, as overweight/obesity rates are nearing 33%. Bariatric surgery has had success in treating obesity in adults and is becoming a viable treatment option for obese adolescents. We studied 1615 inpatient admissions for children ≤20 years of age undergoing a bariatric procedure for morbid obesity in 2009 using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Patients had a principal diagnosis of obesity and a bariatric procedure listed as one of their first 5 procedures. Procedures (open gastric bypass, laparoscopic gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastroplasty, and laparoscopic gastric band) and complications were defined by ICD-9 codes. There were 90 open gastric bypasses, 906 laparoscopic gastric bypasses, 150 sleeve gastrectomies, 18 laparoscopic gastroplasties, and 445 laparoscopic gastric bandings. The length of stay for each procedure was 2.44, 2.20, 2.33, 1.10, and 1.02 days, respectively (PBariatric surgery is an increasingly utilized option for the treatment of morbid obesity among adolescents. The procedures can be performed safely as evidenced by low complication rates. Additional long-term follow-up is necessary. © 2013.

  13. Calculated performance of iron--argon and iron--plastic calorimeters for incident hadrons with energies of 5 to 75 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Schmidt, W.

    1976-02-01

    The calculated responses of iron--argon and iron--plastic calorimeters for incident hadrons with energies of 5 to 75 GeV are presented. The responses calculated are energy resolution vs energy, energy resolution vs the thickness of the sampling plates, the angular and spatial root-mean-square deviations (i.e., the ability to determine the incident particle's entrance angle and impact point), and the spatial properties of the average and individual hadronic cascades. Some comparisons are made with experimental data; however, the main purpose of this paper is to provide specific design information for these types of calorimeters

  14. Simulation of hadron multiple production by cosmic-ray protons in the incident energy region of 1015 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Ichiro

    1984-01-01

    The simulation studies of the unusual cosmic ray families found by the experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya were performed. Those families have a larger number of hadrons than the normal families, or are the families with big transverse extension. The former is called Centauro or Mini-centauro, and the latter is called Binocular and Chiron. In the first simulation, the process was calculated, in which the Lorentz transformation of π-meson multiple production (C-jet) in the energy region of 10 14 eV was made, and the jet with raised energy was combined, and the families were formed. The second simulation was made for the energy region more than 300 TeV, in which the nucleon-antinucleon multiple production with large transverse momentum and the B particle multiple production with larger transverse momentum were assumed. The data used were the C-jet data observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. For the simulation, all the primary particles were considered to be protons. The results of the present simulation study showed that the families with strong hadron components observed at Mt. Chacaltaya might be the new type hadron multiple production such as nucleon-antinucleon multiple production or B-particle multiple production. The total energy of all the families increased with the energy of the primary particles. There are a few families having the same extent of energy and spread as the Chiron. (Kato, T.)

  15. Increased venous thrombosis incidence in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Kesmodel, U S; Juul, S

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is venous thrombosis risk increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization? SUMMARY ANSWER The venous thrombosis incidence was significantly increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization; especially in the first trimester and in the first 6 weeks post-partum. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY In vitro fertilization without pregnancy is not associated with increased venous thrombosis incidence. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This national register-based cohort study covered the period from 1995 to 2005. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All Danish pregnancies conceived...... by in vitro fertilization (n = 18 787) were included. Venous thrombosis incidence rates in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization were compared with venous thrombosis incidence rates in reference pregnancies, by calculating incidence rate ratios. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In total, 48 cases were...

  16. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Darrin V; Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Goldenberg, David

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States has increased rapidly and Pennsylvania is the state with the highest rate of thyroid cancer in the country, although the factors driving this increase are unknown. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the increase in thyroid cancer represents a true increase in disease or is the result of overdiagnosis. To compare the increase in thyroid cancer incidence and tumor characteristics in Pennsylvania with the rest of the United States and gain insight into the factors influencing the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. In a population-based study, data on thyroid cancer from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 (SEER-9) registry and the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry (PCR) from 1985 through 2009 were collected and reviewed for information regarding sex, race, histologic type of thyroid cancer, staging, and tumor size at diagnosis. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition code C739 (thyroid carcinoma) was used to identify 110,615 records in the SEER-9 registry and 29,030 records in the PCR. Average annual percent change (AAPC) in thyroid cancer incidence across various demographic groups in Pennsylvania. The AAPC for thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania was 7.1% per year (95% CI, 6.3%-7.9%) vs 4.2% (95% CI, 3.7%-4.7%) per year in the remainder of the United States, and trends in incidence were significantly different (P Pennsylvania than in the rest of the nation, as is the rate of tumors that are larger and higher stage at diagnosis. These findings suggest that rising disease burden has contributed to the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Etiologic factors promoting the rise in thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania must be investigated and may provide insight into the drivers of the national increase in thyroid cancer.

  17. Increasing incidence of hip fracture in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Luevitoonvechkij, Sirichai; Songpatanasilp, Thawee; Sribunditkul, Siripoj; Leerapun, Taninnit; Phadungkiat, Sompant; Rojanasthien, Sattaya

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture is a major health problem in Thailand. This study attempted to examine the incidence, related factors, and trends of hip fracture in Chiang Mai, Thailand. All hip fracture data among patients aged 50 yr or older were collected from hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand from August 1, 2006 to July 3, 2007. Data from the 1997 Chiang Mai hip fracture study were used for comparison. In the study period, 690 hip fractures were reported: 203 males and 487 females (male to female ratio was 1 to 2.4), with a mean age of 76.7 yr. The estimated cumulative incidence was 181.0 per 100,000, and the adjusted incidence was 253.3 (males: 135.9; females: 367.9). A simple fall was the most common mechanism (79%) of fracture, and 80% of the hip fractures occurred in patients aged 70 yr or older. The highest incidence of hip fracture was observed in patients older than 85 yr (1239). At 6 mo postfracture, most patients (61%) used a walking aid. Compared with the 1997 data, hip fracture incidence had increased by an average of 2% per yr, and the incidence of hip fracture had increased significantly from August 1, 2006 to July 31, 2007, especially in patients older than 75 yr. In patients older than 84 yr, the incidence increased by a factor of 2. Urgent strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and hence hip fracture, are needed. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing incidence of Crohn's disease in Victorian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phavichitr, Nopaorn; Cameron, Donald J S; Catto-Smith, Anthony G

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of Crohn's disease has been increasing in Western communities, but there are no published studies which have examined this change in children in Australia. The centralization of pediatric gastroenterology services in Victoria provides an opportunity to examine these changes within one state. We undertook a retrospective study over a 31-year period of all children aged 16 years or less initially diagnosed with Crohn's disease at either the Royal Children's Hospital, or Monash Medical Center, Melbourne, Victoria. We identified 351 patients who met the diagnostic criteria between 1971 and 2001. The incidence of Crohn's disease in children aged 16 years or less rose from 0.128 to 2.0 per 100,000 per year over the three decades (r = 0.964, P Victorian children. The pattern of disease has also changed with colonic disease now more frequent, and inflammatory indices less abnormal. The increased use of endoscopy has established the frequent involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  20. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer--birth cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbom, A; Akre, O

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer is rising in most Western populations. A collaborative study between nine population-based cancer registries in countries around the Baltic Sea was utilized in order to analyze in detail geographic variations and temporal trends in the occurrence of testicular cancer. There were 34,309 cases registered up until 1989 starting in Denmark in 1942 and most recently in Latvia in 1977. From the descriptive epidemiology it was obvious that there was a substantial variation in the age-standardized incidence amounting to about a 10-fold difference between the different countries ranging from 0.8 per 100,000 person-years in Lithuania to 7.6 per 100,000 person-years in Denmark. Previous studies have indicated that this increase is due to birth cohort effects. A more detailed analysis was therefore performed in those six countries with a sufficiently long period of cancer registration; Poland, former East Germany, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Sweden. This analysis showed that birth cohort is a more important determinant of testicular cancer risk than year of diagnosis. In Poland, former East Germany and Finland, there was an increasing risk for all birth cohorts. Among men born in Denmark, Norway or Sweden between 1930 and 1945, this increasing trend in risk was interrupted in these birth cohorts but followed thereafter by an uninterrupted increase by birth cohort. In conclusion, life time exposure to environmental factors which are associated with the incidence of testicular cancer appear to be more related to birth cohort than to year of diagnosis. Because testicular cancer typically occurs at an early age, major etiological factors therefore need to operate early in life, perhaps even in utero.

  1. Hadron production at 0.8Mrad by 300GeV protons incident on a thick aluminium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Coffin, T.; Diamond, R.; French, R.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Koester, L.; Koizumi, G.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Roberts, T.; Rubbia, C.; Sard, R.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; White, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Fermilab muon beam was used as a double-bend spectrometer for measuring π +- , K +- , proton and antiproton hadronic production, Cherenkov counters being used for particle identification. Measurements were made at 0.8mrad with 300GeV protons hitting an aluminum target

  2. Increasing incidence of hypotension in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Henriksen, Daniel P; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of hypotension as presenting symptom among patients in the Emergency Department (ED) is not clarified. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, etiology, and overall mortality of hypotensive patients in the ED. METHODS: Population-based cohort study......,000 person years at risk (pyar) and etiological characteristics by means of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), as well as 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 3,268 of 438,198 (1 %) cases with a mean overall IR of 125/100,000 pyar (95 % CI......: 121-130). The IR increased 28 % during the period (from 113 to 152 cases per 100,000 pyar). Patients ≥65 years had the highest IR compared to age

  3. Projections of increased and decreased dengue incidence under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C R; Mincham, G; Faddy, H; Viennet, E; Ritchie, S A; Harley, D

    2016-10-01

    Dengue is the world's most prevalent mosquito-borne disease, with more than 200 million people each year becoming infected. We used a mechanistic virus transmission model to determine whether climate warming would change dengue transmission in Australia. Using two climate models each with two carbon emission scenarios, we calculated future dengue epidemic potential for the period 2046-2064. Using the ECHAM5 model, decreased dengue transmission was predicted under the A2 carbon emission scenario, whereas some increases are likely under the B1 scenario. Dengue epidemic potential may decrease under climate warming due to mosquito breeding sites becoming drier and mosquito survivorship declining. These results contradict most previous studies that use correlative models to show increased dengue transmission under climate warming. Dengue epidemiology is determined by a complex interplay between climatic, human host, and pathogen factors. It is therefore naive to assume a simple relationship between climate and incidence, and incorrect to state that climate warming will uniformly increase dengue transmission, although in general the health impacts of climate change will be negative.

  4. Congenital Hypothyroidism: Increased Incidence in Yazd Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noori-Shadkam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. Its worldwide incidence is estimated to be one in 2500-5500 births. Assessment of thyroid gland in neonates is critical. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the incidence of CH in neonates born in Yazd province, Iran in 1389 (2010 and compare the results with other reported studies and investigate biochemical characteristics of affected infants. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on all infants (13022 births born in 1389 (March 2010-March 2011. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was measured using ELISA technique. Results: Forty five infants suffered from congenital hypothyroidism with an overall incidence of one in 289 live births. Twenty five of the diagnosed infants were males (incidence 1:261 and twenty were females (incidence 1:325. The incidence of CH in boys was more than girls (P-value = 0.295. The highest incidence of CH was observed in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter (P-value=0.000. Conclusion: The CH incidence was 10.3 to 13.8 times more than other countries. The highest CH incidence was in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter. It is important that a larger size of cases need to be screened and more information on the aetiology of the affected infants to be obtained

  5. Hadron-hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.; Weng, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The objective is to investigate whether existing technology might be extrapolated to provide the conceptual framework for a major hadron-hadron collider facility for high energy physics experimentation for the remainder of this century. One contribution to this large effort is to formalize the methods and mathematical tools necessary. In this report, the main purpose is to introduce the student to basic design procedures. From these follow the fundamental characteristics of the facility: its performance capability, its size, and the nature and operating requirements on the accelerator components, and with this knowledge, we can determine the technology and resources needed to build the new facility

  6. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...... assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age...

  7. Increased incidence of adult pneumococcal pneumonia during school holiday periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Chamira; Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; McKeever, Tricia M.; Slack, Mary; Lim, Wei Shen

    2017-01-01

    Child contact is a recognised risk factor for adult pneumococcal disease. Peaks in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence observed during winter holidays may be related to changes in social dynamics. This analysis was conducted to examine adult pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence during school holiday periods. Between September 2008 and 2013, consecutive adults admitted to hospitals covering the Greater Nottingham area with a diagnosis of CAP were studied. Pneumococcal pneumonia was detected using culture and antigen detection methods. Of 2221 adults studied, 575 (25.9%) were admitted during school holidays and 643 (29.0%) had pneumococcal CAP. CAP of pneumococcal aetiology was significantly more likely in adults admitted during school holidays compared to term time (35.3% versus 26.7%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11–1.72, p=0.004). Over the 5-year period, the age-adjusted incidence of hospitalised pneumococcal CAP was higher during school holidays compared to term time (incident rate ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.14–1.60, pholidays compared to term time (42.0% versus 33.7%, OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.00–2.03, p=0.046). Further study of transmission dynamics in relation to these findings and to identify appropriate intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:28326311

  8. The Epidemiology of Pheochromocytoma - Is the Incidence Increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehoj, A; Søndergaard, Esben; Trolle, Christian

    with pheochromocytoma, but the true incidence, morbidity and mortality associated with pheochromocytoma remains to be fully elucidated. Materials and methods The cohort of potential cases of pheochromocytoma patients was identified with a data extract on relevant diagnoses from the National Patient Registry covering...

  9. Incidence of Cancers of the Lower Stomach Increasing among Younger Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events Cancer Currents Blog Cancer Currents Blog Incidence of Cancers of the Lower Stomach Increasing among ... younger individuals, she added. Risk Factors and Shifting Incidence Rates Two of the main causes of noncardia ...

  10. Firetube model and hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazareth, R.A.M.S.; Kodama, T.; Portes Junior, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    A new version of the fire tube model is developed to describe hadron-hadron collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. Several improvements are introduced in order to include the longitudinal expansion of intermediate fireballs, which remedies the overestimates of the transverse momenta in the previous version. It is found that, within a wide range of incident energies, the model describes well the experimental data for the single particle rapidity distribution, two-body correlations in the pseudo-rapidity, transverse momentum spectra of pions and kaons, the leading particle spectra and the K/π ratio. (author)

  11. Hadron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Kolar, P.; Kundrat, V.

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain invited lectures and papers presente at the symposium. Attention was devoted to hadron interactions a high energy in QCD, to the structure and decay of hadrons, the production of hadrons and supersymmetric particles in e + e - and ep collisions, to perturbation theory in quantum field theory, and new supersymmetric extensions of relativistic algebra. (Z.J

  12. Increasing incidence of invasive and in situ cervical adenocarcinoma in the Netherlands during 2004-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, J. (Judith); A.G. Siebers (Albertus); J. Bulten (Johannes); L.F. Massuger (Leon); de Kok, I.M. (Inge Mcm)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the developed world, the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma has decreased, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and invasive adenocarcinoma increased, predominantly in young females. The goal of this study was to evaluate the most recent incidence rates of

  13. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  14. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1% by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  15. Universal law for the increase of hadronic cross sections at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Boukraa, S.

    1987-01-01

    We show that all known total cross sections can be well described by a simple universal formula σ/sub tot/ = σ 0 +A/s/sup 1/2/+0.388 ln 2 (s/44.44) mb (s in GeV 2 ). The constant σ 0 is the same for the reactions ab and a-barb. A number of further predictions are given, and a dynamical model for the high-energy logarithmic increase is suggested. The second term is due to exchange processes

  16. Food intolerance and allergy: increased incidence or contemporary inadequate diets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skypala, Isabel; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

    2014-01-01

    The role of nutrients in the study of allergic disease has been studied for many years, but recent evidence suggests that it is the quality and variety of the whole diet which affects the development of food allergy. This review seeks to understand whether food allergy prevalence is increasing and

  17. Increasing annual incidence of vestibular schwannoma and age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2004-01-01

    in 2001. In the first years large and giant tumours dominated, in contrast to recent years in which intrameatal and small tumours dominated. The median age at the time of diagnosis has been almost unchanged through the period (median 55 years). If the decreasing size of the tumour and the increasing...

  18. The increasing incidence of anal cancer: can it be explained by trends in risk groups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, R. P.; Richel, O.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Prins, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase. The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for

  19. The Epidemiology of Pheochromocytoma: Increasing incidence and changing clinical presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehoj, A; Søndergaard, Esben; Trolle, Christian

    2017-01-01

    –2015. In 1977–2006 paroxysmal symptoms and secondary hypertension were the primary causes leading to the diagnosis (34 and 21%, respectively), while incidentalomas were the leading cause of diagnosis 2007–2015 (57%). Patients diagnosed 2007–2015 were older (P... diagnosed in 1977–2006 in a secondary analysis using the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test.We identified 183 confirmed cases of pheochromocytoma. A significant increasing trend (P

  20. The increasing incidence of snowboard-related trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R.; Groner, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate injuries among children and adolescents who participate in downhill sports. Methods We collected trauma registry data (January 1999–May 2006) from a level 1 pediatric trauma center with an average snowfall of 28 in (71 cm)/y. Cases were analyzed for injury mechanism, injury type, organ injured, Injury Severity Score, age, sex, and whether or not an operation was required. Results There were 57 snowboarders and 22 skiers admitted during the study period. Forty-one (72%) of snowboarders and 16 (73%) of skiers required operations; 32 (56%) of snowboarders and 9 (41%) of skiers sustained fractures; and 14 (25%) of snowboarders and 6 (27%) of skiers sustained abdominal injuries. (P = NS for all comparisons). Serious splenic injuries were more common in snowboarders (14% vs 4%), but the difference was not statistically significant. All skiing injuries occurred at recreational facilities (commercial skiing areas), whereas 12% of snowboard injuries occurred at home, other residence, or public parks (P = .08). The most striking finding is the rising number of snowboarding injuries and the relatively stable rate of skiing injuries (see graph). Conclusions As the popularity of snowboarding rises, snowboarding injuries in children are increasing. Pediatric surgeons should be wary of the “snowboard spleen.” PMID:18485968

  1. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  2. Bevacizumab increases the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with metastatic breast or colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kapelakis

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to conventional chemotherapy for metastatic breast or colorectal cancer increases the incidence of cardiovascular events, which is mainly due to the increased prevalence of myocardial infarction and thromboembolic events.

  3. Hadrons-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrij, G.; Jenkovsky, L.; Martynov, E.

    1994-01-01

    These Proceedings contain the contributions to the Workshop HADRONS-94,held in Uzhgorod between September 7-11,1994. They covers the topics: - elastic and diffractive scattering of hadrons and nuclei; -small-x and spin physics; - meson and baryon spectroscopy; - dual and string models; - collective properties of the strongly interacting matter

  4. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Spectra of hadrons show various and complex structures due to the strong coupling constants of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) constituting its fundamental theory. For their understandings, two parameters, i.e., (1) the quark mass and (2) their excitation energies are playing important roles. In low energies, for example, rather simple structures similar to the positronium appear in the heavy quarks such as charms and bottoms. It has been, however, strongly suggested by the recent experiments that the molecular resonant state shows up when the threshold to decay to mesons is exceeded. On the other hand, chiral symmetry and its breaking play important roles in the dynamics of light quarks. Strange quarks are in between and show special behaviors. In the present lecture, the fundamental concept of the hadron spectroscopy based on the QCD is expounded to illustrate the present understandings and problems of the hadron spectroscopy. Sections are composed of 1. Introduction, 2. Fundamental Concepts (hadrons, quarks and QCD), 3. Quark models and exotic hadrons, 4. Lattice QCD and QCD sum rules. For sections 1 to 3, only outline of the concepts is described because of the limited space. Exotic hadrons, many quark pictures of light hadrons and number of quarks in hadrons are described briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  5. Hadrons-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugrij, G; Jenkovsky, L; Martynov, E [eds.

    1994-12-31

    These Proceedings contain the contributions to the Workshop HADRONS-94,held in Uzhgorod between September 7-11,1994. They covers the topics: - elastic and diffractive scattering of hadrons and nuclei; -small-x and spin physics; - meson and baryon spectroscopy; - dual and string models; - collective properties of the strongly interacting matter.

  6. Hadron spectroscopy 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    With much particle physics research using particle beams to probe the behaviour of the quark constituents deep inside nucleons and other strongly interacting particles (hadrons), it is easy to overlook the progress being made through hadron spectroscopy – the search for and classification of rare particles – and the way it has increased our understanding of quark physics. One way of remedying this was to attend the stimulating and encouraging Hadron 87 meeting held earlier this year at the Japanese KEK Laboratory, where Jonathan Rosner from Chicago's Enrico Fermi Institute gave the concluding talk

  7. Hadron spectroscopy 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    With much particle physics research using particle beams to probe the behaviour of the quark constituents deep inside nucleons and other strongly interacting particles (hadrons), it is easy to overlook the progress being made through hadron spectroscopy – the search for and classification of rare particles – and the way it has increased our understanding of quark physics. One way of remedying this was to attend the stimulating and encouraging Hadron 87 meeting held earlier this year at the Japanese KEK Laboratory, where Jonathan Rosner from Chicago's Enrico Fermi Institute gave the concluding talk.

  8. Increased Kawasaki Disease Incidence Associated With Higher Precipitation and Lower Temperatures, Japan, 1991-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Blase, Jennifer L; Belay, Ermias D; Uehara, Ritei; Maddox, Ryan A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2018-06-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitis, which primarily affects children. The etiology of KD is unknown; while certain characteristics of the disease suggest an infectious origin, genetic or environmental factors may also be important. Seasonal patterns of KD incidence are well documented, but it is unclear whether these patterns are caused by changes in climate or by other unknown seasonal effects. The relationship between KD incidence and deviations from expected temperature and precipitation were analyzed using KD incidence data from Japanese nationwide epidemiologic surveys (1991-2004) and climate data from 136 weather stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Seven separate Poisson-distributed generalized linear regression models were run to examine the effects of temperature and precipitation on KD incidence in the same month as KD onset and the previous 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months, controlling for geography as well as seasonal and long-term trends in KD incidence. KD incidence was negatively associated with temperature in the previous 2, 3, 4 and 5 months and positively associated with precipitation in the previous 1 and 2 months. The model that best predicted variations in KD incidence used climate data from the previous 2 months. An increase in total monthly precipitation by 100 mm was associated with increased KD incidence (rate ratio [RR] 1.012, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.005-1.019), and an increase of monthly mean temperature by 1°C was associated with decreased KD incidence (RR 0.984, 95% CI: 0.978-0.990). KD incidence was significantly affected by temperature and precipitation in previous months independent of other unknown seasonal factors. Climate data from the previous 2 months best predicted the variations in KD incidence. Although fairly minor, the effect of temperature and precipitation independent of season may provide additional clues to the etiology of KD.

  9. Increased Incidence of Spinal Abscess and Substance Abuse after Implementation of State Mandated Prescription Drug Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma: Current US incidence and projected increases based on changing demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Kelly G; Park, Song Youn; Vandeven, Natalie A; Lachance, Kristina; Thomas, Hannah; Chapuis, Aude G; Harms, Kelly L; Thompson, John A; Bhatia, Shailender; Stang, Andreas; Nghiem, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) incidence rates are rising and strongly age-associated, relevant for an aging population. Determine MCC incidence in the United States and project incident cases through the year 2025. Registry data were obtained from the SEER-18 Database, containing 6600 MCC cases. Age- and sex-adjusted projections were generated using US census data. During 2000-2013, the number of reported solid cancer cases increased 15%, melanoma cases increased 57%, and MCC cases increased 95%. In 2013, the MCC incidence rate was 0.7 cases/100,000 person-years in the United States, corresponding to 2488 cases/year. MCC incidence increased exponentially with age, from 0.1 to 1.0 to 9.8 (per 100,000 person-years) among age groups 40-44 years, 60-64 years, and ≥85 years, respectively. Due to aging of the Baby Boomer generation, US MCC incident cases are predicted to climb to 2835 cases/year in 2020 and 3284 cases/year in 2025. We assumed that the age-adjusted incidence rate would stabilize, and thus, the number of incident cases we projected might be an underestimate. An aging population is driving brisk increases in the number of new MCC cases in the United States. This growing impact combined with the rapidly evolving therapeutic landscape warrants expanded awareness of MCC diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing Incidence of Hospitalization for Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Maiken; Dehlendorff, Christian; Jørgensen, Henrik S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported increasing incidence of ischemic stroke in adults younger than 50 to 55 years. Information on temporal trends of other stroke subtypes and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends of the incidence...... of hospitalizations for TIA and stroke including sex- and subtype-specific trends in young adults aged 15 to 30 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Danish National Patient Register, we identified all cases of first-ever stroke and TIA (age 15-30 years) in Denmark, who were hospitalized during the study period...... of 1994 to 2012. Incidence rates and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were estimated by using Poisson regression. During the study period, 4156 cases of first-ever hospitalization for stroke/TIA were identified. The age-standardized incidence rates of hospitalizations for stroke increased...

  12. Increasing Incidence of Linezolid-Intermediate or -Resistant, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Strains Parallels Increasing Linezolid Consumption▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scheetz, Marc H.; Knechtel, Stephanie A.; Malczynski, Michael; Postelnick, Michael J.; Qi, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Clinical enterococcal resistance to linezolid is defined by the presence of the G2576T mutation. We evaluated the incidence of genetically proven linezolid resistance among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains and linezolid consumption for a possible association. A relationship was found (r2 = 0.73, P = 0.03) and predicts increasing resistance with current trends of linezolid use.

  13. Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Tang, Choon Siang; Pang, Fung Yin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007. Materials and methods: Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were...

  14. Increased Incidence of T-Cell Malignancies in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Goda; van den Broek, Esther C; Stam, Olga CG; van Noesel, C.J.M.; Tonino, Sanne H.; Kater, Armon P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with chemotherapy-refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) in whom postmortem examination showed hepatosplenomegaly, with both multiple small-cellular CLL lesions and large-cellular, monoclonal T-cell infiltrates. Following this case, the co-incidence of T-cell malignancies and CLL was studied using Dutch and American cancer registry databases. Analysis showed an excess risk for T-cell malignancies in CLL patients, with increased standardized incidence ratios compare...

  15. The Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer: The Influence of Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Andrew G.; Tosteson, Tor D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapidly rising incidence of papillary thyroid cancer may be due to overdiagnosis of a reservoir of subclinical disease. To conclude that overdiagnosis is occurring, evidence for an association between access to health care and the incidence of cancer is necessary. Methods We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to examine U.S. papillary thyroid cancer incidence trends in Medicare-age and non–Medicare-age cohorts over three decades. We performed an ecologic analysis across 497 U.S. counties, examining the association of nine county-level socioeconomic markers of health care access and the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer. Results Papillary thyroid cancer incidence is rising most rapidly in Americans over age 65 years (annual percentage change, 8.8%), who have broad health insurance coverage through Medicare. Among those under 65, in whom health insurance coverage is not universal, the rate of increase has been slower (annual percentage change, 6.4%). Over three decades, the mortality rate from thyroid cancer has not changed. Across U.S. counties, incidence ranged widely, from 0 to 29.7 per 100,000. County papillary thyroid cancer incidence was significantly correlated with all nine sociodemographic markers of health care access: it was positively correlated with rates of college education, white-collar employment, and family income; and negatively correlated with the percentage of residents who were uninsured, in poverty, unemployed, of nonwhite ethnicity, non-English speaking, and lacking high school education. Conclusion Markers for higher levels of health care access, both sociodemographic and age-based, are associated with higher papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates. More papillary thyroid cancers are diagnosed among populations with wider access to healthcare. Despite the threefold increase in incidence over three decades, the mortality rate remains unchanged. Together with the large subclinical reservoir of

  16. Increasing incidence of base of tongue cancers from 2000 to 2010 due to HPV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnaes, E; Kiss, K; Andersen, L

    2015-01-01

    for all (n=210) BSCCs registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) and the Danish Pathology Data Bank, and genotyped all HPV-positive specimens with amplicon-based next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: The overall crude incidence of BSCCs increased significantly significant increase......BACKGROUND: We assessed the development in the number of new base of tongue squamous-cell carcinoma (BSCC) cases per year in eastern Denmark from 2000 to 2010 and whether HPV may explain any observable increased incidence. METHODS: We performed HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry analysis...

  17. Rapid Increase in Scrub Typhus Incidence in Mainland China, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Qian, Quan; Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares; Han, Zhi-Hai; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Hu, Wen-Biao; Liu, Yun-Xi; Sun, Yan-Song; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Shen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne disease, which has recently reemerged in China. In this study, we describe the distribution and incidence of scrub typhus cases in China from 2006 to 2014 and quantify differences in scrub typhus cases with respect to sex, age, and occupation. The results of our study indicate that the annual incidence of scrub typhus has increased during the study period. The number of cases peaked in 2014, which was 12.8 times greater than the number of cases reported in 2006. Most (77.97%) of the cases were reported in five provinces (Guangdong, Yunnan, Anhui, Fujian, and Shandong). Our study also demonstrates that the incidence rate of scrub typhus was significantly higher in females compared to males (P scrub typhus incidence, but also document an expansion in the geographic distribution throughout the country. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Increased incidence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in Greenland 1990-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mila Broby; Koch, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, Greenland has presented the highest reported incidence rates of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) gonorrhoea and chlamydia in the Arctic regions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe sex- and age-specific incidence rates of gonorrhoea and chlamydia from 1990...... to 2012 in Greenland, and to evaluate if changes in case definitions, diagnostic procedures and implementation of STI interventions during the period coincide with rate changes. DESIGN: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases were identified from the national STI surveillance. For 1990-2008, STI cases were...... to sex, age and calendar period. RESULTS: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia incidence rates have increased since 1995 to reach 2,555 per 100,000 person-years (PY) for gonorrhoea and 6,403 per 100,000 PY for chlamydia in 2012. From 2006 to 2012, the incidence rates among young adults aged 15-19 years were 8...

  19. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  20. Stable incidence of HIV diagnoses among Danish MSM despite increased engagement in unsafe sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowan, Susan Alice; Gerstoft, Jan; Haff, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Since introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the prevalence of Danish HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased substantially. In contrast, the incidence of MSM diagnosed with HIV has not increased, and this paradox has been the focus of intensive debate....

  1. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava

    2013-01-01

    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  2. Increased incidence of bowel cancer after non-surgical treatment of appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblad, Malin; Birgisson, Helgi; Ekbom, Anders; Sandin, Fredrik; Graf, Wilhelm

    2017-11-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the use of antibiotics instead of appendectomy for treating appendicitis but diagnostic difficulties and longstanding inflammation might lead to increased incidence of bowel cancer in these patients. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the incidence of bowel cancer after non-surgical treatment of appendicitis. Patients diagnosed with appendicitis but lacking the surgical procedure code for appendix removal were retrieved from the Swedish National Inpatient Register 1987-2013. The cohort was matched with the Swedish Cancer Registry and the standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for appendiceal, colorectal and small bowel cancers were calculated. Of 13 595 patients with non-surgical treatment of appendicitis, 352 (2.6%) were diagnosed with appendiceal, colorectal or small bowel cancer (SIR 4.1, 95% CI 3.7-4.6). The largest incidence increase was found for appendiceal (SIR 35, 95% CI 26-46) and right-sided colon cancer (SIR 7.5, 95% CI 6.6-8.6). SIR was still elevated when excluding patients with less than 12 months since appendicitis and the incidence of right-sided colon cancer was elevated five years after appendicitis (SIR 3.5, 95% CI 2.1-5.4). An increased incidence of bowel cancer was found after appendicitis with abscess (SIR 4.6, 95% CI 4.0-5.2), and without abscess (SIR 3.5, 95% CI 2.9-4.1). Patients with non-surgical treatment of appendicitis have an increased short and long-term incidence of bowel cancer. This should be considered in the discussion about optimal management of patients with appendicitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D; Udwadia, Z F; Rodriguez, C; Mehta, A

    2009-01-01

    Tertiary referral centre, private hospital, Mumbai, India. To analyse the incidence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in our laboratory from 1995 to 2004. Retrospective review and analysis of the drug susceptibility test records of all M. tuberculosis culture-positive samples from our Microbiology Department from 1995 to 2004. FQ resistance has increased exponentially in our laboratory, from 3% in 1996 to 35% in 2004. The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has also increased during the same period, from 33% in 1995 to 56% in 2004. The incidence of FQ-resistant M. tuberculosis is gradually increasing to alarming levels. This may be due to widespread use of this vital group of drugs in the treatment of community-acquired infections. We urge that these broad spectrum antibiotics be used judiciously, and ideally be reserved for treatment of resistant TB in TB-endemic areas.

  4. Increasing incidence of hypothyroidism within one year after radioiodine therapy for toxic diffuse goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hofe, S.E.; Dorfman, S.G.; Carrette, R.F.; Young, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Patients treated with 10 mCi of I-131 for toxic diffuse goiter in the period January 1974--June 1976 were evaluated for development of hypothyroidism. Fifty percent were hypothyroid within 3 months and 69 percent within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that there is a higher incidence of hypothyroidism after standard doses of I-131 in the 1970s as contrasted with treatment groups in the 1950s and 1960s. The pathophysiology of this increased incidence is not known with certainty; however, infrequent use of thionamide medication, together with recent increases in dietary iodine, may render the gland more radiosensitive

  5. Gluonic hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1987-09-01

    The standard theory of colour forces (Quantum Chromodynamics) suggests that in addition to the familiar hadrons made of quarks, there should exist new states where coloured gluons play an essential dynamical role. The author reviews the theoretical predictions for the properties of these ''glueballs'' and of states containing resonating quarks and gluons. Attempts are made to highlight those features which are common to several models in the literature. Experimental candidates are confronted with the models. No clear cut signal for a gluonic hadron yet exists; consequently what future data are required to determine the constituency of some popular candidates is considered. (author)

  6. Rocky mountain spotted fever in the United States, 2000-2007: interpreting contemporary increases in incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, John J; Swerdlow, David L; Krebs, John W; Holman, Robert C; Mandel, Eric; Harvey, Alexis; Haberling, Dana; Massung, Robert F; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2010-07-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a potentially fatal tick-borne infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is considered a notifiable condition in the United States. During 2000 to 2007, the annual reported incidence of RMSF increased from 1.7 to 7 cases per million persons from 2000 to 2007, the highest rate ever recorded. American Indians had a significantly higher incidence than other race groups. Children 5-9 years of age appeared at highest risk for fatal outcome. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays became more widely available beginning in 2004 and were used to diagnose 38% of cases during 2005-2007. The proportion of cases classified as confirmed RMSF decreased from 15% in 2000 to 4% in 2007. Concomitantly, case fatality decreased from 2.2% to 0.3%. The decreasing proportion of confirmed cases and cases with fatal outcome suggests that changes in diagnostic and surveillance practices may be influencing the observed increase in reported incidence rates.

  7. Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Tang, Choon Siang; Pang, Fung Yin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-11-11

    Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation, and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007. Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were retrieved and analysed. We employed a time series Poisson regression model including time factors such as time trends, lagged terms of weather predictors, considered autocorrelation, and accounted for changes in population size by offsetting. The weekly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation were statistically significant related to the increases of dengue incidence in Singapore. Our findings showed that dengue incidence increased linearly at time lag of 5-16 and 5-20 weeks succeeding elevated temperature and precipitation, respectively. However, negative association occurred at lag week 17-20 with low weekly mean temperature as well as lag week 1-4 and 17-20 with low cumulative precipitation. As Singapore experienced higher weekly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation in the years 2004-2007, our results signified hazardous impacts of climate factors on the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue cases. The ongoing global climate change might potentially increase the burden of dengue fever infection in near future.

  8. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena; Ahonen, Mikko; Koppel, Tarmo; Hardell, Lennart

    2016-07-07

    Radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz was evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e. 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. Among the evaluated devices were mobile and cordless phones, since they emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). In addition to the brain, another organ, the thyroid gland, also receives high exposure. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type. We used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In women, the incidence increased statistically significantly during the whole study period; average annual percentage change (AAPC) +1.19 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) +0.56, +1.83 %). Two joinpoints were detected, 1979 and 2001, with a high increase of the incidence during the last period 2001-2013 with an annual percentage change (APC) of +5.34 % (95 % CI +3.93, +6.77 %). AAPC for all men during 1970-2013 was +0.77 % (95 % CI -0.03, +1.58 %). One joinpoint was detected in 2005 with a statistically significant increase in incidence during 2005-2013; APC +7.56 % (95 % CI +3.34, +11.96 %). Based on NORDCAN data, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries during the same time period. In both women and men a joinpoint was detected in 2006. The incidence increased during 2006-2013 in women; APC +6.16 % (95 % CI +3.94, +8.42 %) and in men; APC +6.84 % (95 % CI +3.69, +10.08 %), thus showing similar results as the Swedish Cancer Register. Analyses based on data from the Cancer Register showed that the increasing trend in Sweden was mainly caused by thyroid cancer of the papillary type. We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing

  9. Chernobyl-Related Cancer and Precancerous Lesions: Incidence Increase vs. Late Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Soviet Union before the Chernobyl accident was lower than in other developed countries. This is not clearly recognizable from the literature because comparisons of the high incidence figures 4 years after the accident and later have been made with those from the first years after the accident, when the registered incidence had already started to increase. Considering the low pre-accident registered incidence, there was an accumulated pool of undiagnosed thyroid tumors before the accident. The percentage of more advanced cancers, larger in size and less differentiated, was higher after the accident, when the pool of neglected cancers was diagnosed due to the screening and improved diagnostics. Some of these advanced tumors found by screening were interpreted as aggressive radiogenic cancers. The same tendency might be true also for other cancers, e.g. renal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the screening-effect, false-positivity and registration of non-exposed patients as Chernobyl victims has obviously contributed to the registered incidence increase of malignancy. PMID:25249833

  10. Softening and re-hardening of hadron transverse mass spectra in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isse, M.; Otuka, N.; Ohnishi, A.; Sahu, P.K.; Nara, Y.

    2002-01-01

    At RHIC experiments, started at 2000, the data obtained recently seem to exhibit QGP formation, but the conclusion is not drawn yet. Here, we pay out attention to the collective motion at hadronic freeze-out as an evidence of QGP formation. The transverse mass spectra may show softening to re-hardening with increasing incident energy. We compare simulated results obtained in JAM' - a hadronic cascade model - with experimental data, and discuss weather the QGP is formed or not. (author)

  11. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra (Spain). Evolution and clinical characteristics, 1986-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo Álvaro, Jorge; Bermejo Fraile, Begoña; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Anda Apiñániz, Emma

    The latest published studies show an increased incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra and its clinical presentation regarding sex, histological subtype and size over the last 25 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were calculated on the basis of data from the Cancer Registry of Navarra during 1986-2010. Clinical data were obtained from the historical cohort of the Hospital Registry of Cancer of Navarra, which includes all the new cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed and treated in the public health network of this Community in that period. The overall incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra increased over the last 25 years, with an increase in the adjusted rate in men from 2.24 (1986-1990) to 5.85 (2006-2010) per 100,000 population/year (P<.001) and in women from 9.05 to 14.04, respectively (P<.001). This increase occurs only in papillary carcinoma. The clinical characteristics of 739 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were studied. The mean age at diagnosis increased over the years and the predominance of women (about 80%) remains stable. Mean tumor size decreased over the five-year periods from 30.9 to 22.5mm (P<.001), the proportion of microcarcinomas (T1a) increased from 8.8% to 30% (P<.001) and, despite this increase, there were no statistical differences in the TNM stage at diagnosis during the study period. The distribution of histological variants of papillary and follicular carcinoma did not change over 25 years. During the period studied, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased in Navarra in both sexes. The increase occurred only in papillary carcinoma, without changes in the distribution of his histological variants. The increase in the proportion of T1a tumors is remarkable, but the TNM stage distribution was maintained. These results suggest an increase in the diagnosis of thyroid microcarcinomas due to changes in clinical practice

  12. Increased incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in young women in the Mitte district, Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohmer, J U; Schmalisch, G; Klette, I; Grineisen, Y; Kohls, A; Guski, H; Lichtenegger, W

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), in particular of high grade CIN, increased in Berlin during the period 1970-1989 and whether the ages of women with CIN had decreased. In the former German Democratic Republic, which had a highly centralized public health system, all gynecologic operations performed on women living in the Mitte district of Berlin were carried out during the period 1970-1989 (when the Berlin Wall fell) in the gynecologic clinic of the Charité Hospital. The incidence of all CIN increased from year to year over the observation period: 0.04% (1970-1971), 0.10% (1980-1981), 0.39% (1988-1989). There was a particularly high increase in the incidence of high grade intraepithelial neoplasms (CIN 3): 0.016% (1970-1971), 0.056% (1980-1981), 0.25% (1988-1989). With a virtually unchanged age distribution for women in the Mitte district of Berlin, the median age of women with CIN 3 decreased significantly from 1970 to 1989, from 39.5 (1970) to 33 (1989) (P < .001). The increase in the incidence of CIN, especially of high grade CIN, as well as the reduction in age for onset of the disease, makes high participation in screening necessary, above all among young women.

