Sample records for incidence diffuse reflectance

  1. Mid infrared upconversion spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Kehlet, Louis M.; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin


    specifically that upconversion methods can be deployed using a diffuse reflectance setup where the test sample is irradiated by a thermal light source, i.e. a globar. The diffuse reflectance geometry is particularly well suited when a transmission setup cannot be used. This situation may happen for highly...

  2. Asymmetric diffusion model for oblique-incidence reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqin Chen; Liji Cao; Liqun Sun


    A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectom-etry. By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model, the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp') away from the incident point; particularly, μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy. The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.%A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectometry.By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model,the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp')away from the incident point;particularly,μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy.The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.Knowledge about the optical properties,including the absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's =μs(1-g)),where μs is the scattering coefficient and g is the anisotropy factor of scattering,of biological tissues plays an important role for optical therapeutic and diagnostic techniques in medicine.

  3. Calculation of heat balance considering the reflection, refraction of incident ray and salt diffusion on solar pad; Hikari no hansha kussetsu oyobi shio no kakusan wo koryoshita solar pond no netsukeisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K; Li, X; Baba, H; Endo, N [Kitami Institute of Technology, (Japan)


    In calculating heat balance of solar pond, calculation was made considering things except quality of the incident ray and physical properties of pond water which were conventionally considered. The real optical path length was determined from the reflection ratio of ray on the water surface based on the refraction ratio of pond water and the locus of water transmitted ray in order to calculate a total transmission rate. The rate of absorption of monochromatic lights composing of solar light in their going through the media is different by wavelength, and therefore, calculation was made in each monochromatic light. As to four kinds of salt water solution, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, these phenomena seen in solar pond are taken in, and a total transmission rate based on reality can be calculated by the wavelength integration method. Moreover, in the salt gradient layer, there are gradients in both concentration and temperature, and thermal physical values of each layer change. Accordingly, mass transfer and thermal transfer by both gradients were considered at the same time. An analytic solution was introduced which analyzes salt diffusion in the temperature field in the gradient layer and determines the concentration distribution. By these, concentration and physical values of each layer were calculated according to phenomena, and thermal balance of each layer of the solar pond was able to be accurately calculated. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Deterioration of reflecting coatings by intermetallic diffusion. (United States)

    Hunter, W R; Mikes, T L; Hass, G


    Gold diffraction gratings overcoated with Al + MgF(2) to increase their efficiency in the vacuum ultraviolet suffered a severe loss in efficiency within six months to a year after coating; for example, from 50% to 2% at lambda1216 A. The cause of this loss was assumed to be interdiffusion of Au and Al; therefore, a more complete study of Au-Al film combinations was performed. The coatings were aged at room and elevated temperatures. Reflectance measurements were made in the visible and vacuum ultraviolet spectral regions. For wavelengths longer than lambda900 A, the measurements show very little change until the diffusion boundary reaches the penetration depth of the radiation. If Al is the first surface layer, however, reflectance measurements at lambda584 A permit measuring the progress of the diffusion boundary toward the Al surface because of the low absorptance of Al at this wavelength. Interdiffusion can be effectively eliminated by the use of thin dielectric layers uch as SiO and the natural oxide of Al. Such protected coatings have been exposed for one week at a temperature of 170 degrees C with no visible sign of diffusion, whereas a similar coating without the barrier layer would become useless in less than 1 h. Some preliminary studies have been made with Pt-Al film combinations.

  5. Discriminating Yogurt Microstructure Using Diffuse Reflectance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Møller, Flemming; Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann


    The protein microstructure of many dairy products is of great importance for the consumers’ experience when eating the product. However, studies concerning discrimination between protein microstructures are limited. This paper presents preliminary results for discriminating different yogurt...... microstructures using hyperspectral (500-900nm) diffuse reflectance images (DRIs) – a technique potentially well suited for inline process control. Comparisons are made to quantified measures of the yogurt microstructure observed through confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The output signal from both...... modalities is evaluated on a 24 factorial design covering four common production parameters, which significantly change the chemistry and the microstructure of the yogurt. It is found that the DRIs can be as discriminative as the CSLM images in certain cases, however the performance is highly governed...

  6. Angular distribution of diffuse reflectance from incoherent multiple scattering in turbid media. (United States)

    Gao, M; Huang, X; Yang, P; Kattawar, G W


    The angular distribution of diffuse reflection is elucidated with greater understanding by studying a homogeneous turbid medium. We modeled the medium as an infinite slab and studied the reflection dependence on the following three parameters: the incident direction, optical depth, and asymmetry factor. The diffuse reflection is produced by incoherent multiple scattering and is solved through radiative transfer theory. At large optical depths, the angular distribution of the diffuse reflection with small incident angles is similar to that of a Lambertian surface, but, with incident angles larger than 60°, the angular distributions have a prominent reflection peak around the specular reflection angle. These reflection peaks are found originating from the scattering within one transport mean free path in the top layer of the medium. The maximum reflection angles for different incident angles are analyzed and can characterize the structure of angular distributions for different asymmetry factors and optical depths. The properties of the angular distribution can be applied to more complex systems for a better understanding of diffuse reflection.

  7. Diffuse and goniochromatic reflectance of translucent materials (United States)

    Chirdon, William M.

    Although the mechanical stability of dental restorations remains a priority, research is currently being pursued to improve the esthetics of restorations. This includes the technology of color matching and the general understanding of the appearance of natural teeth. Before the appearance of natural teeth can be mimicked, it must first be reduced to quantifiable parameters. Teeth and dental restorations typically have their appearance defined by their three-dimensional color, which then becomes the basis for appearance matching. However, standard color measurements cannot account for differences in translucency between materials, while a human observer readily can. Furthermore, teeth are translucent, multi-layered, biological composites that have aligned microstructures. These translucent layers and aligned microstructure make the color dependant upon the observation angle---a property known as goniochromism. This research shows how translucent materials exhibit significant goniochromatic behaviors. Since the translucency typically results in goniochromatic behavior, goniochromatic behavior is thought to be how translucency is perceived, and consequently, how color matching in translucent materials can potentially fail to match the appearance. To better understand the causes of goniochromism, fiber filler alignment, layering, and specularly reflecting backings were investigated as mechanisms of goniochromism. These same three mechanisms are also likely to affect the diffuse reflectance of translucent materials, which were also quantitatively studied. Another particularly odd property of human enamel is its ability to produce multiple-slit, Fraunhofer diffraction patterns, which this work reproduced using aligned, E-glass-fiber composites.

  8. Grazing incidence polarized neutron scattering in reflection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2012 physics pp. 1–58. Grazing incidence polarized ..... atomic distances, the neutron has an energy which is low compared to molecular binding ...... cores and that of the Co ions in the AF oxide coatings. ...... [32] C Leighton, M R Fitzsimmons, P Yashar, A Hoffmann, J Nogus, J Dura, C F Majkrzak and.

  9. Tailoring diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing microplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovick, Brian A., E-mail:; Baker, John M.; Flom, Zachary; Krishnamurthy, Srini [Applied Optics Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)


    We develop an analytical model for calculating the diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing aligned microplatelets with diameters much greater than the wavelength. The scattering parameters are derived by modeling the platelets as one-dimensional thin films, and the overall diffuse reflectance of the slab is calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model. Our model predicts that reflection minima and maxima arising from coherent interference within the platelets are preserved in the diffuse reflectance of the disordered slab. Experimental validation of the model is provided by reflectance measurements (0.3–15 μm) of a solid aerosol film of aligned hexagonal boron nitride platelets.

  10. Degradation nonuniformity in the solar diffuser bidirectional reflectance distribution function. (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Chu, Mike; Wang, Menghua


    The assumption of angular dependence stability of the solar diffuser (SD) throughout degradation is critical to the on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) in many satellite sensors. Recent evidence has pointed to the contrary, and in this work, we present a thorough investigative effort into the angular dependence of the SD degradation for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and for the twin Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. One common key step in the RSB calibration is the use of the SD degradation performance measured by an accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) as a valid substitute for the SD degradation factor in the direction of the RSB view. If SD degradations between these two respective directions do not maintain the same relative relationship over time, then the unmitigated use of the SDSM-measured SD degradation factor in the RSB calibration calculation will generate bias, and consequently, long-term drift in derived science products. We exploit the available history of the on-orbit calibration events to examine the response of the SDSM and the RSB detectors to the incident illumination reflecting off SD versus solar declination angle and show that the angular dependency, particularly at short wavelengths, evolves with respect to time. The generalized and the decisive conclusion is that the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the SD degrades nonuniformly with respect to both incident and outgoing directions. Thus, the SDSM-based measurements provide SD degradation factors that are biased relative to the RSB view direction with respect to the SD. The analysis also reveals additional interesting phenomena, for example, the sharp behavioral change in the evolving angular dependence observed in Terra MODIS and SNPP VIIRS. For SNPP VIIRS the mitigation for this

  11. Characterization of Stationary Distributions of Reflected Diffusions (United States)


    operations research to finance and mathemat- ical physics , and their stationary distributions often serve to characterize or approximate important...REFERENCES [1] Atar , R., Budhiraja, A. and Dupuis, P. (2001). On positive recurrence of constrained diffusion processes. Ann. Probab., 29 No. 2, 979-1000

  12. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo


    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  13. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering. (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G


    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  14. Ultra-broadband and planar sound diffuser with high uniformity of reflected intensity (United States)

    Fan, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Yi-Fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-Chun


    Schroeder diffusers, as a classical design of acoustic diffusers proposed over 40 years ago, play key roles in many practical scenarios ranging from architectural acoustics to noise control to particle manipulation. Despite the great success of conventional acoustic diffusers, it is still worth pursuing ideal acoustic diffusers that are essentially expected to produce perfect sound diffuse reflection within the unlimited bandwidth. Here, we propose a different mechanism for designing acoustic diffusers to overcome the basic limits in intensity uniformity and working bandwidth in the previous designs and demonstrate a practical implementation by acoustic metamaterials with dispersionless phase-steering capability. In stark contrast to the existing production of diffuse fields relying on random scattering of sound energy by using a specific mathematical number sequence of periodically distributed unit cells, we directly mold the reflected wavefront into the desired shape by precisely manipulating the local phases of individual subwavelength metastructures. We also benchmark our design via numerical simulation with a commercially available Schroeder diffuser, and the results verify that our proposed diffuser scatters incident acoustic energy into all directions more uniformly within an ultra-broad band regardless of the incident angle. Furthermore, our design enables further improvement of the working bandwidth just by simply downscaling each individual element. With ultra-broadband functionality and high uniformity of reflected intensity, our metamaterial-based production of the diffusive field opens a route to the design and application of acoustic diffusers and may have a significant impact on various fields such as architectural acoustics and medical ultrasound imaging/treatment.

  15. Neuropathic pain: A personal case reflection on a critical incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji P Duraisamy


    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a distressing symptom for the patient and a difficult symptom for the physician to treat. There is lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of malignant neuropathic pain. The case reflection is a personal account of what has been learnt from a critical incident in a particular patient in the management of neuropathic pain. Psychological issues are known to increase pain percetion and affect the quality of life. The case reflection explores problem areas, defines lacunae in knowledge, and demonstrates active learning of the management of neuropathic pain through reflective practice.

  16. Critical incident analysis through narrative reflective practice: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell


    Full Text Available Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge, expertise and experience that is based on their accumulated years as language educators teaching in schools and classrooms. This paper is about one such critical incident analysis that an ESL teacher in Canada revealed to her critical friend and how both used McCabe’s (2002 narrative framework for analyzing an important critical incident that occurred in the teacher’s class.

  17. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.


    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to

  18. Polarization properties and microfacet-based modelling of white, grey and coloured matte diffuse reflection standards (United States)

    Quast, T.; Schirmacher, A.; Hauer, K.-O.; Koo, A.


    To elucidate the influence of polarization in diffuse reflectometry, we performed a series of measurements in several bidirectional geometries and determined the Stokes parameters of the diffusely reflected radiation. Different types of matte reflection standards were used, including several common white standards and ceramic colour standards. The dependence of the polarization on the sample type, wavelength and geometry have been studied systematically, the main influence factors have been identified: The effect is largest at large angles of incidence or detection and at wavelengths where the magnitude of the reflectance is small. The results for the colour standards have been modelled using a microfacet-based reflection theory which is derived from the well-known model of Torrance and Sparrow. Although the theory is very simple and only has three free parameters, the agreement with the measured data is very good, all essential features of the data can be reproduced by the model.

  19. A simple polarized-based diffused reflectance colour imaging system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple polarized-based diffuse reflectance imaging system has been developed. The system is designed for both in vivo and in vitro imaging of agricultural specimen in the visible region. The system uses a commercial web camera and a halogen lamp that makes it relatively simple and less expensive for diagnostic ...

  20. Reflectance diffuse optical tomography. Its application to human brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Oda, Motoki; Yamashita, Yutaka


    We report the successful application of reflectance diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared light with the new reconstruction algorithm that we developed to the observation of regional hemodynamic changes in the brain under specific mental tasks. Our results reveal the heterogeneous distribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the brain, showing complementary images of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin changes in certain regions. We conclude that our reflectance DOT has practical potential for human brain mapping, as well as in the diagnostic imaging of brain diseases. (author)

  1. Spectral and geometrical variation of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of diffuse reflectance standards. (United States)

    Ferrero, Alejandro; Rabal, Ana María; Campos, Joaquín; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, María Luisa


    A study on the variation of the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of four diffuse reflectance standards (matte ceramic, BaSO(4), Spectralon, and white Russian opal glass) is accomplished through this work. Spectral BRDF measurements were carried out and, using principal components analysis, its spectral and geometrical variation respect to a reference geometry was assessed from the experimental data. Several descriptors were defined in order to compare the spectral BRDF variation of the four materials.

  2. Modified polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function with diffuse scattering: surface parameter estimation (United States)

    Zhan, Hanyu; Voelz, David G.


    The polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF) describes the relationships between incident and scattered Stokes parameters, but the familiar surface-only microfacet pBRDF cannot capture diffuse scattering contributions and depolarization phenomena. We propose a modified pBRDF model with a diffuse scattering component developed from the Kubelka-Munk and Le Hors et al. theories, and apply it in the development of a method to jointly estimate refractive index, slope variance, and diffuse scattering parameters from a series of Stokes parameter measurements of a surface. An application of the model and estimation approach to experimental data published by Priest and Meier shows improved correspondence with measurements of normalized Mueller matrix elements. By converting the Stokes/Mueller calculus formulation of the model to a degree of polarization (DOP) description, the estimation results of the parameters from measured DOP values are found to be consistent with a previous DOP model and results.

  3. Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference application for morphology detection. (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Zhao, Kun; Lü, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Chen, Xiaohong


    Analogous with scanning electron microscopy, we use an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) approach for morphology detection. By scanning the active carbon clusters in a one-dimensional way and the reservoir rocks in a two-dimensional way, the morphology of the samples' surface can be revealed in OIRD signal images. High OIRD signals of active carbon samples refer to the centralized distribution areas of carbon, and the fluctuations are caused by the uneven distribution of carbon pellets. OIRD intensity is proportional to the thickness of materials. In terms of rocks, the trough areas with smaller values refer to the low-lying fields. The areas with relatively large OIRD intensities correspond to the protuberance areas of rocks. Consequently, OIRD is a sensitive yet rapid measure of surface detection in material and petrogeology science.

  4. System for tissue characterization using synchronous detection of diffuse reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Lopez, Orestes M.; Stolik Isakina, Suren; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose Manuel de; Valor Reed, Alma


    The development of a system for the characterization of tissues optical properties in-vivo by synchronous detection of diffuse reflectance is presented. The system comprises an exploring probe with a linear spatial arrangement of optical fibers coupled to six lasers of 650 nm wavelength and a photodiode. The system also includes a preamplifier circuit for the photodiode, a driver for the amplitude modulation of the light signal of the lasers with optical power monitoring, a digital phase splitter for reference signal generation, an amplifying circuit with digitally switch able gain, a double phase demodulation circuit, an Arduino, and a control interface developed in LabVIEW. (Author)

  5. Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy (United States)

    Marin, Nena Maribel

    Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy are two new optical technologies, which have shown promise to aid in the real time, non-invasive identification of cancers and precancers. Spectral patterns carry a fingerprint of scattering, absorption and fluorescence properties in tissue. Scattering, absorption and fluorescence in tissue are directly affected by biological features that are diagnostically significant, such as nuclear size, micro-vessel density, volume fraction of collagen fibers, tissue oxygenation and cell metabolism. Thus, analysis of spectral patterns can unlock a wealth of information directly related with the onset and progression of disease. Data from a Phase II clinical trial to assess the technical efficacy of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy acquired from 850 women at three clinical locations with two research grade optical devices is calibrated and analyzed. Tools to process and standardize spectra so that data from multiple spectrometers can be combined and analyzed are presented. Methodologies for calibration and quality assurance of optical systems are established to simplify design issues and ensure validity of data for future clinical trials. Empirically based algorithms, using multivariate statistical approaches are applied to spectra and evaluated as a clinical diagnostic tool. Physically based algorithms, using mathematical models of light propagation in tissue are presented. The presented mathematical model combines a diffusion theory in P3 approximation reflectance model and a 2-layer fluorescence model using exponential attenuation and diffusion theory. The resulting adjoint fluorescence and reflectance model extracts twelve optical properties characterizing fluorescence efficiency of cervical epithelium and stroma fluorophores, stromal hemoglobin and collagen absorption, oxygen saturation, and stromal scattering strength and shape. Validations with Monte Carlo simulations show that adjoint model extracted

  6. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L. [Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies, TN (United States)


    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.

  7. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M; Firago, V A [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Sobchuk, A N [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)


    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions. (biophotonics)

  8. Assessing human skin with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry (United States)

    Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos


    Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.

  9. Diffuse reflectance imaging: a tool for guided biopsy (United States)

    Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Subhash, Narayanan; Manju, Stephen; Nisha, Unni G.; Beena, Valappil T.


    Accurate diagnosis of premalignant or malignant oral lesions depends on the quality of the biopsy, adequate clinical information and correct interpretation of the biopsy results. The major clinical challenge is to precisely locate the biopsy site in a clinically suspicious lesion. Dips due to oxygenated hemoglobin absorption have been noticed at 545 and 575 nm in the diffusely reflected white light spectra of oral mucosa and the intensity ratio R545/R575 has been found suited for early detection of oral pre-cancers. A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging system has been developed consisting of an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter for guiding the clinician to an optimal biopsy site. Towards this DR images were recorded from 27 patients with potentially malignant lesions on their tongue (dorsal, lateral and ventral sides) and from 44 healthy controls at 545 and 575 nm with the DR imaging system. False colored ratio image R545/R575 of the lesion provides a visual discerning capability that helps in locating the most malignant site for biopsy. Histopathological report of guided biopsy showed that out of the 27 patients 16 were cancers, 9 pre-cancers and 2 lichen planus. In this clinical trial DR imaging has correctly guided 25 biopsy sites, yielding a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98%, thereby establishing the potential of DR imaging as a tool for guided biopsy.

  10. Adaptive weak approximation of reflected and stopped diffusions

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Christian


    We study the weak approximation problem of diffusions, which are reflected at a subset of the boundary of a domain and stopped at the remaining boundary. First, we derive an error representation for the projected Euler method of Costantini, Pacchiarotti and Sartoretto [Costantini et al., SIAM J. Appl. Math., 58(1):73-102, 1998], based on which we introduce two new algorithms. The first one uses a correction term from the representation in order to obtain a higher order of convergence, but the computation of the correction term is, in general, not feasible in dimensions d > 1. The second algorithm is adaptive in the sense of Moon, Szepessy, Tempone and Zouraris [Moon et al., Stoch. Anal. Appl., 23:511-558, 2005], using stochastic refinement of the time grid based on a computable error expansion derived from the representation. Regarding the stopped diffusion, it is based in the adaptive algorithm for purely stopped diffusions presented in Dzougoutov, Moon, von Schwerin, Szepessy and Tempone [Dzougoutov et al., Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., 44, 59-88, 2005]. We give numerical examples underlining the theoretical results. © de Gruyter 2010.

  11. Monitoring structure development in milk acidification using diffuse reflectance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming


    are needed so that the production can be carried out consistently, regardless of day-to-day variations in the raw materials. Casein micelles aggregate during milk acidification, which leads to formation of a gel network. This change of structure is important for the development of a range of dairy products......, protein, and temperature in the acidification process is conducted. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate how the change of these parameters affects the diffuse reflectance properties as well as to demonstrate the relation between the optical parameters and structure formation in milk......The structure of dairy products is important for the consumer, and milk acidification plays a central role for structural development. To ensure the best possible consumer experience, it is important that a product’s structural properties are stable. Therefore process and quality control tools...

  12. Incidence of postangiographic silent brain infarction detected by diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Harushi; Hayashi, Naoto; Aoki, Shigeki


    We surveyed to assess for the incidence of clinically silent brain infarction after cerebral catheter angiography. Diffusion-weighted images were performed shortly after 33 cerebral catheter angiographies. We found totally 11 abnormally high intensity spots in 5 of 33 patients on diffusion-weighted images and, therefore, the incidence was calculated as 15.2%. This incidence is higher than has been estimated based on the incidence of neurological deficits (about 0.5%) after cerebral angiography. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is suitable to monitor the safety of angiographic procedures and material. (author)

  13. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Surface Measurement of Liver Pathology. (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan H; Reistad, Nina; Brange, Hannes; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Sturesson, Christian


    Liver parenchymal injuries such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can lead to increased morbidity and liver failure after liver resection. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical measuring method that is fast, convenient, and established. DRS has previously been used on the liver with an invasive technique consisting of a needle that is inserted into the parenchyma. We developed a DRS system with a hand-held probe that is applied to the liver surface. In this study, we investigated the impact of the liver capsule on DRS measurements and whether liver surface measurements are representative of the whole liver. We also wanted to confirm that we could discriminate between tumor and liver parenchyma by DRS. The instrumentation setup consisted of a light source, a fiber-optic contact probe, and two spectrometers connected to a computer. Patients scheduled for liver resection due to hepatic malignancy were included, and DRS measurements were performed on the excised liver part with and without the liver capsule and alongside a newly cut surface. To estimate the scattering parameters and tissue chromophore volume fractions, including blood, bile, and fat, the measured diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to an analytical model. In total, 960 DRS spectra from the excised liver tissue of 18 patients were analyzed. All factors analyzed regarding tumor versus liver tissue were significantly different. When measuring through the capsule, the blood volume fraction was found to be 8.4 ± 3.5%, the lipid volume fraction was 9.9 ± 4.7%, and the bile volume fraction was 8.2 ± 4.6%. No differences could be found between surface measurements and cross-sectional measurements. In measurements with/without the liver capsule, the differences in volume fraction were 1.63% (0.75-2.77), -0.54% (-2.97 to 0.32), and -0.15% (-1.06 to 1.24) for blood, lipid, and bile, respectively. This study shows that it is possible to manage DRS

  14. 'Combined reflectance stratigraphy' - subdivision of loess successions by diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS) (United States)

    Szeberényi, Jozsef; Bradak-Hayashi, Balázs; Kiss, Klaudia; Kovács, József; Varga, György; Balázs, Réka; Szalai, Zoltán; Viczián, István


    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "combined reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of

  15. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonios, George [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Dimou, Aikaterini [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Galaris, Dimitrios [Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)


    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  16. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios


    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H 2 O 2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo

  17. Discrimination of periodontal diseases using diffuse reflectance spectral intensity ratios (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, Prasanth; Betsy, Joseph; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan


    This clinical study was to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) intensity ratio R620/R575 in the quantification and discrimination of periodontitis and gingivitis from healthy gingiva. DR spectral measurements were carried out with white-light illumination from 70 healthy sites in 30 healthy volunteers, and 63 gingivitis- and 58 periodontitis-infected sites in 60 patients. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index were recorded in patient population. Diagnostic accuracies for discrimination of gingivitis and periodontitis from healthy gingiva were determined by comparison of spectral signatures with clinical parameters. Divergence of average DR spectral intensity ratio between control and test groups was studied using analysis of variance. The mean DR spectrum on normalization at 620 nm showed marked differences between healthy tissue, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Hemoglobin concentration and apparent SO2 (oxygen saturation) were also calculated for healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. DR spectral intensities at 545 and 575 nm showed a decreasing trend with progression of disease. Among the various DR intensity ratios studied, the R620/R575 ratio provided a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94% for discrimination of healthy tissues from gingivitis and a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 100% for discrimination of gingivitis from periodontitis.

  18. Intramyocardial oxygen transport by quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in calves (United States)

    Lindbergh, Tobias; Larsson, Marcus; Szabó, Zoltán; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik; Strömberg, Tomas


    Intramyocardial oxygen transport was assessed during open-chest surgery in calves by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a small intramuscular fiber-optic probe. The sum of hemo- and myoglobin tissue fraction and oxygen saturation, the tissue fraction and oxidation of cytochrome aa3, and the tissue fraction of methemoglobin were estimated using a calibrated empirical light transport model. Increasing the oxygen content in the inhaled gas, 21%-50%-100%, in five calves (group A) gave an increasing oxygen saturation of 19+/-4%, 24+/-5%, and 28+/-8% (panimals increased with LVAD pump speed (p<0.001, ANOVA) and with oxygen content in inhaled gas (p<0.001, ANOVA). The cytochrome aa3 oxidation level was above 96% in both group A and group B calves, including the two cases involving cardiac arrest. In conclusion, the estimated tissue fractions and oxygenation/oxidation levels of the myocardial chromophores during respiratory and hemodynamic provocations were in agreement with previously presented results, demonstrating the potential of the method.

  19. Advection endash diffusion past a strip. II. Oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.


    Advection and diffusion of particles past an impenetrable strip is considered when the strip is oblique to the advection or drift velocity. The particle concentration p(x,y) is determined asymptotically for large values of vL/D, where v is the drift velocity, D is the diffusion coefficient, and 2L is the width of the strip. The results complement those of Part I, which treated a strip normal to the drift velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Total Carbon Analysis of Hawaiian Soils (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Bruland, G. L.; Deenik, J. L.; Grunwald, S.; Uchida, R.


    Accurate assessment of total carbon (Ct) content is important for fertility and nutrient management of soils, as well as for carbon sequestration studies. The non-destructive analysis of soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a potential supplement or alternative to the traditional time-consuming and costly combustion method of Ct analysis, especially in spatial or temporal studies where sample numbers are large. We investigate the use of the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of soils coupled with chemometric analysis to determine their Ct content. Our specific focus is on Hawaiian soils of agricultural importance. Though this technique has been introduced to the soil community, it has yet to be fully tested and used in practical applications for all soil types, and this is especially true for Hawaii. In short, DRS characterizes and differentiates materials based on the variation of the light reflected by a material at certain wavelengths. This spectrum is dependent on the material’s composition, structure, and physical state. Multivariate chemometric analysis unravels the information in a set of spectra that can help predict a property such as Ct. This study benefits from the remarkably diverse soils of Hawaii. Our sample set includes 216 soil samples from 145 pedons from the main Hawaiian Islands archived at the National Soil Survey Center in Lincoln, NE, along with more than 50 newly-collected samples from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. In total, over 90 series from 10 of the 12 soil orders are represented. The Ct values of these samples range from < 1% - 55%. We anticipate that the diverse nature of our sample set will ensure a model with applicability to a wide variety of soils, both in Hawaii and globally. We have measured the VNIR and MIR spectra of these samples and obtained their Ct values by dry combustion. Our initial analyses are conducted using only samples obtained from the Lincoln archive. In this

  1. Measurements of the diffusion and reflection coefficients of Cd(1S0) in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudecki, P.; Domyslawska, J.


    A new method of simultaneous determining of the diffusion coefficient and the reflection coefficient of atoms from the reservoir walls is presented. The diffusion coefficient of cadmium atoms in the ground state in buffer noble gas atoms such as Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe and reflection coefficient of Cd atoms from the quartz cell wall in the temperature range 350-550 K were determined. Experimental values diffusion coefficient are compared with theoretical ones calculated from a available potentials. (author)

  2. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication). (United States)

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi; Awazu, Kunio


    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.

  3. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-Transform spectra of selected organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, S.H.; Caton, J.E.


    Diffuse reflectance infrared spectra of a variety of different organic compounds have been determined. Profiles of the spectra along with the location and relative intensity of the principal bands have been included for each compound studied. In addition both diffuse reflectance and transmittance infrared spectra were obtained for the same samples, and the spectral results were compared. Although some minor variations are observed between a diffuse reflectance spectrum and the corresponding transmittance spectrum, the diffuse reflectance is quite useful and may be a superior technique for the study of many samples because it possesses an inherently higher signal-to-noise response, requires less sample preparation and allows a very wide range of samples (solids, liquids of low volatility, neat sample, or sample diluted in a reflecting medium) to be studied under very similar conditions.

  4. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Human Skin Using a Commercial Fiber Optic Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, J. A. Delgado; Rodriguez, M. Cunill; Montiel, S. Vazquez y; Castro, Jorge; Rodriguez, A. Cornejo; Gutierrez, J. L.; Martinez, F.; Gutierrez, B.; Orozco, E.


    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a reliable and easy to implement technique in human tissue characterization. In this work we evaluate the performance of the commercial USB4000 miniature fiber optic spectrometer in the in-vivo measurement of the diffuse reflectance spectra of different healthy skin sites and lesions in a population of 54 volunteers. Results show, that this spectrometer reproduces well the typical signatures of skin spectra over the 400-1000 nm region. Remarkable spectral differences exist between lesions and normal surrounding skin. A diffusion-based model was used to simulate reflectance spectra collected by the optical probe of the system

  5. Reflection of Lamb waves obliquely incident on the free edge of a plate. (United States)

    Santhanam, Sridhar; Demirli, Ramazan


    The reflection of obliquely incident symmetric and anti-symmetric Lamb wave modes at the edge of a plate is studied. Both in-plane and Shear-Horizontal (SH) reflected wave modes are spawned by an obliquely incident in-plane Lamb wave mode. Energy reflection coefficients are calculated for the reflected wave modes as a function of frequency and angle of incidence. This is done by using the method of orthogonal mode decomposition and by enforcing traction free conditions at the plate edge using the method of collocation. A PZT sensor network, affixed to an Aluminum plate, is used to experimentally verify the predictions of the analysis. Experimental results provide support for the analytically determined results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daniel; Evers, D.J.; Nachabe, R.; Klomp, H.M.; van Sandick, J.W.; Wouters, M.W.; Lucassen, G.W.; Lucassen, Gerald; Hendriks, B.H.; Wesseling, J.; Ruers, Theo J.M.


    Background: A significant number of percutaneous intrathoracic biopsy procedures result in indeterminate cytologic or histologic diagnosis in clinical practice. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical technique that can distinguish different tissue types on a microscopic level. DRS may

  7. Analysis of mass incident diffusion in Weibo based on self-organization theory (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Shen, Huizhang


    This study introduces some theories and methods of self-organization system to the research of the diffusion mechanism of mass incidents in Weibo (Chinese Twitter). Based on the analysis on massive Weibo data from Songjiang battery factory incident happened in 2013 and Jiiangsu Qidong OJI PAPER incident happened in 2012, we find out that diffusion system of mass incident in Weibo satisfies Power Law, Zipf's Law, 1/f noise and Self-similarity. It means this system is the self-organization criticality system and dissemination bursts can be understood as one kind of Self-organization behavior. As the consequence, self-organized criticality (SOC) theory can be used to explain the evolution of mass incident diffusion and people may come up with the right strategy to control such kind of diffusion if they can handle the key ingredients of Self-organization well. Such a study is of practical importance which can offer opportunities for policy makers to have good management on these events.

  8. Effects of temporal distribution of specular and diffuse reflections on perceived music quality (United States)

    Smitthakorn, Pattra

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the temporal distribution of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived acoustic qualities of music performance. Sets of impulse responses were designed with different temporal distributions of early acoustic energy (specular and diffuse reflections). Then, three types of anechoic sound sources---orchestral music, trumpet, and piano---were convolved with the designed impulse responses. The results from the listening tests revealed that different room environments were needed to acoustically support different source characteristics. The results show the following: (1) specular reflections arriving within 40 msec of the direct sound improved perceived "clarity" and "intimacy"; (2) specular reflections arriving between 40-80 msec after the direct sound improved perceived "clarity" for orchestral music; (3) specular reflections arriving later than 80 msec after the direct sound are not desirable; (4) large numbers of diffuse reflections arriving within 40 and 80 msec of the direct sound improved perceived "intimacy", "texture", and "overall impression" for all sound sources, heightened perceived "clarity" for trumpet and piano, and reduced perceived "glare" for trumpet; and (5) diffuse reflections arriving between 80-160 msec of the direct sound preserved perceived "reverberance" and reduced perceived "echoes" as opposed to specular reflections arriving in the same time period. The results of this study indicate that music performance halls should be designed to include diffuse reflections from surfaces within the 80 msec time period to achieve preferred texture, intimacy, clarity and overall impression and in the 160 msec time period to reduce echoes; specular reflections arriving within the 40 msec time period should be provided to enhance perceived clarity.

  9. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of tissue oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircan-Kucuksayan, A; Canpolat, M; Uyuklu, M


    Tissue oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) is a useful parameter for medical applications. A spectroscopic method has been developed to detect pathologic tissues, due to a lack of normal blood circulation, by measuring StO 2 . In this study, human blood samples with different levels of oxygen saturation have been prepared and spectra were acquired using an optical fiber probe to investigate the correlation between the oxygen saturation levels and the spectra. A linear correlation between the oxygen saturation and ratio of the intensities (760 nm to 790 nm) of the spectra acquired from blood samples has been found. In a validation study, oxygen saturations of the blood samples were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements with an error of 2.9%. It has also been shown that the linear dependence between the ratio and the oxygen saturation of the blood samples was valid for the blood samples with different hematocrits. Spectra were acquired from the forearms of 30 healthy volunteers to estimate StO 2 prior to, at the beginning of, after 2 min, and at the release of total vascular occlusion. The average StO 2 of a forearm before and after the two minutes occlusion was significantly different. The results suggested that optical reflectance spectroscopy is a sensitive method to estimate the StO 2 levels of human tissue. The technique developed to measure StO 2 has potential to detect ischemia in real time. (paper)

  10. Characteristics of reflected and diffuse ions upstream from the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Papamastorakis, I.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.


    The distinction between two types of upstream ion populations has been made on the basis of pronounced differences in their distribution functions. The 'reflected' ions represent a fast beam with temperatures typically 1 to 5 times 10 6 K and speeds up to five times the solar wind speed. An important feature of the reflected ion distributions in their strong temperature anisotropy, with T/sub perpendicular/ exceeding T/sub parallel/ by a factor of two to three. In contrast, the 'diffuse' ions occupy a much larger region of phase space, both in energy and angle; their distribution function generally has the form roughly of a circular ridge in 2 dimensions and a spherical shell in 3 dimensions. Accordingly, their temperature is much larger (> or approx. =10 7 K), and their bulk speed typically is smaller than the solar wind speed. Both ion populations have densities of the order of 0.1 cm -3 . At times transitions between the two extremes, represented by the reflected and diffuse ion populations, are observed. These 'intermediate' distributions are cresent shaped, with the center of curvature near the solar wind velocity. This property suggests that the intermediate distributions result from pitch angle scattering of the reflected beams in the solar wind frame and supports the idea that the reflected ions are the origin of the diffuse ions. At times the diffuse ion distributions exhibit considerable structure and rapid temporal variations. Reflected and diffuse ions can also be distinguished by their occurrence as a function of the angle theta between the local shock normal and the interplanetary magnetic field. Whereas the diffuse ions occur predominantly for small theta, the reflected ions are observed most frequently for theta> or approx. =45 0

  11. Reflection and transmission of normally incident full-vector X waves on planar interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan


    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X waves normally incident on planar half-spaces and slabs are studied. For this purpose, X waves are expanded in terms of weighted vector Bessel beams; this new decomposition and reconstruction method

  12. Exploring reflective 'critical incident' documentation of professionalism lapses in a medical undergraduate setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLachlan John C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring professionalism in undergraduate medical students is a difficult process, and no one method has currently emerged as the definitive means of assessment in this field. Student skills in reflection have been shown to be highly important in the development of professional behaviours. By studying student reflections on lapses in professional judgement, recorded as 'critical incidents', it is possible to explore themes which are significant for the development of professional behaviour in an undergraduate setting. Methods We examined critical incident reporting combined with optional written student reflection as a method for exploring professionalism in undergraduate medical students. 228 students split between Year 1 and 2 of one academic year of undergraduate medicine were studied retrospectively and a grounded theory approach to analysis was employed. Results This year generated 16 critical incident reports and corresponding student reflections, all of which were considered. In addition to identifying the nature of the critical incidents, 3 principal themes emerged. These were the impact and consequences of the report having been made, student reactions to the events (both positive and negative, and student responses regarding future actions. Conclusion This study indicates that unprofessional behaviour can be identified and challenged by both the faculty and the students involved, and suggests that positive behavioural changes might be made with the aim of preventing future occurrences. We provide a low cost approach of measuring and recording professional behaviour.

  13. Effect of surface characteristics on diffuse reflection radiation at lambda=0. 40. mu. m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada)


    The diffuse radiation in the upward direction at the top and at an internal level of an inhomogeneous atmosphere is computed at lambda=0.40 The surface is assumed to reflect light in accordance with a hybrid mode of a diffuse and specular reflector. The objective is to estimate the effect of underlying surface characteristics in terms of the diffuse radiation field. By making use of these results, accuracy in monitoring the atmospheric aerosols would be increased for the use of remote sensing satellite techniques. Junge power law (..gamma..*=3) is adopted for the size distribution of aerosols (1963), while the data given by McClatchy et al. (1971) is used for the number density of aerosols with height distribution. It is noted from the computations that the diffuse reflection radiation is affected by the surface characteristics, even if the albedo of the surface is a fixed constant and very small.