  13. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a forensic epidemic? ... creates so much negative impact on the legal outcome. There is a need to provide a holistic support to the victims and to review Nigerian laws on sexual offences for the good of all. Keywords: Gang-Rape, Sexual violence, Forensic, Ep ...

  14. Investigation of the possible increased incidence of cancer in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubery, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The report of the Black Advisory Group on an investigation of the possible increased incidence of cancer in West Cumbria is briefly considered. The Advisory Group was unable to reach definite conclusions as to whether there is a link between discharges of radioactive material from BNFL Sellafield and the incidence of cancer due to uncertainties in the available epidemiological data and the radiation dose estimate data. The implementation of ten recommendations of the Black Advisory Group are briefly described covering epidemiological, radiation protection and organisational matters in an effort to clarify the situation and to enhance public safety. (U.K.)

  15. Studies of the ATLAS hadronic Calorimeter response to different particles at Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zakareishvili, Tamar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system of the ATLAS experiment hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) is needed. A prototype of the upgrade TileCal electronics has been tested using the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator at CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons at various incident energies and impact angles. The muons data allow to study the dependence of the response on the incident point and angle in the cell. The electron data are used to determine the linearity of the electron energy measurement. The hadron data will allow to tune the calorimeter response to pions and kaons modelling to improve the reconstruction of the jet energies. The results of the ongoing data analysis are discussed in the presentation.

  16. Increasing Incidence of Severe Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Infectious Mononucleosis: Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, Pierre; Le Tulzo, Yves; Minjolle, Sophie; Person, Arnaud; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Arvieux, Cedric; Thomas, Remi; Michelet, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Older patients are more susceptible to severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis (IM). This condition may increase in industrialized countries where primary EBV infection occurs later in life. Between 1990 and 2004, 38 patients were admitted to our department with EBV-related IM. Two patients died. The annual incidence increased significantly (r = 0.623; P = 0.013). PMID:16672427

  17. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in norway 1963–2011: increasing incidence and stable mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robsahm, Trude E; Helsing, Per; Veierød, Marit B

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rapidly increasing in white populations, causing high morbidity and health-care costs. Few studies, however, have described the trends for SCC, as population-based data with a long follow-up are limited. In Norway we have this opportunity and we aimed to describe SCC incidence, mortality and survival rates, according to sex, age, stage, primary anatomical location, and geographical region, for the period 1963–2011, for estimation of future health-care needs. Data were retrieved from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Age-adjusted SCC incidence and mortality rates and 5-year relative survival (in percent) were calculated for 5-year calendar periods. A joinpoint regression model identified the annual percentage change (APC) in rates over the 50-year period. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased ninefold in females and sixfold in males from 1963 to 2011, with APCs of 5.6% (95% confidence interval, CI 4.5, 7.3) and 3.3% (95% CI 1.3, 5.3) in females and males, respectively. SCC incidence rose in all age groups, anatomical locations (except ears in females), and geographical regions, though restricted to localized tumors. Most striking increase was seen in the age group 70–79, in face and head locations and among residents in southern Norway. SCC mortality and survival rates remained relatively stable. Our findings underline an increasing need for SCC treatment in Norway, especially considering the aging population. The findings also call for the creation of particular guidelines for primary prevention of SCC

  18. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes: a long-term follow-up in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  19. Daytime napping and increased risk of incident respiratory diseases: symptom, marker, or risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-07-01

    We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever among the American Indian population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert C; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Haberling, Dana L; Cheek, James E

    2009-04-01

    To examine trends of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) incidence among American Indians compared with other race groups, a retrospective analysis of national RMSF surveillance data reported to the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance and the Tickborne Rickettsial Disease Case Report Forms system were used. The RMSF incidence for American Indians, which was comparable to those for other race groups during 1990-2000, increased at a disproportionate rate during 2001-2005. The average annual incidence of RMSF reported among American Indians for 2001-2005 was 16.8 per 1,000,000 persons compared with 4.2, 2.6, and 0.5 for white, black, and Asian/Pacific Islander persons, respectively. Most cases in American Indians were reported from Oklahoma (113.1 cases per 1,000,000), North Carolina (60.0), and Arizona (17.2). The incidence of RMSF increased dramatically among American Indians disproportionately to trends for other race groups. Education about tick-borne disease and prevention measures should be addressed for high-risk American Indian populations.

  1. Hadron jets in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1982-11-01

    The subject of hadron jet studies, to judge by the work presented at this workshop, is a maturing field which is still gathering steam. The very detailed work being done in lepton-lepton and lepton-hadron collisions, the second-generation measurements being carried out at Fermilab, the CERN SPS, and the ISR, and the very high energy hard scatterings being observed at the CERN Collider all show enormous promise for increased understanding. Perhaps we shall yet reach that long-sought nirvana in which high-p/sub perpendicular/ collisions become truly simple

  2. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  3. Is Global Warming likely to cause an increased incidence of Malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, SA; Qader, SS

    2009-01-01

    The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer world. This review article discusses the two contradictory views regarding the association of global warming with an increased incidence of malaria. On one hand, there are many who believe that there is a strong association between the recent increase in malaria incidence and global warming. They predict that as global warming continues, malaria is set to spread in locations where previously it was limited, due to cooler climate. On the other hand, several theories have been put forward which are quite contrary to this prediction. There are multiple other factors which are accountable for the recent upsurge of malaria: for example drug resistance, mosquito control programs, public health facilities, and living standards. PMID:21483497

  4. Is the development of nuclear energy likely to increase the incidence of genetic diseases for mankind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.

    1976-01-01

    In a normal human population a relatively high number of individuals (+10%) are bearing genetic and chromosomal deficiencies. As a result of the difficulties encountered when carrying out valid epidemiological investigations, the observations made on the descent of irradiated subjects have not demonstrated that an exposure for a man to ionizing radiations increases the incidence of his deficiencies. That explains the need of having to use the results of experiments conducted on animals in order to evaluate this kind of hazard for mankind. The analysis of these experimental data allows us to conclude that under normal conditions of exploitation the expected development of the nuclear energy is not likely to increase significantly the incidence of genetic deficiencies for mankind. (G.C.)

  5. Assessing cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure to predict incident hypertension in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbeer, Roberto; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure (BP) are not established in hypertension guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess optimal cutoff values for increased exercise BP to predict incident hypertension. Data of 661 normotensive participants (386 women) aged 25-77 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) with a 5-year follow-up were used. Exercise BP was measured at a submaximal level of 100 W and at maximum level of a symptom-limited cycle ergometry test. Cutoff values for increased exercise BP were defined at the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of incident hypertension. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification index (NRI) were calculated to investigate whether increased exercise BP adds predictive value for incident hypertension beyond established cardiovascular risk factors. In men, values of 160  mmHg (100  W level; AUC = 0.7837; NRI = 0.534, P AUC = 0.7677; NRI = 0.340, P = 0.003) were detected as optimal cutoff values for the definition of increased exercise SBP. A value of 190  mmHg (AUC = 0.8347; NRI = 0.519, P < 0.001) showed relevance for the definition of increased exercise SBP in women at the maximum level. According to our analyses, 190 and 210  mmHg are clinically relevant cutoff values for increased exercise SBP at the maximum exercise level of cycle ergometry test for women and men, respectively. In addition, for men, our analyses provided a cutoff value of 160  mmHg for increased exercise SBP at the 100  W level.

  6. Increasing incidence of nutritional rickets: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Tebben, Peter J; Singh, Ravinder J; Cha, Stephen S; Maxson, Julie A; Yawn, Barbara P

    2013-02-01

    To determine temporal trends in incidence and risk factors of nutritional rickets in a community-based population. Rochester Epidemiology Project data were used to identify all children (aged rickets, vitamin D deficiency, hypovitaminosis D, rachitis, osteomalacia, genu varum, genu valgum, craniotabes, hypocalcemia, hypocalcemic seizure, and tetany. Record abstraction was performed to select individuals with radiographic confirmation of rickets. Age- and sex-matched controls were identified for the evaluation of risk factors. The main outcome measure was radiographic evidence of rickets without identifiable inherited, genetic, or nonnutritional causes. Incidence rates were calculated using Rochester Epidemiology Project census data. Of 768 children with eligible diagnostic codes, 23 had radiographic evidence of rickets; of these, 17 children had nutritional rickets. All 17 children were younger than 3 years, and 13 (76%) were of nonwhite race/ethnicity. Clinical presentation included poor growth (n=12), leg deformity (n=8), motor delay (n=5), leg pain (n=3), weakness (n=3), and hypocalcemia or tetany (n=2). The incidence of nutritional rickets in children younger than 3 years was 0, 2.2, 3.7, and 24.1 per 100,000 for the decades beginning in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000, respectively (P=.003 for incidence trend). Nutritional rickets was associated with black race, breast-feeding, low birth weight, and stunted growth (Prickets remains rare, but its incidence has dramatically increased since 2000. Not all cases of rickets can be attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Israeli children following the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zung, Amnon; Blumenfeld, Orit; Shehadeh, Naim; Dally Gottfried, Orna; Tenenbaum Rakover, Yardena; Hershkovitz, Eli; Gillis, David; Zangen, David; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Hanukoglu, Aaron; Rachmiel, Marianna; Shalitin, Shlomit

    2012-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease occurring in genetically susceptible individuals. The precipitating cause is unclear. Recently, the Second Lebanon War exposed a large civilian population in northern Israel to significant psychological stress in the form of repeated barrages of missile attacks. We hypothesized that trends in regional incidence of type 1 diabetes before and after the war would reflect an association with stress. All type 1 diabetes patients aged 0-17 yr who were reported to the Israel Juvenile Diabetes Register (n = 1822) in the four pre-war (2002-2005) and two post-war years (2006-2007) were included in the study. The patients were stratified by gender, age, ethnicity, family history of type 1 diabetes, season at diagnosis, and region of residency, namely, those who lived in the northern regions that were attacked and those in other regions. The post-war incidence of type 1 diabetes was increased in the northern regions (rate ratio, RR = 1.27; p = 0.037), with no change in the other regions. This change was more prominent in males (RR = 1.55; p = 0.005) but similar in summer and winter, in different ages, and in different ethnic groups. There was no change in the proportion of new patients with a family history of the disease. For the first time in a large population, we found a positive association between the trauma of war and an increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. The increase in incidence was not associated with genetic susceptibility to the disease. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes in New Zealand children Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjardin, Natalia; Reed, Peter; Albert, Ben; Mouat, Fran; Carter, Phillipa J; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne; Gunn, Alistair; Jefferies, Craig

    2018-04-24

    It is important to understand whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in childhood for health-care planning and clinical management. The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of T2DM in New Zealand children, aged Auckland, New Zealand. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a population-based referral cohort from 1995 to 2015. Hundred and four children presented with T2DM over the 21-year period. The female:male ratio was 1.8:1, at mean (standard deviation) age 12.9 (1.9) years, body mass index standard deviation score +2.3 (0.5), blood sugar 15.3 (8.5) mmol/L, HbA1c 76 (28) mmol/mol. At diagnosis, 90% had acanthosis nigricans and 48% were symptomatic. In all, 33% were Maori, 46% Pacific Island, 15% Asian/Middle Eastern and 6% European. There was a progressive secular increase of 5% year on year in incidence. The overall annual incidence of T2DM <15 years of age was 1.5/100 000 (1.2-1.9) (95% confidence interval), with higher rates in Pacific Island (5.9/100 000) and Maori (4.1/100 000). The incidence of T2DM in children <15 years of age in New Zealand has increased progressively at 5%/year over the last 21 years. The risk was disproportionately associated with girls and children from high-risk ethnic groups. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilppula, Anitta; Kaukinen, Katri; Luostarinen, Liisa; Krekelä, Ilkka; Patrikainen, Heikki; Valve, Raisa; Mäki, Markku; Collin, Pekka

    2009-06-29

    Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb) and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s). The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002-2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  10. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilppula Anitta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s. Methods The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Results Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002–2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. Conclusion The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  11. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the United States, 2000–2007: Interpreting Contemporary Increases in Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, John J.; Swerdlow, David L.; Krebs, John W.; Holman, Robert C.; Mandel, Eric; Harvey, Alexis; Haberling, Dana; Massung, Robert F.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a potentially fatal tick-borne infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is considered a notifiable condition in the United States. During 2000 to 2007, the annual reported incidence of RMSF increased from 1.7 to 7 cases per million persons from 2000 to 2007, the highest rate ever recorded. American Indians had a significantly higher incidence than other race groups. Children 5–9 years of age appeared at highest risk for fatal outcome. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays became more widely available beginning in 2004 and were used to diagnose 38% of cases during 2005–2007. The proportion of cases classified as confirmed RMSF decreased from 15% in 2000 to 4% in 2007. Concomitantly, case fatality decreased from 2.2% to 0.3%. The decreasing proportion of confirmed cases and cases with fatal outcome suggests that changes in diagnostic and surveillance practices may be influencing the observed increase in reported incidence rates. PMID:20595498

  12. Increasing Dengue Incidence in Singapore over the Past 40 Years: Population Growth, Climate and Mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Jose Struchiner

    Full Text Available In Singapore, the frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics have increased significantly over the past 40 years. It is important to understand the main drivers for the rapid increase in dengue incidence. We studied the relative contributions of putative drivers for the rise of dengue in Singapore: population growth, climate parameters and international air passenger arrivals from dengue endemic countries, for the time period of 1974 until 2011. We used multivariable Poisson regression models with the following predictors: Annual Population Size; Aedes Premises Index; Mean Annual Temperature; Minimum and Maximum Temperature Recorded in each year; Annual Precipitation and Annual Number of Air Passengers arriving from dengue-endemic South-East Asia to Singapore. The relative risk (RR of the increase in dengue incidence due to population growth over the study period was 42.7, while the climate variables (mean and minimum temperature together explained an RR of 7.1 (RR defined as risk at the end of the time period relative to the beginning and goodness of fit associated with the model leading to these estimates assessed by pseudo-R2 equal to 0.83. Estimating the extent of the contribution of these individual factors on the increasing dengue incidence, we found that population growth contributed to 86% while the residual 14% was explained by increase in temperature. We found no correlation with incoming air passenger arrivals into Singapore from dengue endemic countries. Our findings have significant implications for predicting future trends of the dengue epidemics given the rapid urbanization with population growth in many dengue endemic countries. It is time for policy-makers and the scientific community alike to pay more attention to the negative impact of urbanization and urban climate on diseases such as dengue.

  13. Hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, G.

    1984-01-01

    Is all hadronic physics ultimately describable by QCD. Certainly, many disparate phenomena can be understood within the QCD framework. Also certainly, there are important questions which are open, both theoretically (little guidance, as yet) and experimentally, regarding confinement. Are there dibaryons, baryonium, glueballs. In addition, there are experimental results which at present do not have an explanation. This talk, after a short section on QCD successes and difficulties, will emphasize two experimental topics which have recent results - glueball spectroscopy and exclusive reactions at large momentum transfer. Both are experimentally accessible in the AGS/LAMPF II/AGS II/TRIUMF II/SIN II energy domain

  14. Incidence of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: increased risk among diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Grossman, Daniel; Arnold, Anthony C.; Sloan, Frank A

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have identified a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among patient cohorts with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). We sought to determine the development of incident NAION among a group of newly diagnosed patients with DM and to estimate the incidence of NAION among the elderly. Design Medicare 5% database study. Participants 25,515 patients with DM and an equal number of age- and gender-matched non-diabetics. Methods Query of Medicare 5% claims files identified patients with new diagnosis of DM in 1994. A randomly selected control group was created using one-to-one propensity score matching. Patients with a diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, pre-existing DM, and age 95 years were excluded. Patients with DM and controls were followed for the development of NAION over the following 4,745 days. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) among patients with and without DM. Results Each group was 85% White, 11% Black, and 4% other race, aged 76.4 years, and 40% male with a mean followup time of 7.6 years. In the diabetes group, 188 individuals developed AION (0.7%) compared to 131 individuals (0.5%; p<0.01) in the control group. In unadjusted Cox regression analysis, having diabetes mellitus was associated with a 43% increased risk (Hazard ratio [HR]: 1.431; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.145,1.789) of developing AION. After adjusting for other covariates, the risk of developing AION among individuals with DM was reduced to 40% (HR: 1.397; 95% CI: 1.115,1.750). Male gender increased an individual's risk of developing AION by 32% (HR: 1.319; 95% CI: 1.052,1.654). No other covariate was statistically significantly associated with developing AION. The annual incidence of NAION was 82 per 100,000. Conclusions DM significantly increased the risk of the diagnosis NAION. The incidence of NAION among patients older than 67 years may be higher than previously reported. PMID:21439645

  15. Increase of Stroke Incidence in Young Adults in a Middle-Income Country: A 10-Year Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Norberto Luiz; Freire, Aracélli Tavares; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Dos Santos, Nayara; Reis, Felipe Ibiapina; Nagel, Vivian; Guesser, Vanessa V; Safanelli, Juliana; Longo, Alexandre L

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of stroke is on the rise in young adults in high-income countries. However, there is a gap of knowledge about trends in stroke incidence in young adults from low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to measure trends in incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (IH) in young people from 2005 to 2015 in Joinville, Brazil. We retrospectively ascertained all first-ever IS subtypes and IH that occurred in Joinville in the periods of 2005 to 2006, 2010 to 2011, and 2014 to 2015. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios of all strokes, IS, and IH. We also compared the prevalence of risk factors and extension of diagnostic work-up across the 3 periods. For 10 years, we registered 2483 patients (7.5% aged incidence significantly increased by 62% (incidence rate ratios, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.40) in subjects incidence rate ratios, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.60). Incidence of IS increased by 66% (incidence rate ratios, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.54), but there was no significant change in incidence of IH in subjects incidence is rising in young adults in Joinville, Brazil, because of increase in rates of ischemic but not hemorrhagic strokes. We urgently need better policies of cardiovascular prevention in the young. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. The incidence of acute urinary retention secondary to BPH is increasing among California men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, H K; Chang, D; Palazzi, K; Cohen, S; Parsons, J K

    2013-09-01

    Current epidemiological patterns of adverse events of clinical BPH remain unclear. We investigated trends in acute urinary retention (AUR) associated with BPH in a large, population-based cohort. We utilized the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Database to examine 3 724 016 emergency room (ER) visits in California among men aged  50 years from 2007 to 2010. Outcomes included AUR for which BPH was the primary diagnosis, AUR for which BPH was a secondary diagnosis and urethral catheterization for AUR. We generated adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) using multivariate logistic regression to determine longitudinal trends. A total of 17 023 men presented with a diagnosis of BPH-associated AUR, the unadjusted incidence of which increased from 4.00 per 1000 ER visits in 2007 to 5.23 per 1000 ER visits in 2010 (PBPH-associated AUR increased substantially in a large and ethnically diverse male population of the United States.

  17. HERWIG for Hadron-Hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, M.H.

    1993-05-01

    HERWIG is a general-purpose particle physics event generator, which includes the simulation of any combination of hard lepton, hadron or photon scattering and soft hadron-hadron collisions in one package. It uses the parton-shower approach for initial-state and final-state QCD radiation, including colour coherence effects and azimuthal correlations both within and between jets. This article describes HERWIG version 5.6, and gives a brief review of the physics underlying HERWIG, with particular emphasis on hadron-hadron collisions. Details are given of the input and control parameters used by the program

  18. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: aspirin increases the incidence of minor bleeding complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, O.T.; Yadegafar, G.; Lane, C.; Dewbury, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether patients taking aspirin were more likely to experience bleeding complications after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-seven patients taking aspirin who underwent prostate biopsy over a 3.5 year period and 731 patients not taking aspirin over a 2 year period returned a questionnaire assessing the incidence and severity of bleeding complications. Results: Patients taking aspirin had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of haematuria and rectal bleeding, but not of haemospermia. They also had a longer mean duration of bleeding, but no increase in bleeding severity. Severe bleeding was very uncommon in both groups and no patients required intervention for bleeding complications. Conclusion: Aspirin exacerbates minor bleeding complications in patients undergoing TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate, but in this large group of aspirin-taking patients no dangerous bleeding complications were encountered. It may be that the risks associated with aspirin cessation outweigh the risks of haemorrhagic complications

  19. Persistent increase in the incidence of acute male urethritis diagnosed in general practices in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Véronique; Dorléans, Yves; Flahault, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    Background At-risk sexual behaviour seems to have increased in Europe, possibly due to the reassuring efficacy of highly active antiretroviral treatments. Aim To follow, from 1990 to 2003, in France, the trends in the incidence of acute male urethritis diagnosed in general practice, a marker of at-risk sexual behaviour. Design of study Electronic disease surveillance. Setting General practices located all over mainland France. Method The GPs of the French Sentinelles network reported, via online computer systems, the acute urethritis cases they diagnosed, and for each case the characteristics of the patients. Results After a striking decrease between 1990 and 1995 from 460 per 100 000 men aged 15–64 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 390 to 520) to 180 (95% CI = 150 to 200), when antiretroviral drugs became available on the French market, the incidence of acute male urethritis stopped decreasing. Between 1996 and 2003, it may have risen again from 190 per 100 000 men (95% CI = 160 to 210) to 325 per 100 000 men (95% CI = 280 to 370) aged 15–64 years. The percentage of homosexual/bisexual men among the cases reported was higher than in the general population (10% versus 4%, Purethritis, shows that the sexual health of men has worsened in France, and calls for urgent new preventive measures. PMID:16464324

  20. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: aspirin increases the incidence of minor bleeding complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, O.T. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hallo99@doctors.org.uk; Yadegafar, G. [Public Health Sciences and Medical Statistics Division, School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton University, Southampton (United Kingdom); Lane, C.; Dewbury, K.C. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To assess whether patients taking aspirin were more likely to experience bleeding complications after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-seven patients taking aspirin who underwent prostate biopsy over a 3.5 year period and 731 patients not taking aspirin over a 2 year period returned a questionnaire assessing the incidence and severity of bleeding complications. Results: Patients taking aspirin had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of haematuria and rectal bleeding, but not of haemospermia. They also had a longer mean duration of bleeding, but no increase in bleeding severity. Severe bleeding was very uncommon in both groups and no patients required intervention for bleeding complications. Conclusion: Aspirin exacerbates minor bleeding complications in patients undergoing TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate, but in this large group of aspirin-taking patients no dangerous bleeding complications were encountered. It may be that the risks associated with aspirin cessation outweigh the risks of haemorrhagic complications.

  1. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes is Not Increasing in a Population-Based Cohort in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Amanda K.; Owens, Lisa A.; Lahr, Brian D.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Murray, Joseph A.; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Worldwide studies show that the type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence is increasing by 3% annually. Objectives We investigated the recent incidence of T1D in a US Midwestern county to determine whether this increase has been sustained and compare to celiac disease (CD) incidence. The prevalence of (CD), an associated autoimmune disease, within the cohort was also investigated. Design A broad search strategy was used to identify all cases of T1D in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1,1994 and December 31, 2010 using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Diagnosis and residency status were confirmed through the medical record. Incidence rates were directly standardized to the 2010 United States population. Poisson regression was used to test for a change in incidence rate. Clinical charts were reviewed to confirm case status. Setting Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Main Outcome Measure The trend in T1D incidence in a population-based study in a Midwestern US county. Results There were 233 incident cases of T1D. Directly adjusting for age and sex with respect to the 2010 US white population, the overall annual incidence of T1D was 9.2 (95% CI, 8.0-10.4) per 100,000 people per year among all ages and 19.9 (95% CI, 16.6-23.2) per 100,000 per people per year for those younger than 20 years. There was no significant increase in the incidence of T1D over time (P=.45). Despite the overall stability in annual incidence, there was an initial increasing trend followed by a plateau. Of the 109 T1D patients (46%) tested for CD, 12% had biopsy-proven CD. Conclusions The incidence of T1D has stopped increasing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in the most recent decade. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and explore reasons for this plateau. PMID:27492913

  2. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorella, D.; Helms, C.A.; Speer, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. The objectives of the current study were (1) to quantify the incidence of increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle and (2) to assess the clinical significance of this finding in patients with chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain.Design and patients. Eight patients (five male and three female, 15-41 years of age) with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint and marked increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle are presented. These eight patients underwent MR examination over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998). The dictated reports of all shoulder MR examinations conducted over this same time period were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormality in the distal cla-vicle. Clinical data and, in five patients, findings at shoulder arthroscopy or open surgery, were correlated with the results of MR imaging. One patient underwent arthroscopy on both shoulders.Results. The selected eight patients each presented clinically with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint. One patient is presented twice, as both shoulders were symptomatic (n=9). Plain film examination (9/9) failed to indicate a structural cause of shoulder pain in any of the patients. MR examination demonstrated abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle in all nine cases and no other cause for AC joint pain. Three patients responded to a course of conservative therapy. Six experienced refractory pain despite conservative therapy. Resection of the distal clavicle was performed in five of the six cases. All patients who underwent resection of the distal clavicle experienced complete resolution of AC joint pain. A retrospective review of the dictated reports for all shoulder MR imaging examinations performed at out institution over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998; n=761) demonstrated a 12.5% incidence of abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clav-icle.Conclusions. Increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle

  3. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorella, D.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Speer, K.P. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. The objectives of the current study were (1) to quantify the incidence of increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle and (2) to assess the clinical significance of this finding in patients with chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain.Design and patients. Eight patients (five male and three female, 15-41 years of age) with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint and marked increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle are presented. These eight patients underwent MR examination over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998). The dictated reports of all shoulder MR examinations conducted over this same time period were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormality in the distal cla-vicle. Clinical data and, in five patients, findings at shoulder arthroscopy or open surgery, were correlated with the results of MR imaging. One patient underwent arthroscopy on both shoulders.Results. The selected eight patients each presented clinically with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint. One patient is presented twice, as both shoulders were symptomatic (n=9). Plain film examination (9/9) failed to indicate a structural cause of shoulder pain in any of the patients. MR examination demonstrated abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle in all nine cases and no other cause for AC joint pain. Three patients responded to a course of conservative therapy. Six experienced refractory pain despite conservative therapy. Resection of the distal clavicle was performed in five of the six cases. All patients who underwent resection of the distal clavicle experienced complete resolution of AC joint pain. A retrospective review of the dictated reports for all shoulder MR imaging examinations performed at out institution over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998; n=761) demonstrated a 12.5% incidence of abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clav-icle.Conclusions. Increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle

  4. Cancer in adolescents and young adults in north Netherlands (1989-2003) : increased incidence, stable survival and high incidence of second primary tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaal, J. C.; Bastiaannet, E.; Schaapveld, M.; Otter, R.; Kluin-Nelemans, J. C.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.

    Background: Lack of survival improvement in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer has led to increased awareness of this young population. Design: We carried out a population-based study of incidence and survival of primary tumours and second primary tumours in patients aged 12-24 in north

  5. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  6. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  7. Increasing prevalence despite decreasing incidence of ischeamic heart disease and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Davidsen, Michael; Andersen, Lisbeth V.

    2015-01-01

    of these changes on the prevalence of IHD is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in incidence and prevalence in 2000-2009 are presented, using nationwide data from public registers. An incident case is defined as a subject registered with a diagnosis of IHD/AMI and without a prior diagnosis for the past 20...... years (beginning in 1980). A prevalent case is defined as a subject surviving the first year after the incident diagnosis. Regarding IHD, age-standardised incidence rates declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 for both sexes (females 445 to 340/100,000, males 822 to 678/100,000), reflecting...

  8. Increased incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders in Denmark following the Breivik attacks in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Dinesen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On 22 July 2011, Anders Breivik killed 77 adults and children in Norway. Having recently documented increases in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders in Denmark after the 9/11 attacks, we hypothesized that the Breivik attacks-due to their geographic proximity......-would be followed by even larger increases in Denmark. METHODS: Using population-based data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (1995-2012), we conducted an intervention analysis of the change in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders after the Breivik attacks. RESULTS......: The incidence rate increased by 16% over the following 1½ years after the Breivik attacks, corresponding to 2736 additional cases. In comparison, 9/11 was followed by a 4% increase. We also present evidence of a subsequent surge in incidence stimulated by media attention. CONCLUSION: This study bolsters...

  9. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-related Disorders in Denmark After the Breivik Attacks in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Dinesen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-11-01

    On 22 July 2011, Anders Breivik killed 77 adults and children in Norway. Having recently documented increases in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders in Denmark after the 9/11 attacks, we hypothesized that the Breivik attacks-due to their geographic proximity-would be followed by even larger increases in Denmark. Using population-based data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (1995-2012), we conducted an intervention analysis of the change in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders after the Breivik attacks. The incidence rate increased by 16% over the following 1½ years after the Breivik attacks, corresponding to 2736 additional cases. In comparison, 9/11 was followed by a 4% increase. We also present evidence of a subsequent surge in incidence stimulated by media attention. This study bolsters previous findings on extra-national consequences of terrorism and indicates that geographic proximity and media coverage may exacerbate effects.

  10. Increased incidence of tuberculosis in zimbabwe, in association with food insecurity, and economic collapse: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Stephen J; Lass, Elliot; Thistle, Paul; Katumbe, Lovemore; Jetha, Arif; Schwarz, Dan; Bolotin, Shelly; Barker, R D; Simor, Andrew; Silverman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Zimbabwe underwent a socioeconomic crisis and resultant increase in food insecurity in 2008-9. The impact of the crisis on Tuberculosis (TB) incidence is unknown. Prospective databases from two mission hospitals, which were geographically widely separated, and remained open during the crisis, were reviewed. At the Howard Hospital (HH) in northern Zimbabwe, TB incidence increased 35% in 2008 from baseline rates in 2003-2007 (pcrisis at HH showed a decrease of 33% in TB incidence between 2009 to 2010 (pcrisis years of 2008/2009 (pcrisis in this high HIV prevalence country.

  11. Increasing incidence of injuries and fatalities inflicted by wild animals in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Dar G; Tak, Shafaat Rashid; Kangoo, K A; Halwai, Manzoor A

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the causes of the increased incidence of injuries inflicted by wild animals in Kashmir, and to suggest preventive measures. A retrospective study reviewed records of these injuries. Data were collected from the hospital in Srinagar and from the Wildlife Protection Department of Kashmir. A total of 203 attacks (26 deaths and 177 near-fatal injuries) were recorded from January 2005 to October 2007, involving 145 (71.5%) male and 58 (28.5%) female victims. The attacking animal was a black bear in 104 (51.2%), a leopard in 18 (8.8%), a wolf in 7 (3.4%) and unidentified in 74 (36.4%) cases; 130 (64%) of these attacks occurred in southern Kashmir. The steady increase in human population in areas close to jungle results in deforestation and destruction of wildlife habitat. The reduction in monkeys and deer (the staple food of leopards) causes these dangerous predators to search for food in the areas occupied by humans, who may then be attacked. Treatment of these cases requires a multidisciplinary approach, including an orthopaedic surgeon, plastic surgeon, microbiologist and psychiatrist, to achieve best cosmetic and functional results.

  12. Twenty years of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands: A rapidly increasing incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, E.K.; Mearin, M.L.; Franken, H.C.M.; Houwen, R.H.J.; Hirasing, R.A.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Background - The incidence of coeliac disease varies internationally. Aims - To assess the incidence of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands and to study the clinical features and the presence of associated disorders. Subjects - Identified cases of childhood coeliac disease in The

  13. Increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections detected by laboratory-based surveillance in Denmark in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J N; Voldstedlund, M; Andersen, R L

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark recurrent epidemics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections have been described since the 1950s at intervals of approximately four to six years. The latest epidemic occurred in 2004/05 followed by two years of high incidence and more than three years of low incidence. Due to a recent incre...

  14. Increased incidence of coronary heart disease associated with "double burden" in a cohort of Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Fabrizio; d'Errico, Angelo; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with the combination of employment status and child care among women of working age, also examining the sex of the offspring. Only two previous studies investigated the effect of double burden on CHD, observing an increased risk among employed women with high domestic burden or providing child care, although the relative risks were marginally or not significant. The study population was composed of all women 25-50 years old at 2001 census, living in Turin in families composed only by individuals or couples, with or without children (N = 109,358). Subjects were followed up during 2002-2010 for CHD incidence and mortality through record-linkage of the cohort with the local archives of mortality and hospital admissions. CHD risk was estimated by multivariate Poisson regression models. Among employed women, CHD risk increased significantly by 29% for each child in the household (IRR = 1.29) and by 39% for each son (IRR = 1.39), whereas no association with the presence of children was found among non-employed women or among employed women with daughters. When categorized, the presence of two or more sons significantly increased CHD risk among employed women (IRR = 2.23), compared to those without children. The study found a significant increase in CHD risk associated with the presence of two or more sons in the household, but not daughters, among employed women. This is a new finding, which should be confirmed in other studies, conducted also in countries where the division of domestic duties between males and females is more balanced, such as the European Nordic countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  16. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  17. Increased standardized incidence ratio of breast cancer in female electronics workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi-Ping

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1994, a hazardous waste site, polluted by the dumping of solvents from a former electronics factory, was discovered in Taoyuan, Taiwan. This subsequently emerged as a serious case of contamination through chlorinated hydrocarbons with suspected occupational cancer. The objective of this study was to determine if there was any increased risk of breast cancer among female workers in a 23-year follow-up period. Methods A total of 63,982 female workers were retrospectively recruited from the database of the Bureau of Labor Insurance (BLI covering the period 1973–1997; the data were then linked with data, up to 2001, from the National Cancer Registry at the Taiwanese Department of Health, from which standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for different types of cancer were calculated as compared to the general population. Results There were a total of 286 cases of breast cancer, and after adjustment for calendar year and age, the SIR was close to 1. When stratified by the year 1974 (the year in which the regulations on solvent use were promulgated, the SIR of the cohort of workers who were first employed prior to 1974 increased to 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.70. No such trend was discernible for workers employed after 1974. When 10 years of employment was considered, there was a further increase in the SIR for breast cancer, to 1.62. Those workers with breast cancer who were first employed prior to 1974 were employed at a younger age and for a longer period. Previous qualitative studies of interviews with the workers, corroborated by inspection records, showed a short-term high exposure to chlorinated alkanes and alkenes, particularly trichloroethylene before 1974. There were no similar findings on other types of cancer. Conclusion Female workers with exposure to trichloroethylene and/or mixture of solvents, first employed prior to 1974, may have an excess risk of breast cancer.

  18. Increasing Incidence and Unique Clinical Characteristics of Spinning-Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Todd S; DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Unterbrink, Michelle E; Evans, Arthur T

    2016-09-01

    To compare outcomes of spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis to those with exertional rhabdomyolysis from other physical activities. Retrospective cohort study. Academic medical center, single-center. A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients evaluated from December 2010 through November 2014. Patients were selected by ICD-9 code for rhabdomyolysis. Patients were included if the reason for admission was rhabdomyolysis caused by exertion. Cases of rhabdomyolysis caused by trauma or drugs were excluded. Muscle group involvement, admission, and peak creatine kinase levels, time from activity to hospitalization, length of hospital stay, and incidence of complications. Twenty-nine cases were reviewed with 14 admissions secondary to spinning. Median admission creatine kinase (73 000 IU/L vs 29 000 IU/L, P = 0.02) and peak creatine kinase levels were significantly higher in the spinning group (81 000 IU/L vs 31 000 IU/L, P = 0.007). Hospital admissions for spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis increased over time. Health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis especially in otherwise healthy young people.

  19. THE SEASONAL INCREASE OF ENTEROVIRAL INFECTION INCIDENCE IN THE NOVGOROD OBLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bichurina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The analysis of epidemic process and definition of the etiology of the seasonal increase of serosal meningitis incidence in the Novgorod oblast in September-November, 2008 has been carried out. It was shown that in the specified period 73 persons had enteroviral meningitis. The proportion of children under 17 years old in the group of patients was 89.9%. The etiological agents of disease (enteroviruses ECHO 6 и ECHO 30 were detected by the virological and molecular-biological methods. It was established that two genetic variants of ECHO 6 and one variant of ECHO 30 co-circulated in the Novgorod oblast. The last virus variant was closely related to the strain isolated from enteroviral meningitis patients in Nizhniy Novgorod in 2007. The obtained data support the idea about necessity of systematic epidemiological and virological surveillance on enteroviral infection to get new information about circulation of non-poliomyelitis enteroviruses in the population and to define peculiarities of epidemic process development.

  20. Increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin in workers in a telecommunications industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, L; Theriault, G; Iturra, H; Provencher, S; Cyr, D; Case, B W

    1988-12-01

    In 1982 physicians at a hospital melanoma clinic in Montreal noticed that among their patients there had been seven men working in a single telecommunications company. This raised suspicions that working in that industry might be associated with development of malignant melanoma of the skin (MMS). A preliminary gross comparison with general population rates indicated that there was an increased risk in this working group. To estimate the risk of MMS more accurately, a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated based on the rates of MMS in the local population of the Greater Metropolitan Montreal Area for the years 1976-83. During that period, among workers in all plants for the company, 10 male cases of MMS were observed for an expected number of 3.7 (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.31-5.02). No cases were observed among female workers (expected = 1.3). The excess was significant among cases with a short latency (less than 20 years since beginning of employment). There was no apparent pattern of exposure based on job titles or departments.

  1. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is increased following probiotic administration to preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard Harvey

    2011-01-01

    with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P... immature gut immune system and low NEC incidence in the control group. It remains to be determined whether similar adverse responses to probiotics occur in preterm infants...

  2. Challenges in Hadron Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2004-01-01

    The status of hadron physics at the end of the HADRON07 Conference is reviewed. The latest results presented at the conference, as well as those important developments in the field which were not represented, are included.

  3. QCD in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, M.

    1997-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics provides a good description of many aspects of high energy hadron-hadron collisions, and this will be described, along with some aspects that are not yet understood in QCD. Topics include high E T jet production, direct photon, W, Z and heavy flavor production, rapidity gaps and hard diffraction

  4. High energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (i) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (ii) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (iii) the e + e - annihilation. The geometrical description of high-energy elastic scattering developed earlier is still in general agreement with experiments at the CERN-S bar ppS energies. A simple one-parameter expression for the blackness of bar pp system has been proposed recently which describes very well all existing data from ISR to S bar ppS energies. The geometrical description has also been extended to include processes of fragmentation and diffraction dissociation and other phenomena. In the past five years, a unified physical picture for multiparticle emission in hadron-hadron and e + e - collisions was developed. It focuses on the idea of the wide range of values for the total angular momentum in hadron-hadron collisions. An extension of this consideration yields a theory for the momentum distribution of the outgoing particles which agrees with bar pp and e + e - collision experiments. The results and conclusions of this theory have been extrapolated to higher energies and yielded many predictions which can be experimentally tested. 37 refs

  5. Increasing Incidence of Hospitalization for Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Young Adults: A Registry-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibæk, Maiken; Dehlendorff, Christian; Jørgensen, Henrik S; Forchhammer, Hysse B; Johnsen, Søren P; Kammersgaard, Lars P

    2016-05-11

    Studies have reported increasing incidence of ischemic stroke in adults younger than 50 to 55 years. Information on temporal trends of other stroke subtypes and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends of the incidence of hospitalizations for TIA and stroke including sex- and subtype-specific trends in young adults aged 15 to 30 years. From the Danish National Patient Register, we identified all cases of first-ever stroke and TIA (age 15-30 years) in Denmark, who were hospitalized during the study period of 1994 to 2012. Incidence rates and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were estimated by using Poisson regression. During the study period, 4156 cases of first-ever hospitalization for stroke/TIA were identified. The age-standardized incidence rates of hospitalizations for stroke increased significantly (EAPC 1.83% [95% CI 1.11-2.55%]) from 11.97/100 000 person-years (PY) in 1994 to 16.77/100 000 PY in 2012. TIA hospitalizations increased from 1.93/100 000 PY in 1994 to 5.81/100 000 PY in 2012 and after 2006 more markedly in men than in women (EAPC 16.61% [95% CI 10.45-23.12%]). The incidence of hospitalizations for ischemic stroke was markedly lower among men, but increased significantly from 2006 (EAPC 14.60% [95% CI 6.22-23.63%]). The incidences of hospitalizations for intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage remained stable during the study period. The incidence rates of first-time hospitalizations for ischemic stroke and TIA in young Danish adults have increased substantially since the mid 1990s. The increase was particularly prominent in the most recent years. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  7. Problems of hadron electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Certain directions of hadron electrodynamics referring to testing symmetry properties relatively to C-, P- and T-transformations; determination of fundamental electromagnetic characteristics of hadrons as well as to clarifying the dynamics of electromagnetic processes in which hadrons participate are analyzed briefly. 52 refs

  8. Increasing incidence of statin prescribing for the elderly without previous cardiovascular conditions:  A nation wide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    Supported by the growing evidence of the beneficial effects of statins in a range of conditions, statin utilization has increased considerably in most Western countries over the last decade. Objectives To estimate to what extent a widening of indication scope for statins accounts for the increasing...... Danish statin utilization during 1996-2005, applying treatment incidence as a measure of changing prescribing behaviour Methods From three nationwide registers, we retrieved individual records on demographics, dispensed prescription drugs and hospital discharges. Danish inhabitants were followed...... for seven cardiovascular conditions, corresponding to a hierarchy of statin indications. Poisson regression analyses were applied to quantify the incidence growth, according to age and indication.  Results Treatment incidence increased from 4/1000 person years in 2000 to 17/1000 in 2005, the increase being...