  14. Reflection Matrix Method for Controlling Light After Reflection From a Diffuse Scattering Surface (United States)


    of Philosophy Kenneth W. Burgi, BS, MS Major, USAF 22 December 2016 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT...refocusing light through thin films of a turbid medium. When coherent light is trans- mitted through a stationary diffuser (i.e. a turbid medium), a fine...resultant light scatter [14, 15, 21, 23]. Transmission matrices were measured with microscopic objectives and thin films of turbid media, resulting in

  15. A system for the obtention and analysis of diffuse reflection spectra from biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cadena, A. de; La Rosa, J. de; Stolik, S.


    The diffuse reflection spectroscopy is a technique with is possible to study biological tissue. In the field of the biomedical applications is useful for diagnostic purposes, since is possible to analyze biological tissue in a non invasive way. also, can be used with therapeutical purposes, for example in photodynamic therapy or laser surgery because with this technique it can be determined the biological effects produced by these treatments. In this paper is shown the development of a system to obtain and analyze diffuse reflection spectra of biological tissues, using a LED as a light source, that emits light between 400-700nm. The system has an interface for the regulation of the emittance of the LED. For diffuse reflectance spectra analysis, we use an HR4000CG-UV-NIR spectrometer. (Author)

  16. Regression-based model of skin diffuse reflectance for skin color analysis (United States)

    Tsumura, Norimichi; Kawazoe, Daisuke; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Miyake, Yoichi


    A simple regression-based model of skin diffuse reflectance is developed based on reflectance samples calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in a two-layered skin model. This reflectance model includes the values of spectral reflectance in the visible spectra for Japanese women. The modified Lambert Beer law holds in the proposed model with a modified mean free path length in non-linear density space. The averaged RMS and maximum errors of the proposed model were 1.1 and 3.1%, respectively, in the above range.

  17. Increasing incidence of hypothyroidism within one year after radioiodine therapy for toxic diffuse goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hofe, S.E.; Dorfman, S.G.; Carrette, R.F.; Young, R.L.


    Patients treated with 10 mCi of I-131 for toxic diffuse goiter in the period January 1974--June 1976 were evaluated for development of hypothyroidism. Fifty percent were hypothyroid within 3 months and 69 percent within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that there is a higher incidence of hypothyroidism after standard doses of I-131 in the 1970s as contrasted with treatment groups in the 1950s and 1960s. The pathophysiology of this increased incidence is not known with certainty; however, infrequent use of thionamide medication, together with recent increases in dietary iodine, may render the gland more radiosensitive

  18. UV-Vis reflection spectroscopy under variable angle incidence at the air-liquid interface. (United States)

    Roldán-Carmona, Cristina; Rubia-Payá, Carlos; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Martín-Romero, María T; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Camacho, Luis


    The UV-Vis reflection spectroscopy (UV-Vis-RS) in situ at the air-liquid interface provides information about tilt and aggregation of chromophores in Langmuir monolayers. This information is particularly important given in most cases the chromophore is located at the polar region of the Langmuir monolayer. This region of the Langmuir monolayers has been hardly accessible by other experimental techniques. In spite of its enormous potential, the application of UV-Vis-RS has been limited mainly to reflection measurements under light normal incidence or at lower incidence angles than the Brewster angle. Remarkably, this technique is quite sensitive to the tilt of the chromophores at values of incidence angles close to or larger than the Brewster angle. Therefore, a novel method to obtain the order parameter of the chromophores at the air-liquid interface by using s- and p-polarized radiation at different incidence angles is proposed. This method allowed for the first time the experimental observation of the two components with different polarization properties of a single UV-Vis band at the air-liquid interface. The method of UV-Vis spectroscopy under variable angle incidence is presented as a new tool for obtaining rich detailed information on Langmuir monolayers.

  19. Reflection and transmission of full-vector X-waves normally incident on dielectric half spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed


    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X-Waves incident normally on a planar interface between two lossless dielectric half-spaces are investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of transmission and reflection is carried out via a straightforward but yet effective method: First, the X-Wave is decomposed into vector Bessel beams via the Bessel-Fourier transform. Then, the reflection and transmission coefficients of the beams are obtained in the spectral domain. Finally, the transmitted and reflected X-Waves are obtained via the inverse Bessel-Fourier transform carried out on the X-wave spectrum weighted with the corresponding coefficient. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Reflected and diffuse ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock 1. Basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.


    Plasma data supplied by the ISEE 2 solar wind experiment are used to perform the first extended statistical analysis of the basic moments of the ions backstream from the earth's bow shock. The analysis is based on 3253 ion spectra, corresponding to a total observation time of approx. =87 hours. It turns out that the density and total energy density of the backstream ions are, on the average, equal to approx. =1% and approx. =10% of those of the solar wind, respectively. The distinction between the 'reflected' and 'diffuse' populations has been confirmed and put on a quantitive basis using the ratio A = V /sub B/P/w/sub B/P between the bulk velocity and the rms thermal speed of the ions. The reflected ions are characterized by a bulk velocity V/sub B/P of the order of 2 times the solar wind velocity and by a temperature of approx.7 x 10 6 K. In contrast, the diffuse ions have, on the average, a bulk velocity 1.2 times the solar wind velocity and a temperature of 40 x 10 6 K. Therefore the total energy density of the diffuse ions is approx. =30% larger than that of the reflected ions. Finally, the kinetic and thermal energy densities are distributed quite differently in the two ion populations: in fact, approx. =70% of the total energy density is kinetic for the reflected ions, while this percentage decreases to approx. =20% for the diffuse ions

  1. DCT-Based Characterization of Milk Products Using Diffuse Reflectance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder


    We propose to use the two-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for decomposition of diffuse reflectance images of laser illumination on milk products in different wavelengths. Based on the prior knowledge about the characteristics of the images, the initial feature vectors are formed at ea...... discriminate milk from yogurt products better....

  2. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu


    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

  3. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy : toward real-time quantification of steatosis in liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daniel J.; Westerkamp, Andrie C.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Pully, Vishnu V.; Hompes, Daphne; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Prevoo, Warner; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F.; Porte, Robert J.; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    Assessment of fatty liver grafts during orthotopic liver transplantation is a challenge due to the lack of real-time analysis options during surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) could be a new diagnostic tool to quickly assess steatosis. Eight hundred and seventy-eight optical

  4. Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma in an urban hospital: Clinical spectrum and trend in incidence over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, K.E.; Oliver, L.C.; Kazemi, H.


    This retrospective analysis reviews the clinical experience of a major urban referral hospital with diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma during the 14-year period from 1973 through 1986. Seventy-five cases of definite or equivocal mesothelioma were identified. There were four cases of primary malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, seven cases of benign fibrous mesothelioma, and 64 cases of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma. In 43 cases (67%) of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma, there was historic evidence of asbestos exposure. In 21 cases (33%), there was no known history of asbestos exposure. An increase in annual incidence of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma was observed over the study period, from three cases in 1973 to ten cases in 1986. Despite greater awareness of this disease, the diagnosis remains a difficult one to establish given the nonspecific symptoms, signs and radiographic appearance, variable histologic appearance, and poor diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of thoracentesis and closed pleural biopsy. Thoracotomy, thoracoscopy, and CT-guided needle biopsies gave higher yields and are the diagnostic measures of choice when diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma is suspected

  5. Diffuse and localized reflectance measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit in human skin (United States)

    Khalil, Omar S.; Wu, Xiaomao; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen


    We conducted visible/near infrared optical measurements on the forearm of human subjects using a commercial diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, and a breadboard temperature- controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer. Calibration relationships were established between skin reflectance signal and reference blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, or hematocrit values (Hct). These were then used to predict Hb and Hct values from optical measurement in a cross validation analysis. Different linear least- squares models for the prediction of Hb and Hct are presented and shows the ability to predict both. It was possible to screen prospective blood donors with low Hb concentration. It was possible to predict anemic subjects in the limited prospective blood donor population.

  6. New optical scheme for differential measurements of diffraction reflection intensity on X-radiation sliding incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, A.L.; Mas', E.T.


    An X-ray optical scheme for differential measurements of X-ray diffraction under sliding incidence conditions is proposed and an attachment design realizng this scheme, using standard equipment, is described. The main feature of the scheme is the following: collimation according to the Bragg angle is carried out for the reflected beam rather than the incident one. Goniometers can be used from DRON, TRS, GS-5 and other spectrometers. The goniometer head carrying the sample is standard, it is a part of the DRON, TRS and DTS. The crystal analyzer is fixed on the attachment. The angular position of the crystal monochromator is controlled by an inductive sensor. The experimental differential curves of X-ray diffraction under conditions of sliding incidence, taken for a silicon crystal having the 111 orientation, are given as well

  7. Reflected and diffuse ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock 2. Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.


    The morphology of the foreshock region and the origin of the 'reflected' and 'diffuse' ion populations are investigated for the first time through an extended statistical analysis. Data are supplied by the solar wind experiment on the satellite ISEE 2 in the period November 5 to December 20, 1977. It is confirmed, on a statistical basis, that quasi-perpendicular shock structures generate beams of reflected ions which propagate along the interplanetary magnetic field lines against the incoming solar wind. Diffuse ions are at least in part originated by the disruption of the reflected beams due to some plasma instability, having a growth time of the order of a few tens of seconds. A preliminary energy balance appears to be consistent with the proposed picture of the phenomena occurring in the foreshock region

  8. Exploring the effect of diffuse reflection on indoor localization systems based on RSSI-VLC. (United States)

    Mohammed, Nazmi A; Elkarim, Mohammed Abd


    This work explores and evaluates the effect of diffuse light reflection on the accuracy of indoor localization systems based on visible light communication (VLC) in a high reflectivity environment using a received signal strength indication (RSSI) technique. The effect of the essential receiver (Rx) and transmitter (Tx) parameters on the localization error with different transmitted LED power and wall reflectivity factors is investigated at the worst Rx coordinates for a directed/overall link. Since this work assumes harsh operating conditions (i.e., a multipath model, high reflectivity surfaces, worst Rx position), an error of ≥ 1.46 m is found. To achieve a localization error in the range of 30 cm under these conditions with moderate LED power (i.e., P = 0.45 W), low reflectivity walls (i.e., ρ = 0.1) should be used, which would enable a localization error of approximately 7 mm at the room's center.

  9. Progression of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia: incidence and predictive factors. (United States)

    Fontes, L H S; Herbella, F A M; Rodriguez, T N; Trivino, T; Farah, J F M


    The progression of certain primary esophageal motor disorders to achalasia has been documented; however, the true incidence of this decay is still elusive. This study aims to evaluate: (i) the incidence of the progression of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia, and (ii) predictive factors to this progression. Thirty-five patients (mean age 53 years, 80% females) with a manometric picture of diffuse esophageal spasm were followed for at least 1 year. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease confirmed by pH monitoring or systemic diseases that may affect esophageal motility were excluded. Esophageal manometry was repeated in all patients. Five (14%) of the patients progressed to achalasia at a mean follow-up of 2.1 (range 1-4) years. Demographic characteristics were not predictive of transition to achalasia, while dysphagia (P= 0.005) as the main symptom and the wave amplitude of simultaneous waves less than 50 mmHg (P= 0.003) were statistically significant. In conclusion, the transition of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia is not frequent at a 2-year follow-up. Dysphagia and simultaneous waves with low amplitude are predictive factors for this degeneration. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  10. Specular reflectance of soiled glass mirrors - Study on the impact of incidence angles (United States)

    Heimsath, Anna; Lindner, Philip; Klimm, Elisabeth; Schmid, Tobias; Moreno, Karolina Ordonez; Elon, Yehonatan; Am-Shallem, Morag; Nitz, Peter


    The accumulation of dust and soil on the surface of solar reflectors is an important factor reducing the power output of solar power plants. Therefore the effect of accumulated dust on the specular reflectance of solar mirrors should be understood well in order to improve the site-dependent performance prediction. Furthermore, an optimization of the CSP System maintenance, in particular the cleaning cycles, can be achieved. Our measurements show a noticeable decrease of specular reflectance when the angle of incidence is increased. This effect may be explained by shading and blocking mechanisms caused by dirt particles. The main physical causes of radiation loss being absorption and scattering, the near-angle scattering leads to a further decrease of specular reflectance for smaller angles of acceptance. Within this study mirror samples were both outdoor exposed and indoor artificially soiled. For indoor soiling, the mirror samples were artificially soiled in an in-house developed dusting device using both artificial-standardized dust and real dust collected from an arid outdoor test field at the Negev desert. A model function is proposed that approximates the observed reduction of specular reflectance with the incidence angle with a sufficient accuracy and by simple means for this soil type. Hence a first step towards a new approach to improve site dependent performance prediction of solar power plants is taken.

  11. Exploiting Optical Contrasts for Cervical Precancer Diagnosis via Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (United States)

    Chang, Vivide Tuan-Chyan

    Among women worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer with an incidence rate of 15.3 per 100,000 and a mortality rate of 7.8 per 100,000 women. This is largely attributed to the lack of infrastructure and resources in the developing countries to support the organized screening and diagnostic programs that are available to women in developed nations. Hence, there is a critical global need for a screening and diagnostic paradigm that is effective in low-resource settings. Various strategies are described to design an optical spectroscopic sensor capable of collecting reliable diffuse reflectance data to extract quantitative optical contrasts for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. A scalable Monte Carlo based optical toolbox can be used to extract absorption and scattering contrasts from diffuse reflectance acquired in the cervix in vivo. [Total Hb] was shown to increase significantly in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+), clinically the most important tissue grade to identify, compared to normal and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1). Scattering was not significantly decreased in CIN 2+ versus normal and CIN 1, but was significantly decreased in CIN relative to normal cervical tissues. Immunohistochemistry via anti-CD34, which stains the endothelial cells that line blood vessels, was used to validate the observed absorption contrast. The concomitant increase in microvessel density and [total Hb] suggests that both are reactive to angiogenic forces from up-regulated expression of VEGF in CIN 2+. Masson's trichrome stain was used to assess collagen density changes associated with dysplastic transformation of the cervix, hypothesized as the dominant source of decreased scattering observed. Due to mismatch in optical and histological sampling, as well as the small sample size, collagen density and scattering did not change in a similar fashion with tissue grade. Dysplasia may also induce changes in cross-linking of

  12. Incidence of ischemic lesions by diffusion-weighted imaging after carotid endarterectomy with routine shunt usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomohiro; Tsutsumi, Kazuo; Adachi, Shinobu; Tanaka, Shota; Yako, Kyoko; Saito, Kuniaki; Kunii, Naoto; Maeda, Keiitirou


    Temporary intraluminal shunt was used during 72 consecutive carotid endarterectomies (CEAs) in 61 patients (bilateral CEA in 11 patients) during October 2001 and September 2005. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. All procedures were performed with routine shunt insertion without monitoring such as electroencephalography. Pre- and postoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to detect ischemic complications. Postoperative angiography was performed in 70 cases to detect abnormalities such as major stenosis or dissection of the distal end. Symptomatic ischemic complication occurred in one patient at 1 month. Postoperative diffusion-weighted MR imaging detected new hyperintense lesions in three patients including the symptomatic patient. Postoperative angiography confirmed that the distal end was satisfactory in all cases. The incidence of ischemic lesions of embolic origin after CEA with routine shunt usage is acceptably low if the procedure of shunt device insertion and removal is meticulously conducted. (author)

  13. Free radicals in irradiated unstabilized polypropylene, as seen by diffuse reflection absorption-spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.; Rafalski, A.


    The introduction of UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry to the study of radiation chemistry of polymers has opened the possibility to investigate even very opaque samples. The virgin powder polypropylene, as obtained from the industrial production line, shows after irradiation unstable products of radiolysis. Until now they were investigated mainly by EPR method. Optical absorption spectra (by diffuse reflection spectrophotometry) contribute to better identification and study of changes in time, temperature and diffusion of reactive gases. Studying the formation of stable compounds, which do not produce EPR signal, we are able to examine these species on the basis of their electronic spectra. The most important results concern the peroxides in irradiated polypropylene

  14. Artificial neural networks based estimation of optical parameters by diffuse reflectance imaging under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozan Gökkan


    Full Text Available Optical parameters (properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms are determined through noninvasive optical imaging. Objective of this study is to decompose obtained diffuse reflectance into these optical properties such as absorption and scattering coefficients. To do so, transmission spectroscopy is firstly used to measure the coefficients via an experimental setup. Next, the optical properties of each characterized phantom are input for Monte Carlo (MC simulations to get diffuse reflectance. Also, a surface image for each single phantom with its known optical properties is obliquely captured due to reflectance-based geometrical setup using CMOS camera that is positioned at 5∘ angle to the phantoms. For the illumination of light, a laser light source at 633nm wavelength is preferred, because optical properties of different components in a biological tissue on that wavelength are nonoverlapped. During in vitro measurements, we prepared 30 different mixture samples adding clinoleic intravenous lipid emulsion (CILE and evans blue (EB dye into a distilled water. Finally, all obtained diffuse reflectance values are used to estimate the optical coefficients by artificial neural networks (ANNs in inverse modeling. For a biological tissue it is found that the simulated and measured values in our results are in good agreement.

  15. Prediction of tablets disintegration times using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a nondestructive method. (United States)

    Donoso, M; Ghaly, Evone S


    The goals of this study are to user near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to measure the disintegration time of a series of tablets compacted at different compressional forces, calibrate NIR data vs. laboratory equipment data, develop a model equation, validate the model, and test the model's predictive ability. Seven theophylline tablet formulations of the same composition but with different disintegration time values (0.224, 1.141, 2.797, 5.492, 9.397, 16.8, and 30.092 min) were prepared along with five placebo tablet formulations with different disintegration times. Laboratory disintegration time was compared to near-infrared diffuse reflectance data. Linear regression, quadratic, cubic, and partial least square techniques were used to determine the relationship between disintegration time and near-infrared spectra. The results demonstrated that an increase in disintegration time produced an increase in near-infrared absorbance. Series of model equations, which depended on the mathematical technique used for regression, were developed from the calibration of disintegration time using laboratory equipment vs. the near-infrared diffuse reflectance for each formulation. The results of NIR disintegration time were similar to laboratory tests. The near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method is an alternative nondestructive method for measurement of disintegration time of tablets.

  16. Unusual reflection of electromagnetic radiation from a stack of graphene layers at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludov, Yu V; Peres, N M R; Vasilevskiy, M I


    We study the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation with single-layer graphene and a stack of parallel graphene sheets at arbitrary angles of incidence. It is found that the behavior is qualitatively different for transverse magnetic (or p-polarized) and transverse electric (or s-polarized) waves. In particular, the absorbance of single-layer graphene attains a minimum (maximum) for the p (s)-polarization at the angle of total internal reflection when the light comes from a medium with a higher dielectric constant. In the case of equal dielectric constants of the media above and beneath graphene, for grazing incidence graphene is almost 100% transparent to p-polarized waves and acts as a tunable mirror for the s-polarization. These effects are enhanced for a stack of graphene sheets, so the system can work as a broad band polarizer. It is shown further that a periodic stack of graphene layers has the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal, with gaps (or stop bands) at certain frequencies. When an incident EM wave is reflected from this photonic crystal, the tunability of the graphene conductivity renders the possibility of controlling the gaps, and the structure can operate as a tunable spectral-selective mirror. (paper)

  17. Metal ions diffusion through polymeric matrices: A total reflection X-ray fluorescence study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeykens, S.; Caracciolo, N.; D'Angelo, M.V.; Vazquez, C.


    This work proposes the use of X-ray fluorescence with total reflection geometry to explore the metal ions transport in aqueous hydrophilic polymer solutions. It is centered in the study of polymer concentration influence on ion diffusion. This subject is relevant to various and diverse applications, such as drug controlled release, microbiologic corrosion protection and enhanced oil recovery. It is anticipated that diffusion is influenced by various factors in these systems, including those specific to the diffusing species, such as charge, shape, molecular size, and those related to the structural complexity of the matrix as well as any specific interaction between the diffusing species and the matrix. The diffusion of nitrate salts of Ba and Mn (same charge, different hydrodynamic radii) through water-swollen polymeric solutions and gels in the 0.01% to 1% concentration ranges was investigated. The measurements of the metal concentration were performed by TXRF analysis using the scattered radiation by the sample as internal standard. Results are discussed according to different physical models for solute diffusion in polymeric solutions

  18. Solar flux incident on an orbiting surface after reflection from a planet (United States)

    Modest, M. F.


    Algorithms describing the solar radiation impinging on an infinitesimal surface after reflection from a gray and diffuse planet are derived. The following conditions apply: only radiation from the sunny half of the planet is taken into account; the radiation must fall on the top of the orbiting surface, and radiation must come from that part of the planet that can be seen from the orbiting body. A simple approximate formula is presented which displays excellent accuracy for all significant situations, with an error which is always less than 5% of the maximum possible reflected flux. Attention is also given to solar albedo flux on a surface directly facing the planet, the influence of solar position on albedo flux, and to solar albedo flux as a function of the surface-planet tilt angle.

  19. Diffuse reflectance startigraphy - a new method in the study of loess (?) (United States)

    József, Szeberényi; Balázs, Bradák; Klaudia, Kiss; József, Kovács; György, Varga; Réka, Balázs; Viczián, István


    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "diffuse reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of the

  20. Retrieval of optical properties of skin from measurement and modeling the diffuse reflectance (United States)

    Douven, Lucien F. A.; Lucassen, Gerald W.


    We present results on the retrieval of skin optical properties obtained by fitting of measurements of the diffuse reflectance of human skin. Reflectance spectra are simulated using an analytical model based on the diffusion approximation. This model is implemented in a simplex fit routine. The skin optical model used consists of five layers representing epidermis, capillary blood plexus, dermis, deep blood plexus and hypodermis. The optical properties of each layer are assumed homogeneously distributed. The main optical absorbers included are melanin in epidermis and blood. The experimental setup consists of a HP photospectrometer equipped with a remote fiber head. Total reflectance spectra were measured in the 400 - 820 nm wavelength range on the volar underarm of 19 volunteers under various conditions influencing the blood content and oxygenation degree. Changes in the reflectance spectra were observed. Using the fit routine changes in blood content in the capillary blood plexus and in the deep blood plexus could be quantified. These showed different influences on the total reflectance. The method can be helpful to quantitatively assess changes in skin color appearance such as occurs in the treatment of port wine stains, blanching, skin irritation and tanning.

  1. The Illumination Model of the Valley Based on the Diffuse Reflect of Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Guoliang


    Full Text Available In this paper, models are build to evaluate the impact of the forest on the valley’s illumination. Based on the assumes that all the light reach the ground comes from the diffuse reflection which comes from the sun directly and from the diffuse reflection of other points, One model is build to consider the impact of time and latitude on the direction of the sunlight. So we can get the direction of the sunlight at different time and latitude through the model. Besides, this paper develops a illumination model to evaluate the intensity of illumination of the ground. Combining the models above, this paper get a complete model which can not only evaluate the overall light intensity of the valley but also convert the light intensity to the intensity of illumination. Simulation of the intensity illumination of some basic terrains and finally gives a comprehensive results which is practical and close to the common sense.

  2. Skin lesions diagnostics by on diffuse reflection spectres using computational algorithms: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Guillen, E.E.; Delgado-Atencio, J.A.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Villanueva-Luna, E.; Gutierrez-Delgado, F.


    The determination of diffuse reflection spectrum on human skin in the spectral range from 400nm-1000nm using an optical fiber spectrometers is a non-invasive technique widely used to study the optical parameters of this tissue, provides information about the absorption and scattering properties of light that can be employed to study the morphology and physiology of the tissue and to detect and diagnose skin diseases in early stages. In this paper a computational algorithm for the selection of the most important attributes of diffuse reflection spectra of human skin obtained with an experimental system that basically consists of a spectrometer, a white light source and bifurcated fiber optic probe that allows send and collect light. To classify the spectral signal was designed a Matlab2006 graphical interface which use support vector machines and algorithm for selecting attributes that allows to achieve a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 80% and 85% of accuracy in the classification. (Author)

  3. Production of a diffuse very high reflectivity material for light collection in nuclear detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, B J; Mirzoyan, R; Weiss, L; Ziegler, S I


    A diffuse very high reflectivity material, based on polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) for optimization of light-collection efficiency has been developed. PTFE powder was used to produce reflector block material. The powder was pressed with 525 kPa in a form and sintered at 375 deg. C. The reflectivity was above 98% within the spectral range from 350 to 1000 nm. The blocks of this material are machinable with saws, drilling and milling machines. The reflector is used as a housing for scintillating crystals in a nuclear medicine application (small animal positron emission tomograph). It is also used as a light collector in very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysicas experiments, HEGRA and MAGIC. The application of this inexpensive, easy to make diffuse reflector may allow the optimization of light collection in a wide range of low-level light-detector configurations.

  4. Determination of aluminium and beryllium by diffuse reflectance spectrometry with the use of chromaticity functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.M.; Ershova, N.I.


    Immobilized Eriochrome Cyanine R was used for the direct trace determination of aluminium and beryllium by diffuse reflectance spectrometry. Anion exchanger AV-17, silica gel Silochrom C-120, Chromaton N-Super, silica gel C 18 , and cellulose were examined as supports. Optimal sorption conditions were found. The dependence of chromaticity functions (chromaticity coordinates, lightness, color saturation, yellowness, and whiteness) on different factors was studied. Advantages of the use of chromaticity functions rather than the diffuse reflectance coefficient were demonstrated. A method is developed for the separate determination of aluminium and beryllium using cellulose as the support; the method was used for the analysis of real samples and tested with standard samples. When solution samples of 50 and 100 ml were used, the determination limit was 0.004 μg/ml for aluminium and 0.0002 μg/ml for beryllium, respectively [ru

  5. Full counting statistics of multiple Andreev reflections in incoherent diffusive superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, P.


    We present a theory for the full distribution of current fluctuations in incoherent diffusive superconducting junctions, subjected to a voltage bias. This theory of full counting statistics of incoherent multiple Andreev reflections is valid for an arbitrary applied voltage. We present a detailed discussion of the properties of the first four cumulants as well as the low and high voltage regimes of the full counting statistics. (orig.)

  6. Effect of incident beam and diffuse radiation on par absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of sitka spruce - a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.P.; Jarvis, P.G.


    A simulation model, Maestro, is used to study the influence of beam fraction in the incident radiation and the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation on PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) tree crown. It is concluded that inaccurate separation of beam and diffuse radiation leads to significant errors in estimating the amounts of PAR absorbed, photosynthesis and transpiration by a tree in the stand. Much more attention should be paid to adequate descriptions of the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation under different sky conditions. A useful approach is proposed for simulating the incident global radiaiton in a physiological, process-based model

  7. Reflection and self-sputtering of nickel at oblique angles of ion incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechtl, E.; Eckstein, W.; Roth, J.


    Measurement of the erosion yield of a target under ion bombardment using the weight change determines the sum of the sputtering yield and the particle reflection coefficient. The different erosion behavior of a volatile (Kr) and a nonvolatile projectile (Ni) are investigated on a nickel target in the energy range from 60 eV to 10 keV at an incidence angle of 75 . The angular dependence of the erosion yield is studied for 100, 500, and 2500 eV. In comparison with Monte Carlo calculations using the TRIM.SP program it is shown that at low energies ( 1 keV). (orig.)

  8. Portable, Fiber-Based, Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (DRS) Systems for Estimating Tissue Optical Properties. (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Chang, Kevin; Klein, Daniel; Deng, Yu Feng; Chang, Vivide; Phelps, Janelle E; Ramanujam, Nimmi


    Steady-state diffuse reflection spectroscopy is a well-studied optical technique that can provide a noninvasive and quantitative method for characterizing the absorption and scattering properties of biological tissues. Here, we compare three fiber-based diffuse reflection spectroscopy systems that were assembled to create a light-weight, portable, and robust optical spectrometer that could be easily translated for repeated and reliable use in mobile settings. The three systems were built using a broadband light source and a compact, commercially available spectrograph. We tested two different light sources and two spectrographs (manufactured by two different vendors). The assembled systems were characterized by their signal-to-noise ratios, the source-intensity drifts, and detector linearity. We quantified the performance of these instruments in extracting optical properties from diffuse reflectance spectra in tissue-mimicking liquid phantoms with well-controlled optical absorption and scattering coefficients. We show that all assembled systems were able to extract the optical absorption and scattering properties with errors less than 10%, while providing greater than ten-fold decrease in footprint and cost (relative to a previously well-characterized and widely used commercial system). Finally, we demonstrate the use of these small systems to measure optical biomarkers in vivo in a small-animal model cancer therapy study. We show that optical measurements from the simple portable system provide estimates of tumor oxygen saturation similar to those detected using the commercial system in murine tumor models of head and neck cancer.

  9. Reflection and transmission of normally incident full-vector X waves on planar interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed


    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X waves normally incident on planar half-spaces and slabs are studied. For this purpose, X waves are expanded in terms of weighted vector Bessel beams; this new decomposition and reconstruction method offers a more lucid and intuitive interpretation of the physical phenomena observed upon the reflection or transmission of X waves when compared to the conventional plane-wave decomposition technique. Using the Bessel beam expansion approach, we have characterized changes in the field shape and the intensity distribution of the transmitted and reflected full-vector X waves. We have also identified a novel longitudinal shift, which is observed when a full-vector X wave is transmitted through a dielectric slab under frustrated total reflection condition. The results of our studies presented here are valuable in understanding the behavior of full-vector X waves when they are utilized in practical applications in electromagnetics, optics, and photonics, such as trap and tweezer setups, optical lithography, and immaterial probing. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  10. Influence of probe pressure on diffuse reflectance spectra of human skin measured in vivo (United States)

    Popov, Alexey P.; Bykov, Alexander V.; Meglinski, Igor V.


    Mechanical pressure superficially applied on the human skin surface by a fiber-optic probe influences the spatial distribution of blood within the cutaneous tissues. Upon gradual load of weight on the probe, a stepwise increase in the skin reflectance spectra is observed. The decrease in the load follows the similar inverse staircase-like tendency. The observed stepwise reflectance spectra changes are due to, respectively, sequential extrusion of blood from the topical cutaneous vascular beds and their filling afterward. The obtained results are confirmed by Monte Carlo modeling. This implies that pressure-induced influence during the human skin diffuse reflectance spectra measurements in vivo should be taken into consideration, in particular, in the rapidly developing area of wearable gadgets for real-time monitoring of various human body parameters.

  11. Translucent Radiosity: Efficiently Combining Diffuse Inter-Reflection and Subsurface Scattering. (United States)

    Sheng, Yu; Shi, Yulong; Wang, Lili; Narasimhan, Srinivasa G


    It is hard to efficiently model the light transport in scenes with translucent objects for interactive applications. The inter-reflection between objects and their environments and the subsurface scattering through the materials intertwine to produce visual effects like color bleeding, light glows, and soft shading. Monte-Carlo based approaches have demonstrated impressive results but are computationally expensive, and faster approaches model either only inter-reflection or only subsurface scattering. In this paper, we present a simple analytic model that combines diffuse inter-reflection and isotropic subsurface scattering. Our approach extends the classical work in radiosity by including a subsurface scattering matrix that operates in conjunction with the traditional form factor matrix. This subsurface scattering matrix can be constructed using analytic, measurement-based or simulation-based models and can capture both homogeneous and heterogeneous translucencies. Using a fast iterative solution to radiosity, we demonstrate scene relighting and dynamically varying object translucencies at near interactive rates.

  12. Applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld spectrometer to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage materials. (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel


    This work studies the applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld device to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage assets. This portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer has been used to characterise and diagnose the conservation state of (a) building materials of the Guevara Palace (15th century, Segura, Basque Country, Spain) and (b) different 19th century wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) and by the well known Dufour and Leroy manufacturers (Paris, France), all of them belonging to the Torre de los Varona Castle (Villanañe, Basque Country, Spain). In all cases, in situ measurements were carried out and also a few samples were collected and measured in the laboratory by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) in order to validate the information obtained by the handheld instrument. In the analyses performed in situ, distortions in the diffuse reflectance spectra can be observed due to the presence of specular reflection, showing the inverted bands caused by the Reststrahlen effect, in particular on those IR bands with the highest absorption coefficients. This paper concludes that the results obtained in situ by a diffuse reflectance handheld device are comparable to those obtained with laboratory diffuse reflectance spectroscopy equipment and proposes a few guidelines to acquire good spectra in the field, minimising the influence caused by the specular reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of caffeine consumption effect on skin blood properties by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Milanic, Matija; Marin, Ana; Stergar, Jost; Verdel, Nina; Majaron, Boris


    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world. It affects many tissues and organs, in particular central nervous system, heart, and blood vessels. The effect of caffeine on vascular smooth muscle cells is an initial transient contraction followed by significant vasodilatation. In this study we investigate the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) for monitoring of vascular changes in human skin induced by caffeine consumption. DRS spectra were recorded on volar sides of the forearms of ten healthy volunteers at time delays of 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after consumption of caffeine, while one subject served as a negative control. Analytical diffusion approximation solutions for diffuse reflectance from three-layer structures were used to assess skin composition (e.g., dermal blood volume fraction and oxygen saturation) by fitting to experimental data. The results demonstrate that cutaneous vasodynamics induced by caffeine consumption can be monitored by DRS, while changes in the control subject not consuming caffeine were insignificant.

  14. Algorithm of extraction optics properties from the measurement of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunill Rodriguez, Margarita; Delgado Atencio, Jose Alberto; Castro Ramos, Jorge; Vazquez y Montiel, Sergio


    There are several methods to obtain the optical parameters of biological tissues from the measurement of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance. One of them is well-known as Video Reflectometry in which a camera CCD is used as detection and recording system of the lateral distribution of diffuse reflectance Rd(r) when an infinitely narrow light beam impinges on the tissue. In this paper, we present an algorithm that we have developed for the calibration and application of an experimental set-up of Video Reflectometry destined to extract the optical properties of models of biological tissues with optical properties similar to the human skin. The results of evaluation of the accuracy of the algorithm for optical parameters extraction is shown for a set of proofs reflectance curves with known values of these parameters. In the generation of these curves the simulation of measurement errors was also considered. The results show that it is possible to extract the optical properties with an accuracy error of less than 1% for all the proofs curves. (Author)

  15. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for monitoring diabetic foot ulcer - A pilot study (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Sujatha, N.; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, Richa


    Foot ulceration due to diabetes mellitus is a major problem affecting 12-25% of diabetic subjects in their lifetime. An untreated ulcer further gets infected which causes necrosis leading to amputation of lower extremities. Early identification of risk factors and treatment for these chronic wounds would reduce health care costs and improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. Recent clinical investigations have shown that a series of factors including reduced oxygen delivery and disturbed metabolism have been observed on patients with foot ulceration due to diabetes. Also, these factors can impair the wound healing process. Optical techniques based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provide characteristic spectral finger prints shed light on tissue oxygenation levels and morphological composition of a tissue. This study deals with the application of diffuse reflectance intensity ratios based on oxyhemoglobin bands (R542/R580), ratios of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin bands (R580/R555), total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation between normal and diabetic foot ulcer sites. Preliminary results obtained are found to be promising indicating the application of reflectance spectroscopy in the assessment of foot ulcer healing.

  16. Detection of the specific binding on protein microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Heng; Wen, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Kun; Lu, Huibin; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Li, Wei; Ruan, Kangcheng


    The specific binding between Cy5-labeled goat anti-mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mouse IgG with a concentration range from 625 to 10 4 µg ml −1 has been detected successfully by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) method in each procedure of microarray fabrication. The experimental data prove that the OI-RD method can be employed not only to distinguish the different concentrations in label-free fashion but also to detect the antibody–antigen capture. In addition, the differential treatment of the OI-RD signals can decrease the negative influences of glass slide as the microarray upholder. Therefore the OI-RD technique has promising applications for the label-free and high-throughput detection of protein microarrays

  17. Jigsaw puzzle metasurface for multiple functions: polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion. (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Cao, Xiangyu; Gao, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Sijia


    We demonstrate a simple reconfigurable metasurface with multiple functions. Anisotropic tiles are investigated and manufactured as fundamental elements. Then, the tiles are combined in a certain sequence to construct a metasurface. Each of the tiles can be adjusted independently which is like a jigsaw puzzle and the whole metasurface can achieve diverse functions by different layouts. For demonstration purposes, we realize polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion by a jigsaw puzzle metasurface with 6 × 6 pieces of anisotropic tile. Simulated and measured results prove that our method offers a simple and effective strategy for metasurface design.

  18. Quantification of hemoglobin and its derivatives in oral cancer diagnosis by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Kaniyappan, Udayakumar; Gnanatheepam, Einstein; Aruna, Prakasarao; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Ganesan, Singaravelu


    Cancer is one of the most common threat to human beings and it increases at an alarming level around the globe. In recent years, due to the advancements in opto-electronic technology, various optical spectroscopy techniques have emerged to assess the photophysicochemical and morphological conditions of normal and malignant tissues in micro as well as in macroscopic scale. In this regard, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is considered to be the simplest, cost effective and rapid technique in diagnosis of cancerous tissues. In the present study, the hemoglobin concentration in normal and cancerous oral tissues was quantified and subsequent statistical analysis has been carried out to verify the diagnostic potentiality of the technique.

  19. A thin alanine-polyethylene film dosimetry system with diffuse reflection spectrophotometric evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.; Rafalski, A.