  9. Identifying aspects of neighbourhood deprivation associated with increased incidence of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Boydell, Jane; Murray, Robin; Power, Paddy

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have found an association between area deprivation and incidence of schizophrenia. However, not all studies have concurred and definitions of deprivation have varied between studies. Relative deprivation and inequality seem to be particularly important, but which aspects of deprivation or how this effect might operate is not known. The Lambeth Early Onset case register is a database of all cases of first episode psychosis aged 16 to 35years from the London Borough of Lambeth, a highly urban area. We identified 405 people with first onset schizophrenia who presented between 2000 and 2007. We calculated the overall incidence of first onset schizophrenia and tested for an association with area-level deprivation, using a multi-domain index of deprivation (IMD 2004). Specific analyses into associations with individual sub-domains of deprivation were then undertaken. Incidence rates, directly standardized for age and gender, were calculated for Lambeth at two geographical levels (small and large neighbourhood level). The Poisson regression model predicting incidence rate ratios for schizophrenia using overall deprivation score was statistically significant at both levels after adjusting for ethnicity, ethnic density, population density and population turnover. The incidence rate ratio for electoral ward deprivation was 1.03 (95% CI=1.004-1.04) and for the super output area deprivation was 1.04 (95% CI=1.02-1.06). The individual domains of crime, employment deprivation and educational deprivation were statistically significant predictors of incidence but, after adjusting for the other domains as well as age, gender, ethnicity and population density, only crime and educational deprivation, remained statistically significant. Low income, poor housing and deprived living environment did not predict incidence. In a highly urban area, an association was found between area-level deprivation and incidence of schizophrenia, after controlling for age, gender

  10. Epidemiology of Trichomoniasis in South Korea and Increasing Trend in Incidence, Health Insurance Review and Assessment 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, So-Young; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won Kee; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-01-01

    Trichomoniasis, which is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections; however, limited population-based data are available that describe patterns and trends of the disease. We summarized insurance claims of trichomoniasis cases reported during 2009-2014 to South Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The average annual incidence in South Korea was 276.8 persons per 100,000 population, and a substantial sex-associated variation was observed. The incidence rate among female subjects trended upward over 6 years, that is, it increased from 501 in 2009 to 625.8 in 2014 per 100,000 female population, which indicates a 25% overall increase. This trend was sharpest in the ≥60 years group of female population. However, a 66% decrease in incidence rates was observed among male subjects (23.7 in 2009 to 15.7 in 2014 per 100,000 male population). Further, substantial decrease was observed in the ≥40 years groups of male population. The incidence of trichomoniasis varied across regions and was the highest in Jeju province of South Korea. Overall, as the incidence of trichomoniasis appears to have increased in South Korea during 2009-2014, the disease burden is increasing; hence, there is a need to better understand the disease transmission.

  11. Increase in breast cancer incidence among older women in Mumbai: 30-year trends and predictions to 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rajesh P; Yeole, B B; Nagrani, Rajini; Dhillon, P; Badwe, R; Bray, Freddie

    2012-08-01

    Increasing trends in the incidence of breast cancer have been observed in India, including Mumbai. These have likely stemmed from an increasing adoption of lifestyle factors more akin to those commonly observed in westernized countries. Analyses of breast cancer trends and corresponding estimation of the future burden are necessary to better plan rationale cancer control programmes within the country. We used data from the population-based Mumbai Cancer Registry to study time trends in breast cancer incidence rates 1976-2005 and stratified them according to younger (25-49) and older age group (50-74). Age-period-cohort models were fitted and the net drift used as a measure of the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC). Age-period-cohort models and population projections were used to predict the age-adjusted rates and number of breast cancer cases circa 2025. Breast cancer incidence increased significantly among older women over three decades (EAPC = 1.6%; 95% CI 1.1-2.0), while lesser but significant 1% increase in incidence among younger women was observed (EAPC = 1.0; 95% CI 0.2-1.8). Non-linear period and cohort effects were observed; a trends-based model predicted a close-to-doubling of incident cases by 2025 from 1300 mean cases per annum in 2001-2005 to over 2500 cases in 2021-2025. The incidence of breast cancer has increased in Mumbai during last two to three decades, with increases greater among older women. The number of breast cancer cases is predicted to double to over 2500 cases, the vast majority affecting older women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The increasing incidence of infective endocarditis in Denmark, 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Purnima; Gislason, Gunnar H; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little updated population-based evidence exists of temporal trends in infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: For the 1994-2011 period, we used Danish nationwide registries to identify cases with first-time IE and to estimate the population size. We calculated the incidence rate of IE...

  13. Real increasing incidence of hysterectomy for placenta accreta following previous caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary F

    2013-11-01

    Placenta accreta, morbid adherence to the uterus to the myometrium, is commonest in association with placenta previa in women previously delivered by caesarean section (CS). It has become proportionally a greater cause of major maternal morbidity and mortality as the frequency of other serious obstetric complications has declined. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of placenta accreta in the context of a rising caesarean delivery rate.

  14. Hadron--hadron reactions, high multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, R.

    1978-09-01

    A coverage of results on high energy and high multiplicity hadron reactions, charm searches and related topics, ultrahigh energy events and exotic phenomena (cosmic rays), and the nuclear effects in high energy collisions and related topics is discussed. 67 references

  15. Increased availability of paracetamol in Sweden and incidence of paracetamol poisoning: using laboratory data to increase validity of a population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeborg, Rolf; Svennblad, Bodil; Holm, Lennart; Sjögren, Hans; Bardage, Carola; Personne, Mark; Sjöberg, Gunilla; Feltelius, Nils; Zethelius, Björn

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the incidence trend and outcome of paracetamol poisoning, in relation to increased availability of paracetamol from non-pharmacy outlets in 2009. Patients' serum paracetamol results over 14 years (2000-2013) from 20 (out of 21) regions in Sweden were linked to national registers of hospital care, cause of death, and prescriptions. Paracetamol poisonings were defined by serum paracetamol levels, hospital diagnoses, or cause of death. The change in incidence of poisonings following increased availability of paracetamol was analysed by using segmental regression of time series. Of the 12 068 paracetamol poisonings, 85% were classified as intentional self-harm. Following increased availability from non-pharmacy outlets, there was a 40.5% increase in the incidence of paracetamol poisoning, from 11.5/100 000 in 2009 to 16.2/100 000 in 2013. Regression analyses indicated a change in the trend (p paracetamol did not influence the result. All-cause mortality at 30 days (3.2%) did not change over time. The incidence of paracetamol poisoning in Sweden has increased since 2009, contrasting the decreased incidence in the period of 2007-2009. The change in trend was temporally associated with the introduction of availability of paracetamol from non-pharmacy outlets but did not appear to be related to sales volume of paracetamol or general trends in self-harm or suicides. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Decreasing fertility rate correlates with the chronological increase and geographical variation in incidence of Kawasaki disease in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD is a common cause of acquired paediatric heart disease in developed countries. KD was first identified in the 1960s in Japan, and has been steadily increasing since it was first reported. The aetiology of KD has not been defined, but is assumed to be infection-related. The present study sought to identify the factor(s that mediate the geographical variation and chronological increase of KD in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based upon data reported between 1979 and 2010 from all 47 prefectures in Japan, the incidence and mean patient age at the onset of KD were estimated. Using spatial and time-series analyses, incidence and mean age were regressed against climatic/socioeconomic variables. Both incidence and mean age of KD were inversely correlated with the total fertility rate (TFR; i.e., the number of children that would be born to one woman. The extrapolation of a time-series regressive model suggested that KD emerged in the 1960s because of a dramatic decrease in TFR in the 1940s through the 1950s. CONCLUSIONS: Mean patient age is an inverse surrogate for the hazard of contracting the aetiologic agent. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between mean patient age and TFR suggests that a higher TFR is associated with KD transmission. This relationship may be because a higher TFR facilitates sibling-to-sibling transmission. Additionally, the observed inverse correlation between incidence and TFR implies a paradoxical "negative" correlation between the incidence and the hazard of contracting the aetiologic agent. It was hypothesized that a decreasing TFR resulted in a reduced hazard of contracting the agent for KD, thereby increasing KD incidence.

  17. Impact of increasing alanine aminotransferase levels within normal range on incident diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Shan Wang; Ting-Tsung Chang; Wei-Jen Yao; Shan-Tair Wang; Pesus Chou

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal alanine aminotransferase level (ALT) levels might be associated with type 2 diabetes, but whether higher ALT levels within the normal range predict the risk is unknown. Methods: We followed a community-based cohort of 3446 individuals who were ≥35 years old without diabetes and hepatitis B or C in southern Taiwan for 8 years (1997–2004) to study the risk for type 2 diabetes with different normal ALT levels. Results: Among the 337 incident diabetes cases, 16.0% were from those w...

  18. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P...

  19. Treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark in a ten-year period (1996-2005): Is the incidence increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, C.; Olesen, H.B.; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2008-01-01

    about neonatal parameters. These parameters, along with birth in the latter half of the period (2001-2005), were analyzed as risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity. The national registry for blind and visually impaired children was accessed to obtain information about visual impairment attributable...... and 2001 to 2005. Of all of the early-detected, visually impaired children, 16% had not been treated for retinopathy of prematurity and were considered screening failures. CONCLUSIONS. The incidence of retinopathy of prematurity treatment in Denmark has more than doubled during the past half...... contributed to the increased incidence in the latter half of the period. Of the study population, 0.6% were registered as visually impaired because of retinopathy of prematurity within 2 years after birth (early-detected visual impairment). The incidences were not significantly different between 1996 to 2000...

  20. Hadron reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, P.D.B.; Martin, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of hadron scattering at high energies are reviewed in such a way as to combine the ideas of the parton model and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with Regge theory and phenomenology. After a brief introduction to QCD and the basic features of hadron scattering data, scaling and the dimensional counting rules, the parton structure of hadrons, and the parton model for large momentum transfer processes, including scaling violations are discussed. Hadronic jets and the use of parton ideas in soft scattering processes are examined, attention being paid to Regge theory and its applications in exclusive and inclusive reactions, the relationship to parton exchange being stressed. The mechanisms of hadron production which build up cross sections, and hence the underlying Regge singularities, and the possible overlap of Regge and scaling regions are discussed. It is concluded that the key to understanding hadron reaction mechanisms seems to lie in the marriage of Regge theory with QCD. (author)

  1. Outsourcing cleaning services increases MRSA incidence: Evidence from 126 english acute trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffolutti, Veronica; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2017-02-01

    There has been extensive outsourcing of hospital cleaning services in the NHS in England, in part because of the potential to reduce costs. Yet some argue that this leads to lower hygiene standards and more infections, such as MRSA and, perhaps because of this, the Scottish, Welsh, and Northern Irish health services have rejected outsourcing. This study evaluates whether contracting out cleaning services in English acute hospital Trusts (legal authorities that run one or more hospitals) is associated with risks of hospital-borne MRSA infection and lower economic costs. By linking data on MRSA incidence per 100,000 hospital bed-days with surveys of cleanliness among patient and staff in 126 English acute hospital Trusts during 2010-2014, we find that outsourcing cleaning services was associated with greater incidence of MRSA, fewer cleaning staff per hospital bed, worse patient perceptions of cleanliness and staff perceptions of availability of handwashing facilities. However, outsourcing was also associated with lower economic costs (without accounting for additional costs associated with treatment of hospital acquired infections). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Hadron correlations from recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Quark recombination is a successful model to describe the hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma. Jet-like dihadron correlations measured at RHIC provide a challenge for this picture. We discuss how correlations between hadrons can arise from correlations between partons before hadronization. An enhancement of correlations through the recombination process, similar to the enhancement of elliptic flow is found. Hot spots from completely or partially quenched jets are a likely source of such parton correlations.

  3. Hadron Physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The new FAIR facility in Darmstadt has a broad program in the field of hadron and nuclear physics utilizing ion beams with unprecedented intensity and accuracy. The hadron physics program centers around the the high-energy storage ring HESR for antiprotons and the PANDA experiment that is integrated in it. The physics program includes among others topics like hadron spectroscopy in the charmonium mass region and below, hyperon physics, electromagnetic processes and charm in nuclei.

  4. Density oscillations within hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Barshay, S.

    1976-01-01

    In models of extended hadrons, in which small bits of matter carrying charge and effective mass exist confined within a medium, oscillations in the matter density may occur. A way of investigating this possibility experimentally in high-energy hadron-hadron elastic diffraction scattering is suggested, and the effect is illustrated by examining some existing data which might be relevant to the question [fr

  5. Structure of hadrons. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Knoll, J.; Noerenberg, W.; Wambach, J.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Hadronic reactions and resonances, structure of mesons, baryons, glueballs, and hybrids, physics with strange and charmed quarks, future projects and facilities. (HSI)

  6. Increased incidence and disparity of diagnosis of retinoblastoma patients in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendfeldt, Giovana; Lou, Hong; Giron, Veronica; Garrido, Claudia; Valverde, Patricia; Barnoya, Margarita; Castellanos, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of 327 consecutive cases at a pediatric referral hospital of Guatemala reveals that retinoblastoma accounts for 9.4% of all cancers and the estimated incidence is 7.0 cases/million children, higher than the United States or Europe. The number of familial cases is low, and there is a striking disparity in indigenous children due to late diagnosis, advanced disease, rapid progression and elevated mortality. Nine germline mutations in 18 patients were found; two known and five new mutations. Hypermethylation of RB1 was identified in 13% of the tumors. An early diagnosis program could identify cases at an earlier age and improve outcome of retinoblastoma in this diverse population. PMID:24814393

  7. Increased situation awareness in major incidents-radio frequency identification (RFID) technique: a promising tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Jorma; Rådestad, Monica; Gryth, Dan; Nilsson, Helené; Rüter, Anders; Svensson, Leif; Harkke, Ville; Luoto, Markku; Castrén, Maaret

    2012-02-01

    In mass-casualty situations, communications and information management to improve situational awareness is a major challenge for responders. In this study, the feasibility of a prototype system that utilizes commercially available, low-cost components, including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and mobile phone technology, was tested in two simulated mass-casualty incidents. The feasibility and the direct benefits of the system were evaluated in two simulated mass-casualty situations: one in Finland involving a passenger ship accident resulting in multiple drowning/hypothermia patients, and another at a major airport in Sweden using an aircraft crash scenario. Both simulations involved multiple agencies and functioned as test settings for comparing the disaster management's situational awareness with and without using the RFID-based system. Triage documentation was done using both an RFID-based system, which automatically sent the data to the Medical Command, and a traditional method using paper triage tags. The situational awareness was measured by comparing the availability of up-to date information at different points in the care chain using both systems. Information regarding the numbers and status or triage classification of the casualties was available approximately one hour earlier using the RFID system compared to the data obtained using the traditional method. The tested prototype system was quick, stable, and easy to use, and proved to work seamlessly even in harsh field conditions. It surpassed the paper-based system in all respects except simplicity of use. It also improved the general view of the mass-casualty situations, and enhanced medical emergency readiness in a multi-organizational medical setting. The tested technology is feasible in a mass-casualty incident; further development and testing should take place.

  8. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of prediabetes in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, G; Yang, H; Bao, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Wu, H; Du, H; Xia, Y; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Guo, Q; Song, K; Huang, G; Wang, G; Wu, Y; Niu, K

    2017-04-01

    To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. This prospective cohort study (n=7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1-7, 95% CI: 3.03-3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90-1.40), 1.20 (0.97-1.48), 1.41 (1.14-1.73) and 1.73 (1.41-2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74-1.38), 0.68 (0.48-0.96), 0.84 (0.61-1.15) and 1.07 (0.80-1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Increased Incidence of Benign Pancreatic Pathology following Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Presumed Malignancy over 10 Years despite Increased Use of Endoscopic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi S. Yarandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite using imaging studies, tissue sampling, and serologic tests about 5–10% of surgeries done for presumed pancreatic malignancies will have benign findings on final pathology. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS is used with increasing frequency to study pancreatic masses. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of EUS on prevalence of benign diseases undergoing Whipple over the last decade. Patients who underwent Whipple procedure for presumed malignancy at Emory University Hospital from 1998 to 2011 were selected. Demographic data, history of smoking and drinking, history of diabetes and pancreatitis, imaging data, pathology reports, and tumor markers were extracted. 878 patients were found. 95 (10.82% patients had benign disease. Prevalence of benign finding had increased over the recent years despite using more EUS. Logistic regression models showed that abdominal pain (OR: 5.829, 95% CI 2.681–12.674, P ≤ 0.001 and alcohol abuse (OR: 3.221, CI 95%: 1.362–7.261, P: 0.002 were predictors of benign diseases. Jaundice (OR: 0.221, 95% CI: 0.084–0.58, P: 0.002, mass (OR: 0.145, 95% CI: 0.043–0.485, P: 0.008, and ductal dilation (OR: 0.297, 95% CI 0.134–0.657, P: 0.003 were associated with malignancy. Use of imaging studies, ERCP, and EUS has not decreased the percentage of benign findings after surgery for presumed pancreatic malignancy.

  10. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2 ) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend  index). Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  11. Increasing incidence of hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia in northeast Thailand: a multicenter surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliwan Hongsuwan

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in public hospitals in developing countries. We evaluated trends in incidence of hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB and healthcare-associated bacteremia (HCAB and associated mortality in a developing country using routinely available databases.Information from the microbiology and hospital databases of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand was linked with the national death registry for 2004-2010. Bacteremia was considered hospital-acquired if detected after the first two days of hospital admission, and healthcare-associated if detected within two days of hospital admission with a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days.A total of 3,424 patients out of 1,069,443 at risk developed HAB and 2,184 out of 119,286 at risk had HCAB. Of these 1,559 (45.5% and 913 (41.8% died within 30 days, respectively. Between 2004 and 2010, the incidence rate of HAB increased from 0.6 to 0.8 per 1,000 patient-days at risk (p<0.001, and the cumulative incidence of HCAB increased from 1.2 to 2.0 per 100 readmissions (p<0.001. The most common causes of HAB were Acinetobacter spp. (16.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%, and Staphylococcus aureus (13.9%, while those of HCAB were Escherichia coli (26.3%, S. aureus (14.0%, and K. pneumoniae (9.7%. There was an overall increase over time in the proportions of ESBL-producing E. coli causing HAB and HCAB.This study demonstrates a high and increasing incidence of HAB and HCAB in provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, increasing proportions of ESBL-producing isolates, and very high associated mortality.

  12. The increasing incidence of paranasal organizing hematoma: a 20-year experience of 23 cases at a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Seung; Oh, Jong Seok; Kwon, Sam Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Sinonasal organized hematoma is a rare, benign disease that can be locally aggressive and may be mistaken for malignancy. Because of its rarity, the clinical characteristics are not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the distinguishing features of organized hematoma with an emphasis on incidence change. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of 23 patients with organized hematoma confirmed histopathologically among 5,378 patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery performed by a single surgeon from January 1995 to December 2014 at a tertiary care center. Clinical symptoms, endoscopic photography, computed tomography, and operative findings were reviewed. We also reviewed the relevant literature. Age, sex, site, origin subsite and histopathology were investigated. A statistical review was performed using R 3.1.2 to examine incidence change. The most common complaint was frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction (52.1%). Of the 23 patients, eight were women and 15 were men with an age range of 18 to 75 years. (mean 38.9 years). Nine of these hematomas occurred on the right side and 14 on the left side. The predominant occurrence site was the antrum (65%), followed by the septum (17.3%), inferior turbinate (8%), and ethmoid sinus (8%). The incidence steadily increased over 20 years. Investigation of the clinical characteristics and incidence change of organized hematoma can provide useful information. Through analysis of the 23 cases in our study, the age distribution was found to be bimodal and the incidence of organizing hematoma was observed to steadily increase. Clinicians should be aware of these characteristics to avoid misdiagnoses of malignant tumors.

  13. Increasing incidence of malaria in the Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A C; Fé, N F; Suárez-Mutis, M C; Bóia, M N; Carvalho-Costa, F A

    2010-08-01

    Malaria in Brazil is virtually restricted to the Amazon Region, where it has a heterogeneous geographic distribution. We reviewed secondary data in order to describe the regional and temporal distribution of 8018 malaria cases seen between 2003 and 2007 in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, a municipality in the northwest Brazilian Amazon. A significant rise in malaria incidence, mainly in the Yanomami Indian reservation, was observed during this time. Anopheline breeding sites were also mapped and entomological data were obtained through the capture of larval and adult mosquitoes. Thirty-three potential breeding sites were identified in the urban and periurban areas, 28 of which were positive for anopheline larvae. Anopheles darlingi specimens were captured in both intra- and peridomicile locations in the urban areas. Demographic data were also assessed via a sectional survey, revealing that the majority of dwellings were vulnerable to mosquitoes. This study suggests that urban and periurban areas of this municipality are highly susceptible to epidemic malaria, which is endemic in the Yanomami Indian reservation near the city. In addition, transmission can be perpetuated autochthonously in the urban area, drawing attention to the continuous need for preventative measures such as controlling adult and aquatic stages of mosquitoes and improving housing.

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Increases the Incidence of Hospitalization Due to Fall-related Bone Fracture in Elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: On the basis of our findings, we conclude that AD may increase the incidence of hospitalization due to falls and bone fracture. We also found that AD has no effect on fracture location, but larger studies are needed to confirm this finding. Physicians and family members should emphasize the possibility of falls and bone fracture in patients with AD. Our findings suggest that preventing falls in AD patients may reduce the number of hospitalized AD patients.

  15. Comment on the article titled "Increased Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Polymyositis: A Nationwide Cohort Study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parperis, Konstantinos

    2017-10-03

    With interest, I read the recent article in Arthritis Care and Research titled "Increased Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Polymyositis: A Nationwide Cohort Study" (1). Tseng at al (1) conducted a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan, exploring a link between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and polymyositis (PM). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Hadron production at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given of the knowledge obtained from SPEAR about hadron production in e + e - annihilation since the discovery of the new particles. Included are the SPEAR magnetic detector, the total cross sections, mean charged multiplicity and energy, inclusive momentum spectra, and hadron angular distribution

  17. LOS ALAMOS: Hadron future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, David J.

    1992-01-01

    At a Workshop on the Future of Hadron Facilities, held on 15-16 August at Los Alamos National Laboratory, several speakers pointed out that the US physics community carrying out fixed target experiments with hadron beam had not been as successful with funding as it deserved. To rectify this, they said, the community should be better organized and present a more united front

  18. Hadron-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the space-time structure of the sub-atomic world and attempts to construct the fields of the constitutents of the hadrons. Then it is attempted to construct the fields of the hadrons from these micro-fields. (autho r). 24 refs

  19. Statistical Hadronization and Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider some issues about the statistical model of the hadronization in a holographic approach. We introduce a Rindler like horizon in the bulk and we understand the string breaking as a tunneling event under this horizon. We calculate the hadron spectrum and we get a thermal...

  20. Perspectives in hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, J.M. [Universite Joseph Fourier-IN2P3-CNRS, Lab. de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    A brief survey is presented of selected recent results on hadron spectroscopy and related theoretical studies. Among the new hadron states, some of them are good candidates for exotic structures: chiral partners of ground-states, hybrid mesons (quark, antiquark and constituent gluon), four-quark states, or meson-meson molecules.

  1. LOS ALAMOS: Hadron future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, David J.

    1992-11-15

    At a Workshop on the Future of Hadron Facilities, held on 15-16 August at Los Alamos National Laboratory, several speakers pointed out that the US physics community carrying out fixed target experiments with hadron beam had not been as successful with funding as it deserved. To rectify this, they said, the community should be better organized and present a more united front.

  2. Hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative picture of high energy hadron-nucleus collision process, emerging from the analysis of experimental data, is presented. Appropriate description procedure giving a possibility of reproducing various characteristics of this process in terms of the data on elementary hadron-nucleon interaction is proposed. Formula reproducing hadron-nucleus collision cross sections is derived. Inelastic collision cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus reactions at wide energy interval are calculated for Pb, Ag, and Al targets. A-dependence of cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions at nearly 50 GeV/c momentum were calculated and compared with existing experimental data. Energy dependence of cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions is determined simply by energy dependence of corresponding cross sections for hadron-nucleon collisions; A-dependence is determined simply by nuclear sizes and nucleon density distributions in nuclei

  3. Increasing incidence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in USA with focus on the southeast region 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jason; Wiseman, Scott

    2018-01-17

    A recent American Heartworm Society (AHS) survey on the incidence of adult heartworm infections in dogs in the United States of America showed a 21.7% increase in the average cases per veterinary clinic from 2013 to 2016. The analysis reported here was performed to see if heartworm testing results available via the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) aligned with the AHS survey and whether changes in heartworm preventive dispensing accounts for the increased incidence. The resistance of Dirofilaria immitis to macrocyclic lactones (MLs) has been previously reported. An analysis of 7-9 million heartworm antigen tests reported annually to the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) from 2013 to 2016 was conducted and compared to the 2016 AHS survey. A state-by-state analysis across the southeastern USA was also performed. National heartworm preventive dispensing data were obtained from Vetstreet LLC and analyzed. All oral, topical and injectable heartworm preventives were included in this analysis, with injectable moxidectin counting as six doses. Positive antigen tests increased by 15.28% from 2013 to 2016, similar to the 21.7% increase reported by the AHS survey. Incidence in the southeastern USA increased by17.9% while the rest of USA incidence increased by 11.4%. State-by-state analysis across the southeastern USA revealed an increased positive test frequency greater than 10% in 9 of 12 states evaluated. During this time, the overall proportion of dogs receiving heartworm prophylaxis remained relatively unchanged. Approximately 2/3 of the dogs in the USA received no heartworm prevention each year. These CAPC data show the rate of positive heartworm tests increasing significantly (P USA from 2013 to 2016, with a higher rate of increase in the southeastern USA than nationally. Only 1/3 of dogs in the USA were dispensed one or more doses of heartworm prevention annually by veterinarians, averaging 8.6 monthly doses/year. Veterinarians and pet owners should

  4. Less efficient oculomotor performance is associated with increased incidence of head impacts in high school ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Adam W; DiCesare, Christopher; Nalepka, Patrick; Foss, Kim Barber; Thomas, Staci; Myer, Gregory D

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate associations between pre-season oculomotor performance on visual tracking tasks and in-season head impact incidence during high school boys ice hockey. Prospective observational study design. Fifteen healthy high school aged male hockey athletes (M=16.50±1.17years) performed two 30s blocks each of a prosaccade and self-paced saccade task, and two trials each of a slow, medium, and fast smooth pursuit task (90°s -1 ; 180°s -1 ; 360°s -1 ) during the pre-season. Regular season in-game collision data were collected via helmet-mounted accelerometers. Simple linear regressions were used to examine relations between oculomotor performance measures and collision incidence at various impact thresholds. The variability of prosaccade latency was positively related to total collisions for the 20g force cutoff (p=0.046, adjusted R 2 =0.28). The average self-paced saccade velocity (p=0.020, adjusted R 2 =0.37) and variability of smooth pursuit gaze velocity (p=0.012, adjusted R 2 =0.47) were also positively associated with total collisions for the 50g force cutoff. These results provide preliminary evidence that less efficient oculomotor performance on three different oculomotor tasks is associated with increased incidence of head impacts during a competitive ice hockey season. The variability of prosaccade latency, the average self-paced saccade velocity and the variability of gaze velocity during predictable smooth pursuit all related to increased head impacts. Future work is needed to further understand player initiated collisions, but this is an important first step toward understanding strategies to reduce incidence of injury risk in ice hockey, and potentially contact sports more generally. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Linfogranuloma venério: aumento na incidência sugere surto mundial da doença Lymphogranuloma venereum: increased incidence suggests diseases world outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Lucia Hernani

    2007-06-01

    , this disease has been notified by other European countries, North America and Australia. This increased incidence seems like an outbreak and common features in these reports were: MSM, Caucasian race / ethnicity, mean age above 35 years, predominantly (>70% co-infected with HIV. Complaints included anorectal pain, tenesmus and constipation. After these reports, many countries started doing active research in their people. The lack of a specific diagnostic test has complicated LGV case ascertainment. In the absence of laboratory confirmation of L serovars, patients with symptoms suggestive of LGV should be presumptively treated with antibacterial therapy for 3 weeks. If routine LGV serovar typing is unavailable, most authors proposed administration of syndromic LGV treatment for MSM with anorectal chlamydia and either proctitis detected by proctoscopic examination, more than 10 white blood cells/high-power field detected on an anorectal smear specimen, or HIV seropositivity. We believed the incidence of LGV is also increasing in Brazil, and new cases are not being diagnosed because the ignorance about this world outbreak. We suggest that anal ulcer or proctitis in anal sex practitioners must have a high suspicious of LGV infection.

  6. Is Global Warming Likely to Cause an Increased Incidence of Malaria?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by ...

  7. Increased incidences of multidrug-resistant gonorrhea in Taiwanese men: Experiences from a single institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Lin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Genital discharge swab culture is a more effective method than urine culture to detect gonorrhea in patients with dysuria and urethral discharge. The increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains is a major problem in treating gonococcal urethritis.

  8. Increased incidence of postoperative infections during prophylaxis with cephalothin compared to doxycycline in intestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Nilsen, Roy M; Svensen, Rune

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The antibiotics used for prophylaxis during surgery may influence the rate of surgical site infections. Tetracyclines are attractive having a long half-life and few side effects when used in a single dose regimen. We studied the rate of surgical site infections during changing regimens...... controls. The registration included time periods when the regimen was changed from doxycycline to cephalothin and back again. RESULTS: The SSI in the colorectal department increased from 19% to 30% (p=0.002) when doxycycline was substituted with cephalothin and decreased to 17% when we changed back...... to doxycycline (p=0.005). In the gynaecology department the surgical site infection rate did not increase significantly. Subgroup analysis showed major changes in infections in rectal resections from 20% to 35% (p=0.02) and back to 12% (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Doxycycline combined with metronidazole...

  9. Socioeconomic Status Accounts for Rapidly Increasing Geographic Variation in the Incidence of Poor Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999–2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20) to 2004–2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40) indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors. PMID:23799513

  10. Smoking increases the incidence of complicated diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, P; Wikström, H; Carpelan-Holmström, M; Kairaluoma, P; Kruuna, O; Scheinin, T

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether smoking is associated with complicated diverticular disease and adverse outcomes of operative treatment of diverticular disease. Smoking has been associated with increased rate of perforations in acute appendicitis as well as failure of colonic anastomosis in patients resected for colonic tumours. It has also been suggested that smoking is a risk factor for complicated diverticular disease of the colon. Retrospective investigation of records of 261 patients electively operated for diverticular disease in Helsinki University Central Hospital during a period of five years. The smokers underwent sigmoidectomy at a younger age than the non-smokers (p = 0.001) and they had an increased rate of perforations (p = 0.040) and postoperative recurrent diverticulitis episodes (p = 0.019). We conclude that smoking increases the likelihood of complications in diverticulosis coli. The development of complicated disease also seems to proceed more rapidly in smokers.Key words: Sigmoid resection; laparoscopy; laparoscopic sigmoidectomy; smoking and diverticular disease; complicated diverticular disease; diverticulitis.

  11. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    1996-01-01

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author)

  12. Western Dietary Pattern Increases, and Prudent Dietary Pattern Decreases, Risk of Incident Diverticulitis in a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L; Keeley, Brieze R; Cao, Yin; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    Dietary fiber is implicated as a risk factor for diverticulitis. Analyses of dietary patterns may provide information on risk beyond those of individual foods or nutrients. We examined whether major dietary patterns are associated with risk of incident diverticulitis. We performed a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men who were free of diverticulitis and known diverticulosis in 1986 (baseline) using data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Each study participant completed a detailed medical and dietary questionnaire at baseline. We sent supplemental questionnaires to men reporting incident diverticulitis on biennial follow-up questionnaires. We assessed diet every 4 years using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Western (high in red meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy) and prudent (high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Follow-up time accrued from the date of return of the baseline questionnaire in 1986 until a diagnosis of diverticulitis, diverticulosis or diverticular bleeding; death; or December 31, 2012. The primary end point was incident diverticulitis. During 894,468 person years of follow-up, we identified 1063 incident cases of diverticulitis. After adjustment for other risk factors, men in the highest quintile of Western dietary pattern score had a multivariate hazard ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.20-1.99) for diverticulitis compared to men in the lowest quintile. High vs low prudent scores were associated with decreased risk of diverticulitis (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.91). The association between dietary patterns and diverticulitis was predominantly attributable to intake of fiber and red meat. In a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men, a Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of diverticulitis, and a prudent pattern was associated with decreased risk. These data can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of

  13. Increased incidence of preeclampsia in mothers of advanced age conceiving by oocyte donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dior, Uri P; Laufer, Neri; Chill, Henry H; Granovsky-Grisaru, Sorina; Yagel, Simcha; Yaffe, Haim; Gielchinsky, Yuval

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of preeclampsia in women of advanced age who conceived through donated oocytes as compared with natural conceptions. A historical prospective study of singleton live births of parturients ≥ 45 years of age at four university hospitals was conducted. For the purpose of the study, the population was divided by the mode of conception into two groups: oocyte donation and natural conception. The main outcome variable in this study was preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes included pregnancy-induced hypertension and Small for Gestational Age. Two hundred and seventy pregnancies were achieved naturally and 135 women conceived by oocyte donation. Mean age at delivery for the natural conception and oocyte donation groups was 45.7 and 47.8, respectively. Preeclampsia complicated 3 out of 270 (1.1%) natural conception pregnancies and 17 out of 135 (12.6%) oocyte donation conceptions. After adjusting for confounders, oocyte donation pregnancies were found to be associated with a 12-fold increased risk for preeclampsia (P = 0.001). Among oocyte donation pregnancies, the risk of preeclampsia was not affected by parity or age. A substantially increased risk for preeclampsia was found in oocyte donation pregnancies, suggesting that the foreign oocyte may play a specific biologic role in the development of preeclampsia after the age of 45.

  14. Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P.K.; Stick, K.; Bui, B.; Carroll, C.; Fall, B.; Mork, C.; Perry, J.A.; Sweeney, E.; Wittouck, J.; Winton, J.; Kocan, R.

    2002-01-01

    A recent decrease in the mean age of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi in Puget Sound was associated with a high prevalence of Ichthyophonus hoferi, a protistan parasite that can be highly pathogenic to Pacific herring. In Puget Sound, high intensities of I. hoferiinfection may be maintained in older cohorts of Pacific herring because the prevalence ofI. hoferi increased with age from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the oldest, age-6 and older cohorts. Low intensities of I. hoferi infection in the region may be maintained in alternative fish hosts, such as surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus, Puget Sound rockfishSebastes emphaeus, Pacific tomcod Microgadus proximus, and speckled sanddabCithanichthys stigmaeus.

  15. An Increase in the Incidence of Infective Endocarditis in England since 2008: A secular trend interrupted time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Mark J; Jones, Simon; Prendergast, Bernard; Baddour, Larry M.; Lockhart, Peter B; Thornhill, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) administered prior to invasive procedures in patients at risk of developing infective endocarditis (IE) has historically been the focus of IE prevention. Recent changes in AP guidelines in the US and Europe have substantially reduced the numbers for whom AP is recommended. In the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommended complete cessation of AP in March 2008. We report the impact of these guidelines on AP prescribing; in addition, IE incidence was examined following the introduction of the guidelines. Methods We analyzed English AP prescribing data from January 2004 to March 2013 and hospital discharge episode statistics for patients with a primary diagnosis of IE from January 2000 to March 2013. Findings AP prescribing rates fell dramatically after introduction of the NICE guidance (10,935 prescriptions/month vs. 2,236 prescriptions/month, p<0·0001). Commencing in March 2008, there was also a significant increase in the number of IE cases/month (0·11 cases/10million/month, CI 0·05–0·16, p<0·0001) above the projected historical trend. By March 2013, there were an additional 35 cases/month than would have been expected if the previous trend had continued. This increase in IE incidence was significant for both ‘high-risk’ and ‘lower-risk’ individuals. Interpretation Although our data do not establish a causal relationship, there has been a substantial reduction in AP prescribing and a significant increase in IE incidence in England since introduction of the NICE guidelines in 2008. Funding Different aspects of this study were supported by Heart Research UK and Simplyhealth [Grant Ref: RG2632/13/14] and NIDCR R03 grant [Ref: 1R03DE023092-01] from the National Institutes for Health. PMID:25467569

  16. An increased incidence of overt hypothyroidism after iodine fortification of salt in Denmark: A prospective population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Bulow; Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils

    2007-01-01

    , n = 225,707, urinary iodine = 61 mu g/liter). Data were obtained 1) before IF (1997-1998), 2) during voluntary IF (1999-2000), 3) during early (2001-2002) and 4) during late (2003-2005) period with mandatory IF. Results: The overall incidence rate of hypothyroidism increased during the study period...... 7 yr after IF had been introduced. Methods: A computer- based register was used to identify continuously all new cases of overt hypothyroidism in two subcohorts with previous moderate and mild iodine deficiency (ID), respectively (Aalborg, n = 310,124, urinary iodine = 45 mu g/liter; and Copenhagen...

  17. Increasing incidence but decreasing in-hospital mortality of adult Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia between 1981 and 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Espersen, F; Frimodt-Møller, N

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteraemia. This study analysed temporal trends from 18,702 adult cases of S. aureus bacteraemia in Denmark between 1981 and 2000. After stratification for mode of acquisition, 57% of cases were hospital-acquired (HA), 28% were community-acquired (CA...... associated with S. aureus bacteraemia declined significantly between 1981 and 2000, but incidence rates doubled, so that the total number of deaths increased. These data emphasise the public health importance of S. aureus bacteraemia and the need for further preventive measures and improved care in order...

  18. Increased caries-incidence by oral inoculation of cariogenic bacteria in rats after dietary fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.B.; Kreitzman, S.N.; Howell, T.H.

    1976-04-01

    The authors had previously observed that dietary NaF administered to rats during the formative and eruptive stages of tooth development does not significantly reduce the enamel solubility in acid buffer solution. They hypothesized that NaF reduces the cariogenicity of the bacterial flora. In order to test this hypothesis, rats from the same litter were divided into three groups all of which received a cariogenic diet. Group one received no fluoride. Groups two and three were supplemented with 50 ppm NaF, from day 1 to day 21. In the first study, one of the 21-day-old NaF-supplemented groups was inoculated by smears of fecal material from the control animals that did not receive NaF supplement. The second NaF group was not inoculated and served as control. In a second study, cariogenic Strep. mutans 6715 was used as the inoculum in place of the fecal smear. In both studies, the inoculation of a NaF group increased the caries to about 70% of the control group, while the mean scores on the non-inoculated NaF group were about 50% of the control group. These results indicate that alteration of the transmissible flora may be an important factor in the cariostatic action of dietary fluoride in experimental animals. This observation supports the suggestion that fluoride may alter the cariogenic flora.

  19. Increased Incidence of Interatrial Block in Younger Adults with Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Cotter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is often unexplained in younger adults, although it is often associated with a patent foramen ovale (PFO. The reason for the association is not fully explained, and mechanisms other than paradoxical embolism may be involved. Young stroke patients with PFO have more atrial vulnerability than those without PFO. It is plausible that stretching of the interatrial septum may disrupt the interatrial conduction pathways causing interatrial block (IAB. IAB is associated with atrial fibrillation, dysfunctional left atria and stroke. Methods: Electrocardiogram (ECG characteristics of prospectively recruited young patients (≤55 years of age with unexplained stroke (TOAST and A-S-C-O were compared with control data. All stroke cases underwent bubble contrast transthoracic and transoesophageal echography. IAB was defined as a P-wave duration of ≧110 ms. ECG data were converted to electronic format and analysed in a blind manner. Results: Fifty-five patients and 23 datasets were analysed. Patients with unexplained stroke had longer P-wave duration (p = 0.013 and a greater prevalence of IAB (p = 0.02 than healthy controls. Case status was an independent predictor of P-wave duration in a significant multivariate model. There was a significant increase in the proportion of cases with a PFO with IAB compared with cases without PFO and with controls (p = 0.005. Conclusions: Young patients with unexplained stroke, particularly those with PFO, exhibit abnormal atrial electrical characteristics suggesting atrial arrhythmia or atrial dysfunction as a possible mechanism of stroke.