    Characteristics of a new alanine dosimeter in the shape of a thin film, with the measurement of optical absorption of the CH 3 CHCOO - radical is described. That type of dosimeter, ALA/DRS (for diffuse reflection spectrophotometry) is compared, to an alanine dosimeter with EPR evaluation (ALA/EPR for short). In many respects the simple ALA/DRS version, as the alanine-polyethylene composite is superior. The paper shows the importance of the new experimental approach to free radical research in solid state radiation chemistry. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs

  20. Thermal diffusivity of a metallic thin layer using the time-domain thermo reflectance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, J-L; Kusiak, A; Rossignol, C; Chigarev, N


    The time domain thermo reflectance (TDTR) is widely used in the field of acoustic and thermal characterization of thin layers at the nano and micro scale. In this paper, we propose to derive a simple analytical expression of the thermal diffusivity of the layer. This relation is based on the analytical solution of one-dimensional heat transfer in the medium using integral transforms. For metals, the two-temperature model shows that the capacitance effect at the short times is essentially governed by the electronic contribution

  1. Portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy/diffuse reflectance hybrid spectrometer for analysis of inorganic pigments (United States)

    Siozos, Panagiotis; Philippidis, Aggelos; Anglos, Demetrios


    A novel, portable spectrometer, combining two analytical techniques, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, was developed with the aim to provide an enhanced instrumental and methodological approach with regard to the analysis of pigments in objects of cultural heritage. Technical details about the hybrid spectrometer and its operation are presented and examples are given relevant to the analysis of paint materials. Both LIBS and diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible and part of the near infrared, corresponding to several neat mineral pigment samples, were recorded and the complementary information was used to effectively distinguish different types of pigments even if they had similar colour or elemental composition. The spectrometer was also employed in the analysis of different paints on the surface of an ancient pottery sherd demonstrating the capabilities of the proposed hybrid diagnostic approach. Despite its instrumental simplicity and compact size, the spectrometer is capable of supporting analytical campaigns relevant to archaeological, historical or art historical investigations, particularly when quick data acquisition is required in the context of surveys of large numbers of objects and samples.

  2. [Study on predicting sugar content and valid acidity of apples by near infrared diffuse reflectance technique]. (United States)

    Liu, Yan-de; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping


    The nondestructive method for quantifying sugar content (SC) and available acid (VA) of intact apples using diffuse near infrared reflectance and optical fiber sensing techniques were explored in the present research. The standard sample sets and prediction models were established by partial least squares analysis (PLS). A total of 120 Shandong Fuji apples were tested in the wave number of 12,500 - 4000 cm(-1) using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy. The results of the research indicated that the nondestructive quantification of SC and VA, gave a high correlation coefficient 0.970 and 0.906, a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) 0.272 and 0.056 2, a low root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 0.261 and 0.0677, and a small difference between RMSEP and RMSEC 0.011 a nd 0.0115. It was suggested that the diffuse nearinfrared reflectance technique be feasible for nondestructive determination of apple sugar content in the wave number range of 10,341 - 5461 cm(-1) and for available acid in the wave number range of 10,341 - 3818 cm(-1).

  3. Methods for quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical and diffuse reflectance measurements using an FTIR and a commercial integrating sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Forland, Brenda M.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Hanssen, Leonard; Gonzalez, Gerardo


    Infrared integrating sphere measurements of solid samples are important in providing reference data for contact, standoff and remote sensing applications. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) we have developed protocols to measure both the directional-hemispherical ( and diffuse (d) reflectances of powders, liquids, and disks of powders and solid materials using a commercially available, matte gold-coated integrating sphere and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Detailed descriptions of the sphere alignment and its use for making these reflectance measurements are given. Diffuse reflectance values were found to be dependent on the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of the sample and the solid angle intercepted by the sphere’s specular exclusion port. To determine how well the sphere and protocols produce quantitative reflectance data, measurements were made of three diffuse and two specular standards prepared by the National institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA), LabSphere Infragold and Spectralon standards, hand-loaded sulfur and talc powder samples, and water. The five NIST standards behaved as expected: the three diffuse standards had a high degree of “diffuseness,” d/ = D > 0.9, whereas the two specular standards had D ≤ 0.03. The average absolute differences between the NIST and PNNL measurements of the NIST standards for both directional-hemispherical and diffuse reflectances are on the order of 0.01 reflectance units. Other quantitative differences between the PNNL-measured and calibration (where available) or literature reflectance values for these standards and materials are given and the possible origins of discrepancies are discussed. Random uncertainties and estimates of systematic uncertainties are presented. Corrections necessary to provide better agreement between the PNNL reflectance values as measured for the NIST standards and the NIST reflectance values for these same standards are also

  4. Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Reflecting and Diffusing Surfaces in Auditoria (United States)

    Cox, Trevor John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The performance of reflectors and diffusers used in auditoria have been evaluated both objectively and subjectively. Two accurate systems have been developed to measure the scattering from surfaces via the cross correlation function. These have been used to measure the scattering from plane panels, curved panels and quadratic residue diffusers (QRDs). The scattering measurements have been used to test theoretical prediction methods based on the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral equation. Accurate prediction methods were found for all surfaces tested. The limitations of the more approximate methods have been defined. The assumptions behind Schroeder's design of the QRD have been tested and the local reacting admittance assumption found to be valid over a wide frequency range. It was found that the QRD only produces uniform scattering at low frequencies. For an on-axis source the scattering from a curved panel was as good as from a QRD. For an oblique source the QRD produced much more uniform scattering than the curved panel. The subjective measurements evaluated the smallest perceivable change in the early sound field, the part most influenced by reflectors and diffusers. A natural sounding simulation of a concert hall field within an anechoic chamber was used. Standard objective parameters were reasonable values when compared to values found in real halls and subjective preference measurements. A difference limen was measured for early lateral energy fraction (.048 +/-.005); inter aural cross correlation (.075 +/-.008); clarity index (.67 +/-.13 dB); and centre time (8.6 +/- 1.6 ms). It was found that: (i) when changes are made to diffusers and reflectors, changes in spatial impression will usually be larger than those in clarity; and (ii) acousticians can gain most by paying attention to lateral sound in auditoria. It was also found that: (i) diffuse reflections in the early sound field

  5. Improved algorithm for estimating optical properties of food and biological materials using spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance (United States)

    In this research, the inverse algorithm for estimating optical properties of food and biological materials from spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance was optimized in terms of data smoothing, normalization and spatial region of reflectance profile for curve fitting. Monte Carlo simulation was used ...

  6. Study of self-diffusion of Fe in nanocrystalline FeNZr alloys using nuclear resonance reflectivity from isotopic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ajay; Chakravarty, Sajoy; Gupta, Mukul; Horisberger, M.; Rueffer, Rudolf; Wille, Hans-Christian; Leupold, Olaf


    It is demonstrated that nuclear resonance reflectivity from isotopic multilayers can be used to do accurate measurements of self diffusion of iron in thin film samples. Diffusion lengths down to ∼ 1A 0 can be measured. The technique has been used to measure the self-diffusion of iron in FeNZr nanocrystalline alloys. The activation energy for self-diffusion of iron is found to be 0.8% ± 0.01 eV while the pre-exponential factor is 3.54 x 10 13 m 2 /s. (author)

  7. Utilizing Diffuse Reflection to Increase the Efficiency of Luminescent Solar Concentrators (United States)

    Bowser, Seth; Weible, Seth; Solomon, Joel; Schrecengost, Jonathan; Wittmershaus, Bruce

    A luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) consists of a high index solid plate containing a fluorescent material that converts sunlight into fluorescence. Utilizing total internal reflection, the LSC collects and concentrates the fluorescence at the plate's edges where it is converted into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells. The lower production costs of LSCs make them an attractive alternative to photovoltaic solar cells. To optimize an LSC's efficiency, a white diffusive surface (background) is positioned behind it. The background allows sunlight transmitted in the first pass to be reflected back through the LSC providing a second chance for absorption. Our research examines how the LSC's performance is affected by changing the distance between the white background and the LSC. An automated linear motion apparatus was engineered to precisely measure this distance and the LSC's electrical current, simultaneously. LSC plates, with and without the presence of fluorescent material and in an isolated environment, showed a maximum current at a distance greater than zero. Further experimentation has proved that the optimal distance results from the background's optical properties and how the reflected light enters the LSC. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-ECCS-1306157.

  8. Earth Reflected Solar Radiation Incident upon an Arbitrarily Oriented Spinning Flat Plate (United States)

    Cunningham, Fred G.


    A general derivation is given for the earth reflected solar radiation input to a flat plate--a solar cell paddle, for example--which is spinning about an axis coincident with the axis of symmetry of the satellite to which it is affixed. The resulting equations are written for the general case so that arbitrary orientations of the spin axis with respect to the earth-satellite line and arbitrary orientations of the normal to the plate with respect to the spin axis can be treated. No attempt is made to perform the resulting integrations because of the complexity of the equations; nor is there any attempt to delineate the integration limits for the general case. However, the equations governing these limits are given. The appendixes contain: the results, in graphical form, of two representative examples; the general computer program for the calculation is given in Fortran notation; and the results of a calculation of the distribution of albedo energy on the proposed Echo II satellite. The value of the mean solar constant used is 1.395 times 10 (sup 4) ergs per centimeters-squared per second; the mean albedo of the earth is assumed to be 0.34; and the earth is assumed to be a diffuse reflector.

  9. Final report on the key comparison CCPR-K5: Spectral diffuse reflectance (United States)

    Nadal, Maria; Eckerle, Kenneth L.; Early, Edward A.; Ohno, Yoshi


    The CCPR K5 key comparison on spectral diffuse reflectance was carried out in the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement, by 13 national metrology institutes (MMIs) as participants. The participants were CSIR-NML (South Africa), HUT (Finland), IFA-CSIC (Spain), KRISS (Republic of Korea), MSL (New Zealand), NIM (China), NIST (United States of America), NMIJ (Japan), NPL (United Kingdom), NRC (Canada), OMH (Hungary), PTB (Germany) and VNIIOFI (Russia Federation). NIST (USA) piloted the comparison. The aim of this comparison was to check the agreement of measurement of the spectral diffuse reflectance among participants, using the measurement geometry of d/0 or 0/d in the wavelength range of 360 nm to 820 nm at 20 nm increment. The comparison was a star type comparison with the samples provided by the pilot laboratory and with the measurement sequence: Pilot-Participant-Pilot. Spectralon and matte white ceramic tiles were used as the transfer standards. Each participant received three of each type of sample and at least one sample of each type was measured three times on three separate days, and the other two samples were measured once. The report presents the description of the measurement facilities, procedures and uncertainties of all the participants as well as the results of the comparison. Measurement results from the participants and their associated uncertainties were analyzed in accordance with the Guidelines for CCPR Key Comparison Report Preparation, using weighted mean with cut-off. For the calculation of the Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV), as agreed by the participants, the data of both samples were used for the 460 nm to 820 nm region and only the data of the Spectralon samples were used in the spectral region of 360 nm to 440 nm. The unilateral degrees of equivalence (DoE) calculated for each participant are mostly consistent within the uncertainty (k = 2) of the DoE. This international comparison of spectral diffuse reflectance

  10. Numerical controlled diamond fly cutting machine for grazing incidence X-ray reflection mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Shigeo; Seya, Eiiti


    Synchrotron radiation has reached the stage of practical use, and the application to the wide fields that support future advanced technologies such as spectroscopy, the structural analysis of matters, semiconductor lithography and medical light source is expected. For the optical system of the equipment utilizing synchrotron radiation, the total reflection mirrors of oblique incidence are used for collimating and collecting X-ray. In order to restrain their optical aberration, nonspherical shape is required, and as the manufacturing method with high precision for nonspherical mirrors, a numerically controlled diamond cutting machine was developed. As for the cutting of soft metals with diamond tools, the high precision machining of any form can be done by numerical control, the machining time can be reduced as compared with grinding, and the cooling effect is large in metals. The construction of the cutting machine, the principle of machining, the control system, the method of calculating numerical control data, the investigation of machinable forms and the result of evaluation are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Evaluation of apparent viscosity of Para rubber latex by diffuse reflection near-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Chowbankrang, Rawiphan; Williams, Phil


    Near-infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflection mode was used to evaluate the apparent viscosity of Para rubber field latex and concentrated latex over the wavelength range of 1100 to 2500 nm, using partial least square regression (PLSR). The model with ten principal components (PCs) developed using the raw spectra accurately predicted the apparent viscosity with correlation coefficient (r), standard error of prediction (SEP), and bias of 0.974, 8.6 cP, and -0.4 cP, respectively. The ratio of the SEP to the standard deviation (RPD) and the ratio of the SEP to the range (RER) for the prediction were 4.4 and 16.7, respectively. Therefore, the model can be used for measurement of the apparent viscosity of field latex and concentrated latex in quality assurance and process control in the factory.

  12. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study. (United States)

    Clay, Summer N; Clithero, John A; Harris, Alison M; Reed, Catherine L


    Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM) to choice and response time (RT) data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier) varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  13. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects. Part II: Recovery of a Target Spectrum. (United States)

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N


    In this study, we consider the reconstruction of a diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectrum of an object (target spectrum) in case the object is covered by an interfering absorbing and scattering layer. Recovery is performed using a new empirical method, which was developed in our previous study. We focus on a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer objects with different spectral features. The spectral contribution of the interfering layer is modeled by a three-component two-parameter multivariate curve resolution (MCR) model, which was built and calibrated using spectrally flat objects. We show that this model is applicable to real objects with non-uniform spectra. Ultimately, the target spectrum can be reconstructed from a single spectrum of the covered target. With calculation methods, we are able to recover quite accurately the spectrum of a target even when the object is covered by 0.7 mm of PE.

  14. Rapid determination of ions by combined solid-phase extraction--diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Fritz, James S.; Arena, Matteo P.; Steiner, Steven A.; Porter, Marc D.


    We introduce colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) for the rapid determination of selected ions. This new technique links the exhaustive concentration of an analyte by SPE onto a membrane disk surface for quantitative measurement with a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrometer. The concentration/measurement procedure is complete in approximately 1 min and can be performed almost anywhere. This method has been used to monitor iodine and iodide in spacecraft water in the 0.1-5.0 ppm range and silver(I) in the range of 5.0-1000 microg/l. Applications to the trace analysis of copper(II), nickel(II), iron(III) and chromium(VI) are described. Studies on the mechanism of extraction showed that impregnation of the disk with a surfactant as well as a complexing reagent results in uptake of additional water, which markedly improves the extraction efficiency.

  15. Experimental analysis of bruises in human volunteers using radiometric depth profiling and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris


    We combine pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) depth profiling with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measurements for a comprehensive analysis of bruise evolution in vivo. While PPTR enables extraction of detailed depth distribution and concentration profiles of selected absorbers (e.g. melanin, hemoglobin), DRS provides information in a wide range of visible wavelengths and thus offers an additional insight into dynamics of the hemoglobin degradation products. Combining the two approaches enables us to quantitatively characterize bruise evolution dynamics. Our results indicate temporal variations of the bruise evolution parameters in the course of bruise self-healing process. The obtained parameter values and trends represent a basis for a future development of an objective technique for bruise age determination.

  16. Analysis of hemodynamics in human skin using photothermal radiometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Verdel, Nina; Marin, Ana; Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris


    We present a novel methodology for quantitative analysis of hemodynamics in human skin in vivo. Our approach combines pulsed photothermal radiometry (i.e., time-resolved measurements of midinfrared emission from sample surface after exposure to a short light pulse) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in visible part of the spectrum. Experimental data are fitted with predictions of a numerical model of light transport in a four-layer skin model (i.e., inverse Monte Carlo), which allows assessment of the layer thicknesses, chromophore contents (e.g., melanin, oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin), as well as scattering properties. The performance is tested in comparison analysis of healthy skin before and during application of a blood pressure cuff (at 200 mm Hg) for 5 minutes.

  17. Diffuse reflectance imaging for non-melanoma skin cancer detection using laser feedback interferometry (United States)

    Mowla, Alireza; Taimre, Thomas; Lim, Yah L.; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen J.; Prow, Tarl W.; Soyer, H. P.; Rakić, Aleksandar D.


    We propose a compact, self-aligned, low-cost, and versatile infrared diffuse-reflectance laser imaging system using a laser feedback interferometry technique with possible applications in in vivo biological tissue imaging and skin cancer detection. We examine the proposed technique experimentally using a three-layer agar skin phantom. A cylindrical region with a scattering rate lower than that of the surrounding normal tissue was used as a model for a non-melanoma skin tumour. The same structure was implemented in a Monte Carlo computational model. The experimental results agree well with the Monte Carlo simulations validating the theoretical basis of the technique. Results prove the applicability of the proposed technique for biological tissue imaging, with the capability of depth sectioning and a penetration depth of well over 1.2 mm into the skin phantom.

  18. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer N. Clay


    Full Text Available Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM to choice and response time (RT data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  19. Monitoring longitudinal changes in irradiated head and neck cancer xenografts using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Jiang, Shudong; Gunn, Jason R.; Marra, Kayla; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Pogue, Brian W.


    Radiation therapy is often used as the preferred clinical treatment for control of localized head and neck cancer. However, during the course of treatment (6-8 weeks), feedback about functional and/or physiological changes within impacted tissue are not obtained, given the onerous financial and/or logistical burdens of scheduling MRI, PET or CT scans. Diffuse optical sensing is well suited to address this problem since the instrumentation can be made low-cost and portable while still being able to non-invasively provide information about vascular oxygenation in vivo. Here we report results from studies that employed an optical fiber-based portable diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system to longitudinally monitor changes in tumor vasculature within two head and neck cancer cell lines (SCC-15 and FaDu) xenografted in the flanks of nude mice, in two separate experiments. Once the tumor volumes were 100mm3, 67% of animals received localized (electron beam) radiation therapy in five fractions (8Gy/day, for 5 days) while 33% of the animals served as controls. DRS measurements were obtained from each animal on each day of treatment and then for two weeks post-treatment. Reflectance spectra were parametrized to extract total hemoglobin concentration and blood oxygen-saturation and the resulting time-trends of optical parameters appear to be dissimilar for the two cell-lines. These findings are also compared to previous animal experiments (using the FaDu line) that were irradiated using a photon beam radiotherapy protocol. These results and implications for the use of fiber-based DRS measurements made at local (irradiated) tumor site as a basis for identifying early radiotherapy-response are presented and discussed.