  20. QCD and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    I give a brief and selective overview of QCD as it pertains to determining hadron structure, and the relevant directions in this field for nuclear theory. This document is intended to start discussion about priorities, not end it

  1. Hadron physics at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferbel, T.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experimental results from studies of hadron interactions at Fermilab are surveyed. Elastic, total and charge-exchange cross section measurements, diffractive phenomena, and inclusive production, using nuclear as well as hydrogen targets, are discussed in these lectures

  2. Spin in hadron physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The following topics were ealt with: Hadron physics with proton and deuteron probes, physics projects with Georgian participation, spin physics with antiprotons and leptons, spin filtering experiments, ISTC projects, technical issues for FAIR. (HSI)

  3. Hadron multiplicities at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Fresne von Hohenesche, Nicolas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Quark fragmentation functions (FF) D{sub q}{sup h}(z,Q{sup 2}) describe final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The COMPASS collaboration has recently measured charged hadron multiplicities for identified pions and kaons using a 160 GeV/c muon beam impinging on an iso-scalar target. The data cover a large kinematical range and provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the determination of FFs in particular in the strange quark sector. The newest results from COMPASS on pion and kaon multiplicities will be presented.

  4. Increase in specific density of levobupivacaine and fentanyl solution ensures lower incidence of inadequate block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeno, Ivana Tudorić; Duzel, Viktor; Ajduk, Marko; Oremus, Zrinka Safarić; Zupcić, Miroslav; Dusper, Silva; Jukić, Dubravko; Husedzinović, Ino

    2012-06-01

    The clinical presentation of a subarachnoid block (SAB) is dependent upon the intrathecal spread of local anesthetic (LA). Intrathecal distribution depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of LA, puncture site, technique used, patient anatomical characteristics and hydrodynamic properties of cerebrospinal fluid. We tried to determine whether a combined glucose/LA solution can render a clinically significant difference in sensory block distribution and motor block intensity.This was a controlled, randomized and double blinded study. The surgical procedures were stripping of the great or small saphenous vein and extirpation of remaining varicose veins. The study included 110 patients distributed into two groups: Hyperbaric (7.5 mg levobupivacaine (1.5 ml 0.5% Chirocaine) + 50 microg Fentanyl (0.5 ml Fentanil) and 1 ml 10% glucose (Pliva)) vs. Hypobaric (7.5 mg levobupivacaine (1.5 ml 0.5% Chirocaine) + 50 microg Fentanyl (0.5 ml Fentanil) and 1 ml 0.9% NaCl (Pliva, Zagreb)) adding to a total volume of 3.5 ml per solution. Spinal puncture was at L3-L4 level. Spinal block distribution was assessed in five minute intervals and intensity of motor block was assessed according to the modified Bromage scale. Pain was assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale. A statistically significant difference in sensory block distribution, motor block intensity and recovery time was established between hyperbaric and hypobaric solutions. By increasing the specific density of anesthetic solution, a higher sensory block, with lesser variability, a diminished influence of Body Mass Index, decreased motor block intensity and faster recovery time may be achieved.

  5. LOW OXYGENATION STATUS INCREASES NAUSEA-VOMITING INCIDENCE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DY Nekada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Data from Indonesia Basic Health Research (2013 states that the chronic renal failure in Indonesia is increasing, especially in Yogyakarta with the prevalence of chronic renal failure of 0,3%. If the patients of chronic renal failure are in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD, the kidney needs replacement therapy to help its function. This therapy is called Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT or Hemodialysis (HD. Hemodialysis therapy may influence to the imbalance of oxyhemoglobin in the blood. Patients undergoing hemodialysis may experience intradialytic nausea and vomiting. The objective of this study is to identify whether there is a relationship between pre-dialysis oxygenation status through oxygen saturation (SpO2 and respiratory rate (RR examination and the intradialytic nausea-vomiting occurrence. Method: This research is a comparative research with analytical cross sectional design. This research was conducted in hemodialysis room in Public Hospital of Panembahan Senopati Bantul. The subject of the research was taken using total sampling, by paying attention to research ethics. The total research subjects are 183 respondents. The researchers measured the oxygen saturation and patients’ respiratory rate and examined the intradialytic nausea and vomiting complaints. Result: The analysis result of Fisher’s exact in this research shows p value of 0,000 both in bivariate analysis of oxygen saturation to the nausea and vomiting occurrence and in bivariate analysis of the respiratory rate to the nausea and vomiting occurrence. The multivariate analysis employing regression logistic shows that the OR of oxygen saturation is 73,57, this means that the measurement of the abnormal oxygen saturation has the chance of seventy three times more to the nausea and vomiting occurrence, if compared to the patients with normal oxygen saturation. Conclusion and Suggestion: Intradialytic nausea and vomiting is one of the causes

  6. Inelastic hadron reactions using a streamer chamber triggered by a single-arm spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will investigate hard hadron-hadron collisions where a large fraction of the total energy is carried off at large angles with respect to the incident beam direction. The measurements will be done in the energy range of 200-400 GeV and with various hadrons ($\\pi^{\\pm}, K^{\\pm}, p, \\bar{p}$) incident on a liquid-hydrogen target. \\\\ \\\\The following questions will be investigated: \\\\ \\\\i) Is there a scaling law in hard hadron-hadron collisions which is similar to the scaling laws observed in lepton-hadron and $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions? \\\\ ii) What do the multiparticle final states look like? Are there jets and if so do they reflect the parton structure of hadrons? Do the final states produced in deep inelastic hadron-hadron scattering look similar to those produced in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering? \\\\ iii) Are heavy objects and/or new quantum numbers produced in hard hadron-hadron collisions? \\\\ \\\\The apparatus comprises a vertex magnet (1 m gap, 2 m diameter, 15 kG) with a 30 cm long hyd...

  7. Hadronic production of glueballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Local Gauge Invariance of SU(3)/sub c/ and color confinement would require that the only hadrons in the world be glueballs. However, when we add the quarks and obtain QCD it is experimentally clear that quark built states mask the expected glueballs. Thus discovery of glueballs is essential for the viability of QCD. Papers presented at the 1983 International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics on the hadronic production of glueballs and searches for glueballs are reviewed

  8. Hadronic jets an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics is an incredibly rich subject detailing the narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment. This book is a general overview of jet physics for scientists not directly involved in the field. It presents the basic experimental and theoretical problems arising when dealing with jets, and describing the solutions proposed in recent years.

  9. Hadronization in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, G.; Blok, H.P.; Boudard, A.; Kopeliovich, B.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation of the space time structure of quark propagation and hadronization is proposed by studying particle production in deep-inelastic scattering of electrons from nucleons and nuclei with high statistics. A 15 to 30 GeV electron beam impinging on targets of hydrogen, deuterium, helium, carbon and lead is planned to be used and the final state hadrons are to be detected in a large solid angle device. (authors). 48 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Hadron structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    1981-03-01

    The x dependence of hadron structure functions is investigated. If quarks can exist in very low mass states (10 MeV for d and u quarks) the pion structure function is predicted to behave like (1-x) and not (1-x) 2 in a x-region around 1. Relativistic and non-relativistic quark bound state pictures of hadrons are considered together with their relation with the Q 2 evolution of structure functions. Good agreement with data is in general obtained

  11. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  12. Increased Incidence of Urolithiasis and Bacteremia During Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Coinfection Due to Synergistic Induction of Urease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Smith, Sara N.; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. Methods. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Results. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. Conclusions. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI. PMID:24280366

  13. Partial meniscectomy is associated with increased risk of incident radiographic osteoarthritis and worsening cartilage damage in the following year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Kwoh, C.K. [University of Arizona Arthritis Center and University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hannon, Michael J.; Grago, Jason [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hunter, David J. [University of Sydney, Department of Rheumatology, Royal North Shore Hospital and Kolling Institute, St Leonards (Australia); Eckstein, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); Boudreau, Robert M. [University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Englund, Martin [Lund University, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Orthopaedics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund (Sweden); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To assess whether partial meniscectomy is associated with increased risk of radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) and worsening cartilage damage in the following year. We studied 355 knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative that developed ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥ 2), which were matched with control knees. The MR images were assessed using the semi-quantitative MOAKS system. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate risk of incident ROA. Logistic regression was used to assess the risk of worsening cartilage damage in knees with partial meniscectomy that developed ROA. In the group with incident ROA, 4.4 % underwent partial meniscectomy during the year prior to the case-defining visit, compared with none of the knees that did not develop ROA. All (n = 31) knees that had partial meniscectomy and 58.9 % (n = 165) of the knees with prevalent meniscal damage developed ROA (OR = 2.51, 95 % CI [1.73, 3.64]). In knees that developed ROA, partial meniscectomy was associated with an increased risk of worsening cartilage damage (OR = 4.51, 95 % CI [1.53, 13.33]). The probability of having had partial meniscectomy was higher in knees that developed ROA. When looking only at knees that developed ROA, partial meniscectomy was associated with greater risk of worsening cartilage damage. (orig.)

  14. Implicating the H63D polymorphism in the HFE gene in increased incidence of solid cancers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L L; Gu, D Y; Zhao, T T; Tang, C J; Xu, Y; Chen, J F

    2015-10-29

    A number of previous studies have demonstrated that the HFE H63D polymorphism is associated with increased risk of incidence multiple types of cancer, including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and gynecological malignant tumors. However, the clinical outcomes were inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the effect of the H63D variant on the incidence of solid tumor. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles associating the HFE H63D polymorphism with cancer risk. The relationships were evaluated by calculating the pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 28 studies, including 7728 cancer cases and 11,895 controls, were identified. Statistically significant associations were identified between the HFE H63D polymorphism and solid cancer risk (CG vs CC, OR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.07-1.23, P HFE H63D polymorphism may play a critical role in the increased aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer.

  15. Increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia during Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii coinfection due to synergistic induction of urease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-05-15

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI.

  16. Quark-model study of the hadron structure and the hadron-hadron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarce, A; Caramés, T F; Vijande, J; Garcilazo, H

    2011-01-01

    Recent results of hadron spectroscopy and hadron-hadron interaction within a quark model framework are reviewed. Higher order Fock space components are considered based on new experimental data on low-energy hadron phenomenology. The purpose of this study is to obtain a coherent description of the low-energy hadron phenomenology to constrain QCD phenomenological models and try to learn about low-energy realizations of the theory.

  17. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH 3 ) 4 ) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h ∼ 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Increasing incidence of mucormycosis in a large Spanish hospital from 2007 to 2015: Epidemiology and microbiological characterization of the isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guinea

    Full Text Available We studied 19 cases of proven/probable mucormycosis diagnosed from 2007 to 2015 in our hospital and assessed the microbiological characteristics of the isolates. We recorded the incidence of mucormycosis and clinical and microbiological data of infected patients. Isolates were identified to molecular level and tested for their antifungal susceptibility to azoles, amphotericin B, and liposomal amphotericin B according to the CLSI M-38 A2 procedure. The incidence of mucormycosis in cases/100,000 hospital admissions during 2007-2015 increased significantly with respect to that reported in 1988-2006 (3.3 vs. 1.2; P<0.05. Patients mainly had hematological malignancies (52.6% and/or trauma/surgical wounds (52.6% and had received antifungal agents before the diagnosis of mucormycosis in 68% of cases. Diagnosis was by isolation (n = 17/19 and/or direct staining (n = 17/18 of Mucorales fungi in clinical samples. Identification was by panfungal PCR in patients with negative results in culture and in direct staining. The microorganisms identified were Lichtheimia spp. (42%, Rhizopus spp. (21%, Cunninghamella bertholletiae (16%, and others (21%. Liposomal amphotericin B was always more active than the other drugs against all the microorganisms except C. bertholletiae. All patients received antifungal treatment with 1 or more antifungal agents, mainly liposomal amphotericin B (17/19. Mortality was 47.4%, although this was significantly lower in the 11 patients in whom debridement was performed (18% vs. 87.5% (P = 0.015. The incidence of mucormycosis has risen in recent years. The proportion of cases with soft tissue involvement was high, and Lichtheimia was the most frequently involved species. The highest antifungal activity was observed with liposomal amphotericin B.

  19. Artificial Neural Networks For Hadron Hadron Cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELMashad, M.; ELBakry, M.Y.; Tantawy, M.; Habashy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years artificial neural networks (ANN ) have emerged as a mature and viable framework with many applications in various areas. Artificial neural networks theory is sometimes used to refer to a branch of computational science that uses neural networks as models to either simulate or analyze complex phenomena and/or study the principles of operation of neural networks analytically. In this work a model of hadron- hadron collision using the ANN technique is present, the hadron- hadron based ANN model calculates the cross sections of hadron- hadron collision. The results amply demonstrate the feasibility of such new technique in extracting the collision features and prove its effectiveness

  20. Confirmation of the reported association of clonal chromosomal mosaicism with an increased risk of incident hematologic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula M Schick

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities provide clinical utility in the diagnosis and treatment of hematologic malignancies, and may be predictive of malignant transformation in individuals without apparent clinical presentation of a hematologic cancer. In an effort to confirm previous reports of an association between clonal mosaicism and incident hematologic cancer, we applied the anomDetectBAF algorithm to call chromosomal anomalies in genotype data from previously conducted Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS. The genotypes were initially collected from DNA derived from peripheral blood of 12,176 participants in the Group Health electronic Medical Records and Genomics study (eMERGE and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI. We detected clonal mosaicism in 169 individuals (1.4% and large clonal mosaic events (>2 mb in 117 (1.0% individuals. Though only 9.5% of clonal mosaic carriers had an incident diagnosis of hematologic cancer (multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma, or leukemia, the carriers had a 5.5-fold increased risk (95% CI: 3.3-9.3; p-value = 7.5×10(-11 of developing these cancers subsequently. Carriers of large mosaic anomalies showed particularly pronounced risk of subsequent leukemia (HR = 19.2, 95% CI: 8.9-41.6; p-value = 7.3×10(-14. Thus we independently confirm the association between detectable clonal mosaicism and hematologic cancer found previously in two recent publications.

  1. Hadron Dragons strike again

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Dragon Boat team – the Hadron Dragons – achieved a fantastic result at the "Paddle for Cancer" Dragon Boat Festival at Lac de Joux on 6 September. CERN Hadron Dragons heading for the start line.Under blue skies and on a clear lake, the Hadron Dragons won 2nd place in a hard-fought final, following top times in the previous heats. In a close and dramatic race – neck-and-neck until the final 50 metres – the local Lac-de-Joux team managed to inch ahead at the last moment. The Hadron Dragons were delighted to take part in this festival. No one would turn down a day out in such a friendly and fun atmosphere, but the Dragons were also giving their support to cancer awareness and fund-raising in association with ESCA (English-Speaking Cancer Association of Geneva). Riding on their great success in recent competitions, the Hadron Dragons plan to enter the last Dragon Boat festival of 2009 in Annecy on 17-18 October. This will coincide with t...

  2. Increasing incidence of early onset Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A.; Andersen, Per Kragh; Svendsen, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... of 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...

  3. Diet-Induced Obesity Is Associated with an Impaired NK Cell Function and an Increased Colon Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bähr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased colon cancer incidence, but underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Previous studies showed altered Natural killer (NK cell functions in obese individuals. Therefore, we studied the impact of an impaired NK cell functionality on the increased colon cancer risk in obesity. In vitro investigations demonstrated a decreased IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxicity of human NK cells against colon tumor cells after NK cell preincubation with the adipokine leptin. In addition, leptin incubation decreased the expression of activating NK cell receptors. In animal studies, colon cancer growth was induced by injection of azoxymethane (AOM in normal weight and diet-induced obese rats. Body weight and visceral fat mass were increased in obese animals compared to normal weight rats. AOM-treated obese rats showed an increased quantity, size, and weight of colon tumors compared to the normal weight tumor group. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated a decreased number of NK cells in spleen and liver in obesity. Additionally, the expression levels of activating NK cell receptors were lower in spleen and liver of obese rats. The results show for the first time that the decreased number and impaired NK cell function may be one cause for the higher colon cancer risk in obesity.

  4. Hadron spectroscopy in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Palano, Antimo

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study the properties and decays of heavy flavored hadrons produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The data collected in the LHC Run I enables precision spectroscopy studies of beauty and charm hadrons. The latest results on spectroscopy of conventional and exotic hadrons are reviewed. In particular the discovery of the first charmonium pentaquark states in the $J/\\psi p$ system, the possible existence of four-quark states decaying to $J/\\psi \\phi$ and the confirmation of resonant nature of the $Z_c(4430)^−$ mesonic state are discussed. In the sector of charmed baryons, the observation of five new $\\Omega_c$ states, the observation of the $\\Xi^+_{cc}$ and the study of charmed baryons decaying to $D^0 p$ are presented.

  5. Hadrons at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, Samirnath

    2016-01-01

    High energy laboratories are performing experiments in heavy ion collisions to explore the structure of matter at high temperature and density. This elementary book explains the basic ideas involved in the theoretical analysis of these experimental data. It first develops two topics needed for this purpose, namely hadron interactions and thermal field theory. Chiral perturbation theory is developed to describe hadron interactions and thermal field theory is formulated in the real-time method. In particular, spectral form of thermal propagators is derived for fields of arbitrary spin and used to calculate loop integrals. These developments are then applied to find quark condensate and hadron parameters in medium, including dilepton production. Finally, the non-equilibrium method of statistical field theory to calculate transport coefficients is reviewed. With technical details explained in the text and appendices, this book should be accessible to researchers as well as graduate students interested in thermal ...

  6. Pairing in hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1981-08-01

    A many-body approach to hadron structure is presented, in which we consider two parton species: spin-0 (b-partons), and spin-1/2 (f-partons). We extend a boson and a fermion pairing scheme for the b-, and f-partons respectively, into a Yang-Mills gauge theory. The main feature of this theory is that the gauge field is not identified with the usual gluon field variable in QCD. We study the confinement problem of the hadron constituents, and obtain, for low temperatures, partons that are confined by energy gaps. As the critical temperatures for the corresponding phase transitions are approached, the energy gap gradually disappears, and confinement is lost. The theory goes beyond the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator quark model, in the sense of giving physical reasons why a non-relativistic approximation is adequate in describing the internal dynamics of hadron structure. (author)

  7. High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1979-03-01

    Work on high energy hadron-hadron collisions in the geometrical model, performed under the DOE Contract No. EY-76-S-09-0946, is summarized. Specific items studied include the behavior of elastic hadron scatterings at super high energies and the existence of many dips, the computation of meson radii in the geometrical model, and the hadronic matter current effects in inelastic two-body collisions

  8. Composite hadron models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    Composite models of hadrons are considered. The main attention is paid to the Sakata, S model. In the framework of the model it is presupposed that proton, neutron and Λ particle are the fundamental particles. Theoretical studies of unknown fundamental constituents of a substance have led to the creation of the quark model. In the framework of the quark model using the theory of SU(6)-symmetry the classification of mesons and baryons is considered. Using the quark model relations between hadron masses, their spins and electromagnetic properties are explained. The problem of three-colour model with many flavours is briefly presented

  9. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  10. WORKSHOPS: Hadron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    'Hadron facilities' – high intensity (typically a hundred microamps), medium energy (30-60 GeV) machines producing intense secondary beams of pions, kaons, etc., are being widely touted as a profitable research avenue to supplement what is learned through the thrust for higher and higher energies. This interest was reflected at an International Workshop on Hadron Facility Technology, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico. As well as invited talks describing the various projects being pushed in the US, Europe and Japan, the meeting included working groups covering linacs, beam dynamics, hardware, radiofrequency, polarized beams and experimental facilities

  11. Large transverse momenta phenomena in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, N.A.

    1981-05-01

    The production of particles with large transverse momentum in high energy hadron-hadron collisions is reviewed. The emphasis is placed on the experimental results. These results are discussed in terms of present theoretical ideas on interactions between hadronic constituents, but no attempt is made to review the theoretical work in a comprehensive manner. (author)

  12. Quark models in hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, Shashikant C.

    2007-01-01

    In this talk, we review the role played by the quark models in the study of interaction of strong, weak and electromagnetic probes with hadrons at intermediate and high momentum transfers. By hadrons, we mean individual nucleons as well as nuclei. We argue that at these momentum transfers, the structure of hadrons plays an important role. The hadron structure of the hadrons is because of the underlying quark structure of hadrons and therefore the quark models play an important role in determining the hadron structure. Further, the properties of hadrons are likely to change when these are placed in nuclear medium and this change should arise from the underlying quark structure. We shall consider some quark models to look into these aspects. (author)

  13. Nonscaling parametrization of hadronic spectra and dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    Using the popular Wdowczyk-Wolfendale parametrization (WW-parametrization) as an example one studies restrictions imposed by a dual parton model for different nonscaling parametrizations of the pulsed hadron spectra in soft hadron-hadron and hadron-nuclear interactions. One derived a new parametrization free from basic drawback of the WW-formulae. In the central range the determined parametrization show agreement with the Wdowczyk-Wolfendale formula, but in contrast to the last-named one it does not result in contradiction with the experiment due to fast reduction of inelastic factor reduction with energy increase [ru

  14. Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, Arlene

    2003-01-01

    The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

  15. HIV incidence on the increase among homosexual men attending an Amsterdam sexually transmitted disease clinic: using a novel approach for detecting recent infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.; Spaargaren, Joke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Beijnen, Jos; Coutinho, Roel A.; Fennema, Han S. A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Dramatic increases have occurred in sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and in sexual risk behaviour among homosexual men in Amsterdam and internationally. We investigated whether these trends indicate a resurgence of the HIV epidemic. Methods: HIV incidence was determined among

  16. Hadron particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    Radiation therapy with ''hadrons'' (protons, neutrons, pions, ions) has accrued a 55-year track record, with by now over 30,000 patients having received treatments with one of these particles. Very good, and in some cases spectacular results are leading to growth in the field in specific well-defined directions. The most noted contributor to success has been the ability to better define and control the radiation field produced with these particles, to increase the dose delivered to the treatment volume while achieving a high degree of sparing of normal tissue. An additional benefit is the highly-ionizing, character of certain beams, leading to creater cell-killing potential for tumor lines that have historically been very resistant to radiation treatments. Until recently these treatments have been delivered in laboratories and research centers whose primary, or original mission was physics research. With maturity in the field has come both the desire to provide beam facilities more accessible to the clinical setting, of a hospital, as well as achieving, highly-efficient, reliable and economical accelerator and beam-delivery systems that can make maximum advantage of the physical characteristics of these particle beams. Considerable work in technology development is now leading, to the implementation of many of these ideas, and a new generation of clinically-oriented facilities is beginning to appear. We will discuss both the physical, clinical and technological considerations that are driving these designs, as well as highlighting, specific examples of new facilities that are either now treating, patients or that will be doing so in the near future

  17. Mechanisms of High Energy Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Mechanisms of high energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collision processes are depicted qualitatively, as prompted experimentally. In hadron-nucleus collisions the interaction of the incident hadron in intranuclear matter is localized in small cylindrical volume, with the radius as large as the strong interaction range is, centered on the hadron course in the nucleus. The nucleon emission is induced by the hadron in its passing through the nucleus; particles are produced via intermediate objects produced in 2 → 2 endoergic reactions of the hadron and its successors with downstream nucleons. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the outcome of the reaction appears as the composition of statistically independent hadron-nucleus collision outcomes at various impact parameters. Observable effects supporting such mechanisms are discussed. 51 refs

  18. Hadronization of dense partonic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The parton recombination model has turned out to be a valuable tool to describe hadronization in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. I review the model and revisit recent progress in our understanding of hadron correlations. I also discuss higher Fock states in the hadrons, possible violations of the elliptic flow scaling and recombination effects in more dilute systems.

  19. Increase in incidence of hyperthyroidism predominantly occurs in young people after iodine fortification of salt in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2006-10-01

    To prevent goiter and nodular hyperthyroidism, iodine fortification (IF) of salt was introduced in Denmark in 1998. We prospectively registered all new cases of overt hyperthyroidism in two areas of Denmark before and for the first 6 yr after iodine fortification. We used a computer-based register of all new cases of hyperthyroidism in two population subcohorts with moderate iodine deficiency (Aalborg, n = 310,124) and mild iodine deficiency (Copenhagen, n = 225,707), respectively. Data were obtained 1) before IF (1997-1998); 2) during voluntary IF (1999-2000); 3) during the early (2001-2002) period of mandatory IF; and 4) during the late (2003-2004) period with mandatory IF. The overall incidence rate of hyperthyroidism increased [baseline, 102.8/100,000/year; voluntary IF, 122.8; early mandatory IF, 140.7; late mandatory IF, 138.7 (P for trend Hyperthyroidism increased in both sexes (P hyperthyroidism. Contrary to current concepts, many of the new cases were observed in young subjects, and are presumably of autoimmune origin. Furthermore, monitoring is expected to show a decrease in the number of elderly subjects suffering from nodular hyperthyroidism.

  20. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  1. Hadron collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pondrom, L.

    1991-10-03

    An introduction to the techniques of analysis of hadron collider events is presented in the context of the quark-parton model. Production and decay of W and Z intermediate vector bosons are used as examples. The structure of the Electroweak theory is outlined. Three simple FORTRAN programs are introduced, to illustrate Monte Carlo calculation techniques. 25 refs.

  2. Digital Hadron Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilki, Burak

    2018-03-01

    The Particle Flow Algorithms attempt to measure each particle in a hadronic jet individually, using the detector providing the best energy/momentum resolution. Therefore, the spatial segmentation of the calorimeter plays a crucial role. In this context, the CALICE Collaboration developed the Digital Hadron Calorimeter. The Digital Hadron Calorimeter uses Resistive Plate Chambers as active media and has a 1-bit resolution (digital) readout of 1 × 1 cm2 pads. The calorimeter was tested with steel and tungsten absorber structures, as well as with no absorber structure, at the Fermilab and CERN test beam facilities over several years. In addition to conventional calorimetric measurements, the Digital Hadron Calorimeter offers detailed measurements of event shapes, rigorous tests of simulation models and various tools for improved performance due to its very high spatial granularity. Here we report on the results from the analysis of pion and positron events. Results of comparisons with the Monte Carlo simulations are also discussed. The analysis demonstrates the unique utilization of detailed event topologies.

  3. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  4. Chasseur de hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Eytier, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Qu'aurait-il proposé comme solutions face aux déboires du LHC, le grand collisionneur du hadrons du CERN, arrêté peu après son démarrage à l'automne 2008? Lucien Edmond André Montanet était un des grands de la physique des particules. (2 pages)

  5. Hadrons in medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    manifestly the symmetries of the underlying theory of strong interactions, i.e. ..... Note that such a picture, in which the self-energies of hadrons are generated by ..... An experimental verification of this prediction would be a major step forward in.

  6. Hadronic cascade processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Kripfganz, J.; Moehring, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical treatment of hadronic decay cascades within the framework of the statistical bootstrap model is demonstrated on the basis of a simple variant. Selected problems for a more comprehensive formulation of the model such as angular momentum conservation, quantum statistical effects, and the immediate applicability to particle production processes at high energies are discussed in detail

  7. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  8. Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In the spring 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN (the European Particle Physics laboratory) will be switched on for the first time. The huge machine is housed in a circular tunnel, 27 km long, excavated deep under the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1,5 page)

  9. Hadron collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pondrom, L.

    1991-01-01

    An introduction to the techniques of analysis of hadron collider events is presented in the context of the quark-parton model. Production and decay of W and Z intermediate vector bosons are used as examples. The structure of the Electroweak theory is outlined. Three simple FORTRAN programs are introduced, to illustrate Monte Carlo calculation techniques. 25 refs

  10. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. De Barbaro

    2011-01-01

    HCAL operated very efficiently through the first three months of LHC operation, with the percentage of good channels remaining high (> 99.4%). A single, exceptional loss of ~15 pb-1 of good data was caused by the failure of an AC/DC power converter which provided low voltage to half of HE-plus Readout Boxes (RBXs). The supply was replaced and the failure is under investigation by the manufacturer. One major operation problem is the occasional loss of data from a single RBX. While in 2010 these incidents occurred roughly once per week, the rate of RBX data loss cases has increased substantially in 2011. Recent studies have shown that the rate of these incidents is strongly correlated with the collision rate, with on average one incident per 10 pb-1 of integrated luminosity. In order to mitigate this problem, HCAL has introduced an automatic reset of the RBX. With this reset, full operation is restored within about one minute. We believe that the final fix of the problem will require access to all the...

  11. Characteristics of the interactions of 12 C, 22 Ne and 28 Si with emulsion nuclei accompanied with relativistic hadrons in the backward hemisphere at Dubna energy. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nadi, N.; Abdel-salam, A.; Mossa, N.A.; Krasnov, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed study of the characteristics of the interactions accompanied by relativistic hadrons in the backward hemisphere in the collisions of 12 C, 22 Ne and 26 Si projectiles with emulsion nuclei at incident momentum in the range (4.1-4.5) a GeV/C was carried out. For this purpose, random samples of 819, 3812, and 1209 events in case of 22 C, 22 Ne and 26 Si interactions are analyzed, respectively. The behaviour of the shower particles multiplicities, and the pseudorapidity distributions for the different interactions were investigated in terms of the number of emitted shower particles. The pseudorapidity distribution of the shower particles from the interactions accompanied by the emission of backward relativistic hadrons are found to be satisfactorily fitted by a single spindle Gaussian distribution. On the other hand, the pseudorapidity for the shower particles emitted in the interactions not accompanied by backward relativistic hadron are fitted by two Gaussian distributions with two distinct average values. The dispersion of the pseudorapidity distributions are insensitive to the number of the backward relativistic hadrons n b s . However, the average pseudorapidity decreases with increase of number of backward relativistic hadrons. The dependence of the average number of the shower particles produced in the backward and forward hemispheres on the projectile mass number and the impact parameter are also presented. The results yield quite interesting information regarding the production of such backward relativistic hadrons in heavy ions interactions. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Hadron physics from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    Particle physics experiments at modern high luminosity particle accelerators achieve orders of magnitude higher count rates than what was possible ten or twenty years ago. This extremely large statistics allows to draw far reaching conclusions even from minute signals, provided that these signals are well understood by theory. This is, however, ever more difficult to achieve. Presently, technical and scientific progress in general and experimental progress in particle physics in particular, shows typically an exponential growth rate. For example, data acquisition and analysis are, among many other factor, driven by the development of ever more efficient computers and thus by Moore's law. Theory has to keep up with this development by also achieving an exponential increase in precision, which is only possible using powerful computers. This is true for both types of calculations, analytic ones as, e.g., in quantum field perturbation theory, and purely numerical ones as in Lattice QCD. As stated above such calculations are absolutely indispensable to make best use of the extremely costly large particle physics experiments. Thus, it is economically reasonable to invest a certain percentage of the cost of accelerators and experiments in related theory efforts. The basic ideas behind Lattice QCD simulations are the following: Because quarks and gluons can never be observed individually but are always ''confined'' into colorless hadrons, like the proton, all quark-gluon states can be expressed in two different systems of basis states, namely in a quark-gluon basis and the basis of hadron states. The proton, e.g., is an eigenstate of the latter, a specific quark-gluon configuration is part of the former. In the quark-gluon basis a physical hadron, like a proton, is given by an extremely complicated multi-particle wave function containing all effects of quantum fluctuations. This state is so complicated that it is basically impossible to model it

  13. Increasing Incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria following Control of P. falciparum and P. vivax Malaria in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Timothy; Rahman, Hasan A.; Jelip, Jenarun; Ibrahim, Mohammad Y.; Menon, Jayaram; Grigg, Matthew J.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Barber, Bridget E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo and threatens the prospect of malaria elimination. However, little is known about the emergence of P. knowlesi, particularly in Sabah. We reviewed Sabah Department of Health records to investigate the trend of each malaria species over time. Methods Reporting of microscopy-diagnosed malaria cases in Sabah is mandatory. We reviewed all available Department of Health malaria notification records from 1992–2011. Notifications of P. malariae and P. knowlesi were considered as a single group due to microscopic near-identity. Results From 1992–2011 total malaria notifications decreased dramatically, with P. falciparum peaking at 33,153 in 1994 and decreasing 55-fold to 605 in 2011, and P. vivax peaking at 15,857 in 1995 and decreasing 25-fold to 628 in 2011. Notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi also demonstrated a peak in the mid-1990s (614 in 1994) before decreasing to ≈100/year in the late 1990s/early 2000s. However, P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications increased >10-fold between 2004 (n = 59) and 2011 (n = 703). In 1992 P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae/P. knowlesi monoinfections accounted for 70%, 24% and 1% respectively of malaria notifications, compared to 30%, 31% and 35% in 2011. The increase in P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications occurred state-wide, appearing to have begun in the southwest and progressed north-easterly. Conclusions A significant recent increase has occurred in P. knowlesi notifications following reduced transmission of the human Plasmodium species, and this trend threatens malaria elimination. Determination of transmission dynamics and risk factors for knowlesi malaria is required to guide measures to control this rising incidence. PMID:23359830

  14. Follow-up on the problem of increased incidence of thyroid carcinoma from the effects of childhood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, R.T.; Sandifer, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    There has been widespread concern in both the medical and lay community on how to deal with the problem of the increased incidence of thyroid cancer in patients irradiated in the head and neck during childhood, including the difficult question of whether all of these patients should be recalled and screened. Such an approach is not deemed logistically feasible and the desired benefits of the program which hinge on treatment through early detection are nullified by the protracted nature of the disease. The iatrogenic nature of the problem has raised ethical questions concerning professional duty and responsibility. The principle of similar treatment for similar cases seems fairest and most justifiable in pursuit of the goal of equal access to health care. The most effective plan appears to be a carefully devised public education campaign. Informing practicing physicians not already aware of the problem should be an important part of this effort. The responsibility for seeking treatment would be left to the patient who would see his personal physician or be recommended to a previously designated physician in his area

  15. The COMPASS Setup for Physics with Hadron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, Ph.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ciliberti, P.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Cotte, D.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Desforge, D.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Durand, D.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giganon, A.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Gregori, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Hoppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Menon, G.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, Ana Sofia; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pesaro, V.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pires, C.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Reymond, J-M.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rousse, J.Y.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samartsev, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Weitzel, Q.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The main characteristics of the COMPASS experimental setup for physics with hadron beams are described. This setup was designed to perform exclusive measurements of processes with several charged and/or neutral particles in the final state. Making use of a large part of the apparatus that was previously built for spin structure studies with a muon beam, it also features a new target system as well as new or upgraded detectors. The hadron setup is able to operate at the high incident hadron flux available at CERN. It is characterised by large angular and momentum coverages, large and nearly flat acceptances, and good two and three-particle mass resolutions. In 2008 and 2009 it was successfully used with positive and negative hadron beams and with liquid hydrogen and solid nuclear targets. This article describes the new and upgraded detectors and auxiliary equipment, outlines the reconstruction procedures used, and summarises the general performance of the setup.

  16. Increased incidence of cancer observed in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients versus HIV-monoinfected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Héctor; Pértega, Sonia; Rodríguez-Osorio, Iria; Castro-Iglesias, Ángeles; Baliñas, Josefa; Rodríguez-Martínez, Guillermo; Mena, Álvaro; Poveda, Eva

    2017-05-15

    Cancer is a growing problem in persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection could play an additional role in carcinogenesis. Herein, all cancers in an HIV-mono and HIV/HCV-coinfected cohort were evaluated and compared to identify any differences between these two populations. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including all cancers in PLWH between 1993 and 2014. Cancers were classified in two groups: AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) and non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC). Cancer incidence rates were calculated and compared with that observed in the Spanish general population (GLOBOCAN, 2012), computing the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). A competing risk approach was used to estimate the probability of cancer after HIV diagnosis. Cumulative incidence in HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients was also compared using multivariable analysis. A total of 185 patients (117 HIV-monoinfected and 68 HIV/HCV) developed cancer in the 26 580 patient-years cohort, with an incidence rate of 696 cancers per 100 000 person-years, higher than in the general population (SIR = 3.8). The incidence rate of NADC in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients was 415.0 (SIR = 3.4), significantly higher than in monoinfected (377.3; SIR = 1.8). After adjustments, HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had a higher cumulative incidence of NADC than HIV-monoinfected (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80), even when excluding hepatocellular carcinomas (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.26). PLWH have a higher incidence of NADC than the general population and HCV-coinfection is associated with a higher incidence of NADC. These data justify the need for prevention strategies in these two populations and the importance of eradicating HCV.

  17. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  18. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  19. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  20. Physics at Hadronic Colliders (3/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Hadron colliders are often called "discovery machines" since they produce the highest mass particles and thus give often the best chance to discover new high mass particles. Currently they are particularly topical since the Large Hadron Collider will start operating later this year, increasing the centre-of-mass energy by a factor of seven compared to the current highest energy collider, the Tevatron. I will review the benefits and challenges of hadron colliders and review some of the current physics results from the Tevatron and give an outlook to the future results we are hoping for at the LHC. Prerequisite knowledge: Introduction to Particle Physics (F. Close), Detectors (W. Riegler, at least mostly) and The Standard Model (A. Pich)

  1. Increasing Incidence and Age at Diagnosis among Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus over a 20-Year Period in Auckland (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G. B.; Reed, Peter W.; Jefferies, Craig; Cutfield, Samuel W.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children Auckland region (New Zealand) over 20 years (1990–2009). Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients Auckland over 20 years. Contrary to other studies, age at diagnosis has increased and the greatest rise in incidence occurred in children 10–14 yr. There was little change in BMI SDS in this population, providing no support for the ‘accelerator hypothesis’. PMID:22389717

  2. Aumento da incidência de carcinoma basocelular em hospital universitário: 1999 a 2009 Increase in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma in a university hospital between 1999 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A incidência do carcinoma basocelular vem aumentando em todos os países. Realizou-se estudo ecológico de 5169 laudos de carcinoma basocelular, da FMB-Unesp, entre janeiro/1999 e dezembro/2009. O incremento médio da incidência para o período foi de 90,6%, projetando-se um diagnóstico para cada 15 pacientes encaminhados à dermatologia. Tal tendência se manteve, mesmo quando indexada pelo número de laudos histopatológicos, movimento hospitalar, atendimentos da dermatologia e população de Botucatu.The incidence of basal cell carcinoma is increasing worldwide. An ecological study was conducted using the pathology reports from 5169 cases of basal cell carcinoma diagnosed at the Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP between January 1999 and December 2009. The mean increase in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma over this period was 90.6%, suggesting that one case of basal cell carcinoma could be expected for every 15 patients referred to dermatology. This trend was also found when the incidence was indexed according to the absolute number of histopathology exams, the total number of hospital consultations, the total number of dermatological consultations and the population of the town of Botucatu

  3. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  4. Japanese Hadron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Hadron Project (JHP) is aimed at producing various kinds of unstable secondary beams based on high-intensity protons from a new accelerator complex. The 1 GeV protons, first produced from a 1 GeV linac, are transferred to a compressor/stretcher ring, where a sharply-pulsed beam or a stretched continuous beam will be produced. The pulsed beam will be used for a pulsed muon source (M arena) and a spallation neutron source (N arena). A part of the proton beam will be used to produce unstable nuclei, which will be accelerated to several MeV/nucleon (E arena). The purpose and impact of JHP will be described in view of future applications of hadronic beams to nuclear energy and material science. (author)

  5. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  6. Hadron beams and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1994-01-01

    There were four sessions on Hadron Beams and Accelerators with 7 talks on Siberian Snakes and spin rotators, 3 talks on polarization build-up of unpolarized beams in storage rings and 5. 9, and 3 talks on low, medium, and high energy polarimeters, respectively. In this paper I will briefly describe a few highlights from these sessions, giving emphasis to topics which I think will play an important role in the future

  7. Hadron beams and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    There were four sessions on Hadron Beams and Accelerators with 7 talks on Siberian Snakes and spin rotators, 3 talks on polarization build-up of unpolarized beams in storage rings and 5, 9, and 3 talks on low, medium, and high energy polarimeters, respectively. In this paper I will briefly describe a few highlights from these sessions, giving emphasis to topics which I think will play an important role in the future. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  9. Quadrupole moments of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    1985-01-01

    In chiral bag model an expression is obtained for the quark wave functions with account of color and pion interaction of quarks. The quadrupole moments of nonstrange hadrons are calculated. Quadrupole moment of nucleon isobar is found to be Q(Δ)=-6.3x10 -28 esub(Δ)(cm)sup(2). Fredictions of the chiral bag model are in strong disagreement with the non-relativistic quark model

  10. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  11. QCD and Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  12. Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Plans for future hadron colliders are presented, and accelerator physics and engineering aspects common to these machines are discussed. The Tevatron is presented first, starting with a summary of the achievements in Run IB which finished in 1995, followed by performance predictions for Run II which will start in 1999, and the TeV33 project, aiming for a peak luminosity $L ~ 1 (nbs)^-1$. The next machine is the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN, planned to come into operation in 2005. The last set of machines are Very Large Hadron Colliders which might be constructed after the LHC. Three variants are presented: Two machines with a beam energy of 50 TeV, and dipole fields of 1.8 and 12.6 T in the arcs, and a machine with 100 TeV and 12 T. The discussion of accelerator physics aspects includes the beam-beam effect, bunch spacing and parasitic collisions, and the crossing angle. The discussion of the engineering aspects covers synchrotron radiation and stored energy in the beams, the power in the debris of the p...

  13. Hadronization, spin and lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Yuval; Nachshon, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of lifetimes can be done in two ways. For very short lived particles, the width can be measured. For long lived ones, the lifetime can be directly measured, for example, using a displaced vertex. Practically, the lifetime cannot be extracted for particles with intermediate lifetimes. We show that for such cases information about the lifetime can be extracted for heavy colored particles that can be produced with known polarization. For example, a t-like particle with intermediate lifetime hadronizes into a superposition of the lowest two hadronic states, T* and T (the equivalent of B* and B). Depolarization effects are governed by time scales that are much longer than the hadronization time scale, Λ QCD -1 . After a time of order 1/Δm, with Δm≡m(T*)-m(T), half of the initial polarization is lost. The polarization is totally lost after a time of order 1/Γ γ , with Γ γ = Γ(T* → Tγ). Thus, by comparing the initial and final polarization, we get information on the particle's lifetime.

  14. Supersymmetry at hadron supercolliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzialo, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    At the next generation of hadron supercolliders, the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) and the European Large Hadron Collider (LHC), protons will be collided at such high energy to allow the creation of new particles with masses greater those that have been previously created in the laboratory. One of the most important questions to be resolved at these accelerators is whether or not any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model is manifest below the TeV scale. It is expected that the strongly-interacting supersymmetric particles, the gluinos and squarks, will be pair-produced in the most abundance there. Light gluinos primarily decay into quarks and the lightest supersymmetric particle, which is assumed to escape detection; this gives the classic supersymmetric signature of events with large missing momentum. It is known, however, that for gluinos of masses larger than just 100 GeV this process is no longer the preferred gluino decay channel. New signals must therefore be sought to either detect these particles, or to set meaningful lower mass limits. It is in this work that such new detection strategies for supersymmetry at hadron supercolliders are proposed. Gluino and squark production rates and decay channels are studied in a model-independent fashion over the entire theoretical mass range of interest. New experimental signatures are proposed and compared with sources of background over a wide region of the parameter space that characterizes different supersymmetric models

  15. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golaleh Asghari

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef, and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trend<0.001, 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01-7.87; P for trend = 0.037, and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01-6.61; P for trend = 0.009 for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents.

  16. Increasing incidence and age at diagnosis among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus over a 20-year period in Auckland (New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G B Derraik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children <15 years of age (yr in the Auckland region (New Zealand over 20 years (1990-2009. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients <15 yr diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, from an unselected complete regional cohort. RESULTS: There were 884 new cases of type 1 diabetes, and age at diagnosis rose from 7.6 yr in 1990/1 to 8.9 yr in 2008/9 (r(2 = 0.31, p = 0.009. There was a progressive increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr (p<0.0001, reaching 22.5 per 100,000 in 2009. However, the rise in incidence did not occur evenly among age groups, being 2.5-fold higher in older children (10-14 yr than in the youngest group (0-4 yr. The incidence of new cases of type 1 diabetes was highest in New Zealand Europeans throughout the study period in all age groups (p<0.0001, but the rate of increase was similar in New Zealand Europeans and Non-Europeans. Type 1 diabetes incidence and average annual increase were similar in both sexes. There was no change in BMI SDS shortly after diagnosis, and no association between BMI SDS and age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a steady increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr in Auckland over 20 years. Contrary to other studies, age at diagnosis has increased and the greatest rise in incidence occurred in children 10-14 yr. There was little change in BMI SDS in this population, providing no support for the 'accelerator hypothesis'.

  17. Performance of a UA1 hadron calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Grant, D.; Homer, R.J.; Kenyon, I.R.; McMahon, T.; Schanz, G.; Sumorok, K.C.T.O.; Watkins, P.M.; Wilson, J.A.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Thompson, G.; Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Hill, D.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Shah, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    The hadron calorimeter for the UA1 experiment at the CERN SPS proton-antiproton collider consists of a lead-scintillator sandwich plus an iron-scintillator sandwich with wavelength shifter readout. The authors have tested prototype modules in muon and hadron beams in the momentum range from 0.7 to 90 GeV/c. For several angles of incidence, the authors have studied the uniformity of the response to hadrons as a function of position. This has included regions where there is reduced sensitivity due to mechanical constraints and the presence of the wavelength shifter readout. The response, resolution and degree of shower containment were measured as a function of incident momentum. (Auth.)

  18. The role of hadron resonances in hot hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goity, Jose [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Hadron resonances can play a significant role in hot hadronic matter. Of particular interest for this workshop are the contributions of hyperon resonances. The question about how to quantify the effects of resonances is here addressed. In the framework of the hadron resonance gas, the chemically equilibrated case, relevant in the context of lattice QCD calculations, and the chemically frozen case relevant in heavy ion collisions are discussed.

  19. Increasing risk behaviour can outweigh the benefits of antiretroviral drug treatment on the HIV incidence among men-having-sex-with-men in Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yifan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmission through contacts among MSM (men who have sex with men is one of the dominating contributors to HIV prevalence in industrialized countries. In Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands, the MSM risk group has been traced for decades. This has motivated studies which provide detailed information about MSM's risk behavior statistically, psychologically and sociologically. Despite the era of potent antiretroviral therapy, the incidence of HIV among MSM increases. In the long term the contradictory effects of risk behavior and effective therapy are still poorly understood. Methods Using a previously presented Complex Agent Network model, we describe steady and casual partnerships to predict the HIV spreading among MSM. Behavior-related parameters and values, inferred from studies on Amsterdam MSM, are fed into the model; we validate the model using historical yearly incidence data. Subsequently, we study scenarios to assess the contradictory effects of risk behavior and effective therapy, by varying corresponding values of parameters. Finally, we conduct quantitative analysis based on the resulting incidence data. Results The simulated incidence reproduces the ACS historical incidence well and helps to predict the HIV epidemic among MSM in Amsterdam. Our results show that in the long run the positive influence of effective therapy can be outweighed by an increase in risk behavior of at least 30% for MSM. Conclusion We recommend, based on the model predictions, that lowering risk behavior is the prominent control mechanism of HIV incidence even in the presence of effective therapy.

  20. Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in the province of Salamanca: comparison of two periods: 2004-2006 and 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Miguel Marcos-Prieto

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare incidence, mortality and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC in the province of Salamanca over two different periods: 2010-2012 and 2004-2006. Methods: Retrospective observational study. We include all diagnosed cases of CRC according to histopathological criteria from 01/01/2004 to 31/12/2006 and from 01/01/2010 to 31/12/2012. The studied variables were sex, age, date of diagnosis and tumor location. Cumulative incidence and specific incidence in different age groups were measured and compared between the two periods. The age rates were adjusted to the standard world population so that the results could be compared with those of other populations. Results: We detected 38% more cases of CRC in the 2010-2012 period than in 2004-2006. Variables distribution (sex, age at diagnosis and location was similar in both groups. More than twice as many colonoscopies were performed in 2010-2012 than in 2004-2006. Population mortality due to CRC also increased, although much less importantly than the incidence of this condition. Conclusions: There has been a clear increase in CRC incidence in the province of Salamanca from 2004-2006 to 2010-2012 which is not related to the ageing of the population. The remarkable increase in colonoscopies may have been an important factor for the increased detection.

  1. Increasing incidence and age at diagnosis among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus over a 20-year period in Auckland (New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B; Reed, Peter W; Jefferies, Craig; Cutfield, Samuel W; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children Auckland region (New Zealand) over 20 years (1990-2009). We performed a retrospective review of all patients new cases of type 1 diabetes, and age at diagnosis rose from 7.6 yr in 1990/1 to 8.9 yr in 2008/9 (r(2) = 0.31, p = 0.009). There was a progressive increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children new cases of type 1 diabetes was highest in New Zealand Europeans throughout the study period in all age groups (pNew Zealand Europeans and Non-Europeans. Type 1 diabetes incidence and average annual increase were similar in both sexes. There was no change in BMI SDS shortly after diagnosis, and no association between BMI SDS and age at diagnosis. There has been a steady increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children Auckland over 20 years. Contrary to other studies, age at diagnosis has increased and the greatest rise in incidence occurred in children 10-14 yr. There was little change in BMI SDS in this population, providing no support for the 'accelerator hypothesis'.

  2. Exponentially increasing incidences of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Europe correlate with low personal annual UV doses and suggests 2 major risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J; Ashrafi, Samira; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2015-01-01

    For several decades the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) steadily increased in fair-skinned, indoor-working people around the world. Scientists think poor tanning ability resulting in sunburns initiate CMM, but they do not understand why the incidence continues to increase despite the increased use of sunscreens and formulations offering more protection. This paradox, along with lower incidences of CMM in outdoor workers, although they have significantly higher annual UV doses than indoor workers have, perplexes scientists. We found a temporal exponential increase in the CMM incidence indicating second-order reaction kinetics revealing the existence of 2 major risk factors. From epidemiology studies, we know one major risk factor for getting CMM is poor tanning ability and we now propose the other major risk factor may be the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) because clinicians find β HPVs in over half the biopsies. Moreover, we uncovered yet another paradox; the increasing CMM incidences significantly correlate with decreasing personal annual UV dose, a proxy for low vitamin D3 levels. We also discovered the incidence of CMM significantly increased with decreasing personal annual UV dose from 1960, when it was almost insignificant, to 2000. UV and other DNA-damaging agents can activate viruses, and UV-induced cytokines can hide HPV from immune surveillance, which may explain why CMM also occurs in anatomical locations where the sun does not shine. Thus, we propose the 2 major risk factors for getting CMM are intermittent UV exposures that result in low cutaneous levels of vitamin D3 and possibly viral infection.

  3. Increasing Incidence and Recurrence Rate of Venous Thromboembolism in Paediatric Oncology Patients in One Single Centre Over 25 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Irene L. M.; van Els, Anne L.; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; van Ommen, C. Heleen

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication in paediatric oncology patients. To identify the incidence, risk factors and recurrence rate of VTE in paediatric oncology patients, an observational, retrospective cohort study of all consecutive children (≤18 years) with malignancies, treated

  4. Rising incidence of Enterococcus species in microbiological specimens from orthopedic patients correlates to increased use of cefuroxime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siesing, Peter Christian; Alva-Jørgensen, Jens Peter; Brodersen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are emerging causes of severe infections, including wound and bone infections in orthopedic patients. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the incidence of enterococci in tissue samples (biopsies) from orthopedic patients and consumpt...

  5. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trendobesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents.

  6. Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, T.J.W.; van der Bij, A.K.; Prins, M.; Bruisten, S.M.; Brinkman, K.; Ruys, T.A.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; de Vries, H.J.C.; Mulder, J.W.; van Agtmael, M.; Jurriaans, S.; Wolthers, K.C.; Coutinho, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively screened 1836 men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (1984-2003) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. HCV incidence was 0.18/100 person-years (PY) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive MSM (8/4408 PY [95% confidence interval {CI},

  7. Increasing incidence of acute Achilles tendon rupture and a noticeable decline in surgical treatment from 1994 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganestam, Ann; Kallemose, Thomas; Troelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of acute Achilles tendon rupture in Denmark from 1994 to 2013 with focus on sex, age, geographical areas, seasonal variation and choice of treatment. METHODS: The National Patient Registry was retrospectively searched to find the ...

  8. Quantum chromodynamics and hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshitser, Y.L.; Dyakonov, D.I.

    1979-07-01

    These lectures are devoted to the description of the various properties of hard scattering processes with the participation of hadrons in the framework of Quantum Chromodynamics. We discuss in detail the validity and region of applicability of perturbation theory applied to hadron processes. Particular attention is paid to the question of the structure of quark and gluon jets produced in hard processes (as an example, e + e - annihilation into hadrons). In addition to giving a pedagogical review, we also present new results. (orig.)

  9. Hadron collider physics at UCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e + -e - collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2γ at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines

  10. Summary: Hadron dynamics sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Londergan, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Four sessions on Hadron Dynamics were organized at this Workshop. The first topic, QCD Exclusive Reactions and Color Transparency, featured talks by Ralston, Heppelman and Strikman; the second, QCD and Inclusive Reactions had talks by Garvey, Speth and Kisslinger. The third dynamics session, Medium Modification of Elementary Interactions had contributions from Kopeliovich, Alves and Gyulassy; the fourth session Pre-QCD Dynamics and Scattering, had talks by Harris, Myhrer and Brown. An additional joint Spectroscopy/Dynamics session featured talks by Zumbro, Johnson and McClelland. These contributions are reviewed briefly in this summary. Two additional joint sessions between Dynamics and η physics are reviewed by the organizers of the Eta sessions. In such a brief review there is no way the authors can adequately summarize the details of the physics presented here. As a result, they concentrate only on brief impressionistic sketches of the physics topics discussed and their interrelations. They include no bibliography in this summary, but simply refer to the talks given in more detail in the Workshop proceedings. They focus on topics which were common to several presentations in these sessions. First, nuclear and particle descriptions of phenomena are now clearly converging, in both a qualitative and quantitative sense; they show several examples of this convergence. Second, an important issue in hadron dynamics is the extent to which elementary interactions are modified in nuclei at high energies and/or densities, and they illustrate some of these medium effects. Finally, they focus on those dynamical issues where hadron facilities can make an important, or even a unique, contribution to the knowledge of particle and nuclear physics

  11. Charm from hadron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-04-15

    Ever since the discovery of charmed mesons in electron-positron annihilations at SLAC and DESY, a considerable effort has gone into looking for them in other types of reactions. Both neutrino interactions and photoproduction have provided further data on the production and decay of D mesons, but little has emerged concerning purely hadronic studies.some results from a CERN/Collège de France/Heidelberg/Karlsruhe collaboration using the Split Field Magnet at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) now show definite signs of D meson production in proton-proton collisions.

  12. New Hadronic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the field of hadron spectroscopy has seen renewed interest due to the publication, initially mostly from B-Factories, of evidences of states that do not match regular spectroscopy, but are rather candidates for bound states with additional quarks or gluons (four quarks for tetraquarks and molecules and two quarks and gluons for hybrids). A huge effort in understanding the nature of this new states and in building a new spectroscopy is ongoing. This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art on heavy quarkonium exotic spectroscopy, with particular attention on the steps towards a global picture.

  13. Hadron coherent production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremin, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    The process of the coherent production of hadrons analogous to Cherenkov radiation of photons is considered. Its appearence and qualitative treatment are possible now because it is known from experiment that the real part of the πp (and pp) forward elastic scattering amplitude is positive at high energies. The threshold behaviour of the process as well as very typical angular and psub(T)-distributions where psub(t)-transverse momentum corresponding to the ring structure of the target diagram at rather large angles and to high-psub(T) jet production are emphasized [ru

  14. Aspects of hadronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the current phenomenological models of hadron structure, whose theoretical basis is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is presented. A short introduction to the QCD permits to focalize the relevant properties which are attached to those models. Following, bag-like models (in particular, MIT bag and chiral extensions) and potential-like models among them the Karl and Isgur non-relativistic model and a semi-relativistic model, free of the Klein paradox, with equal scalar-vetorial mixture of confinement potential are shortly studied. Enphasis is given to the baryons, treated, basically, as three-quarks systems. (L.C.) [pt

  15. QCD and hadronic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1989-01-01

    This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)

  16. Hadronic Resonances from STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Masayuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.

  17. Geometric branching model of high-energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.

    1988-01-01

    A phenomenological model is proposed to describe collisions between hadrons at high energies. In the context of the eikonal formalism, the model consists of two components: soft and hard. The former only involves the production of particles with small transverse momenta; the latter is characterized by jet production. Geometrical scaling is taken as an essential input to describe the geometrical properties of hadrons as extended objects on the one hand, and on the other to define the soft component in both regions below and above the jet threshold. A stochastical Furry branching process is adopted as the mechanism of soft particle production, while the jet fragmentation and gluon initial-state bremsstrahlung are for the production of hadrons in hard collisions. Impact parameter and virtuality are smeared to describe the statistical averaging effects of hadron-hadron collisions. Many otherwise separated issues, ranging from elastic scattering to parton decay function, are connected together in the framework of this model. The descriptions of many prominent features of hadronic collisions are in good agreement with the observed experimental data at all available energies. Multiplicity distributions at all energies are discussed as a major issue in this paper. KNO scaling is achieved for energies within ISR range. The emergence of jets is found to be responsible not only for the violation of both geometrical scaling and KNO scaling, but also for the continuous broadening of the multiplicity distribution with ever increasing energy. It is also shown that the geometrical size of a hadron reaches an asymptote in the energy region of CERN-SppS. A Monte Carlo version of the model for soft production is constructed

  18. Open Heart Surgery Does Not Increase the Incidence of Ipsilateral Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Asymptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, John E; Yacoub, Hussam A; Li, Yuebing; Kincaid, Hope; Jenny, Donna

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated the incidence of perioperative stroke following the institution's 2007 practice change of discontinuing combined carotid endarterectomy and open heart surgery (OHS) for patients with severe carotid stenosis. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared 113 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic valve replacement, or both from 2007 to 2011 with data collected from 2001 to 2006 from a similar group of patients. Our aim was to assess whether the practice change led to a greater incidence of stroke. A total of 7350 consecutive patients undergoing OHS during the specified time period were screened. Of these, 3030 had OHS between 2007 and 2011 but none were combined with carotid artery surgery (new cohort). The remaining 4320 had OHS before 2007 and 44 had combined procedures (old cohort). Of patients undergoing OHS during the 10-year period of observation, 230 had severe (>80%) carotid stenosis. In the old cohort (before 2007), carotid stenosis was associated with perioperative stroke in 2.5% of cases. None of the 113 patients having cardiac procedures after 2007 received combined carotid artery surgery; only 1 of these patients harboring severe carotid stenosis had an ischemic stroke (.9%) during the perioperative period. The difference in stroke incidence between the 2 cohorts was statistically significant (P = .002). The incidence of stroke in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis undergoing OHS was lower after combined surgery was discontinued. Combined carotid and OHS itself seems to be an important risk factor for stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Confinement and hadron-hadron interactions by general relativistic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recami, Erasmo

    By postulating covariance of physical laws under global dilations, one can describe gravitational and strong interactions in a unified way. Namely, in terms of the new discrete dilational degree of freedom, our cosmos and hadrons can be regarded as finite, similar systems. And a discrete hierarchy of finite ``universes'' may be defined, which are governed by fields with strengths inversally proportional to their radii; in each universe an Equivalence Principle holds, so that the relevant field can be there geometrized. Scaled-down Einstein equations -with cosmological term- are assumed to hold inside hadrons (= strong micro-cosmoses); and they yield in a natural way classical confinement, as well as ``asymptotic freedom'', of the hadron constituents. In other words, the association of strong micro-universes of Friedmann type with hadrons (i.e., applying the methods of General Relativity to subnuclear particle physics) allows avoiding recourse to phenomenological models such as the Bag Model. Inside hadrons we have to deal with a tensorial field (= strong gravity), and hadron constituents are supposed to exchange spin-2 ``gluons''. Our approach allows us also to write down a tensorial, bi-scale field theory of hadron-hadron interactions, based on modified Einstein-type equations here proposed for strong interactions in our space. We obtain in particular: (i) the correct Yukawa behaviour of the strong scalar potential at the static limit and for r>~l fm; (ii) the value of hadron radii. As a byproduct, we derive a whole ``numerology'', connecting our gravitational cosmos with the strong micro-cosmoses (hadrons), such that it does imply no variation of G with the epoch. Finally, since a structute of the ``micro-universe'' type seems to be characteristic even of leptons, a hope for the future is including also weak interactions in our classical unification of the fundamental forces.

  20. New hadron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    QCD-motivated models for hadrons predict an assortment of "exotic" hadrons that have structures that are more complex than the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons of the original quark-parton model. These include pentaquark baryons, the six-quark H-dibaryon, and tetraquark and glueball mesons. Despite extensive experimental searches, no unambiguous candidates for any of these exotic configurations have yet to be identified. On the other hand, a number of meson states, one that seems to be a proton-antiproton bound state, and others that contain either charmed-anticharmed quark pairs or bottom-antibottom quark pairs, have been recently discovered that neither fit into the quark-antiquark meson picture nor match the expected properties of the QCD-inspired exotics. Here I briefly review results from a recent search for the H-dibaryon, and discuss some properties of the newly discovered states –the so-called XYZ mesons– and compare them with expectations for conventional quark-antiquark mesons and the predicted QCD-exotic states. (author)

  1. Hadronic laws from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of progress in deriving the effective action for hadronic physics, S[π, ρ, ω, .., anti N, N, ..], from the fundamental defining action of QCD, S[anti q, q, A μ a ]. This is a problem in quantum field theory and the most success so far has been achieved using functional integral calculus (FIC) techniques. This formulates the problem as an exercise in changing the variables of integration in the functional integrals, from those of the quark and gluon fields to those of the (bare) meson and baryon fields. The appropriate variables are determined by the dynamics of QCD, and the final hadronic variables (essentially the 'normal modes' of QCD) are local fields describing the 'centre-of-mass' motion of extended bound states of quarks. The quarks are extensively dressed by the gluons, and the detailed aspects of the hidden chiral symmetry emerge naturally from the formalism. Particular attention is given to covariant integral equations which determine bare nucleon structure (i.e. in the quenched approximation). These equations, which arise from the closed double-helix diagrams of the FIC analysis, describe the baryons in terms of quark-diquark structure, in the form of Faddeev equations. This hadronisation of QCD also generates the dressing of these baryons by the pions, and the non-local πNN coupling. (orig.)

  2. The LHCb hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhelyadin, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    The Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) is designed for the LHCb experiment. The main purpose of the detector is to provide data for the L0 hadron trigger. The HCAL is designed as consisting of two symmetric movable parts of about 500 ton in total getting in touch in operation position without non-instrumented zones. The lateral dimensions of an active area are X=8.4 m width, Y=6.8 m height, and is distanced from the interaction point at Z=13.33 m. Both halves are assembled from stacked up modules. An internal structure consisting of thin iron plates interspaced with scintillating tiles has been chosen. Attention is paid to optimize the detector according to the requirements of the experiment, reducing the spending needed for its construction. Different construction technologies are being discussed. The calorimeter properties have been extensively studied with a variety of prototype on the accelerator beam. The calibration with a radioactive source and module-0 construction experience is discussed

  3. The incidence of bilateral cryptorchidism is increased and the fertility potential is reduced in sons born to mothers who have smoked during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Cortes, D; Petersen, B L

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of cryptorchidism, decreasing semen quality and increasing incidence of testicular cancer. These changes seem to be interrelated, and may be symptoms of a common underlying entity with foundations in fetal life. We investigated the influence...

  4. Meningococcal disease in The Netherlands, 1958-1990: a steady increase in the incidence since 1982 partially caused by new serotypes and subtypes of Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Poolman, J. T.; Kuipers, B.; Caugant, D. A.; van Alphen, L.; Dankert, J.; Valkenburg, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to explain a threefold increase in the incidence of meningococcal disease in the Netherlands during the 1980s, we serotyped and subtyped Neisseria meningitidis isolates recovered between 1958 and 1990 from > 3,000 patients with systemic disease. No single strain could be held responsible

  5. Exotic hadron and string junction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro

    1978-01-01

    Hadron structure is investigated adopting string junction model as a realization of confinement. Besides exotic hadrons (M 4 , B 5 etc.), unconventional hadrons appear. A mass formula for these hadrons is proposed. New selection rule is introduced which requires the covalence of constituent line at hadron vertex. New duality appears due to the freedom of junction, especially in anti BB→anti BB reaction. A possible assignment of exotic and unconventional hadrons to recently observed narrow meson states is presented. (auth.)

  6. Hadron Correlations and Parton Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2007-02-15

    Parton recombination has been found to be an extremely useful model to understand hadron production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. It is particularly important to explore its connections with hard processes. This article reviews some of the aspects of the quark recombination model and places particular emphasis on hadron correlations.

  7. Quarkonium production in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavai, R.; Schuler, G.A.; Sridhar, K.

    1995-01-01

    We summarize the theoretical description of charmonium and bottonium production in hadronic collisions and compare it to the available data from hadron-nucleon interactions. With the parameters of the theory established by these data, we obtain predictions for quarkonium production at RHIC and LHC energies

  8. Hadron induced leptons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A review of direct production of leptons and photons in hadron-hadron collisions is presented. Production of lepton pairs with large mass is well accounted for by the Drell-Yan process. The origin of direct single leptons is principally due to the production of lepton pairs. A dominant source of lepton pairs is at low effective mass, m [de

  9. Current Status of Exotic Hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.A.; Ahmed, Maqsood; Fazal-e-Aleem

    2005-01-01

    Physics of exotic hadrons is in the limelight these days. The models for these baryons are discussed as well as their production and decay processes and methods of their identification. The results of recent experiments in this field are presented, in which some unusual states are observed. These states are candidates for exotic hadrons

  10. A model of hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, A.B.; Khokhlachev, S.B.; Borue, V.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    The hadron is considered as a stringlike gluon drop with a quark and antiquark near the ends of the 'string' for a meson and with the antiquark replaced by a diquark for a baryon. The softer 'string' modes are the rotations and the longitudinal vibrations. Quantization of these modes enables to describe the hadron spectra. (orig.)

  11. Spin structure of hadronization products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavelli, L.

    1979-03-01

    We point out that the hypothesis of soft hadronization together with Lorentz invariance strongly constrain the hadronization process ine + e - annihilation. A final stage jet hypothesis is made which satisfies these constraints. The resulting picture leads to testable predictions not obtainable from perturbative QCD. (orig.) [de

  12. Hadrons in dense matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buballa, M.; Noerenberg, W.; Schaefer, B.J.; Wambach, J.

    2000-03-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Elementary hadronic reactions, Delta dynamics in nuclei, in-medium s-wave ππ-correlations, strangeness in hot and dense matter, medium modifications of vector mesons and dilepton production, medium modifications of charmonium, thermal properties of hot and dense hadronic matter, nuclear matter, spectral functions and QCD sum rules

  13. No increase in the incidence of acute kidney injury in a population-based annual temporal trends epidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Kianoush; Shao, Min; Li, Guangxi; Williams, Amy W; Rule, Andrew D; Kremers, Walter K; Malinchoc, Michael; Gajic, Ognjen; Lieske, John C

    2017-09-01

    Recent literature suggests an increase in the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated population-based trends of AKI over the course of nine years, using a validated electronic health record tool to detect AKI. All adult residents (18 years of age and older) of Olmsted County, Minnesota (MN), admitted to the Mayo Clinic Hospital between 2006 and 2014 were included. The incidence rate of AKI was calculated and temporal trends in the annual AKI incident rates assessed. During the nine-year study period, 10,283, and 41,847 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit or general ward, with 1,740 and 2,811 developing AKI, respectively. The unadjusted incidence rates were 186 and 287 per 100,000 person years in 2006 and reached 179 and 317 per 100,000 person years in 2014. Following adjustment for age and sex, there was no significant change in the annual AKI incidence rate during the study period with a Relative Risk of 0.99 per year (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.01) for intensive care unit patients and 0.993 per year (0.98-1.01) for the general ward patients. Similar results were obtained when the ICD-9 codes or administrative data for dialysis-requiring AKI was utilized to determine incident cases. Thus, despite the current literature that suggests an epidemic of AKI, we found that after adjusting for age and sex the incidence of AKI in the general population remained relatively stable over the last decade. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scaling and mean normalized multiplicity in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Q.R.; Ahmad, M.S.; Hasan, R.

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that the dependence of the mean normalized multiplicity, R A , in hadron-nucleus collisions upon the effective number of projectile encounters, , is projectile independent. We report the failure of this kind of scaling using the world data at accelerator and cosmic ray energies. Infact, we have found that the dependence of R A upon the number of projectile encounters hA is projectile independent. This leads to a new kind of scaling. Further, the scaled multiplicity distributions are found independent on the nature and energy of the incident hadron in the energy range ≅ (17.2-300) GeV. (orig.)

  15. On slow particle production in hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenlund, E.; Otterlund, I.

    1982-01-01

    A model for slow particle production in hadron-nucleus interactions is presented. The model succesfully predicts correlations between the number of knock-on particles and the number of particles associated with the evaporation process as well as correlations with the number of collisions, ν, between the incident hadron and the nucleons inside the target nucleus. The model provides two independent possibilities to determine the number of primary intranuclear collisions, ν, i.e. by its correlation to the number of knock-on particles or to the number of evaporated particles. The good agreement indicates that the model gives an impact-parameter sensitive description of hardron nucleus reactions. (orig.)

  16. Increasing Incidence in Relapsing-Remitting MS and High Rates among Young Women in Finland: A Thirty-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Sumelahti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. Gender and disease course specific incidences were studied in high- and medium-risk regions of MS in Finland. Methods. Age- and gender-specific incidences with 95% CIs were calculated in 10-year periods from 1981 to 2010. Poser diagnostic criteria were used and compared with the McDonald criteria from 2001 to 2010. Association between age and diagnostic delay over time was assessed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. 1419 (89% RRMS and 198 (11% PPMS cases were included. RRMS incidence increased with the female to male ratio (F/M from 4,2/105 (F/M 1.9 to 9,7 (2.3, while that of PPMS decreased from 1,2 (1.6 to 0,7 (1.2. The use of McDonald criteria did not change the conclusion. The decreasing diagnostic delay and age at diagnosis in RRMS were associated within the 10-year periods and contrasted those in PPMS. Increasing female risk in RRMS was observed in the high-risk region. Conclusion. Increasing RRMS incidence and high female ratios shown in each age group indicate gender-specific influences acting already from childhood. A more precise definition of the risk factors and their action in MS is needed to provide a better understanding of underlying pathological processes and a rationale for the development of new preventive and treatment strategies.

  17. Hadron elastic scattering at small angles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is an extension of the measurements of the WA9 experiment up to the highest energies available in the North Area. It will measure the differential cross-section for hadron elastic scattering in the t-range 0.002-0.05 (GeV/c)$^{2}$ using an ionization chamber for the measurement of the energy and the angle of the recoil and a magnet-WC spectrometer to measure the momentum and direction of the forward particle. From these measurements will be obtained the ratio $\\rho$ of the real to imaginary parts of the forward elastic amplitude and the exponential slope parameter b of the hadronic amplitude at small t. The precision expected in these measurements is $\\Delta \\rho \\approx \\pm 0.01$ and $\\Delta$b $\\approx \\pm 0.2$ (GeV/c)$^{-2}$. \\\\ \\\\ The experimental programme includes: \\\\\\\\ i) measurements of $\\rho$ and b for $\\pi$p elastic scattering at incident momenta between 150 GeV/c and 300 GeV/c; \\\\ ii) measurements of $\\rho$ and b for $\\pi^{+}$p and pp elastic scattering at incident momenta between 5...

  18. Multiplicity of secondaries in hadron-nucleus collisions and constituent quark rescattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabelsky, Yu.M.; Shekhter, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    A ratio of the relativistic secondary multiplicities for hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon interactions, Rsub(s)(hA), is considered in the central region and a part of the target nucleus fragmentation region. The multiplicities are obtained from the experimental average numbers of relativistic charged or negative particles by subtraction of the projectile fragment numbers estimated theoretically. Two hypotheses on the A dependence of the secondary multiplicity in a constituent quark interaction with a nucleus are discussed. An assumption that this multiplicity is independent of A leads to Rsub(s)(hA) = antiνsub(hA)/antiνsub(qA). An alternative assumption that the qA multiplicity increases with A due to quark rescattering from several nucleons gives Rsub(s)(hA) = antiνsub(hA). Comparison with experiment in the former case requires a great number of positively charged hadrons, probably protons, emitted from the nucleus. This number must rise significantly with both A and incident energy. The latter hypothesis is consistent with all data on as well as in pA collisions but disagrees by approximately 20% with in π - A interactions. (author)

  19. Charmed hadron production in pp collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Umananda Dev

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the production of charmed hadrons ( D+, D-, D0, D, Λc+, Λ¯c-) in pp collisions as a function of √{s}, xF, p⊥2 and p⊥ in the framework of the QGSJET model. The study of charmed hadron production characteristics in pp collision is particularly important for cosmic ray physics in the context of atmospheric prompt lepton fluxes. Here our aim is to check the reliability of the QGSJET model to be used to study the production of charmed hadrons in cosmic ray hadronic interactions with air nuclei. Charmed hadroproduction cross sections or the charmed hadron average multiplicities in pp collisions are relatively very small. The maximum production of all charmed hadrons takes place with low values of xF, p⊥2, and p⊥ within a small range for all values of √{s} under study. Charmed hadroproduction cross sections as a function of xF and p⊥2 are compared with the LEBC-EHS and LEBC-MPS experiment data for D-meson production. The agreement is quite satisfactory for smaller values of p⊥2 (⩽2 (GeV/c) 2). There is an asymmetry in charmed hadroproduction in pp collision. For all xF, asymmetry is prominent in the low value of √{s}. There is a strong preference for producing Λc+ rather than Λ¯c-baryons, while that for producing D¯ rather than D-mesons for this range of √{s}. Asymmetry increases from zero to ±1 around xF = 0.3 for all values of √{s} and for all charmed hardron groups. The patterns of asymmetric production of different charmed hadrons with xF are approximately the same as that with √{s}. We compare our calculation with the data from Fermilab experiment E781 (SELEX) for Λc-baryon production. The agreement is quite good. The asymmetry of charmed hadroproduction with p⊥ does not follow any well defined pattern.

  20. Prospects for heavy flavor physics at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    The role of hadron colliders in the observation and study of CP violation in B decays is discussed. We show that hadron collider experiments can play a significant role in the early studies of these phenomena and will play an increasingly dominant role as the effort turns towards difficult to measure decays, especially those of the B s meson, and sensitive searches for rare decays and subtle deviations from Standard Model predictions. We conclude with a discussion of the relative merits of hadron collider detectors with 'forward' vs 'central' rapidity coverage

  1. HIGH ENERGY HADRON POLARIMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUNCE, G.

    2007-01-01

    Proton polarimetry at RHIC uses the interference of electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic scattering amplitudes. The EM spin-flip amplitude for protons is responsible for the proton's anomalous magnetic moment, and is large. This then generates a significant analyzing power for small angle elastic scattering. RHIC polarimetry has reached a 5% uncertainty on the beam polarization, and seem capable of reducing this uncertainty further. Polarized neutron beams ax also interesting for RHIC and for a polarized electron-polarized proton/ion collider in the fume. In this case, deuterons, for example, have a very small anomalous magnetic moment, making the approach used for protons impractical. Although it might be possible to use quasielastic scattering from the protons in the deuteron to monitor the polarization. 3-He beams can provide polarized neutrons, and do have a large anomalous magnetic moment, making a similar approach to proton polarimetry possible

  2. CMS hadronic forward calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlo, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Tests of quartz fiber prototypes, based on the detection of Cherenkov light from showering particles, demonstrate a detector possessing all of the desirable characteristics for a forward calorimeter. A prototype for the CMS experiment consists of 0.3 mm diameter fibers embedded in a copper matrix. The response to high energy (10-375 GeV) electrons, pions, protons and muons, the light yield, energy and position resolutions, and signal uniformity and linearity, are discussed. The signal generation mechanism gives this type of detector unique properties, especially for the detection of hadronic showers: Narrow, shallow shower profiles, hermeticity and extremely fast signals. The implications for measurements in the high-rate, high-radiation LHC environment are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Hadron physics at TJNAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, L; Furget, C.; Goy, J.; Kox, S.; Merchez, F.; Pastor, A.; Real, J.S.; Russew, T.; Tieulent, R.; Voutier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Over these two years, our group has been worked in hadronic physics at Saturn and CEBAF using the polarimeter POLDER. Tensor polarization observables have been measured in the reaction H(p bar, d bar)π + between 580 and 1300 MeV proton energy. The group has also been leader in an experiment, performed in 1997 at CEBAF. By measuring the t 20 polarization of the recoil deuteron produced in the elastic electron-deuteron scattering at large Q 2 , the separation of the charge and quadrupole form-factors of the deuteron will be performed for Q=4.1-6.8 fm -1 . Finally, we were involved in the construction and test of the neutron polarimeter HARP and in the definition of the physics program of the ELFE project. (authors)

  4. Characteristics of the interactions of {sup 12} C, {sup 22} Ne and {sup 28} Si with emulsion nuclei accompanied with relativistic hadrons in the backward hemisphere at Dubna energy. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nadi, N; Abdel-salam, A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Mossa, N A [Basic science Department, Faculty of Engineering-Shoubra, Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt); Krasnov, S A [Jinr, Dubna, (Russian Federation)

    1996-03-01

    A detailed study of the characteristics of the interactions accompanied by relativistic hadrons in the backward hemisphere in the collisions of {sup 12} C, {sup 22} Ne and {sup 26} Si projectiles with emulsion nuclei at incident momentum in the range (4.1-4.5) a GeV/C was carried out. For this purpose, random samples of 819, 3812, and 1209 events in case of {sup 22} C, {sup 22} Ne and {sup 26} Si interactions are analyzed, respectively. The behaviour of the shower particles multiplicities, and the pseudorapidity distributions for the different interactions were investigated in terms of the number of emitted shower particles. The pseudorapidity distribution of the shower particles from the interactions accompanied by the emission of backward relativistic hadrons are found to be satisfactorily fitted by a single spindle Gaussian distribution. On the other hand, the pseudorapidity for the shower particles emitted in the interactions not accompanied by backward relativistic hadron are fitted by two Gaussian distributions with two distinct average values. The dispersion of the pseudorapidity distributions are insensitive to the number of the backward relativistic hadrons n{sup b}{sub s}. However, the average pseudorapidity decreases with increase of number of backward relativistic hadrons. The dependence of the average number of the shower particles produced in the backward and forward hemispheres on the projectile mass number and the impact parameter are also presented. The results yield quite interesting information regarding the production of such backward relativistic hadrons in heavy ions interactions. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Hadronic collision and hadronic structure (an experimental review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.

    1975-01-01

    In this set of lectures an attempt is made to present a survey of the available experimental data on hadronic collisions at large transverse momentum, together with their current phenomenological descriptions. In particular, the experimental confirmation of constituent structure is looked at in a critical way. The emphasis throughout is to let the data speak in the most unbiased way and to gather evidence as to the short range structure of the hadronic interactions. Finally the current information on lepton production in hadronic collisions is reviewed

  6. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  7. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J.

    2010-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  8. Some hadron calorimeter properties relevant to storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Grant, D.; Homer, R.J.; Kenyon, I.R.; McMahon, T.; Schanz, G.; Sumorok, K.C.T.O.; Watkins, P.M.; Wilson, J.A.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Thompson, G.; Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Hill, D.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Shah, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    At wide angles in a storage ring environment, a substantial part of the energy seen by a hadron calorimeter can be in the form of very low momentum particles such as jet fragments or resonance cascade decay products. Data are presented on the deviations from Gaussian resolution and linear response for such low momentum particles. The differing responses to incident e - , μ - , π +- , K +- , p and anti p at momenta below 10 GeV/c are also compared. In addition, the authors discuss the significance of angle effects for a 4π calorimeter, and the problems of combining data from calorimeters with different physical characteristics. Experimental data are presented on the difference in hadron response between a fine grain (electromagnetic) lead calorimeter and a coarser (hadron) iron calorimeter, and on the dependence of the response on the energy sharing between the two calorimeters. (Auth.)

  9. Antibiotics in early life alter the gut microbiome and increase disease incidence in a spontaneous mouse model of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candon, Sophie; Perez-Arroyo, Alicia; Marquet, Cindy; Valette, Fabrice; Foray, Anne-Perrine; Pelletier, Benjamin; Milani, Christian; Milani, Cristian; Ventura, Marco; Bach, Jean-François; Chatenoud, Lucienne

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes is a prototypic autoimmune disease whose incidence steadily increased over the past decades in industrialized countries. Recent evidence suggests the importance of the gut microbiota to explain this trend. Here, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune type 1 diabetes were treated with different antibiotics to explore the influence of a targeted intestinal dysbiosis in the progression of the disease. A mixture of wide spectrum antibiotics (i.e. streptomycin, colistin and ampicillin) or vancomycin alone were administered orally from the moment of conception, treating breeding pairs, and during the postnatal and adult life until the end of follow-up at 40 weeks. Diabetes incidence significantly and similarly increased in male mice following treatment with these two antibiotic regimens. In NOD females a slight yet not significant trend towards an increase in disease incidence was observed. Changes in gut microbiota composition were assessed by sequencing the V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Administration of the antibiotic mixture resulted in near complete ablation of the gut microbiota. Vancomycin treatment led to increased Escherichia, Lactobacillus and Sutterella genera and decreased members of the Clostridiales order and Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and Rikenellaceae families, as compared to control mice. Massive elimination of IL-17-producing cells, both CD4+TCRαβ+ and TCRγδ+ T cells was observed in the lamina propria of the ileum and the colon of vancomycin-treated mice. These results show that a directed even partial ablation of the gut microbiota, as induced by vancomycin, significantly increases type 1 diabetes incidence in male NOD mice thus prompting for caution in the use of antibiotics in pregnant women and newborns.