  20. Simultaneous estimation of transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Abdul, Wares MD.; Ohtsu, Mizuki; Nakano, Kazuya; Haneishi, Hideaki


    We propose a method to estimate transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the proposed method, the Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for an absorbance spectrum in the visible wavelength region (460-590 nm) is used to specify the concentrations of bilirubin (Cbil), oxygenated hemoglobin (Coh), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Cdh), and melanin (Cm). Using the absorbance spectrum calculated from the measured diffuse reflectance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Total hemoglobin concentration (Cth) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) are simply calculated from the oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin. In vivo animal experiments with bile duct ligation in rats demonstrated that the estimated Cbil is increased after ligation of bile duct and reaches to around 20 mg/dl at 72 h after the onset of the ligation, which corresponds to the reference value of Cbil measured by a commercially available transcutaneous bilirubin meter. We also performed in vivo experiments with rats while varying the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). Coh and Cdh decreased and increased, respectively, as FiO2 decreased. Consequently, StO2 was dramatically decreased. The results in this study indicate potential of the method for simultaneous evaluation of multiple chromophores in skin tissue.

  1. Separation of irradiance and reflectance from observed color images by logarithmical nonlinear diffusion process (United States)

    Saito, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hiromi; Komatsu, Takashi


    The Retinex theory was first proposed by Land, and deals with separation of irradiance from reflectance in an observed image. The separation problem is an ill-posed problem. Land and others proposed various Retinex separation algorithms. Recently, Kimmel and others proposed a variational framework that unifies the previous Retinex algorithms such as the Poisson-equation-type Retinex algorithms developed by Horn and others, and presented a Retinex separation algorithm with the time-evolution of a linear diffusion process. However, the Kimmel's separation algorithm cannot achieve physically rational separation, if true irradiance varies among color channels. To cope with this problem, we introduce a nonlinear diffusion process into the time-evolution. Moreover, as to its extension to color images, we present two approaches to treat color channels: the independent approach to treat each color channel separately and the collective approach to treat all color channels collectively. The latter approach outperforms the former. Furthermore, we apply our separation algorithm to a high quality chroma key in which before combining a foreground frame and a background frame into an output image a color of each pixel in the foreground frame are spatially adaptively corrected through transformation of the separated irradiance. Experiments demonstrate superiority of our separation algorithm over the Kimmel's separation algorithm.

  2. Apparent diffusion coefficient value as a biomarker reflecting morphological and biological features of prostate cancer. (United States)

    Bae, Hyeyeol; Yoshida, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ito, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Oya, Miyako; Nakayama, Takayuki; Takeshita, Hideki; Kijima, Toshiki; Ishioka, Junichiro; Numao, Noboru; Koga, Fumitaka; Saito, Kazutaka; Akashi, Takumi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori


    To assess whether there is an association between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer. The study cohort consisted of 29 consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted MRI before the prostate biopsy. In 42 tumor foci, the associations of the ADC values with the clinicopathological characteristics and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were analyzed. High-grade cancers (Gleason score [GS] ≥ 4 + 3), larger cancers (maximum diameter (MD) ≥ 16 mm), and highly proliferating cancers (Ki-67 LI ≥ 4.43 %) had significantly lower ADC values, respectively (P value according to age, prostate-specific antigen, presence of extra-prostatic extension, and intra-tumoral stroma proportion. Multivariate analysis showed that GS, Ki-67 LI, and MD had independent and significant correlations with ADC value (P value to predict high-grade cancer foci are 81.8 and 93.5 %, respectively. A low ADC value reflects the morphological and biological features of prostate cancer. Analyzing the ADC value may make it possible to more precisely predict the cancer aggressiveness of each focus before treatment.

  3. ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis. (United States)

    Metin, Baris; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R; van der Meere, Jaap J; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund


    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with performance deficits across a broad range of tasks. Although individual tasks are designed to tap specific cognitive functions (e.g., memory, inhibition, planning, etc.), these deficits could also reflect general effects related to either inefficient or impulsive information processing or both. These two components cannot be isolated from each other on the basis of classical analysis in which mean reaction time (RT) and mean accuracy are handled separately. Seventy children with a diagnosis of combined type ADHD and 50 healthy controls (between 6 and 17 years) performed two tasks: a simple two-choice RT (2-CRT) task and a conflict control task (CCT) that required higher levels of executive control. RT and errors were analyzed using the Ratcliff diffusion model, which divides decisional time into separate estimates of information processing efficiency (called "drift rate") and speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO, called "boundary"). The model also provides an estimate of general nondecisional time. Results were the same for both tasks independent of executive load. ADHD was associated with lower drift rate and less nondecisional time. The groups did not differ in terms of boundary parameter estimates. RT and accuracy performance in ADHD appears to reflect inefficient rather than impulsive information processing, an effect independent of executive function load. The results are consistent with models in which basic information processing deficits make an important contribution to the ADHD cognitive phenotype. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative skin color measurements in acanthosis nigricans patients: colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U; Agbai, Oma N; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Mahmoud, Bassel H; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna; Hamzavi, Iltefat H


    Tristimulus colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are white-light skin reflectance techniques used to measure the intensity of skin pigmentation. The tristimulus colorimeter is an instrument that measures a perceived color and the DRS instrument measures biological chromophores of the skin, including oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin and scattering. Data gathered from these tools can be used to understand morphological changes induced in skin chromophores due to conditions of the skin or their treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these two instruments in color measurements of acanthosis nigricans (AN) lesions. Eight patients with hyperinsulinemia and clinically diagnosable AN were seen monthly. Skin pigmentation was measured at three sites: the inner forearm, the medial aspect of the posterior neck, and anterior neck unaffected by AN. Of the three, measured tristimulus L*a*b* color parameters, the luminosity parameter L* was found to most reliably distinguish lesion from normally pigmented skin. The DRS instrument was able to characterize a lesion on the basis of the calculated melanin concentration, though melanin is a weak indicator of skin change and not a reliable measure to be used independently. Calculated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were not found to be reliable indicators of AN. Tristimulus colorimetry may provide reliable methods for respectively quantifying and characterizing the objective color change in AN, while DRS may be useful in characterizing changes in skin melanin content associated with this skin condition. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Impact of one-layer assumption on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of skin (United States)

    Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.


    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can be used to noninvasively measure skin properties. To extract skin properties from DRS spectra, you need a model that relates the reflectance to the tissue properties. Most models are based on the assumption that skin is homogenous. In reality, skin is composed of multiple layers, and the homogeneity assumption can lead to errors. In this study, we analyze the errors caused by the homogeneity assumption. This is accomplished by creating realistic skin spectra using a computational model, then extracting properties from those spectra using a one-layer model. The extracted parameters are then compared to the parameters used to create the modeled spectra. We used a wavelength range of 400 to 750 nm and a source detector separation of 250 μm. Our results show that use of a one-layer skin model causes underestimation of hemoglobin concentration [Hb] and melanin concentration [mel]. Additionally, the magnitude of the error is dependent on epidermal thickness. The one-layer assumption also causes [Hb] and [mel] to be correlated. Oxygen saturation is overestimated when it is below 50% and underestimated when it is above 50%. We also found that the vessel radius factor used to account for pigment packaging is correlated with epidermal thickness.

  6. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of diffuse optical reflectance, optoacoustic pressure and ultrasonic scattering (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Subochev, Pavel V.; Orlova, Anna G.; Turchin, Ilya V.


    We will present reflection-mode bioimaging system providing complementary optical, photoacsoutic and acoustic measurements by acoustic detector after each laser pulse with 2kHz repetition rate. The photons absorbed within the biological tissue provide optoacoustic (OA) signals, the photons absorbed by the external electrode of a detector provide the measurable diffuse reflectance (DR) from the sample and the probing ultrasonic (US) pulse. To demonstrate the in vivo capabilities of the system we performed complementary DR/OA/US imaging of small laboratory animals and human palm with 3.5mm/50μm/35μm lateral resolution at up to 3 mm diagnostic depth. Functional OA and DR imaging demonstrated the levels of tissue vascularization and blood supply. Structural US imaging was essential for understanding the position of vessels and zones with different perfusion. Before BiOS-2017 we plan to accomplish more in vivo experiments validating the developed triple-modality system as diagnostic tool to detect vascularization as well as mechanisms of vascular changes when monitoring response to therapy.

  7. Tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for automated oral and maxillofacial laser surgery: ex vivo pilot study (United States)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Nkenke, Emeka; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre


    Remote laser surgery lacks of haptic feedback during the laser ablation of tissue. Hence, there is a risk of iatrogenic damage or destruction of anatomical structures like nerves or salivary glands. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provides a straightforward and simple approach for optical tissue differentiation. We measured diffuse reflectance from seven various tissue types ex vivo. We applied Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to differentiate the seven tissue types and computed the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Special emphasis was taken on the identification of nerves and salivary glands as the most crucial tissue for maxillofacial surgery. The results show a promise for differentiating tissues as guidance for oral and maxillofacial laser surgery by means of diffuse reflectance.

  8. Clinical system model for monitoring the physiological status of jaundice by extracting bilirubin components from skin diffuse reflectance spectra (United States)

    Kumar, Alla S.; Clark, Joseph; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.


    Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition which occurs in newborns as a result of an imbalance between the production and elimination of bilirubin. The excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. As the bilirubin levels rise in the blood stream, there is a continuous exchange between the extra vascular bilirubin and bilirubin in the blood stream. Exposure to phototherapy alters the concentration of bilirubin in the vascular and extra vascular regions by causing bilirubin in the skin layers to be broken down. Thus, the relative concentration of extra vascular bilirubin is reduced leading to a diffusion of bilirubin out of the vascular region. Diffuse reflectance spectra from human skin contains physiological and structural information of the skin and nearby tissue. A diffuse reflectance spectrum must be captured before and after blanching in order to isolate the intravascular and extra vascular bilirubin. A new mathematical model is proposed with extra vascular bilirubin concentration taken into consideration along with other optical parameters in defining the diffuse reflectance spectrum from human skin. A nonlinear optimization algorithm has been adopted to extract the optical properties (including bilirubin concentration) from the skin reflectance spectrum. The new system model and nonlinear algorithm have been combined to enable extraction of Bilirubin concentrations within an average error of 10%.

  9. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.


    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  10. Vertical-type chiroptical spectrophotometer (I): instrumentation and application to diffuse reflectance circular dichroism measurement. (United States)

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Reiko


    We have designed and built a novel universal chiroptical spectrophotometer (UCS-2: J-800KCMF), which can carry out in situ chirality measurement of solid samples without any pretreatment, in the UV-vis region and with high relative efficiency. The instrument was designed to carry out transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DR) circular dichroism (CD) measurements simultaneously, thus housing two photomultipliers. It has a unique feature that light impinges on samples vertically so that loose powders can be measured by placing them on a flat sample holder in an integrating sphere. As is our first universal chiroptical spectrophotometer, UCS-1, two lock-in amplifiers are installed to remove artifact signals arising from macroscopic anisotropies which are unique to solid samples. High performance was achieved by theoretically analyzing and experimentally proven the effect of the photoelastic modulator position on the CD base line shifts, and by selecting high-quality optical and electric components. Measurement of microcrystallines of both enantiomers of ammonium camphorsulfonate by the DRCD mode gave reasonable results.

  11. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery (United States)

    Baltussen, Elisabeth J. M.; Snaebjornsson, Petur; de Koning, Susan G. Brouwer; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Aalbers, Arend G. J.; Kok, Niels; Beets, Geerard L.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Kuhlmann, Koert F. D.; Ruers, Theo J. M.


    Colorectal surgery is the standard treatment for patients with colorectal cancer. To overcome two of the main challenges, the circumferential resection margin and postoperative complications, real-time tissue assessment could be of great benefit during surgery. In this ex vivo study, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to differentiate tumor tissue from healthy surrounding tissues in patients with colorectal neoplasia. DRS spectra were obtained from tumor tissue, healthy colon, or rectal wall and fat tissue, for every patient. Data were randomly divided into training (80%) and test (20%) sets. After spectral band selection, the spectra were classified using a quadratic classifier and a linear support vector machine. Of the 38 included patients, 36 had colorectal cancer and 2 had an adenoma. When the classifiers were applied to the test set, colorectal cancer could be discriminated from healthy tissue with an overall accuracy of 0.95 (±0.03). This study demonstrates the possibility to separate colorectal cancer from healthy surrounding tissue by applying DRS. High classification accuracies were obtained both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous tissues. This is a fundamental step toward the development of a tool for real-time in vivo tissue assessment during colorectal surgery.

  12. Non-invasive detection of periodontal disease using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a clinical study (United States)

    Prasanth, Chandra Sekhar; Betsy, Joseph; Subhash, Narayanan; Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Prasanthila, Janam


    In clinical diagnostic procedures, gingival inflammation is considered as the initial stage of periodontal breakdown. This is often detected clinically by bleeding on probing as it is an objective measure of inflammation. Since conventional diagnostic procedures have several inherent drawbacks, development of novel non-invasive diagnostic techniques assumes significance. This clinical study was carried out in 15 healthy volunteers and 25 patients to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy for quantification and discrimination of various stages of inflammatory conditions in periodontal disease. The DR spectra of diseased lesions recorded using a point monitoring system consisting of a tungsten halogen lamp and a fiber-optic spectrometer showed oxygenated hemoglobin absorption dips at 545 and 575 nm. Mean DR spectra on normalization shows marked differences between healthy and different stages of gingival inflammation. Among the various DR intensity ratios investigated, involving oxy Hb absorption peaks, the R620/R575 ratio was found to be a good parameter of gingival inflammation. In order to screen the entire diseased area and its surroundings instantaneously, DR images were recorded with an EMCCD camera at 620 and 575 nm. We have observed that using the DR image intensity ratio R620/R575 mild inflammatory tissues could be discriminated from healthy with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 93%, and from moderate with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 96%. The sensitivity and specificity obtained between moderate and severe inflammation are 82% and 76% respectively.

  13. In vivo inflammation mapping of periodontal disease based on diffuse reflectance spectral imaging: a clinical study (United States)

    Prasanth, Chandra Sekhar; Betsy, Joseph; Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Nisha, Unni G.; Prasantila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan


    Since conventional techniques using periodontal probes have inherent drawbacks in the diagnosis of different grades of gingival inflammation, development of noninvasive screening devices becomes significant. Diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra recorded with white light illumination is utilized to detect periodontal inflammation from the oxygenated hemoglobin absorption ratio R620/R575. A multispectral imaging system is utilized to record narrow-band DR images at 575 and 620 nm from the anterior sextant of the gingivia of 15 healthy volunteers and 25 patients (N=40). An experienced periodontist assesses the level of gingival inflammation at each site through periodontal probing and assigns diagnosis as healthy, mild, moderate, or severe inflammation. The DR image ratio R620/R575 computed for each pixel (8-μm resolution) from the monochrome images is pseudo-color-mapped to identify gingival inflammation sites. The DR image ratio values at each site are compared with clinical diagnosis to estimate the specificity and sensitivity of the DR imaging technique in inflammation mapping. The high diagnostic accuracy is utilized to detect underlying inflammation in six patients with a previous history of periodontitis.

  14. A wearable diffuse reflectance sensor for continuous monitoring of cutaneous blood content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, P; Talary, M S; Caduff, A


    An optical diffuse reflectance sensor for characterization of cutaneous blood content and optimized for continuous monitoring has been developed as part of a non-invasive multisensor system for glucose monitoring. A Monte Carlo simulation of the light propagation in the multilayered skin model has been performed in order to estimate the optimal geometrical separation of the light source and detector for skin and underlying tissue. We have observed that the pathlength within the upper vascular plexus of the skin which defines the sensor sensitivity initially grows with increasing source-detector distance (SDD) before reaching a maximum at 3.5 mm and starts to decay with further increase. At the same time, for distances above 2.4 mm, the sensor becomes sensitive to muscle blood content, which decreases the specificity to skin perfusion monitoring. Thus, the SDDs in the range from 1.5 mm to 2.4 mm satisfy the requirements of sensor sensitivity and specificity. The hardware implementation of the system has been realized and tested in laboratory experiments with a venous occlusion procedure and in an outpatient clinical study in 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. For both testing procedures, the optical sensor demonstrated high sensitivity to perfusion change provoking events. The general build-up of cutaneous blood under the sensor has been observed which can be associated with pressure-induced vasodilation as a response to the sensor application.

  15. Microcirculation assessment using an individualized model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and conventional laser Doppler flowmetry (United States)

    Strömberg, Tomas; Karlsson, Hanna; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Nyström, Fredrik H.; Larsson, Marcus


    Microvascular assessment would benefit from co-registration of blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation dynamics during stimulus response tests. We used a fiber-optic probe for simultaneous recording of white light diffuse reflectance (DRS; 475-850 nm) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF; 780 nm) spectra at two source-detector distances (0.4 and 1.2 mm). An inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, based on a multiparameter three-layer adaptive skin model, was used for analyzing DRS data. LDF spectra were conventionally processed for perfusion. The system was evaluated on volar forearm recordings of 33 healthy subjects during a 5-min systolic occlusion protocol. The calibration scheme and the optimal adaptive skin model fitted DRS spectra at both distances within 10%. During occlusion, perfusion decreased within 5 s while oxygenation decreased slowly (mean time constant 61 s dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin). After occlusion release, perfusion and oxygenation increased within 3 s (inflow of oxygenized blood). The increased perfusion was due to increased blood tissue fraction and speed. The supranormal hemoglobin oxygenation indicates a blood flow in excess of metabolic demands. In conclusion, by integrating DRS and LDF in a fiber-optic probe, a powerful tool for assessment of blood flow and oxygenation in the same microvascular bed has been presented.

  16. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue (United States)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.


    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  17. Study on rapid valid acidity evaluation of apple by fiber optic diffuse reflectance technique (United States)

    Liu, Yande; Ying, Yibin; Fu, Xiaping; Jiang, Xuesong


    Some issues related to nondestructive evaluation of valid acidity in intact apples by means of Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) (800-2631nm) method were addressed. A relationship was established between the diffuse reflectance spectra recorded with a bifurcated optic fiber and the valid acidity. The data were analyzed by multivariate calibration analysis such as partial least squares (PLS) analysis and principal component regression (PCR) technique. A total of 120 Fuji apples were tested and 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. The influence of data preprocessing and different spectra treatments were also investigated. Models based on smoothing spectra were slightly worse than models based on derivative spectra and the best result was obtained when the segment length was 5 and the gap size was 10. Depending on data preprocessing and multivariate calibration technique, the best prediction model had a correlation efficient (0.871), a low RMSEP (0.0677), a low RMSEC (0.056) and a small difference between RMSEP and RMSEC by PLS analysis. The results point out the feasibility of FTNIR spectral analysis to predict the fruit valid acidity non-destructively. The ratio of data standard deviation to the root mean square error of prediction (SDR) is better to be less than 3 in calibration models, however, the results cannot meet the demand of actual application. Therefore, further study is required for better calibration and prediction.

  18. Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vitro detection of human gastric pre-cancer (United States)

    Li, L. Q.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; Wu, G. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, X. Y.; Zhao, Q. L.; Guo, X.


    Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance (DR) ratio (R540/R575) method based on DR spectral signatures is used for early diagnosis of malignant lesions of human gastric epithelial tissues in vitro. The DR spectra for four different kinds of gastric epithelial tissues were measured using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere detector in the spectral range from 400 to 650 nm. The results of measurement showed that the average DR spectral intensity for the epithelial tissues of normal stomach is higher than that for the epithelial tissues of chronic and malignant stomach and that for the epithelial tissues of chronic gastric ulcer is higher than that for the epithelial tissues of malignant stomach. The average DR spectra for four different kinds of gastric epithelial tissues show dips at 542 and 577 nm owing to absorption from oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2). The differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios of HbO2 bands are 6.84% between the epithelial tissues of normal stomach and chronic gastric ulcer, 14.7% between the epithelial tissues of normal stomach and poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma and 22.6% between the epithelial tissues of normal stomach and undifferentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. It is evident from results that there were significant differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios of HbO2 bands for four different kinds of gastric epithelial tissues in vitro ( P < 0.01).

  19. Diffuse-reflectance fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy as a method of characterizing changes in soil organic matter (United States)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MidIR) can identify the presence of important organic functional groups in soil organic matter (SOM). Soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the MidIR so spectral interpretation needs to be validated in or...

  20. Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spliethoff, Jarich; Prevoo, Warner; Meier, Mark A.J.; de Jong, Jeroen; Evers, Daniel; Evers, Daniel J.; Sterenborg, Hendricus J.C.M.; Lucassen, Gerald; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Hendriks, Benno H.W.; Ruers, Theo J.M.


    Purpose: This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during image-guided percutaneous lung biopsies using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) sensing at the tip of a biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. Experimental Design: Tissues from 21 consented patients

  1. Improvement of direct determination of trace nickel in environmental samples by diffuse reflection spectroscopy using chromaticity characteristics. (United States)

    Ershova, N I; Ivanov, V M


    Cellulose and chromaton-N-super as solid supports for direct determination of the immobilized nickel complexes with dimethylglyoxime and benzyldioxime by diffuse reflection spectroscopy were compared. The advantage of chromaton-N-super with use of benzyldioxime is shown. Detection limit is 0.02 microg/mL. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of soil.

  2. Abnormal diffusion-weighted MRI in medulloblastoma: does it reflect small cell histology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsenas, A.L.; Roth, T.C.; Manness, W.K.; Faerber, E.N.


    A 12-year-old boy presented with the classic CT and MRI findings of medulloblastoma and the unusual finding of increased signal on diffusion MRI. The small-cell histology of medulloblastoma may account for the increased signal seen on diffusion MRI. Diffusion MRI with echoplanar technique may be useful in evaluation of these tumors and metastatic disease. (orig.)

  3. An incident flux expansion transport theory method suitable for coupling to diffusion theory methods in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang


    Highlights: ► A new hybrid stochastic–deterministic transport theory method to couple with diffusion theory. ► The method is implemented in 2D hexagonal geometry. ► The new method produces excellent results when compared with Monte Carlo reference solutions. ► The method is fast, solving all test cases in less than 12 s. - Abstract: A new hybrid stochastic–deterministic transport theory method, which is designed to couple with diffusion theory, is presented. The new method is an extension of the incident flux response expansion method, and it combines the speed of diffusion theory with the accuracy of transport theory. With ease of use in mind, the new method is derived in such a way that it can be implemented with only minimal modifications to an existing diffusion theory method. A new angular expansion, which is necessary for the diffusion theory coupling, is developed in 2D and 3D. The method is implemented in 2D hexagonal geometry, and an HTTR benchmark problem is used to test its accuracy in a standalone configuration. It is found that the new method produces excellent results (with average relative error in partial current less than 0.033%) when compared with Monte Carlo reference solutions. Furthermore, the method is fast, solving all test cases in less than 12 s

  4. Some simple ideas on x-ray reflection and grazing-incidence diffraction from thin surfactant films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, K.


    For Langmuir films of long linear amphiphilic molecules at the air-water interface, grazing-incidence diffraction data resolved in terms of both the horizontal and vertical components of the scattering angle can be evaluated to a fair level of detail by means of a slide rule. Specular reflection ...... data require more sophisticated means although some rules of thumb can be formulated.......For Langmuir films of long linear amphiphilic molecules at the air-water interface, grazing-incidence diffraction data resolved in terms of both the horizontal and vertical components of the scattering angle can be evaluated to a fair level of detail by means of a slide rule. Specular reflection...

  5. Incidence of ischemic lesions in diffusion-weighted imaging after transbrachial digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, R.; Majeed, A.; Eger, C.; Basche, S.; Kerl, J.M.; Vogl, T.J.


    Purpose: to evaluate the frequency of ischemia after transbrachial digital subtraction angiography under ambulant conditions using diffusion-weighted imaging. Materials and methods: 200 patients were included in a prospective study design and received transbrachial digital subtraction angiography under ambulant conditions. Before and after digital subtraction angiography, diffusion-weighted imaging of the brain was performed. Results: in our study population no new lesions were found in diffusion-weighted imaging after digital subtraction angiography during the 3-hour window after angiography. One new lesion was found 3 days after angiography as a late onset complication. Therefore, the frequency of neurological complications is at the level of the confidence interval of 0 - 1.5%. Conclusion: the transbrachial approach under ambulant conditions is a safe method for digital subtraction angiography resulting in a low rate of ischemic lesions in diffusion-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  6. A preliminary analysis of incident investigation reports of an integrated steel plant: some reflection. (United States)

    Verma, A; Maiti, J; Gaikwad, V N


    Large integrated steel plants employ an effective safety management system and gather a significant amount of safety-related data. This research intends to explore and visualize the rich database to find out the key factors responsible for the occurrences of incidents. The study was carried out on the data in the form of investigation reports collected from a steel plant in India. The data were processed and analysed using some of the quality management tools like Pareto chart, control chart, Ishikawa diagram, etc. Analyses showed that causes of incidents differ depending on the activities performed in a department. For example, fire/explosion and process-related incidents are more common in the departments associated with coke-making and blast furnace. Similar kind of factors were obtained, and recommendations were provided for their mitigation. Finally, the limitations of the study were discussed, and the scope of the research works was identified.

  7. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hae Kyoung


    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis

  8. Reflection and Transmission of a Focused Finite Amplitude Sound Beam Incident on a Curved Interface (United States)

    Makin, Inder Raj Singh

    Reflection and transmission of a finite amplitude focused sound beam at a weakly curved interface separating two fluid-like media are investigated. The KZK parabolic wave equation, which accounts for thermoviscous absorption, diffraction, and nonlinearity, is used to describe the high intensity focused beam. The first part of the work deals with the quasilinear analysis of a weakly nonlinear beam after its reflection and transmission from a curved interface. A Green's function approach is used to define the field integrals describing the primary and the nonlinearly generated second harmonic beam. Closed-form solutions are obtained for the primary and second harmonic beams when a Gaussian amplitude distribution at the source is assumed. The second part of the research uses a numerical frequency domain solution of the KZK equation for a fully nonlinear analysis of the reflected and transmitted fields. Both piston and Gaussian sources are considered. Harmonic components generated in the medium due to propagation of the focused beam are evaluated, and formation of shocks in the reflected and transmitted beams is investigated. A finite amplitude focused beam is observed to be modified due to reflection and transmission from a curved interface in a manner distinct from that in the case of a small signal beam. Propagation curves, beam patterns, phase plots and time waveforms for various parameters defining the source and media pairs are presented, highlighting the effect of the interface curvature on the reflected and transmitted beams. Relevance of the current work to biomedical applications of ultrasound is discussed.

  9. Experimental and Monte Carlo investigation of visible diffuse-reflectance imaging sensitivity to diffusing particle size changes in an optical model of a bladder wall (United States)

    Kalyagina, N.; Loschenov, V.; Wolf, D.; Daul, C.; Blondel, W.; Savelieva, T.


    We have investigated the influence of scatterer size changes on the laser light diffusion, induced by collimated monochromatic laser irradiation, in tissue-like optical phantoms using diffuse-reflectance imaging. For that purpose, three-layer optical phantoms were prepared, in which nano- and microsphere size varied in order to simulate the scattering properties of healthy and cancerous urinary bladder walls. The informative areas of the surface diffuse-reflected light distributions were about 15×18 pixels for the smallest scattering particles of 0.05 μm, about 21×25 pixels for the medium-size particles of 0.53 μm, and about 25×30 pixels for the largest particles of 5.09 μm. The computation of the laser spot areas provided useful information for the analysis of the light distribution with high measurement accuracy of up to 92%. The minimal stability of 78% accuracy was observed for superficial scattering signals on the phantoms with the largest particles. The experimental results showed a good agreement with the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations. The presented method shows a good potential to be useful for a tissue-state diagnosis of the urinary bladder.

  10. Fractional order analysis of Sephadex gel structures: NMR measurements reflecting anomalous diffusion (United States)

    Magin, Richard L.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Neuberger, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G.


    We report the appearance of anomalous water diffusion in hydrophilic Sephadex gels observed using pulse field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR diffusion data was collected using a Varian 14.1 Tesla imaging system with a home-built RF saddle coil. A fractional order analysis of the data was used to characterize heterogeneity in the gels for the dynamics of water diffusion in this restricted environment. Several recent studies of anomalous diffusion have used the stretched exponential function to model the decay of the NMR signal, i.e., exp[-( bD) α], where D is the apparent diffusion constant, b is determined the experimental conditions (gradient pulse separation, durations and strength), and α is a measure of structural complexity. In this work, we consider a different case where the spatial Laplacian in the Bloch-Torrey equation is generalized to a fractional order model of diffusivity via a complexity parameter, β, a space constant, μ, and a diffusion coefficient, D. This treatment reverts to the classical result for the integer order case. The fractional order decay model was fit to the diffusion-weighted signal attenuation for a range of b-values (0 < b < 4000 s mm -2). Throughout this range of b values, the parameters β, μ and D, were found to correlate with the porosity and tortuosity of the gel structure.

  11. Discovery of the Linear Region of Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectra Using the Kubelka-Munk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyun Dai


    Full Text Available Particle size is of great importance for the quantitative model of the NIR diffuse reflectance. In this paper, the effect of sample particle size on the measurement of harpagoside in Radix Scrophulariae powder by near infrared diffuse (NIR reflectance spectroscopy was explored. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed as a reference method to construct the quantitative particle size model. Several spectral preprocessing methods were compared, and particle size models obtained by different preprocessing methods for establishing the partial least-squares (PLS models of harpagoside. Data showed that the particle size distribution of 125–150 μm for Radix Scrophulariae exhibited the best prediction ability with Rpre2 = 0.9513, RMSEP = 0.1029 mg·g−1, and RPD = 4.78. For the hybrid granularity calibration model, the particle size distribution of 90–180 μm exhibited the best prediction ability with Rpre2 = 0.8919, RMSEP = 0.1632 mg·g−1, and RPD = 3.09. Furthermore, the Kubelka-Munk theory was used to relate the absorption coefficient k (concentration-dependent and scatter coefficient s (particle size-dependent. The scatter coefficient s was calculated based on the Kubelka-Munk theory to study the changes of s after being mathematically preprocessed. A linear relationship was observed between k/s and absorption A within a certain range and the value for k/s was >4. According to this relationship, the model was more accurately constructed with the particle size distribution of 90–180 μm when s was kept constant or in a small linear region. This region provided a good reference for the linear modeling of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. To establish a diffuse reflectance NIR model, further accurate assessment should be obtained in advance for a precise linear model.

  12. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical soft tissue differentiation as remote feedback control for tissue-specific laser surgery. (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Zam, Azhar; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre; Nkenke, Emeka


    Laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback for operating layer-by-layer and thereby preserving vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. Diffuse reflectance spectra can facilitate remote optical tissue differentiation. It is the aim of the study to use this technique on soft tissue samples, to set a technological basis for a remote optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra (wavelength range: 350-650 nm) of ex vivo types of soft tissue (a total of 10,800 spectra) of the midfacial region of domestic pigs were remotely measured under reduced environmental light conditions and analyzed in order to differentiate between skin, mucosa, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and nerve tissue. We performed a principal components (PC) analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of variables. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized for classification. For the tissue differentiation, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Six PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. All of the types of soft tissue could be differentiated with high specificity and sensitivity. Only the tissue pairs nervous tissue/fatty tissue and nervous tissue/mucosa showed a decline of differentiation due to bio-structural similarity. However, both of these tissue pairs could still be differentiated with a specificity and sensitivity of more than 90%. Analyzing diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with PCA and LDA allows for remote differentiation of biological tissue. Considering the limitations of the ex vivo conditions, the obtained results are promising and set a basis for the further development of a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Reflection and transmission of full-vector X-waves normally incident on dielectric half spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan


    polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of transmission and reflection is carried out via a straightforward but yet effective method: First, the X-Wave is decomposed into vector Bessel beams via the Bessel-Fourier

  14. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  15. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz


    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  16. Energy Reflection Coefficients for 5-10 keV He Ions Incident on Au, Ag, and Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Littmark, U.


    The calorimetric deuterium-film method was used for measurements of the energy reflection coefficient γ for normal incidence of 5-10 keV He ions on Cu, Ag and Au. A theoretical calculation of γ by means of transport theory gives fair agreement with the experimental results. The experimental data...... the experimental and theoretical results for the He ions are in acceptable agreement with other experimental and theoretical results. For He ions, the experimental γ-values are 20-30% above the values for hydrogen ions for the same value of ε...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya


    Full Text Available The results of investigation of natural clinoptilolite (N-CLI and that modified with 3d metal halides (MeCl2/N-CLI, where Me are Cu, Co, and Mn by IR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy are summarized. A band at 3437 cm-1 assigned to stretching vibrations of hydroxyl groups (nOH is found in the IR spectrum of the N-CLI sample. A location of the band was practically the same as for all above MeCl2/N-CLI samples. A band of middle intensity at 1638 cm-1 in the range of deformation vibrations of zeolite water observed in the IR spectrum of N-CLI slightly displays to lower frequencies in the case of the modified samples. An intensive wide band of a complex shape in the range from 1250 to 980 cm-1 assigned to Si–O–Si and Si–O–Al vibrations appears in IR spectra of all samples. A doublet band of middle intensity at 797 and 778 cm-1 is assigned to external symmetric stretching T-O vibrations and a band at 606 cm-1-to vibrations of a double ring. A location of the above bands is the same for all listed samples but their intensity is higher for MnCl2/N-CLI and CoCl2/N-CLI samples. After the reaction with ozone, significant changes in the IR spectra are observed only for MnCl2/N-CLI. They are due to MnO2 formation on the clinoptilolite surface resulting in a high frequency displacement of some bands. Based on UV-vi spectroscopy results, it is reasonable to make conclusions about the coordination and valence state of a central atom in the MeCl2/N-CLI samples under study. A location of charge transfer bands for these samples only slightly differs from that for N-CLI however the intensity of such bands increases for the MeCl2/N-CLI samples. The UV-vis spectrum of MnCl2/N-CLI changes after the reaction with ozone: the appearance of new bands of  charge transfer at 363 and 354 nm and also the two-fold increase in intensity of a charge transfer band at 272 nm in comparison with those of N-CLI and MnCl2/N-CLI are the evidence of change in both the

  18. A model for calculating specular and diffuse reflections in outdoor sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.


    In many practical outdoor situations, the direct sound path between a noise source and a receiver is screened by an obstacle. In these situations indirect sound paths become important, in particular reflections of sound waves. Reflections may occur at objects such as a vertical wall, but also at the

  19. Analysis of petroleum-contaminated soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction–gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okparanma, Reuben N.; Coulon, Frederic; Mouazen, Abdul M.


    In this study, we demonstrate that partial least-squares regression analysis with full cross-validation of spectral reflectance data estimates the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated tropical rainforest soils. We applied the approach to 137 field-moist intact soil samples collected from three oil spill sites in Ogoniland in the Niger Delta province (5.317°N, 6.467°E), Nigeria. We used sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction–gas chromatography as the reference chemical method. We took soil diffuse reflectance spectra with a mobile fibre-optic visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer (350–2500 nm). Independent validation of combined data from studied sites showed reasonable prediction precision (root-mean-square error of prediction = 1.16–1.95 mg kg −1 , ratio of prediction deviation = 1.86–3.12, and validation r 2 = 0.77–0.89). This suggests that the methodology may be useful for rapid assessment of the spatial variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Niger Delta to inform risk assessment and remediation. -- Highlights: • We model NIR diffuse reflectance spectra for PAH prediction in contaminated soils. • Soil diffuse reflectance decreases with increasing PAH concentration. • Mechanism of prediction relies on co-variation of PAH with other soil properties. • Positions of important wavelengths are largely similar for studied sites. • Positive regression coefficients around 1647 nm show a link to PAH. -- This approach may be used to collect large spatial data at reduced cost and time to assess the variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum release sites

  20. Comparison of calculations of a reflected reactor with diffusion, SN and Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, B.


    A diffusion theory code, POW, was compared with a Monte Carlo transport theory code, KENO, for the calculation of a small C/ 235 U cylindrical core with a graphite reflector. The calculated multiplication factors were in good agreement but differences were noted in region-averaged group fluxes. A one-dimensional spherical geometry was devised to approximate cylindrical geometry. Differences similar to those already observed were noted when the region-averaged fluxes from a diffusion theory (POW) calculation were compared with an SN transport theory (ANAUSN) calculation for the spherical model. Calculations made with SN and Monte Carlo transport codes were in good agreement. It was concluded that observed flux differences were attributable to the POW code, and were not inconsistent with inherent diffusion theory approximations. (author)

  1. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects, Part I: Interpretation of the Reflection-Absorption-Scattering Fractions in Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra of Polyethylene Films. (United States)

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N


    Investigation of a sample covered by an interfering layer is required in many fields, e.g., for process control, biochemical analysis, and many other applications. This study is based on the analysis of spectra collected by near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Each spectrum is a composition of a useful, target spectrum and a spectrum of an interfering layer. To recover the target spectrum, we suggest using a new phenomenological approach, which employs the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. In general terms, the problem is very complex. We start with a specific problem of analyzing a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer samples with known spectral properties. To separate information originating from PE layers and the target, we modify the system versus both the number of the PE layers as well as the reflectance properties of the target sample. We consider that the interfering spectrum of the layer can be modeled using three components, which can be tentatively called transmission, absorption, and scattering contributions. The novelty of our approach is that we do not remove the reflectance and scattering effects from the spectra, but study them in detail aiming to use this information to recover the target spectrum.

  2. Reflections on Leadership and Governance from the Incident Manager of Liberia's Ebola Response. (United States)

    Nyenswah, Tolbert

    The 2014-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease occurred in a region with a recent history of civil war, unstable health systems, and widespread poverty. Despite these contextual challenges, the national Ebola response in Liberia controlled transmission under strong leadership that was able to rapidly coordinate activities, to manage local and international players, and to adapt upon recognizing missteps. Such leadership has persisted to improve public health capacity in post-Ebola Liberia. This article highlights the progress made toward developing a resilient health security system with capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to disease threats before they reach epidemic level. In particular, Liberia's development of a Global Health Security Agenda roadmap, a Joint External Evaluation (JEE) report for International Health Regulation (2005) core capacities, and recent establishment of a National Public Health Institute are described. To better protect the country's population and the greater global community from health threats, emerging institutions and policies in Liberia will depend on leadership and governance that draws from the successes and lessons learned during the Ebola outbreak. The author provides insight based on his role as incident manager of Liberia's Ebola response.