  10. Antibiotics in early life alter the gut microbiome and increase disease incidence in a spontaneous mouse model of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Candon

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes is a prototypic autoimmune disease whose incidence steadily increased over the past decades in industrialized countries. Recent evidence suggests the importance of the gut microbiota to explain this trend. Here, non-obese diabetic (NOD mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune type 1 diabetes were treated with different antibiotics to explore the influence of a targeted intestinal dysbiosis in the progression of the disease. A mixture of wide spectrum antibiotics (i.e. streptomycin, colistin and ampicillin or vancomycin alone were administered orally from the moment of conception, treating breeding pairs, and during the postnatal and adult life until the end of follow-up at 40 weeks. Diabetes incidence significantly and similarly increased in male mice following treatment with these two antibiotic regimens. In NOD females a slight yet not significant trend towards an increase in disease incidence was observed. Changes in gut microbiota composition were assessed by sequencing the V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Administration of the antibiotic mixture resulted in near complete ablation of the gut microbiota. Vancomycin treatment led to increased Escherichia, Lactobacillus and Sutterella genera and decreased members of the Clostridiales order and Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and Rikenellaceae families, as compared to control mice. Massive elimination of IL-17-producing cells, both CD4+TCRαβ+ and TCRγδ+ T cells was observed in the lamina propria of the ileum and the colon of vancomycin-treated mice. These results show that a directed even partial ablation of the gut microbiota, as induced by vancomycin, significantly increases type 1 diabetes incidence in male NOD mice thus prompting for caution in the use of antibiotics in pregnant women and newborns.

  11. Nuclei, hadrons, and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopp, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a short introduction to the physics of the nuclei, hadrons, and elementary particles for students of physics. Important facts and model imaginations on the structure, the decay, and the scattering of nuclei, the 'zoology' of the hadrons and basic facts of hadronic scattering processes, a short introduction to quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics and the most important processes of lepton and parton physics, as well as the current-current approach of weak interactions and the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory are presented. (orig.) With 153 figs., 10 tabs [de

  12. Hadron collider physics 2005. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanelli, M.; Clark, A.; Wu, X.

    2006-01-01

    The Hadron Collider Physics Symposia (HCP) are a new series of conferences that follow the merger of the Hadron Collider Conferences with the LHC Symposia series, with the goal of maximizing the shared experience of the Tevatron and LHC communities. This book gathers the proceedings of the first symposium, HCP2005, and reviews the state of the art in the key physics directions of experimental hadron collider research: - QCD physics - precision electroweak physics - c-, b-, and t-quark physics - physics beyond the Standard Model - heavy ion physics The present volume will serve as a reference for everyone working in the field of accelerator-based high-energy physics. (orig.)

  13. Heavy quarks in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Peterson, C.

    1982-03-01

    It is suggested that the presence of c anti c-pairs on the 1 to 2% level in the hadron Fock state decomposition (intrinsic charm) gives a natural description of the ISR data for charm hadron production. The theoretical foundations of the intrinsic charm hypothesis together with its consequences for lepton- and hadron-induced reactions are discussed in some detail. There is no contradiction with the EMC data on F 2 /sup c/ provided the appropriate threshold dependence is taken into account

  14. Physics at Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, U.; Parsons, J.; Albrow, M.; Denisov, D.; Han, T.; Kotwal, A.; Olness, F.; Qian, J.; Belyaev, S.; Bosman, M.; Brooijmans, G.; Gaines, I.; Godfrey, S.; Hansen, J.B.; Hauser, J.; Heintz, U.; Hinchliffe, I.; Kao, C.; Landsberg, G.; Maltoni, F.; Oleari, C.; Pagliarone, C.; Paige, F.; Plehn, T.; Rainwater, D.; Reina, L.; Rizzo, T.; Su, S.; Tait, T.; Wackeroth, D.; Vataga, E.; Zeppenfeld, D.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.

  15. Fundamentals in hadronic atom theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deloff, A

    2003-01-01

    Hadronic atoms provide a unique laboratory for studying hadronic interactions essentially at threshold. This text is the first book-form exposition of hadronic atom theory with emphasis on recent developments, both theoretical and experimental. Since the underlying Hamiltonian is a non-self-adjoined operator, the theory goes beyond traditional quantum mechanics and this book covers topics that are often glossed over in standard texts on nuclear physics. The material contained here is intended for the advanced student and researcher in nuclear, atomic or elementary-particle physics. A good know

  16. Hadron collider physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e{sup +}-e{sup {minus}} collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2{gamma} at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines.

  17. [Possible cause of the increased incidence of lung cancer in 1987 in the 10th District of Budapest (1975-1989)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahám, E; Karácsonyi, L; Dinya, E

    1990-12-30

    In 1975 in one of the major industrial districts of Budapest some longitudinal epidemiological examinations were carried out with the aim of, among others, determination of connection between environmental injuries and lung cancer incidence in connection with determination of lung cancer risk groups. Between 1975-1989 out of the environmental injuries the most important was the radioactive contamination observed due to the atomic power station catastrophe in Chernobil (1986). In 1987 the incidence of lung cancer increased. The increase was significant among the 50-69-year-old women, and expressly among the heavy smokers. In 1987, especially among women, but also in both sexes, the ratio among the major cell types of lung cancer shifted towards micro-cellular ones. In 1988 and 1989 lung cancer incidence has decreased. In view of the above a hypothesis was raised: patients who have previously suffered immunobiological hurt, could not prevent the increased radioactive burden and got ill with lung cancer earlier, than it should have been happened without this increased burden. For clarification this question further examinations are considered to be necessary.

  18. Increasing mumps incidence rates among children and adolescents in the Republic of Korea: age–period–cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-June Choe

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The increase in mumps seen in Korea may have been affected by the birth cohort exposed to the Rubini strain; however other factors may have contributed to the increase in non-exposed cohorts.

  19. Factorization for short distance hadron-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.C.; Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1985-01-01

    We show that factorization holds at leading twist in the Drell-Yang cross section dsigma/dQ 2 dy and related inclusive hadron-hadron cross sections. We review the heuristic arguments for factorization, as well as the difficulties which must be overcome in a proof. We go on to give detailed arguments for the all order cancellation of soft gluons, and to show how this leads to factorization. (orig.)

  20. Simulation of soft hadron hadron collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.

    1987-01-01

    An event generator to simulate ultrarelativistic hadron hadron collisions is proposed. It is based on the following main assumptions: the process can be divided into two independent steps, string formation and string fragmentation; strings are formed as a consequence of color exchange between a quark of the projectile and a quark of the target; the fragmentation of strings is the same as in e + e - annihilation or in lepton nucleon scattering. 11 refs., 4 figs

  1. Increased incidence of transient homogeneous immunoglobulins in irradiated and reconstituted C57BL/KaLwRij mice treated with 2'-deoxyguanosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akker, Th.W. van den; Gillen, A.P.; Bril, H.; Brenner, R.; Radl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Prolonged administration of micromolar amounts of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) to lethally irradiated and reconstituted mice led to an increased incidence of transient homogeneous immunoglobulins (H-Ig) in their sera. Analysis of the heavy and light chain isotype distribution among the H-Ig revealed more of the IgG2b and IgG3 isotypes and less of the IgM isotype and the lambda light chain containing H-Ig in the dGuo-treated group as compared to the control group. The increased incidence of H-Ig was preceded by a decreased suppressor T cell generation and activation in the dGuo treated group. These data indicate that deficient suppressor T cell plays an important role in the development of transient H-Ig. (author)

  2. Mott mechanism and the hadronic to quark matter phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, D.; Reinholz, F.

    1984-01-01

    A unified description of both the hadronic and quark matter can be found using the technique of thermodynamic Green functions. The destruction of bound states (quark deconfinement) is related microscopically to the Mott mechanism which leads to a different behaviour of free particle energies and bound state energies if the particle density is increasing. A simple model calculation is performed to obtain a rough estimate for the critical temperature of the hadronic-quark matter phase transition

  3. Increased incidence of adrenal gland injury in blunt abdominal trauma: a computed tomography-based study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Muhammad Usman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the frequency of adrenal injuries in patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma by computed tomography (CT. Methods: During a 6 month period from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2011, 82 emergency CT examinations were performed in the setting of major abdominal trauma and retrospectively reviewed for adrenal gland injuries. Results: A total of 7 patients were identified as having adrenal gland injuries (6 males and 1 female. Two patients had isolated adrenal gland injuries. In the other 5 patients with nonisolated injuries, injuries to the liver (1 case, spleen (1 case, retroperitoneum (2 cases and mesentery (4 cases were identified. Overall 24 cases with liver injuries (29 %, 11 cases with splenic injuries (13%, 54 cases with mesenteric injuries (65%, 14 cases (17% with retroperitoneal injuries and 9 cases with renal injuries were identified. Conclusion: Adrenal gland injury is identified in 7 patients (11.7% out of a total of 82 patients who underwent CT after major abdominal trauma. Most of these cases were nonisolated injuries. Our experience indicates that adrenal injury resulting from trauma is more common than suggested by other reports. The rise in incidence of adrenal injuries could be attributed to the mode of injury.

  4. The electronics in fluorescent bulbs and light emitting diodes (LED), rather than ultraviolet radiation, cause increased malignant melanoma incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, Dave

    2018-07-01

    The epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has a number of facets that do not fit with sunlight and ultraviolet light as the primary etiologic agents. Indoor workers have higher incidence and mortality rates of CMM than outdoor workers; CMM occurs in body locations never exposed to sunlight; CMM incidence is increasing in spite of use of UV blocking agents and small changes in solar radiation. Installation of two new fluorescent lights in the milking parlor holding area of a Minnesota dairy farm in 2015 caused an immediate drop in milk production. This lead to measurement of body amperage in humans exposed to modern non-incandescent lighting. People exposed to old and new fluorescent lights, light emitting diodes (LED) and compact fluorescent lights (CFL) had body amperage levels above those considered carcinogenic. We hypothesize that modern electric lighting is a significant health hazard, a carcinogen, and is causing increasing CMM incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users. These lights generate dirty electricity (high frequency voltage transients), radio frequency (RF) radiation, and increase body amperage, all of which have been shown to be carcinogenic. This could explain the failure of ultraviolet blockers to stem the malignant melanoma pandemic. Tanning beds and non-incandescent lighting could be made safe by incorporating a grounded Faraday cage which allows passage of ultraviolet and visible light frequencies and blocks other frequencies. Modern electric lighting should be fabricated to be electrically clean. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  6. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  7. Quark confinement and hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, F.

    1985-01-01

    With the possibility for 'exact' calculations within the framework of a fundamental theory, QCD, the role of models in strong interaction physics is changing radically. The relevance of detailed numerical model studies is diminishing with the development of those exact, numerical approaches to QCD. On the other hand, the insight gained from such purely numerical studies is necessarily limited and must be complemented by the more qualitative but also more intuitive insight gained from model studies. In particular, the subject of hadron-hadron interactions requires model studies to relate the wide variety of strong interaction physics to the fundamental properties of strong interaction physics. The author reports on such model studies of the hadron-hadron interaction

  8. Hadron energy resolution at ICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Moon Moon; Ghosh, Anushree; Kaur, Daljeet; Mohan, Lakshmi S.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed a simulation study for determining the hadron energy resolution of INO-ICAL detector within a GEANT4 based simulation framework. We do this by propagating single pions from a fixed or a randomised vertex, as also with the NUANCE (neutrino event generator) generated events in which hadrons are produced in the energy range (0.5 ≤ E ≤ 15 GeV). Hadron interactions produce a shower of hits inside the detector. The energy of hadrons can therefore be reconstructed only by taking these hits into account. Hit distribution for each energy and angle bin has been obtained and analyzed. In order to find the suitable fit for such hit distributions a comparative study has been performed by applying different fit functions and results will be shown

  9. Hadron seagulls and parton jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Zarmi, Y.

    1976-01-01

    For the lepton production of hadrons in the current fragmentation region it was recently shown that the two-level partonic picture leads to a broadening of the average transverse momentum of the observed secondaries. This ''seagull'' effect is well known for hadron-hadron interactions. In the note it is considered the possibility that parton arguments can explain it here as well and it is discussed what information on the constituent structure of hadrons can be obtained through an investigation of the seagull effect from such a point of view. It is shown that a non trivial seagull effect is a consequence of a simple two step production mechanism and the parton model predicts significant differences between baryon, meson and virtual-photon fragmentation seagull

  10. Fixed target hadron production measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Panman, J

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of light hadron production cross-sections in proton-nucleus interactions is an important prerequisite to the analysis of a wide variety of experiments. One of the important limiting factors for the precision of accelerator based and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Cosmic-ray experiments detecting extensive air-showers can greatly improve their ability to interpret the data when precise hadron production spectra are available over a large range of energies. Dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data recently and are now publishing their results. Other experiments have just started their data-taking and plan to supply measurements which can significantly extend the kinematic range in which data will be available. Early measurements at the LHC can extend this range to much higher energies than available up to now. Recent results will be shown and compared with hadronic production models. An outl...

  11. Topological objects in hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1988-01-01

    The notion of topological objects in hadronic physics is discussed, with emphasis on the role of the Wess-Zumino term and induced transmutation of quantum numbers in chiral bag models. Some applications to nuclear systems are given

  12. Ericson fluctuations in hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frautschi, S.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that there are resonances with high mass and long lives, at the very least, longer than the 10 -23 second transit time across a hadron. The theoretical and then the experimental approaches to this problem are described

  13. B factory with hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockyer, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    The opportunities to study B physics in a hadron collider are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the technological developments necessary for these experiments. The R and D program of the Bottom Collider Detector group is reviewed. (author)

  14. Interaction between shock coils increased the incidence of inappropriate therapies and lead failure in implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Garhy, Mohammad; Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Lauer, Bernward

    Shock coil interaction in patients with multiple implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads is occasionally observed. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of shock coil interaction and its clinical relevance. All ICD patients (646 patients) who came to follow up control in our ICD ambulance between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011 in the department of cardiology in Bad Berka hospital were retrospectively evaluated in this study. All baseline demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics and postoperative chest x ray in postero-anterior and lateral view as well as clinical and ICD follow up data were evaluated. Among 646 patients 42 had multiple ICD leads (6.5%) of whom 36 patients (5.5% of total cohort patients and 85.7% of patients with multiple ICD leads) had shock coil interaction and presented the study group (Group I). The control group (Group II) consisted of 610 patients without coil-coil interaction including patients with single shock lead (604 patients) or patients with multiple leads but without interaction between shock coils (6 patients). Inappropriate anti-tachycardia therapies and RV lead revisions were more frequent in patients with interaction between shock coils (Group I vs Group II: 27.7% and 5.7%; p = 0.049 and 30.6% vs 6.4; p = 0.0001, respectively). Interaction between shock coils may be one of possible causes of lead failure and resulted in inappropriate therapies and subsequent lead revision. Copyright © 2018 Indian Heart Rhythm Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PREFACE: Focus section on Hadronic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Swanson, Eric

    2007-07-01

    Hadronic physics is the study of strongly interacting matter and its underlying theory, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The field had its beginnings after World War Two, when hadrons were discovered in ever increasing numbers. Today, it encompasses topics like the quark-gluon structure of hadrons at varying scales, the quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density; it also underpins nuclear physics and has significant impact on particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Among the goals of hadronic physics are to determine the parameters of QCD, understand the origin and characteristics of confinement, understand the dynamics and consequences of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, explore the role of quarks and gluons in nuclei and in matter under extreme conditions and understand the quark and gluon structure of hadrons. In general, the process is one of discerning the relevant degrees of freedom and relating these to the fundamental fields of QCD. The emphasis is on understanding QCD, rather than testing it. The papers gathered in this special focus section of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics attempt to cover this broad range of subjects. Alkofer and Greensite examine the issue of quark and gluon confinement with the focus on models of the QCD vacuum, lattice gauge theory investigations, and the relationship to the AdS/CFT correspondence postulate. Arrington et al. review nucleon form factors and their role in determining quark orbital momentum, the strangeness content of the nucleon, meson cloud effects, and the transition from nonperturbative to perturbative QCD dynamics. The physics associated with hadronic matter at high temperature and density and at low Bjorken-x at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the SPS at CERN, and at the future LHC is summarized by d'Enterria. The article of Lee and Smith examines experiment and theory associated with electromagnetic meson production from nucleons and

  16. Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is the next accelerator project proposed at KEK to promote exciting sciences by utilising high-intensity proton beams. The project is characterised by three unique features: hadronic beams of the world's highest intensity; a variety of beams from one accelerator complex; frontier sciences to cover a broad research area including nuclear physics, particle physics, material sciences and life sciences by utilising a common accelerator complex. (author)

  17. Anisotropic superfluidity of hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1977-10-01

    From a model of strong interactions with important general features (f-g model) and from recent experiments of Rudnick and co-workers on thin films of helium II, hadronic matter is considered as a new manifestation of anisotropic superfluidity. In order to test the validity of the suggestion, some qualitative features of multiparticle production of hadrons are considered, and found to have a natural explanation. A prediction is made following a recent experiment on π + p collisions

  18. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2012-01-01

    The extensive tau physics programs of the ATLAS experiment relies heavily on trigger to select hadronic decays of tau lepton. Such a trigger is implemented in ATLAS to efficiently collect signal events, while keeping the rate of multi-jet background within the allowed bandwidth. This contribution summarizes the performance of the ATLAS hadronic tau trigger system during 2011 data taking period and improvements implemented for the 2012 data collection.

  19. Hadronic τ decays and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.

    1999-12-01

    Hadronic decays of the τ lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)

  20. Hadronic {tau} decays and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davier, M

    1999-12-01

    Hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)

  1. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  2. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  3. Recent Developments in Hadron Therapy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Hans-Udo

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade interest and investments in Hadron Therapy Systems have been steadily increasing resulting in a substantial number of projects currently under construction or entering detailed planning stage. Main routes are pure proton therapy systems and Carbon ion therapy systems which can also run on protons. While the basic accelerator concept for hadron therapy systems is well established there are many considerations on the type and layout of the particle delivery system including the accelerator, an energy selection system, either a fixed beam set up or a rotating gantry, the "nozzle" containing either a scattering or a scanning system, the patient positioner, and all associated control systems. The requirements for the accelerator include most stable beams to match the demand of modern fast scanning systems as well as fast switching between treatment rooms. Currently an ion/proton synchrotron, a pure proton synchrotron, a normalconducting proton cyclotron and a newly developed compact superconduct...

  4. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  5. Increased incidence of pseudarthrosis after unilateral instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with lumbar spondylosis: Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologorsky, Yakov; Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Moore, Max; Arginteanu, Marc; Moore, Frank; Steinberger, Alfred

    2014-10-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with segmental pedicular instrumentation is a well established procedure used to treat lumbar spondylosis with or without spondylolisthesis. Available biomechanical and clinical studies that compared unilateral and bilateral constructs have produced conflicting data regarding patient outcomes and hardware complications. A prospective cohort study was undertaken by a group of neurosurgeons. They prospectively enrolled 80 patients into either bilateral or unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation groups (40 patients/group). Demographic data collected for each group included sex, age, body mass index, tobacco use, and Workers' Compensation/litigation status. Operative data included segments operated on, number of levels involved, estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, and perioperative complications. Long-term outcomes (hardware malfunction, wound dehiscence, and pseudarthrosis) were recorded. For all patients, preoperative baseline and 6-month postoperative scores for Medical Outcomes 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) outcomes were recorded. Patient follow-up times ranged from 37 to 63 months (mean 52 months). No patients were lost to follow-up. The patients who underwent unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation (unilateral cohort) were slightly younger than those who underwent bilateral pedicle screw instrumentation (bilateral cohort) (mean age 42 vs. 47 years, respectively; p = 0.02). No other significant differences were detected between cohorts with regard to demographic data, mean number of lumbar levels operated on, or distribution of the levels operated on. Estimated blood loss was higher for patients in the bilateral cohort, but length of stay was similar for patients in both cohorts. The incidence of pseudarthrosis was significantly higher among patients in the unilateral cohort (7 patients [17.5%]) than among those in the bilateral cohort (1 patient [2.5%]) (p = 0.02). Wound dehiscence occurred for

  6. Potential association between the recent increase in campylobacteriosis incidence in the Netherlands and proton-pump inhibitor use - an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwknegt, M; van Pelt, W; Kubbinga, M E; Weda, M; Havelaar, A H

    2014-08-14

    The Netherlands saw an unexplained increase in campylobacteriosis incidence between 2003 and 2011, following a period of continuous decrease. We conducted an ecological study and found a statistical association between campylobacteriosis incidence and the annual number of prescriptions for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), controlling for the patient's age, fresh and frozen chicken purchases (with or without correction for campylobacter prevalence in fresh poultry meat). The effect of PPIs was larger in the young than in the elderly. However, the counterfactual population-attributable fraction for PPIs was largest for the elderly (ca 45% in 2011) and increased at population level from 8% in 2004 to 27% in 2011. Using the regression model and updated covariate values, we predicted a trend break for 2012, largely due to a decreased number of PPI prescriptions, that was subsequently confirmed by surveillance data. Although causality was not shown, the biological mechanism, age effect and trend-break prediction suggest a substantial impact of PPI use on campylobacteriosis incidence in the Netherlands. We chose the ecological study design to pilot whether it is worthwhile to further pursue the effect of PPI on campylobacteriosis and other gastrointestinal pathogens in prospective cohort studies. We now provide strong arguments to do so.

  7. Convergence of decreasing male and increasing female incidence rates in major tobacco-related cancers in Europe in 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Renteria, Elisenda; Sharp, Linda; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Comber, Harry; Baas, Paul; Bray, Freddie; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Smoking prevalence has been declining in men all over Europe, while the trend varies in European regions among women. To study the impact of past smoking prevalence, we present a comprehensive overview of the most recent trends in incidence, during 1988-2010, in 26 countries, of four of the major cancers in the respiratory and upper gastro-intestinal tract associated with tobacco smoking. Data from 47 population-based cancer registries for lung, laryngeal, oral cavity and pharyngeal, and oesophageal cancer cases were obtained from the newly developed data repository within the European Cancer Observatory (http://eco.iarc.fr/). Truncated age-standardised incidence rates (35-74 years) by calendar year, average annual percentage change in incidence over 1998-2007 were calculated. Smoking prevalence in selected countries was extracted from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Health Organization databases. There remained great but changing variation in the incidence rates of tobacco-related cancers by European region. Generally, the high rates among men have been declining, while the lower rates among women are increasing, resulting in convergence of the rates. Female lung cancer rates were above male rates in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden (35-64 years). In lung and laryngeal cancers, where smoking is the main risk factor, rates were highest in central and eastern Europe, southern Europe and the Baltic countries. Despite a lowering of female smoking prevalence, female incidence rates of lung, laryngeal and oral cavity cancers increased in most parts of Europe, but were stable in the Baltic countries. Mixed trends emerged in oesophageal cancer, probably explained by differing risk factors for the two main histological subtypes. This data repository offers the opportunity to show the variety of incidence trends by sex among European countries. The diverse patterns of trends reflect varied exposure to risk factors. Given the heavy cancer

  8. No Contribution of GAD-65 and IA-2 Autoantibodies around Time of Diagnosis to the Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen U.; Pipper, Christian B.; Mortensen, Henrik B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A new perspective on autoantibodies as pivotal players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has recently emerged. Our key objective was to examine whether increased levels of autoantibodies against the β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65) (GADA) and insulinoma...... associated antigen-2A (IA-2A) mirrored the 3.4% annual increase in incidence of T1D. Methods. From the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register, we randomly selected 500 patients and 500 siblings for GADA and IA-2A analysis (1997 through 2005). Blood samples were taken within three months after onset. A robust log...

  9. Hadronic production of high p$_{T}$ leptons and hadrons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures the production of direct real photons with large transverse momentum in pion-nucleon collisions at the SPS (H8 beam) using the NA3 spectrometer with an upgraded e-$\\gamma$ calorimeter. The experiment proceeds in steps of increasing complexity: \\item a) measurement of the direct $\\gamma$ cross-section in $\\pi^{\\pm}$C $\\rightarrow \\gamma +$ X and search for the annihilation process $q\\bar{q} \\rightarrow \\gamma$g by measuring the charge asymmetry at 200 GeV/c; \\item b) determination of the gluon structure function of the pion and the nucleon; \\item c) use of the $\\pi^{-}-\\pi^{+}$ difference on carbon, if found experimentally, to extract the gluon fragmentation from the $\\gamma$ hadron correlations. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ For comparison, the quark fragmentation functions can, in principle, be extracted from processes where the Compton scattering qg $\\rightarrow$ q$\\gamma$ dominates and compared with data from D.I.S. as a test of the method. \\\\ \\\\ The existing standard NA3 spectrometer is we...

  10. Increased incidence of syphilis in men who have sex with men and risk management strategies, Germany, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Klaus; Schmidt, Axel J; Drewes, Jochen; Bremer, Viviane; Marcus, Ulrich

    2016-10-27

    In Germany, the number of reported syphilis cases increased between 11% and 22% per year between 2010 and 2014. We analysed syphilis surveillance data and data of four behavioural surveys on men who have sex with men (MSM) in Germany (2003, 2007, 2010, 2013) to assess if this rise is ongoing and to find possible explanations for it. Syphilis notifications increased in 2015 by 19% to a total of 6,834. This was mainly due to increasing notifications in MSM of all age groups in larger German cities. Data from the behavioural surveys on MSM in Germany showed a simultaneous increase of selective condom use as HIV-status-bases risk management strategy and the number of syphilis cases. MSM diagnosed with HIV reported condomless anal intercourse with non-steady partners more frequent than MSM not diagnosed with HIV or untested for HIV, but the latter also reported higher frequencies of this behaviour in the more recent surveys. Transmission in HIV-positive MSM probably plays an important, but not exclusive role, for the syphilis dynamics in Germany. A risk adapted routine screening for sexually active MSM and potentially innovative approaches to increase early screening and treatment of syphilis such as internet counselling, home sampling, home testing and broadening venue-based (rapid) testing, should be critically evaluated to effectively reduce syphilis infections. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  11. Peripheral Inflammation Increases the Damage in Animal Models of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration: Possible Implication in Parkinson's Disease Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory processes described in Parkinson’s disease (PD and its animal models appear to be important in the progression of the pathogenesis, or even a triggering factor. Here we review that peripheral inflammation enhances the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system induced by different insults; different peripheral inflammations have been used, such as IL-1β and the ulcerative colitis model, as well as insults to the dopaminergic system such as 6-hydroxydopamine or lipopolysaccharide. In all cases, an increased loss of dopaminergic neurons was described; inflammation in the substantia nigra increased, displaying a great activation of microglia along with an increase in the production of cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α. Increased permeability or disruption of the BBB, with overexpression of the ICAM-1 adhesion molecule and infiltration of circulating monocytes into the substantia nigra, is also involved, since the depletion of circulating monocytes prevents the effects of peripheral inflammation. Data are reviewed in relation to epidemiological studies of PD.

  12. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering was determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the frame-work of the quark-proton model

  13. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering is determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the framework of the quark-parton model. 29 references

  14. Statistical hadronization and hadronic micro-canonical ensemble II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becattini, F.; Ferroni, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo calculation of the micro-canonical ensemble of the ideal hadron-resonance gas including all known states up to a mass of about 1.8 GeV and full quantum statistics. The micro-canonical average multiplicities of the various hadron species are found to converge to the canonical ones for moderately low values of the total energy, around 8 GeV, thus bearing out previous analyses of hadronic multiplicities in the canonical ensemble. The main numerical computing method is an importance sampling Monte Carlo algorithm using the product of Poisson distributions to generate multi-hadronic channels. It is shown that the use of this multi-Poisson distribution allows for an efficient and fast computation of averages, which can be further improved in the limit of very large clusters. We have also studied the fitness of a previously proposed computing method, based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm, for event generation in the statistical hadronization model. We find that the use of the multi-Poisson distribution as proposal matrix dramatically improves the computation performance. However, due to the correlation of subsequent samples, this method proves to be generally less robust and effective than the importance sampling method. (orig.)

  15. Do increases in subsidized housing reduce the incidence of homelessness? Vidence from the low-income housing tax credit

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Osborne; Kawano, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of subsidized housing on homelessness using the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest place-based housing program in the United States. To generate quasi-experimental variation in housing placements, we exploit a discontinuous increase in the amount of tax credits available to projects placed in certain high-poverty neighborhoods. Using data from the U.S. Census and HUD, we find that LIHTC project installation has no significant impact on neighborhood homele...

  16. Nitrite inhalant use among young gay and bisexual men in Vancouver during a period of increasing HIV incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattheis Kelly

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrite inhalants ("poppers" are peripheral vasodilators which, since the beginning of the epidemic, have been known to increase risk for acquiring HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM. However, few studies in recent years have characterized use. From 1999 to 2004, new HIV diagnoses among MSM in British Columbia increased 78%, prompting us to examine the prevalence and correlates of this modifiable HIV risk factor. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were completed between October 2002 and May 2004 as part of an open cohort study of HIV-seronegative young MSM. We measured nitrite inhalant use during the previous year and use during sexual encounters with casual partners specifically. Correlates of use were identified using odds ratios. Results Among 354 MSM surveyed, 31.6% reported any use during the previous year. Nitrite inhalant use during sexual encounters was reported by 22.9% of men and was strongly associated with having casual partners, with greater numbers of casual partners (including those with positive or unknown serostatus and with anal intercourse with casual partners. Nitrite inhalant use was not associated with non-use of condoms with casual sexual partners per se. Conclusion Contemporary use of nitrite inhalants amongst young MSM is common and a strong indicator of anal intercourse with casual sexual partners. Since use appears to increase the probability of infection following exposure to HIV, efforts to reduce the use of nitrite inhalants among MSM should be a very high priority among HIV prevention strategies.

  17. The hadron to quark/gluon transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Bethe, H.A.; Pizzochero, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the hadron to quark/gluon transition. We describe the equilibrium states of hadronic matter by a Hagedorn spectrum; introducing scaling masses, as dictated by the restoration of chiral invariance with increasing temperature, we show that in the chiral SU(2) f limit there is a maximum hadron temperature (T H ) max ≅ 128 MeV. Since the quark/gluon perturbative phase involves restoration of conformal invariance, we take the bag constant to be the conformal anomaly, i.e. the gluon condensate. The stability condition P QG > 0 for the pressure requires that there is a minimum temperature; we find (T QG ) min ≅ 172 MeV for SU(2) f . According to the simple Hagedorn model, there appears to be a region of temperature between (T H ) max and (T QG ) min in which no admissible equilibrium states exist. Since the two phases cannot exist at a common temperature, in this model there is no QCD phase transition. (orig.)

  18. Increased incidence and clinical correlation of persistently abnormal technetium pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams following acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicod, P.; Lewis, S.E.; Corbett, J.C.; Buja, L.M.; Henderson, G.; Raskin, P.; Rude, R.E.; Willerson, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Persistently abnormal /sup 99m/Tc stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams (PPi+) appear to be associated with a relatively poor prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To assess the incidence and implications of PPi+, we performed a retrospective analysis in 29 patients with and 25 patients without diabetes mellitus who had abnormal myocardial scintigrams within 4 days of AMI and who had follow-up scintigrams at least 3 months after hospital discharge. There were no significant differences between patients with and without diabetes as regards age, incidence of transmural or nontransmural AMI, or degree of left ventricular dysfunction after AMI. Persistently abnormal PPi+ occurred more commonly in patients with diabetes than in nondiabetic patients (18 of 29, 62%, compared to 3 of 25, 12%; p less than 0.001). Patients with chronic PPi+ had more frequent cardiac complications following hospital discharge (p less than 0.005) including death, recurrent AMI, unstable angina, and intractable congestive heart failure. Postmortem analysis in two patients with diabetes and chronic PPi+ revealed marked myocytolysis. Thus, patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of post-AMI persistently abnormal technetium (PPi+) scintigrams and relatively poor prognosis following myocardial infarction

  19. Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    High calcium intake may increase hip fracture (HF) incidence. This phenomenon, known as the calcium paradox, might be explained by vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7, VA), the highly specific trans fatty acid (TFA) present in dairy products. First, we ecologically investigated the relationship between 18:1 TFA intake and HF incidence using data from 12 to 13 European countries collected before 2000; then we measured the effects of VA and elaidic acid (18:1t n-9, EA) on osteoblasts from goldfish scales (tissues very similar to mammalian bone), with alkaline phosphatase as a marker; and finally we measured the effect of VA on mRNA expression in the scales for the major bone proteins type I collagen and osteocalcin. HF incidence was significantly correlated with 18:1 TFA intake in men (r=0.57) and women (r=0.65). Incubation with 1μmol/L VA and EA for 48h significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity by 25% and 21%, respectively. Incubation of scales with 10μmol/L VA for 48h significantly decreased mRNA expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin (by about 50%). In conclusion, VA may be causatively related to HF and could explain the calcium paradox. It may be prudent to reduce 18:1 TFA intake, irrespective of trans positions, to prevent HF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Poppers use and Sexual Partner Concurrency Increase the HIV Incidence of MSM: a 24-month Prospective Cohort Survey in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhen-Xing; Xu, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Qing-Hai; Yun, Ke; Wang, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Shang, Hong

    2018-01-08

    The use of poppers is highly prevalent in MSM, but little is known about the association between their use and HIV incidence in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in MSM in Shenyang. 475(79.6%) of eligible HIV-negative MSM participated in this prospective survey and near one fourth MSM (23.4%) ever used poppers. About one-third of the participants had condomless anal intercourse, half had multiple sexual partners and 10.5% were syphilis positive. The HIV incidence densities were15.5 (95% CI:9.4-23.4)/100 PY[person-years]) and 4.6 (95% CI:2.9-7.0)/100 PY in poppers-users and non-poppers-users, respectively. Predictors of HIV seroconversion included poppers-using-behavior, having had more than two male partners, practicing group sex, unprotected anal intercourse(UAI) with male partners, and baseline syphilis positivity (all P poppers, high-risk-sexual behaviors and syphilis infection significantly increase the HIV incidence among Shenyang MSM. It is essential for policy makers to add poppers to the official controlled illicit drug list to reduce HIV transmission among the MSM community. A comprehensive strategy should also be implemented to control both their high-risk-sexual behaviors and risk of syphilis infection, since these may represent novel ways to prevent new HIV infections in these MSM.

  1. Identifying Multiquark Hadrons from Heavy Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Akira; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-01-01

    Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.

  2. Increasing incidence of penicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae causing meningitis in India: Time for revision of treatment guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Valsan Philip; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Jayaraman, Ranjith; Varghese, Rosemol; Neeravi, Ayyanraj; Jayaraman, Yuvaraj; Thomas, Kurien; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2017-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening infection, requiring prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. Penicillin resistance in pneumococcal infections is a concern. Here, we present the antibiotic susceptibility profile of pneumococcal meningeal isolates from January 2008 to August 2016 to elucidate treatment guidelines for pneumococcal meningitis. Invasive pneumococcal isolates from all age groups, were included in this study. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for the isolates were identified by agar dilution technique and VITEK System 2. Serotyping of isolates was done by co-agglutination technique. Out of 830 invasive pneumococcal isolates, 167 (20.1%) isolates were from meningeal infections. Cumulative penicillin resistance in pneumococcal meningitis was 43.7% and cefotaxime non-susceptibility was 14.9%. Penicillin resistance amongst meningeal isolates in those younger than 5 years, 5-16 years of age and those aged 16 years and older was 59.7%, 50% and 27.3%, respectively, with non-susceptibility to cefotaxime in the same age groups being 18%, 22.2% and 10.4%. Penicillin resistance amongst pneumococcal meningeal isolates increased from 9.5% in 2008 to 42.8% in 2016, whereas cefotaxime non-susceptibility increased from 4.7% in 2008 to 28.5% in 2016. Serotypes 14, 19F, 6B, 6A, 23F, 9V and 5 were the most common serotypes causing meningitis, with the first five accounting for over 75% of resistant isolates. The present study reports increasing penicillin resistance and cefotaxime non-susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis in our setting. This highlights the need for empiric therapy with third-generation cephalosporins and vancomycin for all patients with meningitis while awaiting results of culture and susceptibility testing.

  3. Increasing incidence of statin treatmentamong the elderly and those withoutprevious cardiovascular conditions. A nationwide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

      Background: Supported by the growing evidence of the beneficial effects of statins in a range of conditions, statin utilization has increased considerably in most Western countries over the last decade. Objectives: To estimate to what extent a widening of indication scope for statins accounts...... with discharge diagnoses and surgical procedures performed during 1977-2005. The disease status for all cohort members was assigned by means of disease markers for seven cardiovascular conditions, corresponding to a hierarchy of broad indications for statin therapy. Using the indication hierarchy, we computed...

  4. Higher CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses in the graft increase the incidence of acute GVHD in children receiving BMT for thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziev, J; Isgrò, A; Marziali, M; Daniele, N; Gallucci, C; Sodani, P; Simone, M D; Adorno, G; Paciaroni, K; Andreani, M; Lanti, A; Del Proposto, G; Testi, M; De Angelis, G; Roveda, A; Alfieri, C; Saltarelli, F; Lucarelli, G

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence of GVHD, risk factors and the impact of graft composition on acute GVHD (aGVHD) in 92 children who underwent BMT for thalassemia following busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BUCY)-based conditioning regimens and GVHD prophylaxis with CSA/short-MTX and methylprednisolone. The incidence of grade 2-4 and 3-4 aGVHD was 35% (95% confidence interval (CI) 25-44) and 9% (95% CI 4-16), respectively. We found that CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses above the median were associated with high incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD (49 vs 20%, P=0.005 and 46 vs 23%, P=0.021, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high CD3(+) (hazard ratio (HR) 4.6; 95% CI 1.4-14.7; P=0.010) and CD34(+) (HR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-12.7; P=0.011) cell doses were associated with grade 2-4 aGVHD. We further examined the effect of CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses on aGVHD using quartile cutoff points and found a minimum threshold for CD3(+) (38 × 10(6)/kg) and CD34(+) (4 × 10(6)/kg) cells above which the incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD is significantly increased. This study shows for the first time a positive correlation between the number of CD3(+) and CD34(+) cells and aGVHD in children receiving sibling BMT, and indicates that using tailored and more intensive post transplant immunosuppression may permit to better control aGVHD.

  5. Increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in central serous chorioretinopathy patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Ni; Lian, Iebin; Chen, Yi-Chiao; Ho, Jau-Der

    2015-02-01

    To investigate peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) using a population-based database. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, longitudinal data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. The study cohort comprised 835 patients with CSR and the control cohort comprised 4175 patients without CSR from January 2000 to December 2009. Conditional logistic regression was applied to examine the association of peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors for CSR, and stratified Cox regression models were applied to examine whether patients with CSR have an increased chance of peptic ulcer disease and hypertension development. The identifiable risk factors for CSR included peptic ulcer disease (adjusted odd ratio: 1.39, P = 0.001) and higher monthly income (adjusted odd ratio: 1.30, P = 0.006). Patients with CSR also had a significantly higher chance of developing peptic ulcer disease after the diagnosis of CSR (adjusted odd ratio: 1.43, P = 0.009). Peptic ulcer disease and higher monthly income are independent risk factors for CSR. Whereas, patients with CSR also had increased risk for peptic ulcer development.

  6. Di-hadron azimuthal correlation and Mach-like cone structure in a parton/hadron transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, G.L.; Zhang, S.; Ma, Y.G.; Huang, H.Z.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.H.; He, Z.J.; Long, J.L.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, X.H.; Zuo, J.X.

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of a multi-phase transport model (AMPT) with both partonic and hadronic interactions, azimuthal correlations between trigger particles and associated scattering particles have been studied by the mixing-event technique. The momentum ranges of these particles are 3 T trig T assoc T trig T assoc NN =200 GeV. A Mach-like structure has been observed in correlation functions for central collisions. By comparing scenarios with and without parton cascade and hadronic rescattering, we show that both partonic and hadronic dynamical mechanisms contribute to the Mach-like structure of the associated particle azimuthal correlations. The contribution of hadronic dynamical process cannot be ignored in the emergence of Mach-like correlations of the soft scattered associated hadrons. However, hadronic rescattering alone cannot reproduce experimental amplitude of Mach-like cone on away-side, and the parton cascade process is essential to describe experimental amplitude of Mach-like cone on away-side. In addition, both the associated multiplicity and the sum of p T decrease, while the T > increases, with the impact parameter in the AMPT model including partonic dynamics from string melting scenario

  7. Space structure of hadrons and soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyiri, J.

    1980-12-01

    A semi-phenomenological description of soft hadronic processes is given based on the picture of spatially separated quarks and on the spectator mechanism. It is pointed out that the data on the production of secondary mesons support the assumption of quark combinatorics. It is shown that the baryon production can be described roughly by the hypothesis of the dominance of the lowest SU(6)baryon multiplet. Two ways of explaining the slight discrepancy between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions on the increase of baryon multiplicities with the increase of energy are given. (P.L.)

  8. Hadronic tau decays and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hocker, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    We present new results for the r hadronic spectral functions analysis using data accumulated by the ALEPH detector at LEP during the years 1991-94. The vector and the axial-vector spectral functions are determined from their respective unfolded, i.e., physical invariant mass spectra. The r vector and axial-vector hadronic widths and certain spectral moments are exploited to measure a, and nonperturbative contributions at the r mass scale. The best, and experimentally and theoretically most robust, determination of a,(Mr) is obtained from the inclusive (V + A) fit that yields a,(Mr) = 0.349 ± 0.018 giving a,(Mz) = 0.1 212 ± 0.0022 after the evolution to the mass of the Z boson. The approach of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is tested experimentally by means of an evolution of the r hadronic width to masses smaller than the r mass.

  9. Composite hadrons and relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lectures are presented describing a model of hadronic scattering at large momentum transfer, either transverse or longitudinal. This model emphasizes in this regime the importance of forces involving the interchange of constituents of the hadrons, hence its name, the constituent interchange model CIM. The CIM is a rearrangement of standard perturbation theory to take into account the fact that the binding force is very strong in color singlet states (singlet dominance). The hard scattering expansion, incoherence problems, nuclear wave functions and counting rules, interaction between nuclei, pion and proton yields and form factors, structure functions and nonscaling, massive lepton pairs, hadrons at large transverse momentum, and quark-quark scattering are treated. 49 references

  10. The COMPASS Hadron Spectroscopy Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Austregesilo, A

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS for the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of hadrons. The experimental setup features a large acceptance and high momentum resolution spectrometer including particle identification and calorimetry and is therefore ideal to access a broad range of different final states. Following the promising observation of a spin-exotic resonance during an earlier pilot run, COMPASS focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the years 2008 and 2009. A data set, world leading in terms of statistics and resolution, has been collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on either liquid hydrogen or nuclear targets. Spin-exotic meson and glueball candidates formed in both diffractive dissociation and central production are presently studied. Since the beam composition includes protons, the excited baryon spectrum is also accessible. Furthermore, Primakoff reactions have the potential to determine radiative widths of the resonances and to probe chiral pe...

  11. Phenomenological studies of hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Zijl, M.

    1987-04-01

    Several aspects of hadronic collisions are studied in a phenomenological framework. A Monte Carlo model for initial state parton showers, using a backwards evolution scheme, is presented. Comparisons with experimental data and analytical calculations are made. The consequence of using different fragmentation model on the determination of α s is also investigated. It is found that the different fragmentation models lead to the reconstruction of significantly α s values. Finally the possibility of having several independent parton-parton interactions in a hadron-hadron collision is studied. A model is developed, which takes into account the effects of variable impact parameters. This is implemented in a Monte Carlo computer program and extensive comparisons with experimental data are carried out. There is clear evidence in favour of multiple interactions with variable impact parameters. (author)

  12. Dijet imbalance in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Danieel; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    The imbalance of dijets produced in hadronic collisions has been used to extract the average transverse momentum of partons inside the hadrons. In this paper we discuss new contributions to the dijet imbalance that could complicate or even hamper this extraction. They are due to polarization of initial state partons inside unpolarized hadrons that can arise in the presence of nonzero parton transverse momentum. Transversely polarized quarks and linearly polarized gluons produce specific azimuthal dependences of the two jets that in principle are not suppressed. Their effects cannot be isolated just by looking at the angular deviation from the back-to-back situation; rather they enter jet broadening observables. In this way they directly affect the extraction of the average transverse momentum of unpolarized partons that is thought to be extracted. We discuss appropriately weighted cross sections to isolate the additional contributions.

  13. On the hadron mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force.

  14. Heavy quark hadron mass scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Without the spin interactions the hardron masses within a multiplet are degenerate. The light quark hadron degenerate mulitplet mass spectrum is extended from the 3 quark ground state multiplets at J P =0 - , 1/2 + , 1 - to include the excited states which follow the spinorial decomposition of SU(2)xSU(2). The mass scales for the 4, 5, 6, .. quark hadrons are obtained from the degenerate multiplet mass m 0 /M=n 2 /α with n=4, 5, 6, .. The 4, 5, 6, .. quark hadron degenerate multiplet masses follow by splitting of the heavy quark mass scales according to the spinorial decomposition of SU(2)xSU(2). (orig.)

  15. On the hadron mass decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorce, Cedric [Universite Paris-Saclay, Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2018-02-15

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force. (orig.)

  16. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, M; Malaescu, B; Zhang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle–antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e− annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingre...

  17. Hadron excitation of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsch, H.-P.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given on giant resonance studies in heavy nuclei using scattering of different hadronic probes. Concerning isoscalar giant resonances compression modes are discussed with the possibility to obtain more detailed structure information. From detailed studies of α scattering the distribution of isoscalar strengths of multipolarity up to L=6 was obtained. Some recent aspects of heavy ion excitation of collective modes are mentioned. The possibility to study isovector giant resonances in hadron charge exchange reactions is discussed. Finally, a comparison is made between α and 200 MeV proton scattering from which isoscalar and spin-isospin continuum response are extracted. (orig.)

  18. Charmed hadron production by neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushida, N [Aichi Univ. of Education, Kariya (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kondo, T [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Fujioka, G; Fukushima, J; Takahashi, Y; Tatsumi, S; Yokoyama, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Homma, Y; Tsuzuki, Y [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Bahk, S

    1983-02-03

    Charmed hadron production has been studied using a hybrid emulsion spectrometer in the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. The relative rates of D/sup 0/, D/sup +/, F/sup +/, and ..lambda..sub(c)/sup +/ production have been measured - the fraction of D mesons is 69 +- 8/10%. Momentum, transverse momentum, Feynman X, and fragmentation (Z) distributions are presented. The mean Z for charmed hadrons is 0.59 +- 0.03 (+- 0.03). Charmed target fragments have been observed.

  19. Very high multiplicity hadron processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandzhavidze, I.; Sisakyan, A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a description of a first attempt to understand the extremely inelastic high energy hadron collisions, when the multiplicity of produced hadrons considerably exceeds its mean value. Problems with existing model predictions are discussed. The real-time finite-temperature S-matrix theory is built to have a possibility to find model-free predictions. This allows one to include the statistical effects into consideration and build the phenomenology. The questions to experiment are formulated at the very end of the paper

  20. Hadron structure from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Some elements and current developments of lattice QCD are reviewed, with special emphasis on hadron structure observables. In principle, high precision experimental and lattice data provide nowadays a very detailled picture of the internal structure of hadrons. However, to relate both, a very good controle of perturbative QCD is needed in many cases. Finally chiral perturbation theory is extremely helpful to boost the precision of lattice calculations. The mutual need and benefit of all four elements: experiment, lattice QCD, perturbative QCD and chiral perturbation theory is the main topic of this review

  1. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  2. Mechanism of rising cross sections in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtejn, S.S.; Logunov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of sea constituents with each other and valence quarks, occurring in high-energy hadron collisions, is shown to explain the experimentally observed law for the rise of total cross sections, as well as the energy value at which this rise starts and the difference in these energy values for πN, KN and NN(N-barN) reactions

  3. Stochastic evolutions and hadronization of highly excited hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1984-01-01

    Stochastic ingredients of high energy hadronic collisions are analyzed, with emphasis on multiplicity distributions. The conceptual simplicity of the k-cell negative binomial distribution is related to the evolution of probability distributions via the Fokker-Planck and related equations. The connection to underlying field theory ideas is sketched. 17 references

  4. Hadron-hadron potentials from lattice quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitsch, K.

    1997-10-01

    Problems in nuclear physics generally involve several nucleons due to the composite structure of the atomic nucleus. To study such systems one has to solve the Schroedinger equation and therefore has to know a nucleon-nucleon potential. Experimental data and theoretical considerations indicate that nucleons consist of constituent particles, called quarks. Today, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is believed to be the fundamental theory of strong interactions. Consequently, one should try to understand the nucleon-nucleon interaction from first principles of QCD. At nucleonic distances the strong coupling constant is large. Thus, a perturbative treatment of QCD low energy phenomena is not adequate. However, the formulation of QCD on a four-dimensional Euclidean lattice (lattice QCD) makes it possible to address the nonperturbative aspects of the theory. This approach has already produced valuable results. For example, the confinement of quarks in a nucleon has been demonstrated, and hadron masses have been calculated In this thesis various methods to extract the hadron-hadron interactions from first principles of lattice QCD are presented. One possibility is to consider systems of two static hadrons. A comparison of results in pure gluonic vacuum and with sea quarks is given for both the confinement and the deconfinement phase of QCD. Numerical simulations yield attractive potentials in the overlap region of the hadrons for all considered systems. In the deconfinement phase the resulting potentials are shallower reflecting the dissolution of the hadrons. A big step towards the simulation of realistic two-hadron systems on the lattice is the consideration of mesons consisting of dynamic valence quarks. This is done for the two most important fermionic discretization schemes in the pure gluonic vacuum. A calculation in coordinate space utilizing Kogut-Susskind fermions for the valence quarks yields meson-meson potentials with a long ranged interaction, an intermediate

  5. Hadron production at RHIC: recombination of quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We discuss quark recombination applied to the hadronization of a quark gluon plasma. It has been shown that the quark recombination model can explain essential features of hadron production measured in high energy heavy ion collisions.

  6. Detectors and luminosity for hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, R.

    1983-01-01

    Three types of very high energy hadron-hadron coliders are discussed in terms of the trade-off between energy and luminosity. The usable luminosity depends both on the physics under study and the rate capabilities of the detector

  7. Physics at hadron colliders: Experimental view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    The physics of the hadron-hadron collider experiment is considered from an experimental point of view. The problems encountered in determination of how well the standard model describes collider results are discussed. 53 refs., 58 figs

  8. Is there a hadronic Ramsauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1980-01-01

    We show that a good part of the hadronic resonances could very well not be resonances at all. We extend the principle of Ramsauer effect of atomic physics to other Physics' areas and especially to hadronic physics

  9. Impact of an Immunization Campaign to Control an Increased Incidence of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease in One Region of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wals, Philippe; Deceuninck, Geneviève; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tsang, Raymond; Law, Dennis; De Serres, Gaston; Gilca, Vladimir; Gilca, Rodica; Boulianne, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidence increased in Quebec, starting in 2003, and was caused by a serogroup B sequence type 269 clone. The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) region was particularly affected with a rate of 3.4 per 100000 person-years in 2006-2013. In May 2014, an immunization campaign was launched in SLSJ, using the 4-component protein-based meningococcal vaccine (MenB-4C). We aimed to evaluate the impact of the campaign 2 years after its initiation. Immunization registry data and serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (B-IMD) cases notified to public health authorities and confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction from July 1996 to December 2016 were analyzed, including a multivariate Poisson regression model of incidence rates. By the end of the campaign, 82% of the 59000 targeted SLSJ residents between 2 months and 20 years of age had been immunized. Following the initiation of the campaign, no B-IMD case occurred among vaccinees, whereas 2 cases were reported among unvaccinated adult SLSJ residents, and a third case in an unvaccinated child who had stayed in the region during the week prior to disease onset, in 2015. B-IMD incidence decreased in all other regions in the years 2015-2016 but sporadic cases continued to occur. A multivariate analysis showed a significant effect of the campaign in the SLSJ region (relative B-IMD risk: 0.22; P = .04). Results suggest a high level of protection provided by MenB-4C following mass vaccination at regional level. This, along with reassuring safety data, supports the current recommendations for MenB-4C use for controlling outbreaks caused by clones covered by the vaccine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of World Health Organization Groups 1 to 4 Pulmonary Hypertension: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, D Thiwanka; Lajkosz, Katherine; Brogly, Susan B; Lougheed, M Diane; Jiang, Li; Housin, Ahmad; Barber, David; Johnson, Ana; Doliszny, Katharine M; Archer, Stephen L

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes 5 groups of pulmonary hypertension (PH), categorized by pathogenesis or comorbidity: 1-pulmonary arterial hypertension 2-left-heart disease, 3-lung disease and hypoxia 4-chronic thromboembolic disease, and 5-miscellaneous. The epidemiology of PH, apart from group 1, is largely unknown. We describe incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, mortality and prescribing patterns for groups 1 to 4 PH from 1993 to 2012. Case definitions are based on hospitalizations and emergency department visits, using the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data, which comprises linked databases of universal coverage health service records for Ontario residents. This cohort included 50 529 patients with PH. The annual incidence of adult PH increased from 2003 to 2012 from 24.1 to 28.7 cases/100 000 population and the annual prevalence from 1993 to 2012 from 99.8 to 127.3 cases/100 000 population, respectively. The most common form of adult PH was group 2, alone (34.2%) or combined with group 3 PH (29.3%). A diagnosis of PH increased the 1-year standardized mortality ratio 7.2-fold. Mortality in adults with PH was 13.0%, 36.4%, and 62.4%, at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. Mortality was highest in groups 2 and 3 and lowest in group 1. PH was present in only 3.6% of people with left heart disease, 0.7% with lung disease, and 1.4% with thromboembolic disease, suggesting that PH is a relatively rare complication of these common diseases. Children (age<16 years) accounted for 3.6% of the cohort. In children group 1 PH was most common (65.2%), and 5-year mortality was lower (21.4%) than in adults. Group 1-specific PH therapies were increasingly prescribed over time and paradoxically were often used in patients who seemed to have group 2, PH based on diagnostic codes indicating left heart disease. The incidence and prevalence of adult PH are increasing. Groups 2 and 3 are the most common and lethal forms of PH. This study identifies an

  11. Mice Deficient in Both Mn Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Have Increased Oxidative Damage and a Greater Incidence of Pathology but No Reduction in Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Li, Yan; Bokov, Alex; Thorpe, Suzanne R.; Baynes, John W.; Epstein, Charles; Richardson, Arlan

    2009-01-01

    To test the impact of increased mitochondrial oxidative stress as a mechanism underlying aging and age-related pathologies, we generated mice with a combined deficiency in two mitochondrial-localized antioxidant enzymes, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx-1). We compared life span, pathology, and oxidative damage in Gpx1−/−, Sod2+/−Gpx1+/−, Sod2+/−Gpx1−/−, and wild-type control mice. Oxidative damage was elevated in Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice, as shown by increased DNA oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle and increased protein oxidation in brain. Surprisingly, Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice showed no reduction in life span, despite increased levels of oxidative damage. Consistent with the important role for oxidative stress in tumorigenesis during aging, the incidence of neoplasms was significantly increased in the older Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice (28–30 months). Thus, these data do not support a significant role for increased oxidative stress as a result of compromised mitochondrial antioxidant defenses in modulating life span in mice and do not support the oxidative stress theory of aging. PMID:19776219

  12. Photon-hadron fragmentation: theoretical situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using a selection of new experimental results models of hadronic fragmentation and their phenomenological comparison are presented. Indeed a convenient theory of hadronic fragmentation -for instance based on Q.C.D.- does not exist: low transverse momentum fragmentation involves the badly known hadronic long-range forces. Models should clarify the situation in the prospect of an eventual future theory

  13. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-31

    Oct 31, 2014 ... A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the ...

  14. Assembly of the CMS hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter is assembled on the end-cap of the CMS detector in the assembly hall. Hadronic calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  15. High energy hadron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, J.; Mueller, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical expectations for hadron-nucleus scattering at high energy if the basic hadron-hadron interaction is due to Regge poles and cuts arising in multiperipheral or soft field theory models are described. Experiments at Fermilab may provide a critical test of such models

  16. Gluonic excitations in hadronic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1983-09-01

    Theoretical expectations are described for new forms of hadronic matter containing gluons as excitable degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to hybrid states containing both quarks and gluons. Recent work on the spectroscopy of hybrid mesons and hybrid baryons is reviewed. Comparisons of bag model, lattice QCD and QCD sum rule predictions are made and some confrontation with data attempted. (author)

  17. Dimensional Reduction and Hadronic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signer, Adrian; Stoeckinger, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    We consider the application of regularization by dimensional reduction to NLO corrections of hadronic processes. The general collinear singularity structure is discussed, the origin of the regularization-scheme dependence is identified and transition rules to other regularization schemes are derived.

  18. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S

    2008-02-15

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W{sup {+-}}/Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  19. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.

    2008-02-01

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W ± /Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  20. Top production at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on top quark production are presented from four hadron collider experiments: CDF and D0 at the Tevatron, and ATLAS and CMS at the LHC. Cross-sections for single top and top pair production are discussed, as well as results on the top–antitop production asymmetry and searches for new physics including ...

  1. Hadron production simulation by FLUKA

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G; Ferrari, A; Ranft, J; Roesler, S; Sala, P R

    2013-01-01

    For the purposes of accelerator based neutrino experiments, the simulation of parent hadron production plays a key role. In this paper a quick overview of the main ingredients of the PEANUT event generator implemented in the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is given, together with some benchmarking examples.

  2. A PARTNERship for hadron therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    PARTNER, the Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy, has recently been awarded 5.6 million euros by the European Commission. The project, which is coordinated by CERN, has been set up to train researchers of the future in hadron therapy and in doing so aid the battle against cancer.

  3. Electroweak results from hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, Marcel

    1997-01-01

    A review of recent electroweak results from hadron colliders is given. Properties of the W ± and Z 0 gauge bosons using final states containing electrons and muons based on large integrated luminosities are presented. The emphasis is placed on the measurement of the mass of the W boson and the measurement of trilinear gauge boson couplings

  4. Feigenbaum constants in hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batunin, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    The coincidence is found between the law n ch (s) growth in hadron collisions for symmetric rapidity intervals and the law of growth of the number of elements in limit 2 m -cycles for one-dimensional quadratic maps when a govering parameter is varied. Fractal structure of the corresponding attractor underlies intermittency phenomenon in the multiplicity distribution of particles. 12 refs.; 1 fig

  5. LHCB : Exotic hadrons at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Salazar De Paula, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The latest years have seen a resurrection of interest in searches for exotic states motivated by tantalising observations by Belle and CDF. Using the data collected at pp collisions at 7 and 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment we present the unambiguous new observation of exotic charmonia hadrons produced in B decays.

  6. Hadronic decays of $W$ bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, III, Richard Paul [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We present evidence for hadronic W decays in t$\\bar{t}$ → lepton + neutrino + ≥ 4 jet events using a 109 pb -1 data sample of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF).

  7. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-03-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B.

  8. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B

  9. Charmed hadrons in nuclear medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, L.; Gamermann, D.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Molina, R.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Ramos, A.

    We study the properties of charmed hadrons in dense matter within a coupled-channel approach which accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner We analyze the behaviour in this dense environment of dynamically-generated baryonic resonances as well as the

  10. Hadron interactions in quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narodetskij, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    Some recent developments on the study of quark degrees of freedom in hadron scattering at intermediate energy are reviewed. Physical foundations of the P-matrix approach and the Quark Compound Bag method are discussed including applications to pion-pion, pion-nucleon, nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon systems

  11. Polarization effects in hadron fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednicky, R.

    1984-01-01

    Hadron polarization (spin alignment) and polarization asymmetry are discussed in terms of the quark recombination model with the spin-orbit interaction taken into account. It is shown that predictions of this model are at least in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Various polarization mechanisms in terms of this model and the possibility of their checking are also discussed

  12. Increased incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following breast cancer treatment with radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy: a registry cohort analysis 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Henry G; Malmgren, Judith A; Atwood, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to measure myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) risk associated with radiation and/or chemotherapy breast cancer (BC) treatment. Our study cohort was composed of BC patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 and followed up for blood disorders, mean length of follow up = 7.17 years, range 2-18 years. 5790 TNM stage 0-III patients treated with surgery alone, radiation and/or chemotherapy were included. Patients without surgery (n = 111), with stem cell transplantation (n = 98), unknown or non-standard chemotherapy regimens (n = 94), lost to follow up (n = 66) or 'cancer status unknown' (n = 67) were excluded. Rates observed at our community based cancer care institution were compared to SEER incidence data for rate ratio (RR) calculations. 17 cases of MDS/AML (10 MDS/7 AML) occurred during the follow up period, crude rate .29% (95% CI = .17, .47), SEER comparison RR = 3.94 (95% CI = 2.34, 6.15). The RR of MDS in patients age < 65 comparing our cohort incidence to SEER incidence data was 10.88 (95% CI = 3.84, 24.03) and the RR of AML in patients age < 65 was 5.32 (95% CI = 1.31, 14.04). No significant increased risk of MDS or AML was observed in women ≥ 65 or the surgery/chemotherapy-only group. A RR of 3.32 (95% CI = 1.42, 6.45) was observed in the surgery/radiation-only group and a RR of 6.32 (95% CI = 3.03, 11.45) in the surgery/radiation/chemotherapy group. 3 out of 10 MDS cases died of disease at an average 3.8 months post diagnosis and five of seven AML cases died at an average 9 months post diagnosis. An elevated rate of MDS and AML was observed among breast cancer patients < 65, those treated with radiation and those treated with radiation and chemotherapy compared to available population incidence data. Although a small number of patients are affected, leukemia risk associated with treatment and younger age is significant

  13. Hadron Therapy: Past, Present and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.T.L

    1999-01-01

    Fast neutron therapy began as long ago as 1938 and subsequently proton, alpha particle, heavy ion, pion and neutron capture therapy have been used. To date it is estimated that in excess of 45000 people have undergone some form of hadron therapy. In the future it is expected that fast neutron therapy will be used for selected tumour types for which neutron are known to show improved cure rates. The future trends in charged particle therapy will be driven by increasing commercialization. The future of neutron capture therapy will depend on current clinical trials with epithermal neutron beams and the development of new tumour-seeking drugs

  14. Body size and longitudinal body weight changes do not increase mortality in incident peritoneal dialysis patients of the Brazilian peritoneal dialysis multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Natália Maria; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Franco, Márcia Regina Gianotti; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Glória Lima, Maria; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the roles of body size and longitudinal body weight changes in the survival of incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 1911) older than 18 years of age recruited from 114 dialysis centers (Dec/2004-Oct/2007) and participating in the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Cohort Study were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected monthly (except if the patient received a transplant, recovered renal function, was transferred to hemodialysis, or died). RESULTS: Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards. Total follow-up was 34 months. The mean age was 59 years (54% female). The weight category percentages were as follows: underweight: 8%; normal: 51%; overweight: 29%; and obese 12%. The multivariate model showed a higher risk of death for a body mass index 30 kg/m2. Patients were divided into five categories according to quintiles of body weight changes during the first year of dialysis: +7.1%. Patients in the lowest quintile had significantly higher mortality, whereas no negative impact was observed in the other quintiles. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that overweight/obesity and a positive body weight variation during the first year of peritoneal dialysis therapy do not increase mortality in incident dialysis patients in Brazil. PMID:23420157

  15. Bulk and shear viscosities of hot and dense hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadam, Guru Prakash; Mishra, Hiranmaya

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the bulk and the shear viscosity at finite temperature and baryon densities of hadronic matter within a hadron resonance gas model which includes a Hagedorn spectrum. The parameters of the Hagedorn spectrum are adjusted to fit recent lattice QCD simulations at finite chemical potential. For the estimation of the bulk viscosity we use low energy theorems of QCD for the energy momentum tensor correlators. For the shear viscosity coefficient, we estimate the same using molecular kinetic theory to relate the shear viscosity coefficient to average momentum of the hadrons in the hot and dense hadron gas. The bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases with chemical potential and is related to the reduction of velocity of sound at nonzero chemical potential. The shear viscosity to entropy ratio on the other hand, shows a nontrivial behavior with the ratio decreasing with chemical potential for small temperatures but increasing with chemical potential at high temperatures and is related to decrease of entropy density with chemical potential at high temperature due to finite volume of the hadrons

  16. PREFACE: Focus section on Hadronic Physics Focus section on Hadronic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Swanson, Eric

    2007-07-01

    Hadronic physics is the study of strongly interacting matter and its underlying theory, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The field had its beginnings after World War Two, when hadrons were discovered in ever increasing numbers. Today, it encompasses topics like the quark-gluon structure of hadrons at varying scales, the quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density; it also underpins nuclear physics and has significant impact on particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Among the goals of hadronic physics are to determine the parameters of QCD, understand the origin and characteristics of confinement, understand the dynamics and consequences of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, explore the role of quarks and gluons in nuclei and in matter under extreme conditions and understand the quark and gluon structure of hadrons. In general, the process is one of discerning the relevant degrees of freedom and relating these to the fundamental fields of QCD. The emphasis is on understanding QCD, rather than testing it. The papers gathered in this special focus section of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics attempt to cover this broad range of subjects. Alkofer and Greensite examine the issue of quark and gluon confinement with the focus on models of the QCD vacuum, lattice gauge theory investigations, and the relationship to the AdS/CFT correspondence postulate. Arrington et al. review nucleon form factors and their role in determining quark orbital momentum, the strangeness content of the nucleon, meson cloud effects, and the transition from nonperturbative to perturbative QCD dynamics. The physics associated with hadronic matter at high temperature and density and at low Bjorken-x at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the SPS at CERN, and at the future LHC is summarized by d'Enterria. The article of Lee and Smith examines experiment and theory associated with electromagnetic meson production from nucleons and

  17. Progress In Transverse Feedbacks and Related Diagnostics for Hadron Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Hofle, W

    2013-01-01

    Today Hadron Accelerators with high intensity and high brightness beams increasingly rely on transverse feedback systems for the control of instabilities and the preservation of the transverse emittance. With particular emphasis, but not limited to, the CERN Hadron Accelerator Chain, the progress made in recent years, and the performances achieved are reviewed. Hadron colliders such as the LHC represent a particular challenge as they ask for low noise electronic systems in these feedbacks for acceptable emittance growth. Achievements of the LHC transverse feedback system used for damping injection oscillations and to provide stability throughout the cycle are summarized. This includes its use for abort gap and injection cleaning as well as transverse blow-up for diagnostics purposes. Beyond systems already in operation, advances in technology and modern digital signal processing with increasingly higher digitization rates have made systems conceivable to cure intra-bunch motion. With its capabilities to both ...

  18. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the entire proton-proton run of 2011, all HCAL calorimeters operated very efficiently. Over 99% of HCAL readout and trigger channels were alive. However, during the year we did face two hardware problems. One major operation problem was the occasional loss of data from a single RBX caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The rate of RBX data loss was on average one incident per 10 pb–1 of integrated luminosity. This led to approximately 1% of CMS data loss. In order to mitigate this problem, HCAL has introduced an automatic reset of the RBX. With this reset, full operation was restored within about one minute. The final hardware correction of the problem will be possible only during a long shutdown (LS1) in 2013-’14. Another hardware problem that developed in 2011 was the failure of QPLL (quartz phase lock loops) chips. This led to the loss of phase of the readout clock with respect to the LHC clock. As a consequence, in two sections in HCAL (10 degree in φ on HB and 1...

  19. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy, theory and phenomenology at hadron colliders; Chromodynamique quantique a haute energie, theorie et phenomenologie appliquee aux collisions de hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquet, C

    2006-09-15

    When probing small distances inside a hadron, one can resolve its partonic constituents: quarks and gluons that obey the laws of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This substructure reveals itself in hadronic collisions characterized by a large momentum transfer: in such collisions, a hadron acts like a collection of partons whose interactions can be described in QCD. In a collision at moderate energy, a hadron looks dilute and the partons interact incoherently. As the collision energy increases, the parton density inside the hadron grows. Eventually, at some energy much bigger than the momentum transfer, one enters the saturation regime of QCD: the gluon density has become so large that collective effects are important. We introduce a formalism suitable to study hadronic collisions in the high-energy limit in QCD, and the transition to the saturation regime. In this framework, we derive known results that are needed to present our personal contributions and we compute different cross-sections in the context of hard diffraction and particle production. We study the transition to the saturation regime as given by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In particular we derive properties of its solutions.We apply our results to deep inelastic scattering and show that, in the energy range of the HERA collider, the predictions of high-energy QCD are in good agreement with the data. We also consider jet production in hadronic collisions and discuss the possibility to test saturation at the Large Hadron Collider. (author)

  20. Evolving role of hadron irradiation: Potential and risks of hadrons heavier than protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Proton irradiation has been developed to achieve the clinical benefit of improved 3D-dose distribution, with biological properties similar to X-rays. Neutron irradiation, though much less 3D-conformal than proton treatment, has been developed to take advantage of increased relative biologic effectiveness (RBE). Irradiation with hadrons heavier than protons (e.g. carbon and neon ions) exhibits the unique combination of improved 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. The synchrotron technology is rapidly developing to improve the efficiency of delivering these heavier hadrons clinically, but important issues remain regarding optimization of dose and fractionation parameters in the treatment of various histopathologies located in different portions of the anatomy. Many laboratory animal and in vitro cellular studies, and some clinical studies, have been performed to enable better understanding of how to adjust dose-fractionation selection to improve the therapeutic ratio of tumor-cell kill to normal-tissue injury. This paper highlights the enhanced therapeutic potential and associated risks of treatment with these heavier hadrons

  1. Heavy hadron spectroscopy: A quark model perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijande, J.; Valcarce, A.; Caramés, T.F.; Garcilazo, H.

    2013-01-01

    We present recent results of hadron spectroscopy and hadron–hadron interaction from the perspective of constituent quark models. We pay special attention to the role played by higher order Fock space components in the hadron spectra and the connection of this extension with the hadron–hadron interaction. The main goal of our description is to obtain a coherent understanding of the low-energy hadron phenomenology without enforcing any particular model, to constrain its characteristics and learn about low-energy realization of the theory

  2. Correlations in electron-positron, lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.

    1982-11-01

    Recent results on two-particle correlations in rapidity space, forward-backward multiplicity correlations, charge correlations, flavour and baryon number correlations as well as Bose-Einstein correlations of identical particles are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the data from e + e - annihilation which serve in many respects as reference point in the interpretation of correlation phenomena observed in hadronic reactions. (orig.)

  3. The evolution of the epidemiological landscape of head and neck cancer in Italy: Is there evidence for an increase in the incidence of potentially HPV-related carcinomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the incidence and survival patterns of HNSCCs arising from different anatomic sites, potentially related (the oropharynx or unrelated (the oral cavity, the larynx/hypopharynx to HPV, to provide clues on possible growing impact of HPV in the epidemiology of HNSCC in Italy. Epidemiological data were retrieved from ten long-term Cancer Registries covering a population of 7.8 million inhabitants. Trends were described by means of the estimated annual percent change (APC stratified by age and gender, and compared between HPV-related and HPV-unrelated anatomical sites. The data regarding 28,295 HNSCCs diagnosed in Italy between 1988 and 2012 were analyzed. In males, the incidence rate (IR of cancers arising from sites unrelated to HPV infection significantly decreased in all age groups (APC:-3.31 for larynx/hypopharynx; APC:-1.77 for oral cavity, whereas stable IR were observed for cancers arising from sites related to HPV infection. In females, IR for cancers from HPV-related sites increased significantly over the observed period; the largest increment was noted in those over 60 (APC:2.92% who also showed a significantly lower number of HNSCCs from the larynx/hypopharynx (APC:- 0.84 and a significantly higher number of oral cavity tumors (APC = 2.15. The five-year relative survival remained largely unchanged in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal SCC and, conversely, significantly improved in the patients with SCC at HPV-related sites. The trends observed suggest a potential increasing impact of HPV infection on the epidemiology of HNSCC in Italy, but to a lesser extent and with a different pattern from that observed in other Western countries.

  4. Thermodynamics of high-temperature and high-density hadron gas by a numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Miyamura, Osamu [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1998-07-01

    We study thermodynamical properties of hot and dense hadronic gas an event generator URASiMA. In our results, the increase of temperature is suppressed. It indicates that hot and dense hadronic gas has a large specific heat at constant volume. (author)

  5. Review of high energy hadron-nucleus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this review we will summarize new data on hardron-nucleus interactions. The possibility that quark-gluon plasma may be created in heavy ion collisions has led to renewed interest in hadron-nucleus collisions. In particular one hopes that understanding the energy loss of hadrons in h-A collissions will allow us to estimate the optimum energy in AA collisions in order to achieve maximum baryon and/or maximum energy density. This will allow us to choose the optimal experimental environment in the search for quark-gluon plasma. This review will thus omit many interesting results from hadron-nucleus collisions, such as the A dependence of lepton pair production, EMC effect and others. We will focus our attention on the following: (i) Estimating the rate of energy loss of the incident hadron as it propagates through the target. (ii) Determining where the enmergy is deposited in central hadron-nucleus collisions. It is clear that there is no direct or unique method of extrapolating our knowledge of h-A collisions to predict what will happen in AA-collisions. The knowledge and understanding of pp and pA collisions is, however, a useful and necessary guide to what one can expect in AA collisions. In this review we will concentrate on three experimental approaches to the study of h-A collisions. In Section 1 we will discuss the present status of pA → p + X inclusive measurements. In Section 2 measurements from visual detectors, in this case results from the 30″ hybrid spectrometer, which allows investigations of global event properties will be presented. In Section 3 data using 2π calorimeters, where one can trigger and measure transverse energy and energy flow over a given rapidity region, will be discussed. The conclusions will be given in Section 4.

  6. Coulomb interference and bending slope in hadron-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Flavio I.; Ferreira, Erasmo

    1994-01-01

    With the purpose of testing the results of QCD calculations on the structure of the forward elastic scattering cross-section, we analyse the coulombic-nuclear interference occurring at small values of the momentum transfer. We emphasize the influence of the hadronic structures on the determination of the Coulomb phase and consequently on the t-dependence of the strong interaction slope parameter. (author)

  7. Design, Construction and Commissioning of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter - DHCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Bilki, B.; Butler, J.; Corriveau, F.; Cundiff, T.; Drake, G.; Francis, K.; Furst, B.; Guarino, V.; Haberichter, B.; Hazen, E.; Hoff, J.; Holm, S.; Kreps, A.; DeLurgio, P.; Matijas, Z.; Monte, L.Dal; Mucia, N.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Pollack, B.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Trojand, D.; Underwood, D.; Velasco, M.; Walendziak, J.; Wood, K.; Wu, S.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel hadron calorimeter is being developed for future lepton colliding beam detectors. The calorimeter is optimized for the application of Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the measurement of hadronic jets and features a very finely segmented readout with 1 x 1 cm2 cells. The active media of the calorimeter are Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with a digital, i.e. one-bit, readout. To first order the energy of incident particles in this calorimeter is reconstructed as being proportional to the number of pads with a signal over a given threshold. A large-scale prototype calorimeter with approximately 500,000 readout channels has been built and underwent extensive testing in the Fermilab and CERN test beams. This paper reports on the design, construction, and commissioning of this prototype calorimeter.

  8. Hadronic photon-photon interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.; Siegen Univ.; Ranft, J.

    1996-01-01

    Photon-photon collisions are investigated in the framework of the two-component Dual Parton Model. The model contains contributions from direct, resolved soft and resolved hard interactions. All free parameters of the model are determined in fits to hadron-hadron and photon-hadron cross section data. The model is shown to agree well to hadron production data from hadron-hadron and photon-hadron collisions. The multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions as predicted by the model is compared. Strong differences are only found as function of the transverse momentum variable. (author)

  9. CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for Super-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilki, Burak

    2011-01-01

    When the Large Hadron Collider approaches Super-LHC conditions above a luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 , the scintillator tiles of the CMS Hadron Endcap calorimeters will lose their efficiencies. As a radiation hard solution, the scintillator tiles are planned to be replaced by quartz plates. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4% gallium doped zinc oxide. We constructed a 20 layer calorimeter prototype with pTp coated plates of size 20 cm x 20 cm, and tested the hadronic and the electromagnetic capabilities at the CERN H2 beam-line. The beam tests revealed a substantial light collection increase with pTp or ZnO:Ga deposited quartz plates. Here we report on the current R and D for a viable endcap calorimeter solution for CMS with beam tests and radiation damage studies.

  10. Testing the hadronic spectrum in the strange sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parotto, P.

    2017-01-01

    Heavier resonances are continually being added to the hadronic spectrum from the Particle Data Group that follow an exponentially increasing mass spectrum. However, it has been suggested that even further states predicted from Quark Models are needed in the hadronic spectrum in order to improve the agreement between the hadron resonance gas model predictions and lattice QCD data. We find that the inclusion of such states with extrapolated branching ratios slightly decreases the freezeout temperature. To eliminate ambiguities, we introduce a first principle method to extract the freeze-out temperature for charged kaons from experimental data, which yields a lower bound of T fo ≳ 145 MeV for the highest collision energy at RHIC. (paper)

  11. ENLIGHT and other EU-funded projects in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Dosanjh, M; Meyer, R

    2010-01-01

    Following impressive results from early phase trials in Japan and Germany, there is a current expansion in European hadron therapy. This article summarises present European Union-funded projects for research and co-ordination of hadron therapy across Europe. Our primary focus will be on the research questions associated with carbon ion treatment of cancer, but these considerations are also applicable to treatments using proton beams and other light ions. The challenges inherent in this new form of radiotherapy require maximum interdisciplinary co-ordination. On the basis of its successful track record in particle and accelerator physics, the internationally funded CERN laboratories (otherwise known as the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) have been instrumental in promoting collaborations for research purposes in this area of radiation oncology. There will soon be increased opportunities for referral of patients across Europe for hadron therapy. Oncologists should be aware of these developments, whi...

  12. Hadronic multiplicity distributions: the negative binomial and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1986-01-01

    We review properties of the negative binomial distribution, along with its many possible statistical or dynamical origins. Considering the relation of the multiplicity distribution to the density matrix for Boson systems, we re-introduce the partially coherent laser distribution, which allows for coherent as well as incoherent hadronic emission from the k fundamental cells, and provides equally good phenomenological fits to existing data. The broadening of non-single diffractive hadron-hadron distributions can be equally well due to the decrease of coherent with increasing energy as to the large (and rapidly decreasing) values of k deduced from negative binomial fits. Similarly the narrowness of e + -e - multiplicity distribution is due to nearly coherent (therefore nearly Poissonian) emission from a small number of jets, in contrast to the negative binomial with enormous values of k. 31 refs

  13. Hadronic multiplicity distributions: the negative binomial and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1986-01-01

    We review properties of the negative binomial distribution, along with its many possible statistical or dynamical origins. Considering the relation of the multiplicity distribution to the density matrix for boson systems, we re-introduce the partially coherent laser distribution, which allows for coherent as well as incoherent hadronic emission from the k fundamental cells, and provides equally good phenomenological fits to existing data. The broadening of non-single diffractive hadron-hadron distributions can be equally well due to the decrease of coherence with increasing energy as to the large (and rapidly decreasing) values of k deduced from negative binomial fits. Similarly the narrowness of e + -e - multiplicity distribution is due to nearly coherent (therefore nearly Poissonian) emission from a small number of jets, in contrast to the negative binomial with enormous values of k. 31 refs

  14. CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms increase lung cancer risk in a high-incidence region of Spain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Jose Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural region in south-west Spain has one of the highest lung cancer incidence rates of the country, as revealed by a previous epidemiological 10-year follow-up study. The present work was undertaken to ascertain the role of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco smoking in the development of the disease in this location. Methods One-hundred-and-three cases of lung cancer and 265 controls participated in the study. The participants were screened for the presence of four CYP1A1 polymorphisms, namely MspI, Ile462Val, T3205C, and Thr461Asn. Lung cancer risk was estimated as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. Results The distribution of the variant CYP1A1 alleles was different from that described for other Caucasian populations, with CYP1A1*2A showing an uncommonly high frequency (p CYP1A1*2B allele (carrying MspI and Ile462Val mutations was strongly associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 4.59, CI:1.4-12.6, p p p = 0.04. Moreover, the Thr461Asn polymorphism was found to be associated with SCLC in a Caucasian population for the first time to our knowledge (OR = 8.33, CI: 1.3-15.2, p = 0.04. Conclusion The results suggest that CYP1A1 polymorphisms contribute to increase lung cancer susceptibility in an area with an uncommon high incidence rate.

  15. Measurement of the contribution of neutrons to hadron calorimeter signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Berntzon, L.; Cardini, A.; Ferrari, R.; Gaudio, G.; Hauptman, J.; Kim, H.; La Rotonda, L.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Paar, H.; Penzo, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Popescu, S.; Susinno, G.; Roh, Y.; Vandelli, W.; Wigmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    The contributions of neutrons to hadronic signals from the DREAM calorimeter are measured by analyzing the time structure of these signals. The neutrons, which mainly originate from the evaporation stage of nuclear breakup in the hadronic shower development process, contribute through elastic scattering off protons in the plastic scintillating fibers which provide the dE/dx information in this calorimeter. This contribution is characterized by an exponential tail in the pulse shape, with a time constant of ∼25ns. The relative contribution of neutrons to the signals increases with the distance from the shower axis. As expected, the neutrons do not contribute to the DREAM Cherenkov signals

  16. Hadron identification in a fixed target experiment at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, K.S.; Cox, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the design criteria and expected performance of a hadron identification system in a fixed target experiment at the SSC. The proposed SFT spectrometer will be used as a model for the discussion. Two primary uses of hadron identification is a B physics experiment are flavor tagging and the rejection of background due to particle reflections in the reconstruction of exclusive decay modes. In the first case it is shown that use of kaons can increase substantially the number of events which can be tagged. In the latter case, decays in which particles are mis-identified can form a background to a desired decay mode

  17. Supersymmetry across the Hadronic Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günter Dosch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiclassical light-front bound-state equations for hadrons are presented and compared with experiment. The essential dynamical feature is the holographic approach; that is, the hadronic equations in four-dimensional Minkowski space are derived as holograms of classical equations in a 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The form of the equations is constrained by the imposed superconformal algebra, which fixes the form of the light-front potential. If conformal symmetry is strongly broken by heavy quark masses, the combination of supersymmetry and the classical action in the 5-dimensional space still fixes the form of the potential. By heavy quark symmetry, the strength of the potential is related to the heavy quark mass. The contribution is based on several recent papers in collaboration with Stan Brodsky and Guy de Téramond.

  18. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  19. Quantum groups in hadron phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilik, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    We show that application of quantum unitary groups, in place of ordinary flavor SU(n f ), to such static aspects of hadron phenomenology as hadron masses and mass formulas is indeed fruitful. So-called q-deformed mass formulas are given for octet baryons 1/2 + and decuplet baryons 3/2 + , as well as for the case of vector mesons 1 - involving heavy flavors. For deformation parameter q, rigid fixation of values is used. New mass sum rules of remarkable accuracy are presented. As shown in decuplet case, the approach accounts for effects highly nonlinear in SU(3)-breaking. Topological implication (possible connection with knots) for singlet vector mesons and the relation q ↔ Θ c (Cabibbo angle) in case of baryons are considered

  20. Hadron therapy physics and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an in-depth overview of the physics of hadron therapy, ranging from the history to the latest contributions to the subject. It covers the mechanisms of protons and carbon ions at the molecular level (DNA breaks and proteins 53BP1 and RPA), the physics and mathematics of accelerators (Cyclotron and Synchrotron), microdosimetry measurements (with new results so far achieved), and Monte Carlo simulations in hadron therapy using FLUKA (CERN) and MCHIT (FIAS) software. The text also includes information about proton therapy centers and carbon ion centers (PTCOG), as well as a comparison and discussion of both techniques in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. This brief is suitable for newcomers to medical physics as well as seasoned specialists in radiation oncology.

  1. Low p/sub T/ inclusive production in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    New experimental results on the A dependence of inclusive hadron scattering are described with emphasis on the projectile fragmentation region. The experiment measured h + A → h' + x, where h was π + , K + , or p; h' was π +- , K +- , or p; and A, the nuclear target, was C, Al, Cu, Ag, or Pb. The experimental apparatus consisted of the Fermilab M6E beam line and the Single Arm Spectrometer Facility. An incident beam of 100 GeV/c was used; the production of fast h' was measured over the transverse momentum range from 0.18 to 0.5. Invariant cross sections are presented and fitted to a power law function in A. For all channels, increasing attenuation as a function of A is seen. Fitted values of fragmentation functions of spectator and wounded quarks are shown for pion-induced reactions. 8 figures

  2. New possibilities for exotic hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    New theoretical ideas and experimental evidence for exotic hadrons are presented. A new exciting candidate is an anticharmed baryon; i.e., a bound state of a nucleon and an F (now called D 3 ). New experimental evidence for four-quark exotic mesons presented at this conference is discussed. The confusion in the E-iota region and the pseudoscalar spectrum still await further experimental clarification

  3. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley

  4. Heavy leptons at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnemus, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The recent advent of high energy hadron colliders capable of producing weak bosons has opened new vistas for particle physics research, including the search for a possible fourth generation heavy charged lepton, which is the primary topic of the thesis. Signals for identifying a new heavy lepton have been calculated and compared to Standard Model backgrounds. Results are presented for signals at the CERN collider, the Fermilab collider, and the proposed Superconducting Supercollider

  5. Hadron Structure '87. Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, D.

    1988-01-01

    Out of the 21 papers and 41 short communications presented at the conference, the proceedings contain the full texts of 12 papers and 35 short communications. All these contributions have been inputted to INIS. The topics covered include nonperturbative calculations in the field theory, in QCD in particular; particle production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions and the quark-gluon plasma; and recent experimental results in the field. (A.K.)

  6. Hadrons, the simplest gentilionic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.S.D.

    1987-11-01

    Basic quantum mechanical properties of systems constituted by two and three gentileons are deduced in this paper. By using Pauli's theorem and symmetry properties of the intermediate states it is shown that, in some cases, gentileons must have half-odd-integral spin. As an immediate and natural result of our theoretical analysis, we show how fundamental observed properties of composed hadrons can be predicted from first principles assuming quarks as spin 1/2 gentileons. (author) [pt

  7. Hadronic resonances at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings cover the analysis of hadronic resonances in heavy ion collisions. The model used for these studies is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The model will be briefly explained, resonance observables will be highlighted and various kinematical issues will be investigated. Special emphasis will be put on the FAIR energy regime, especially highlighting the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) program.

  8. Experiments at future hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes signatures and backgrounds for processes in high-energy hadronic collisions, particularly at the SSC. It includes both signatures for new particles -- t quarks, Higgs bosons, new Ζ' bosons, supersymmetric particles, and technicolor particles -- and other experiments which might be done. It is based on the 1990 Snowmass Workshop and on work contained in the Expressions of Interest submitted to the SSC. 46 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  9. Hadron structure in a simple model of quark/nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Moniz, E.J.; Negele, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    We study a simple model for one-dimensional hadron matter with many of the essential features needed for examining the transition from nuclear to quark matter and the limitations of models based upon hadron rather than quark degrees of freedom. The dynamics are generated entirely by the quark confining force and exchange symmetry. Using Monte Carlo techniques, the ground-state energy, single-quark momentum distribution, and quark correlation function are calculated for uniform matter as a function of density. The quark confinement scale in the medium increases substantially with increasing density. This change is evident in the correlation function and momentum distribution, in qualitative agreement with the changes observed in deep-inelastic lepton scattering. Nevertheless, the ground-state energy is smooth throughout the transition to quark matter and is described remarkably well by an effective hadron theory based on a phenomenological hadron-hadron potential

  10. Ultra-Fast Hadronic Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Dmitri [Fermilab; Lukić, Strahinja [VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade; Mokhov, Nikolai [Fermilab; Striganov, Sergei [Fermilab; Ujić, Predrag [VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade

    2017-12-18

    Calorimeters for particle physics experiments with integration time of a few ns will substantially improve the capability of the experiment to resolve event pileup and to reject backgrounds. In this paper time development of hadronic showers induced by 30 and 60 GeV positive pions and 120 GeV protons is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and beam tests with a prototype of a sampling steel-scintillator hadronic calorimeter. In the beam tests, scintillator signals induced by hadronic showers in steel are sampled with a period of 0.2 ns and precisely time-aligned in order to study the average signal waveform at various locations w.r.t. the beam particle impact. Simulations of the same setup are performed using the MARS15 code. Both simulation and test beam results suggest that energy deposition in steel calorimeters develop over a time shorter than 3 ns providing opportunity for ultra-fast calorimetry. Simulation results for an "ideal" calorimeter consisting exclusively of bulk tungsten or copper are presented to establish the lower limit of the signal integration window.

  11. Researches at hadron experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    Some of the nuclear, hadron and elementary particle experiments proposed to hadron experiment facility to use the extracted slow proton beam at J-PARC are overviewed. Characteristic feature of the facility is the secondary beam obtained from the intense proton beam. Nuclear hadron physics experiments and kaon rare decay experiments are presented here as the typical ones. Hypernuclear spectroscopy with S=-2 state is expected to be started as soon as the beam becomes available. The kaon bound systems not only with three nucleons like K-pnn but also more numerous like Li and Be are to be studied systematically. Bound states of two kaons using (K - , K + ) reaction will be challenged. Pentaquark will be searched for and its properties will be studied if it really exists. Nuclear structure studies from the view point of large Bjorken x are planned to be studied by irradiating hydrogen, deuteron or heavier targets with primary proton beam and analyzing generated muon pairs. Properties of vector mesons in nuclear matter are to be studied with the primary beam. Neutral kaon rare decay will be investigated to study CP nonconservation. Large progress of elementary particle physics is anticipated by using the intense proton beam at J-PARC. (S. Funahashi)

  12. Signatures of Parton Exogamy in e+ e- -> W+ W- -> hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John; Geiger, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    We propose possible signatures of `exogamous' combinations between partons in the different W+ and W- hadron showers in e+e- -> W+W- events with purely hadronic final states. Within the space-time model for hadronic shower development that we have proposed previously, we find a possible difference of about 10 % between the mean hadronic multiplicity in such purely hadronic final states and twice the hadronic multiplicity in events in which one W decays hadronically and the other leptonically,...

  13. No Contribution of GAD-65 and IA-2 Autoantibodies around Time of Diagnosis to the Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes: A 9-Year Nationwide Danish Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen U. Thorsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. A new perspective on autoantibodies as pivotal players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D has recently emerged. Our key objective was to examine whether increased levels of autoantibodies against the β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65 (GADA and insulinoma associated antigen-2A (IA-2A mirrored the 3.4% annual increase in incidence of T1D. Methods. From the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register, we randomly selected 500 patients and 500 siblings for GADA and IA-2A analysis (1997 through 2005. Blood samples were taken within three months after onset. A robust log-normal regression model was used. Nine hundred children and adolescents had complete records and were included in the analysis. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate changes in prevalence of autoantibody positivity by period. Results. No significant changes in levels of GADA and IA-2A were found over our 9-year study period. No trends in autoantibody positivity—in either patients or siblings—were found. Levels of GADA and IA-2A were significantly associated with HLA risk groups and GADA with age. Conclusion. The prevalence of positivity and the levels of GADA and IA-2A have not changed between 1997 and 2005 in newly diagnosed patients with T1D and their siblings without T1D.

  14. Experimental study of the effect of hadron shower leakage on the energy response and resolution of ATLAS hadron barrel prototype calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.A.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Rumyantsev, V.S.; Bogush, A.A.; Karapetyan, G.; Nessi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The hadronic shower longitudinal and lateral leakages and their effect on the pion response and energy resolution of ATLAS iron-scintillator barrel hadron prototype calorimeter have been investigated. The results are based on 100 GeV pion beam data at incidence angle Θ=10 deg. The fraction of the energy leaking out at the back of this calorimeter amounts to 1.8 % and agrees with the one for a conventional iron-scintillator calorimeter. Unexpected behaviour of the energy resolution as a function of leakage is observed: 6 % lateral leakage leads to 18 % improving of energy resolution in compare with the showers without leakage. 22 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic shower Part 2: The PION calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amatuni, Ts A; Mamidjanyan, E A; Sanossyan, Kh N

    1993-12-31

    Hadronic showers for four energy intervals from 0,5 to 5 TeV have been simulated using the MARS 10 code and the experimental energy and angle distributions of cosmic ray hadrons incident on the PION iron-ionization calorimeter. The longitudinal energy depositions are compared with the experimental results and satisfactory agreement is observed. The average characteristics of hadronic showers initiated by 0,3, 0,5, 1, 2,5, 10 and 20 TeV incident protons, neutrons and pions are studied and parametrizations for the longitudinal and transverse shower profiles are obtained. A new formula for the lateral profile is proposed. The leakage and albedo from the PION calorimeter and the energy spectra of the leakage and albedo particles are also estimated. 29 refs.

  16. Mean charged hadron multiplicities in high-energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albini, E [Istituto di Matematica dell' Universita Cattolica di Brescia (Italy); Capiluppi, P; Giacomelli, G; Rossi, A M [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica

    1976-03-01

    A collection of mean charged hadron multiplicities per inelastic collision in various high-energy processes is presented. An extensive list of fits of as a function of energy is presented and discussed. As the energy increases the multiplicities for different collisions tend to a unique curve, independent of the type of colliding particles.

  17. Hadron therapy takes off in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A joint meeting of ULICE, ENLIGHT and PARTNER recently took place in Marburg (Germany). The three initiatives are shaping both the present and the future of hadron therapy in Europe, where new cutting-edge facilities have started to fight cancer with beams of protons and carbon ions.   A pictorial representation of a raster scan on a tumour. (Photo courtesy of HIT/GSI/Siemens.) Thanks to a very active multidisciplinary community consisting of physicists, biologists, radiobiologists, engineers, IT specialists and medical doctors, hadron therapy is taking off in Europe. Indeed, after a few decades during which the innovative technique was mainly used experimentally in Japan, the US and a couple of pioneering laboratory-based facilities in Europe, today an increasing number of hospitals are being equipped with synchrotrons and dedicated treatment rooms. “Asia and Europe are at the forefront of research and use of carbon ions in the treatment of some rare and radio-resistant t...

  18. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the design principles of the LHC, which gives access to the TeV energy scale for the first time. To achieve this, a number of technological innovations have been necessary. Two counter-rotating proton beams are guided and focused by superconducting magnets with a two-in-one structure allowing the machine to be installed in an existing tunnel. The very high field (>8 T) in the dipoles can only be achieved by cooling them below the superfluid transition temperature of liquid helium. More than 80 tons of superfluid helium is needed to cool the machine. In its first year of operation, the LHC has behaved very reliably and predictably. Single-bunch currents 30% above the design value have already been achieved, and the luminosity has increased by five orders of magnitude in the first 200 days of operation. Some of the results of commissioning and first operation are also discussed.

  19. Observation of charmless hadronic B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    Four candidates for charmless hadronic B decay are observed in a data sample of four million hadronic Z decays recorded by the {\\sc aleph} detector at {\\sc lep} . The probability that these events come from background sources is estimated to b e less than $10^{-6}$. The average branching ratio of weakly decaying B hadrons (a mixture of $\\bd$, $\\bs$ and $\\lb$ weighted by their production cross sections and lifetimes , here denoted B) into two long-lived charged hadrons (pions, kaons or protons) is measured to be $\\Br(\\btohh) = \\resultBR$. The relative branching fraction $\\rratio$, where $\\rs$ is the ratio of $\\bs$ to $\\bd$ decays in the sample, is measured to be $\\resultR$. %Branching ratio upper limits are also obtained for a variety In addition, branching ratio upper limits are obtained for a variety of exclusive charmless hadronic two-body decays of B hadrons.

  20. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding.

    Following the shutdown activities (see previous Bulletin), the HCAL detectors were commissioned with extensive global and cosmic running. All of the 2592, 2592, and 1728 channels of HB, HE and HF, respectively, are operational. The campaign for replacing those HPDs that showed increased noise level or other anomalies in CRAFT08 was completed during last spring. So far none of the HPDs in HB and HE have shown any sign of deterioration of noise level. Only one HO HPD in one of the outer wheels (YB-1), where problems with noise discharge in magnetic field were expected, started discharging a few months ago, and its high voltage was turned off. Two other HPDs in HO YB-1 had the HV turned off due to over-current. The total number of non-functional HO channels is 83, seven of which located in YB0. Similarly ZDC is fully functional. CASTOR was installed in June, and initial commissioning carried out with the magnetic field and with first circulating beam. On the jet trigger side, we observe perfec...

  1. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) Photodetectors The main activity of the HCAL group during the present shutdown is the replacement of a small fraction of the Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) photodetectors -- the Hybrid Photo-Detectors (HPDs). During the MTCC of 2006 it was established that all HPDs exhibit a low rate of discharge generating large random pulses. This behaviour persists at the full CMS field. However, at relatively low fields (0.5 Tesla) this discharge rate increases dramatically and becomes very large for a fraction of the HPDs. The HO HPDs which sit in the gap of the return yoke are thus adversly affected. These discharge pulses have been labelled "HPD noise" (which must be distinguished from low level electronic noise which manifests itself as pedestal noise for all HPD readout channels). Additional intermediate level noise can be generated by ion-feedback arising from thermal and field emission electrons. Ion feedback noise never exceeds the equivalent of few 10s of GeV, the...

  2. An object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, N.; Komogorov, M.

    1999-01-01

    We advocate the development of an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo (MC) event generators. The hadronic MC user and developer requirements are discussed as well as the hadronic model commonalities. It is argued that the development of a framework is in favour of taking into account of model commonalities since common means are stable and can be developed only at once. Such framework can provide different possibilities to have user session more convenient and productive, e.g., an easy access and edition of any model parameter, substitution of the model components by the alternative model components without changing the code, customized output, which offers either full information about history of generated event or specific information about reaction final state, etc. Such framework can indeed increase the productivity of a hadronic model developer, particularly, due to the formalization of the hadronic model component structure and model component collaborations. The framework based on the component approach opens a way to organize a library of the hadronic model components, which can be considered as the pool of hadronic model building blocks. Basic features, code structure and working examples of the first framework version for the hadronic MC models, which has been built as the starting point, are shortly explained

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blashki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  4. Hadron correlations from recombination and fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    We review the formalism of quark recombination applied to the hadronization of a quark-gluon plasma. Evidence in favour of the quark recombination model is outlined. Recent work on parton correlations, leading to detectable correlations between hadrons, is discussed. Hot spots from completely quenched jets are a likely source of such correlations which appear to be jet like. It will be discussed how such a picture compares with measurement of associated hadron yields at RHIC.

  5. Compilation of data from hadronic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poth, H.

    1979-01-01

    This compilation is a survey of the existing data of hadronic atoms (pionic-atoms, kaonic-atoms, antiprotonic-atoms, sigmonic-atoms). It collects measurements of the energies, intensities and line width of X-rays from hadronic atoms. Averaged values for each hadronic atom are given and the data are summarized. The listing contains data on 58 pionic-atoms, on 54 kaonic-atoms, on 23 antiprotonic-atoms and on 20 sigmonic-atoms. (orig./HB) [de

  6. Cancer epidemiology and patient recruitment for hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, H.; Wambersie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Patient recruitment is an important issue in the feasibility study of a hadron therapy programme such as Med-AUSTRON. Data on cancer incidence in Europe, Austria, and neighbouring countries are reviewed for the most frequent tumors suitable for charged particle therapy. From these data, the numbers of potential patients suitable for MED-AUSTRON derived for each tumor site by applying the coefficients proposed in the EULIMA-1992 feasibility study. Whatever the assumptions made, a sufficient and adequate recruitment for MED-AUSTRON can be expected. However, an appropriate referring system has to be established within Austria and also in the neighbouring countries. (orig.)

  7. Model for nucleus-nucleus, hadron-nucleus and hadron-proton multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.; Tuli, S.K.

    1986-07-01

    A model relating hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus multiplicity distributions is proposed and some interesting consequences are derived. The values of the parameters are the same for all the processes and are given by the QCD hypothesis of ''universal'' hadronic multiplicities which are found to be asymptotically independent of target and beam in hadronic and current induced reactions in particle physics. (author)

  8. Hadronization systematics and top mass reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corcella Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss a few issues related to the systematic error on the top mass mea- surement at hadron colliders, due to hadronization effects. Special care is taken about the impact of bottom-quark fragmentation in top decays, especially on the reconstruction relying on final states with leptons and J/Ψ in the dilepton channel. I also debate the relation between the measured mass and its theoretical definition, and report on work in progress, based on the Monte Carlo simulation of fictitious top-flavoured hadrons, which may shed light on this issue and on the hadronization systematics.

  9. XIII International Workshop on Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The XIII International Workshop on Hadron Physics, XIII Hadron Physics, is intended for graduate students, postdocs and researchers in Hadronic Physics, High Energy Physics, Astrophysics and Effective Field Theories, who wish to improve their theoretical background, learn about recent experimental results and develop collaboration projects. The series Hadron Physics, in activity since 1988, has the format of an advanced school and has the objective to introduce, in a series of pedagogical lectures, new lines of research in Strong Interaction Physics, mainly concerned with QCD. It envisages also to stimulate collaborations in international level.

  10. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e + e - annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed

  11. Hadronic molecules with hidden charm and bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the new structures observed since 2003 in experiments in the heavy quarkonium mass region, such as the X(3872 and Zc (3900, are rather close to certain thresholds, and thus can be good candidates of hadronic molecules, which are loose bound systems of hadrons. We will discuss the consequences of heavy quark symmetry for hadronic molecules with heavy quarks. We will also emphasize that the hadronic molecular component of a given structure can be directly probed in long-distance processes, while the short-distance processes are not sensitive to it.

  12. The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William; Color Dynamics in Cold Matter (CDCM) Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The formation of hadrons from energetic quarks, the dynamical enforcement of QCD confinement, is not well understood at a fundamental level. In Deep Inelastic Scattering, modifications of the distributions of identified hadrons emerging from nuclei of different sizes reveal a rich variety of spatial and temporal characteristics of the hadronization process, including its dependence on spin, flavor, energy, and hadron mass and structure. The EIC will feature a wide range of kinematics, allowing a complete investigation of medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung by the propagating quarks, leading to partonic energy loss. This fundamental process, which is also at the heart of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions, can be studied for light and heavy quarks at the EIC through observables quantifying hadron ``attenuation'' for a variety of hadron species. Transverse momentum broadening of hadrons, which is sensitive to the nuclear gluonic field, will also be accessible, and can be used to test our understanding from pQCD of how this quantity evolves with pathlength, as well as its connection to partonic energy loss. The evolution of the forming hadrons in the medium will shed new light on the dynamical origins of the forces between hadrons, and thus ultimately on the nuclear force. Supported by the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) of Chile.

  13. AS03 adjuvanted AH1N1 vaccine associated with an abrupt increase in the incidence of childhood narcolepsy in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Nohynek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder with strong genetic predisposition causing excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. A sudden increase in childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland soon after pandemic influenza epidemic and vaccination with ASO3-adjuvanted Pandemrix. No increase was observed in other age groups. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 we retrospectively followed the cohort of all children living in Finland and born from January 1991 through December 2005. Vaccination data of the whole population was obtained from primary health care databases. All new cases with assigned ICD-10 code of narcolepsy were identified and the medical records reviewed by two experts to classify the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to the Brighton collaboration criteria. Onset of narcolepsy was defined as the first documented contact to health care because of excessive daytime sleepiness. The primary follow-up period was restricted to August 15, 2010, the day before media attention on post-vaccination narcolepsy started. FINDINGS: Vaccination coverage in the cohort was 75%. Of the 67 confirmed cases of narcolepsy, 46 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated were included in the primary analysis. The incidence of narcolepsy was 9.0 in the vaccinated as compared to 0.7/100,000 person years in the unvaccinated individuals, the rate ratio being 12.7 (95% confidence interval 6.1-30.8. The vaccine-attributable risk of developing narcolepsy was 1:16,000 vaccinated 4 to 19-year-olds (95% confidence interval 1:13,000-1:21,000. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemrix vaccine contributed to the onset of narcolepsy among those 4 to 19 years old during the pandemic influenza in 2009-2010 in Finland. Further studies are needed to determine whether this observation exists in other populations and to elucidate potential underlying immunological mechanism. The role of the adjuvant in particular warrants further research before drawing

  14. Construction and Commissioning of the CALICE Analog Hadron Calorimeter Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Repond, J.; Brandt, A.; Brown, H.; De, K.; Medina, C.; Smith, J.; Li, J.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.; Yu, J.; Buanes, T.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Miller, O.; Watson, N.K.; Wilson, J.A.; Goto, T.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Oreglia, M.; Benyamna, M.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Ha, J.; Blazey, G.C.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Lima, G.; Zutshi, V.; Babkin, V.A.; Bazylev, S.N.; Fedotov, Yu I.; Slepnev, V.M.; Tiapkin, I.A.; Volgin, S.V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Jung, T.; Karstensen, S.; Korbel, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lutz, B.; Meyer, N.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Schatzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Groll, M.; Heuer, R.D.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.Ch; Shen, W.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kim, E.J.; Kim, G.; Kim, D.W.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.C.; Kawagoe, K.; Tamura, Y.; Ballin, J.A.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.M.; Yilmaz, H.; Zorba, O.; Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Green, M.G.; Salvatore, F.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Fouz, M.C.; Bailey, D.S.; Barlow, R.J.; Thompson, R.J.; Batouritski, M.; Dvornikov, O.; Shulhevich, Yu; Shumeiko, N.; Solin, A.; Starovoitov, P.; Tchekhovski, V.; Terletski, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Morgunov, V.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Andreev, V.; Kirikova, N.; Komar, A.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Terkulov, A.; Buzhan, P.; Dolgoshein, B.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Smirnov, S.; Baranova, N.; Boos, E.; Gladilin, L.; Karmanov, D.; Korolev, M.; Merkin, M.; Savin, A.; Voronin, A.; Topkar, A.; Frey, A.; Kiesling, C.; Lu, S.; Prothmann, K.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Weuste, L.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poeschl, R.; Raux, L.; Ruan, M.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Gaycken, G.; Cornat, R.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Rouge, A.; Vanel, J.Ch; Videau, H.; Park, K.H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Arestov, Yu; Ammosov, V.; Chuiko, B.; Gapienko, V.; Gilitski, Y.; Koreshev, V.; Semak, A.; Sviridov, Yu; Zaets, V.; Belhorma, B.; Belmir, M.; Baird, A.; Halsall, R.N.; Nam, S.W.; Park, I.H.; Yang, J.; Chai, J.S.; Kim, J.T.; Kim, G.B.; Kim, Y.; Kang, J.; Kwon, Y.J.; Kim, I.; Lee, T.; Park, J.; Sung, J.; Itoh, S.; Kotera, K.; Nishiyama, M.; Takeshita, T.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2010-01-01

    An analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) prototype of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths thickness has been constructed by members of the CALICE Collaboration. The AHCAL prototype consists of a 38-layer sandwich structure of steel plates and highly-segmented scintillator tiles that are read out by wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to SiPMs. The signal is amplified and shaped with a custom-designed ASIC. A calibration/monitoring system based on LED light was developed to monitor the SiPM gain and to measure the full SiPM response curve in order to correct for non-linearity. Ultimately, the physics goals are the study of hadron shower shapes and testing the concept of particle flow. The technical goal consists of measuring the performance and reliability of 7608 SiPMs. The AHCAL was commissioned in test beams at DESY and CERN. The entire prototype was completed in 2007 and recorded hadron showers, electron showers and muons at different energies and incident angles in test beams at CERN and Fermilab.

  15. Construction and commissioning of the CALICE analog hadron calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Karyotakis, Y.

    2010-03-01

    An analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) prototype of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths thickness has been constructed by members of the CALICE Collaboration. The AHCAL prototype consists of a 38-layer sandwich structure of steel plates and highlysegmented scintillator tiles that are read out by wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to SiPMs. The signal is amplified and shaped with a custom-designed ASIC. A calibration/ monitoring system based on LED light was developed to monitor the SiPM gain and to measure the full SiPM response curve in order to correct for non-linearity. Ultimately, the physics goals are the study of hadron shower shapes and testing the concept of particle flow. The technical goal consists of measuring the performance and reliability of 7608 SiPMs. The AHCAL was commissioned in test beams at DESY and CERN. The entire prototype was completed in 2007 and recorded hadron showers, electron showers and muons at different energies and incident angles in test beams at CERN and Fermilab. (orig.)

  16. Construction and commissioning of the CALICA analog hadron calorimeter prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Karyotakis, Y. [Universite de Savoie, Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, CNRS/IN2P3; Repond, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2010-03-15

    An analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) prototype of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths thickness has been constructed by members of the CALICE Collaboration. The AHCAL prototype consists of a 38-layer sandwich structure of steel plates and highlysegmented scintillator tiles that are read out by wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to SiPMs. The signal is amplified and shaped with a custom-designed ASIC. A calibration/ monitoring system based on LED light was developed to monitor the SiPM gain and to measure the full SiPM response curve in order to correct for non-linearity. Ultimately, the physics goals are the study of hadron shower shapes and testing the concept of particle flow. The technical goal consists of measuring the performance and reliability of 7608 SiPMs. The AHCAL was commissioned in test beams at DESY and CERN. The entire prototype was completed in 2007 and recorded hadron showers, electron showers and muons at different energies and incident angles in test beams at CERN and Fermilab. (orig.)

  17. Correlations in hadron-hadron interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huu Khanh

    1978-01-01

    Some main features of the experimental results on the correlations in hadron-hadron interactions at high energy are considered. Particular attention is paid to the long-range correlation, short-range correlation and Bose-Einstein effect. Long-range correlations are confirmed by the variation of the number of charged particles produced in the final state depending on energy, violation of Koba-Nielsen- Olesen scaling and the analysis of correlation betWeen the numbers of charged particles emitted in the forward and backward hemispheres. Short-range correlations are discussed from the point of view of ISR pp, 195 GeV/c pN and 32 GeV/c k + p experiments. Bose-Einstein effects are studied up to now only between pions. Pions are not produced directly but from the decay of heavier objects. Some experimental results seem to support the evidence for dynamical long-range correlations. Most of the data are compatible with the independent cluster model

  18. Post-event reviews: Using a quantitative approach for analysing incident response to demonstrate the value of business continuity programmes and increase planning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    Business continuity management is often thought of as a proactive planning process for minimising impact from large-scale incidents and disasters. While this is true, and it is critical to plan for the worst, consistently validating plan effectiveness against smaller disruptions can enable an organisation to gain key insights about its business continuity readiness, drive programme improvements, reduce costs and provide an opportunity to quantitatively demonstrate the value of the programme to management. This paper describes a post mortem framework which is used as a continuous improvement mechanism for tracking, reviewing and learning from real-world events at Microsoft Customer Service & Support. This approach was developed and adopted because conducting regular business continuity exercises proved difficult and expensive in a complex and distributed operations environment with high availability requirements. Using a quantitative approach to measure response to incidents, and categorising outcomes based on such responses, enables business continuity teams to provide data-driven insights to leadership, change perceptions of incident root cause, and instil a higher level of confidence towards disaster response readiness and incident management. The scope of the framework discussed here is specific to reviewing and driving improvements from operational incidents. However, the concept can be extended to learning and evolving readiness plans for other types of incidents.

  19. Multidimensional intermittency in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J.; Hwa, R.C.

    1992-06-01

    The study of intermittency in high-energy hadronic collisions by the Monte Carlo code ECCO is extended to 3-dimensional phase space. Strong intermittency is found in agreement with the data. Fluctuation in the impact parameter is responsible for the intermittency in lnp T , and the transverse-momentum conservation leads to negative intermittency slopes in the azimuthal angle φ. The Ochs-Wosiek plots are linear in all dimensions having universal slopes. An exponent ν = 1.448 emerges to characterize multiparticle production in pp collisions. The properties of G moments are also examined, and the fractal dimensions determined

  20. Recent results from hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This is a summary of some of the many recent results from the CERN and Fermilab colliders, presented for an audience of nuclear, medium-energy, and elementary particle physicists. The topics are jets and QCD at very high energies, precision measurements of electroweak parameters, the remarkably heavy top quark, and new results on the detection of the large flux of B mesons produced at these machines. A summary and some comments on the bright prospects for the future of hadron colliders conclude the talk. 39 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The theory of hadronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report briefly discusses progress on the following topics: isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon system; subthreshold amplitudes in the πN system; neutron-proton charge-exchange; transparency in pion production; energy dependence of pion DCX; direct capture of pions into deeply bound atomic states; knock out of secondary components in the nucleus; radii of neutron distributions in nuclei; the hadronic double scattering operator; pion scattering and charge exchange from polarized nuclei; pion absorption in nuclei; modification of nucleon structure in nuclei; and antiproton annihilation in nuclei

  2. Hadronic Structure from Perturbative Dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arash, Firooz [Physics Department, Tafresh University, Tafresh, Iran and Center for theoretical physics and Mathematics, AEOI, P.O. Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: farash@cic.aut.ac.ir

    2005-09-15

    Perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD produces the internal structure of an extended object, the so-called Valon. The valon structure is universal and independent of the hosting hadron. Polarized and unpolarized proton and pion structure functions are calculated in the valon representation. One finds that although all the available data on g{sub 1}{sup p,n,d} are easily reproduced, a sizable orbital angular momentum associated with the partonic structure of the valon is required in order to have a spin 1/2 valon.

  3. Hadron accelerators in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.; Silari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadrontherapy Project (the largest project of this type in Europe) is then described, with reference to both the National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy and the design of two types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large number of hospitals. Finally, the radiation protection requirements are discussed. (author)

  4. Hadronic B decays at LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the analysis of hadronic decays of B s 0 mesons at LHCb detector. The analyses use the data sample collected in 2011, which correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb -1 . A large variety of different decays are being studied in order to probe for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model. The statistics available in the 2011 data sample already allow sophisticated analysis techniques, such as the Dalitz-plot analysis and the angular analysis to be employed

  5. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  6. Charmed hadrons in nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolos, L.; Gamermann, D.; Molina, R.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Ramos, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of charmed hadrons in dense matter within a coupled-channel approach which accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We analyze the behaviour in this dense environment of dynamically-generated baryonic resonances as well as the open-charm meson spectral functions. We discuss the implications of the in-medium properties of open-charm mesons on the D s0 (2317) and the predicted X(3700) scalar resonances. (authors)

  7. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 200 GeV have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  8. Department of Hadron Structure - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskreys, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text: The XII Department of the Institute of Nuclear Physics has been involved in 1999 in the following experiments and projects: -ZEUS experiment at HERA (DESY), which covered the main activity of the department. The group from department participating in this experiment consisted of physicists: J. Chwastowski, A. Eskreys, J. Figiel, K. Klimek, K. Olkiewicz, M.B. Przybycien, P. Stopa, M. Zachara, and L. Zawiejski and engineers and technicians: J. Andruszkow, W. Daniluk, B. Dabrowski, P. Jurkiewicz, A. Kotarba, K. Oliwa, W. Wierba, and A. Wlodarczyk; -D0 experiment at TEVATRON (FNAL), USA - one physicist: B. Pawlik from the department was involved in this experiment; -TESLA project at DESY - two engineers: J. Andruszkow and P. Jurkiewicz were participating in this project; -ATLAS project at LHC (CERN) - one physicist: K. Piotrzkowski from the department was participating in this project. 11 physicists and 8 engineers and technicians have been involved in carrying above programs. ZEUS experiment is the continuation of the investigation of e ± p interactions at HERA collider which has started over 10 years ago and has a perspective of another 5 years of activity. The upgrade of HERA and the expected 5-7 fold increase of luminosity makes the physics program very attractive. Cracow group is responsible for upgrade of the luminosity monitor to meet the new working conditions after HERA upgrade. An extended proposal for luminosity measurement after HERA upgrade, including the measurements of the Bremsstrahlung events rates by additional detectors apart from the photon calorimeter (i.e. 6m and 40m electron taggers and luminosity spectrometer), has been prepared and was accepted for realization by the ZEUS collaboration and the DESY Physics Research Committee (PRC). D0 is the (anti)pp experiment carried out at FNAL (Batavia), USA, and is now designed to deliver 100 times higher luminosity than has been achieved so far. In ATLAS project the preparation of the physics

  9. Jets in hadron colliders at order αs3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.; Kunszt, Z.; Soper, D.E.

    1991-10-01

    Recent results from the study of hadronic jets in hadron-hadron collisions at order a s 3 in perturbation theory are presented. The numerical results are in good agreement with data and this agreement is illustrated where possible

  10. Hadron properties in chiral sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Hong

    2005-01-01

    The modification of hadron masses in nuclear medium is studied by using the chiral sigma model, which is extended to generate the omega meson mass by the sigma condensation in the vacuum in the same way as the nucleon mass. The chiral sigma model provides proper equilibrium properties of nuclear matter. It is shown that the effective masses of both nucleons and omega mesons decrease in nuclear medium, while the effective mass of sigma mesons increases oat finite density in the chiral sigma model. The results obtained in the chiral sigma model are compared with those obtained in the Walecka model, which includes sigma and omega mesons in a non-chiral fashion. (author)

  11. Helicity antenna showers for hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine; Skands, Peter [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Lifson, Andrew [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC (Australia); ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-15

    We present a complete set of helicity-dependent 2 → 3 antenna functions for QCD initial- and final-state radiation. The functions are implemented in the Vincia shower Monte Carlo framework and are used to generate showers for hadron-collider processes in which helicities are explicitly sampled (and conserved) at each step of the evolution. Although not capturing the full effects of spin correlations, the explicit helicity sampling does permit a significantly faster evaluation of fixed-order matrix-element corrections. A further speed increase is achieved via the implementation of a new fast library of analytical MHV amplitudes, while matrix elements from Madgraph are used for non-MHV configurations. A few examples of applications to QCD 2 → 2 processes are given, comparing the newly released Vincia 2.200 to Pythia 8.226. (orig.)

  12. Stop Lepton Associated Production at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, A; Plehn, Tilman

    2003-01-01

    At hadron colliders, the search for R-parity violating supersymmetry can probe scalar masses beyond what is covered by pair production processes. We evaluate the next-to-leading order SUSY-QCD corrections to the associated stop or sbottom production with a lepton through R-parity violating interactions. We show that higher order corrections render the theoretical predictions more stable with respect to variations of the renormalization and factorization scales and that the total cross section is enhanced by a factor up to 70% at the Tevatron and 50% at the LHC. We investigate in detail how the heavy supersymmetric states decouple from the next-to-leading order process, which gives rise to a theory with an additional scalar leptoquark. In this scenario the inclusion of higher order QCD corrections increases the Tevatron reach on leptoquark masses by up to 40 GeV and the LHC reach by up to 200 GeV.

  13. Helicity antenna showers for hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nadine; Lifson, Andrew; Skands, Peter

    2017-10-01

    We present a complete set of helicity-dependent 2→ 3 antenna functions for QCD initial- and final-state radiation. The functions are implemented in the Vincia shower Monte Carlo framework and are used to generate showers for hadron-collider processes in which helicities are explicitly sampled (and conserved) at each step of the evolution. Although not capturing the full effects of spin correlations, the explicit helicity sampling does permit a significantly faster evaluation of fixed-order matrix-element corrections. A further speed increase is achieved via the implementation of a new fast library of analytical MHV amplitudes, while matrix elements from Madgraph are used for non-MHV configurations. A few examples of applications to QCD 2→ 2 processes are given, comparing the newly released Vincia 2.200 to Pythia 8.226.

  14. Superclusters and hadronic multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.C.; Carruthers, P.

    1986-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution is expressed in terms of supercluster production in hadronic processes at high energy. This process creates unstable clusters at intermediate stages and hadrons in final stage. It includes Poisson-transform distributions (with the partially coherent distribution as a special case) and is very flexible for phenomenological analyses. The associated Koba, Nielson, and Olesen limit and the behavior of cumulant moments are analyzed in detail for finite and/or infinite cluster size and particle size per cluster. In general, a supercluster distribution does not need to be equivalent to a negative binomial distribution to fit experimental data well. Furthermore, the requirement of such equivalence leads to many solutions, in which the average size of the cluster is not logarithmic: e.g., it may show a power behavior instead. Superclustering is defined as a two-or multi-stage process underlying observed global multiplicity distributions. At the first stage of the production process, individual clusters are produced according to a given statistical law. For example, the clustering distribution may be described by partially coherent (oreven sub-Poissonian distribution models. At the second stage, the clusters are considered as the sources of particle production. The corresponding distribution may then be as general as the clustering distribution just mentioned. 8 refs

  15. Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.

  16. Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-03-09

    I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.

  17. Flavorful leptoquarks at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Gudrun; Loose, Dennis; Nišandžić, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    B -physics data and flavor symmetries suggest that leptoquarks can have masses as low as a few O (TeV ) , predominantly decay to third generation quarks, and highlight p p →b μ μ signatures from single production and p p →b b μ μ from pair production. Abandoning flavor symmetries could allow for inverted quark hierarchies and cause sizable p p →j μ μ and j j μ μ cross sections, induced by second generation couplings. Final states with leptons other than muons including lepton flavor violation (LFV) ones can also arise. The corresponding couplings can also be probed by precision studies of the B →(Xs,K*,ϕ )e e distribution and LFV searches in B -decays. We demonstrate sensitivity in single leptoquark production for the large hadron collider (LHC) and extrapolate to the high luminosity LHC. Exploration of the bulk of the parameter space requires a hadron collider beyond the reach of the LHC, with b -identification capabilities.

  18. Heavy quark correlations in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, M.L.; Ridolfi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The study of heavy quark production at hadron colliders will provide important tests and measurements within and possibly beyond the Standard Model. The results of a recent calculation of heavy quark hadronic production correlation properties at the full next-to-leading order (NLO) in perturbative QCD are presented. These properties are important for several applications. (R.P.) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Hadron production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1977-01-01

    The lectures cover recent results on hadron production by e + e - annihilation. Included are total hadronic cross section and scale invariance as applied to e + e - annihilation, the present status of the psi spectroscopy by study of the decay modes of the narrow psi resonances, and the recent discovery of charmed mesons. 93 references

  20. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.