  3. Diffuse X-ray scattering near the Bragg reflection of P-doped Czochralski silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanoff, V.; Pimentel, C.A.F.


    Bragg line profile and high resolution diffuse X-ray scattering measurements around the (400) reciprocal lattice point of dislocation-free Czochralski Si single crystals P-doped have shown defects of interstitial nature with typical size about 1000 A. (Author) [pt


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra


    Full Text Available In noise control applications, a double-leaf partition has been applied widely as a lightweight structure for noise insulation, such as in car doors, train bodies, and aircraft fuselages. Unfortunately, the insulation performance deteriorates significantly at mass-air-mass resonance due to coupling between the panels and the air in the gap. This paper investigates the effect of a micro-perforated panel (MPP, inserted in the conventional double-panel partition, on sound transmission loss at troublesome resonant frequencies. It is found that the transmission loss improves at this resonance if the MPP is located at a distance of less than half that of the air gap. A mathematical model is derived for the diffuse field incidence of acoustic loading.

  5. Study of interface correlation in W/C multilayer structure by specular and non-specular grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A., E-mail:; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Maidul Haque, S.; Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, VIZAG Centre, Visakhapatnam 530012 (India); Rai, S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Raman Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)


    W/C/W tri-layer thin film samples have been deposited on c-Si substrates in a home-built Ion Beam Sputtering system at 1.5 × 10{sup −3} Torr Ar working pressure and 10 mA grid current. The tri-layer samples have been deposited at different Ar{sup +} ion energies between 0.6 and 1.2 keV for W layer deposition and the samples have been characterized by specular and non-specular grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements. By analyzing the GIXR spectra, various interface parameters have been obtained for both W-on-C and C-on-W interfaces and optimum Ar{sup +} ion energy for obtaining interfaces with low imperfections has been found. Subsequently, multilayer W/C samples with 5-layer, 7-layer, 9-layer, and 13-layer have been deposited at this optimum Ar{sup +} ion energy. By fitting the specular and diffused GIXR data of the multilayer samples with the parameters of each interface as fitting variables, different interface parameters, viz., interface width, in-plane correlation length, interface roughness, and interface diffusion have been estimated for each interface and their variation across the depth of the multilayers have been obtained. The information would be useful in realizing W/C multilayers for soft X-ray mirror application in the <100 Å wavelength regime. The applicability of the “restart of the growth at the interface” model in the case of these ion beam sputter deposited W/C multilayers has also been investigated in the course of this study.

  6. UV-laser-based longitudinal illuminated diffuser (LID) incorporating diffractive and Lambertian reflectance for the disinfection of beverages (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd


    A novel laser beam shaping system was designed to demonstrate the potential of using high power UV laser sources for large scale disinfection of liquids used in the production of food products, such as juices, beer, milk and other beverage types. The design incorporates a patented assembly of optical components including a diffractive beam splitting/shaping element and a faceted pyramidal or conically shaped Lambertian diffuser made from a compression molded PTFE compounds. When properly sintered to an appropriate density, as an example between 1.10 and 1.40 grams per cubic centimeter, the compressed PTFE compounds show a ~99% reflectance at wavelengths ranging from 300 nm to 1500 nm, and a ~98.5% refection of wavelengths from 250 nm to 2000 nm [1]. The unique diffuser configuration also benefits from the fact that the PTFE compounds do not degrade when exposed to ultraviolet radiation as do barium sulfate materials and silver or aluminized mirror coatings [2]. These components are contained within a hermetically sealed quartz tube. Once assembled a laser beam is directed through one end of the tube. This window takes the form of a computer generated diffractive splitter or other diffractive shaper element to split the laser beam into a series of spot beamlets, circular rings or other geometric shapes. As each of the split beamlets or rings cascade downward, they illuminate various points along the tapered PTFE cone or faceted pyramidal form. As they strike the surface they each diffuse in a Lambertian reflectance pattern creating a pseudo-uniform circumferential illuminator along the length of the quartz tube enclosing the assembly. The compact tubular structure termed Longitudinal Illuminated Diffuser (LID) provides a unique UV disinfection source that can be placed within a centrifugal reactor or a pipe based reactor chamber. This paper will review the overall design principle, key component design parameters, preliminary analytic and bench operational testing

  7. Some reflections on the diffusion of pellet heating systems in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [1Mid Sweden University, Ecotechnology, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden); Madlener, Reinhard [CEPE - Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)


    In the context of global warming and dependence on fossil fuels, modern bioenergy systems have appeared as important sustainable energy solutions with a large untapped potential in Sweden and the rest of the European Union. Small-scale pellet heating systems for space heating of small houses is one of these solutions. In Sweden, such systems have relative advantages over oil- or electricity boiler systems both in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction and total lifetime cost of equipment and fuel. However, so far the market diffusion process of this technology has been rather slow. This paper, by employing concepts and insights from the literature of evolutionary economics and sociology, studies the factors involved in the diffusion of such systems.

  8. Critical comparison of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry as dermatological diagnostic tools for acanthosis nigricans: a chemometric approach. (United States)

    Devpura, Suneetha; Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Syed, Zain U; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna


    Quantification of skin changes due to acanthosis nigricans (AN), a disorder common among insulin-resistant diabetic and obese individuals, was investigated using two optical techniques: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and colorimetry. Measurements were obtained from AN lesions on the neck and two control sites of eight AN patients. A principal component/discriminant function analysis successfully differentiated between AN lesion and normal skin with 87.7% sensitivity and 94.8% specificity in DRS measurements and 97.2% sensitivity and 96.4% specificity in colorimetry measurements.

  9. Grazing incidence infrared reflectivity of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 and NbN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somal, HS; Feenstra, BJ; Schutzmann, J; Kim, JH; Barber, ZH; Duijn, VHM; Hien, NT; Menovsky, AA; Palumbo, M; vanderMarel, D


    Infrared reflectivity measurements, using p-polarized light at a grazing angle of incidence, show an increased sensitivity to the optical conductivity of highly reflecting superconducting materials. We demonstrate that when this measurement technique is applied to the conventional s-wave

  10. Determination of oxygen content and carbonate impurity in YBa2Cu3O7-x by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzbacher, C.I.; Bonner, B.P.


    Samples of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x with x ranging from ∼0 to 0.65 have been analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) in the midinfrared region (400--6000 cm -1 ). Spectral line shapes vary gradually as a function of oxygen stoichiometry, and the reflectance at 400 and 1000 cm -1 decreases linearly with decreasing oxygen content. Spectra of samples that were incompletely synthesized or exposed to a 4% CO 2 atmosphere at 650 degree C clearly indicated the presence of carbonate. DRIFTS is therefore a quick, nondestructive method for determining oxygen content in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x powders, and for detecting carbonate species due to synthesis error or reaction with CO 2 -bearing atmosphere

  11. Determination of the Ability to Measure Traces of Water in Dehydrated Residues of Waste Water by IR Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (United States)

    Pratsenka, S. V.; Voropai, E. S.; Belkin, V. G.


    Rapid measurement of the moisture content of dehydrated residues is a critical problem, the solution of which will increase the efficiency of treatment facilities and optimize the process of applying flocculants. The ability to determine the moisture content of dehydrated residues using a meter operating on the IR reflectance principle was confirmed experimentally. The most suitable interference filters were selected based on an analysis of the obtained diffuse reflectance spectrum of the dehydrated residue in the range 1.0-2.7 μm. Calibration curves were constructed and compared for each filter set. A measuring filter with a transmittance maximum at 1.19 μm and a reference filter with a maximum at 1.3 μm gave the best agreement with the laboratory measurements.

  12. ADHD Performance Reflects Inefficient but not Impulsive Information Processing : A Diffusion Model Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metin, Baris; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with performance deficits across a broad range of tasks. Although individual tasks are designed to tap specific cognitive functions (e.g., memory, inhibition, planning, etc.), these deficits could also reflect general effects

  13. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree


    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  14. Total diffusing power of perturbed lattices and dissymmetry of reflections. Case of groups of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournarie, Max


    The total diffusing power for a crystallite of any form containing a centrosymmetric defect has been established. The antisymmetrical part of the deformation potential only contributes very slightly to the primary dissymmetry. We then go on to study the case of a group of defects of the same type. The calculation converges sufficiently to describe the thermal agitation of an infinite crystal. Reprint of a paper published in 'Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences', t. 248, p. 2103-2105, sitting of April 6, 1959 [fr

  15. Preliminary evaluation of optical glucose sensing in red cell concentrations using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Maruo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Alice W.; Shimogaki, Kazushige; Ogawa, Hideto; Hirayama, Fumiya


    Bacterial contamination of blood products is one of the most frequent infectious complications of transfusion. Since glucose levels in blood supplies decrease as bacteria proliferate, it should be possible to detect the presence of bacterial contamination by measuring the glucose concentrations in the blood components. Hence this study is aimed to serve as a preliminary study for the nondestructive measurement of glucose level in transfusion blood. The glucose concentrations in red blood cell (RBC) samples were predicted using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in the 1350 to 1850 nm wavelength region. Furthermore, the effects of donor, hematocrit level, and temperature variations among the RBC samples were observed. Results showed that the prediction performance of a dataset which contained samples that differed in all three parameters had a standard error of 29.3 mg/dL. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) preprocessing method was also found to be effective in minimizing the variations in scattering patterns created by various sample properties. The results suggest that the diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy may provide another avenue for the detection of bacterial contamination in red cell concentrations (RCC) products.

  16. Retrieving the optical parameters of biological tissues using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Fourier series expansions. I. theory and application. (United States)

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón A; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio


    The determination of optical parameters of biological tissues is essential for the application of optical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy is a widely used technique to analyze the optical characteristics of biological tissues. In this paper we show that by using diffuse reflectance spectra and a new mathematical model we can retrieve the optical parameters by applying an adjustment of the data with nonlinear least squares. In our model we represent the spectra using a Fourier series expansion finding mathematical relations between the polynomial coefficients and the optical parameters. In this first paper we use spectra generated by the Monte Carlo Multilayered Technique to simulate the propagation of photons in turbid media. Using these spectra we determine the behavior of Fourier series coefficients when varying the optical parameters of the medium under study. With this procedure we find mathematical relations between Fourier series coefficients and optical parameters. Finally, the results show that our method can retrieve the optical parameters of biological tissues with accuracy that is adequate for medical applications.

  17. A Quantitative Diffuse Reflectance Imaging (QDRI) System for Comprehensive Surveillance of the Morphological Landscape in Breast Tumor Margins. (United States)

    Nichols, Brandon S; Schindler, Christine E; Brown, Jonathon Q; Wilke, Lee G; Mulvey, Christine S; Krieger, Marlee S; Gallagher, Jennifer; Geradts, Joseph; Greenup, Rachel A; Von Windheim, Jesko A; Ramanujam, Nirmala


    In an ongoing effort to address the clear clinical unmet needs surrounding breast conserving surgery (BCS), our group has developed a next-generation multiplexed optical-fiber-based tool to assess breast tumor margin status during initial surgeries. Specifically detailed in this work is the performance and clinical validation of a research-grade intra-operative tool for margin assessment based on diffuse optical spectroscopy. Previous work published by our group has illustrated the proof-of-concept generations of this device; here we incorporate a highly optimized quantitative diffuse reflectance imaging (QDRI) system utilizing a wide-field (imaging area = 17 cm(2)) 49-channel multiplexed fiber optic probe, a custom raster-scanning imaging platform, a custom dual-channel white LED source, and an astronomy grade imaging CCD and spectrograph. The system signal to noise ratio (SNR) was found to be greater than 40 dB for all channels. Optical property estimation error was found to be less than 10%, on average, over a wide range of absorption (μa = 0-8.9 cm(-1)) and scattering (μs' = 7.0-9.7 cm(-1)) coefficients. Very low inter-channel and CCD crosstalk was observed (2% max) when used on turbid media (including breast tissue). A raster-scanning mechanism was developed to achieve sub-pixel resolution and was found to be optimally performed at an upsample factor of 8, affording 0.75 mm spatially resolved diffuse reflectance images (λ = 450-600 nm) of an entire margin (area = 17 cm(2)) in 13.8 minutes (1.23 cm(2)/min). Moreover, controlled pressure application at the probe-tissue interface afforded by the imaging platform reduces repeated scan variability, providing operative time scales with improved sensitivity to regions of focal disease that may otherwise be overlooked.

  18. To See the World in a Grain of Sand: Recognizing the Origin of Sand Specimens by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and Multivariate Exploratory Data Analysis (United States)

    Pezzolo, Alessandra De Lorenzi


    The diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra of sand samples exhibit features reflecting their composition. Basic multivariate analysis (MVA) can be used to effectively sort subsets of homogeneous specimens collected from nearby locations, as well as pointing out similarities in composition among sands of different origins.…

  19. Structure and Dissipation Characteristics of an Electron Diffusion Region Observed by MMS During a Rapid, Normal-Incidence Magnetopause Crossing (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.


    On 22 October 2016, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft encountered the electron diffusion region (EDR) when the magnetosheath field was southward, and there were signatures of fast reconnection, including flow jets, Hall fields, and large power dissipation. One rapid, normal-incidence crossing, during which the EDR structure was almost stationary in the boundary frame, provided an opportunity to observe the spatial structure for the zero guide field case of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection electric field was determined unambiguously to be 2-3 mV/m. There were clear signals of fluctuating parallel electric fields, up to 6 mV/m on the magnetosphere side of the diffusion region, associated with a Hall-like parallel current feature on the electron scale. The width of the main EDR structure was determined to be 2 km (1.8 de). Although the MMS spacecraft were in their closest tetrahedral separation of 8 km, the divergences and curls for these thin current structures could therefore not be computed in the usual manner. A method is developed to determine these quantities on a much smaller scale and applied to compute the normal component of terms in the generalized Ohm's law for the positions of each individual spacecraft (not a barocentric average). Although the gradient pressure term has a qualitative dependence that follows the observed variation of E + Ve × B, the quantitative magnitude of these terms differs by more than a factor of 2, which is shown to be greater than the respective errors. Thus, future research is required to find the manner in which Ohm's law is balanced.

  20. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy: Getting the Capillary Refill Test Under One's Thumb. (United States)

    Henricson, Joakim; Toll John, Rani; Anderson, Chris D; Björk Wilhelms, Daniel


    The capillary refill test was introduced in 1947 to help estimate circulatory status in critically ill patients. Guidelines commonly state that refill should occur within 2 s after releasing 5 s of firm pressure (e.g., by the physician's finger) in the normal healthy supine patient. A slower refill time indicates poor skin perfusion, which can be caused by conditions including sepsis, blood loss, hypoperfusion, and hypothermia. Since its introduction, the clinical usefulness of the test has been debated. Advocates point out its feasibility and simplicity and claim that it can indicate changes in vascular status earlier than changes in vital signs such as heart rate. Critics, on the other hand, stress that the lack of standardization in how the test is performed and the highly subjective nature of the naked eye assessment, as well as the test's susceptibility to ambient factors, markedly lowers the clinical value. The aim of the present work is to describe in detail the course of the refill event and to suggest potentially more objective and exact endpoint values for the capillary refill test using diffuse polarization spectroscopy.

  1. Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection. (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei


    We evaluate the diagnostic feasibility of the integrated polarized near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) and NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging technique developed for colonic cancer detection. A total of 48 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated NIR DR (850-1100 nm) and NIR AF imaging at the 785 nm laser excitation. The results showed that NIR AF intensities of cancer tissues are significantly lower than those of normal tissues (ppolarization conditions gives a higher diagnostic accuracy (of ~92-94%) compared to non-polarized NIR AF imaging or NIR DR imaging. Further, the ratio imaging of NIR DR to NIR AF with polarization provides the best diagnostic accuracy (of ~96%) among the NIR AF and NIR DR imaging techniques. This work suggests that the integrated NIR AF/DR imaging under polarization condition has the potential to improve the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  2. Parameterization using Fourier series expansion of the diffuse reflectance of human skin to vary the concentration of the melanocytes (United States)

    Narea, J. Freddy; Muñoz, Aarón A.; Castro, Jorge; Muñoz, Rafael A.; Villalba, Caroleny E.; Martinez, María. F.; Bravo, Kelly D.


    Human skin has been studied in numerous investigations, given the interest in knowing information about physiology, morphology and chemical composition. These parameters can be determined using non invasively optical techniques in vivo, such as the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The human skin color is determined by many factors, but primarily by the amount and distribution of the pigment melanin. The melanin is produced by the melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. This research characterize the spectral response of the human skin using the coefficients of Fourier series expansion. Simulating the radiative transfer equation for the Monte Carlo method to vary the concentration of the melanocytes (fme) in a simplified model of human skin. It fits relating the Fourier series coefficient a0 with fme. Therefore it is possible to recover the skin biophysical parameter.

  3. [Fast determination of contents of nutrients and stone powder in compound fertilizer using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Guo, Zheng; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Xian; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Jin-Chun


    In the present paper, a new approach to fast determination of contents of nutrients, including total nitrogen content (N), P2O5 content (P) and K2O content (K), and of stone powder content in compound fertilizer composed of urea, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium chloride and stone powder was proposed using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. PLS models of N, P and stone powder content were built with the SEP values of 0.8, 0.8 and 1.4 respectively. The information on which stone powder content model was built is the spectrum of crystal water existing in stone powder. K content was calculated using other ingredientcontents by normalization principle with a SEP value of 1.5. Although the SEP values are a little larger than the reproducibility errors of the GB/T methods which are conventional methods, the new method can be accepted by situ quality control in the production process of compound fertilizer.

  4. Report of the key-comparison of spectral diffuse reflectance (EURAMET.PR-K5) (Ref. 619) (United States)

    Andor, György; Gál, Péter


    This report details the final results of the EURAMET comparison on regular spectral transmittance carried out between 2006 and 2016. The aim of this comparison was to check the agreement of measurement of the spectral diffuse reflectance among participants, using the measurement geometry of d/0 or 0/d in the wavelength range of 360 nm to 780 nm at 20 nm increment. We used a star type comparison: first the participants sent their samples to the pilot, than the pilot measured all the samples of the participants and sent them back. The participants measured the samples and sent them to the pilot for control measurement. Six standards were used as reference standards in order to maintain the scale during the comparison. These were three samples of BCR-406 opal glasses (BCR 30506; BCR 30303; BCR 30704), an MC20 Russian opal glass (MC 4777) and two samples made of pressed halon (polytetrafluoroethylene) powder (halon 2007A; halon 2007C). These six samples were designated as the Comparison reference standards. The diffuse reflectance was initially measured on the OMH (BFKH) absolute reflectometer. The link to the CCPR-K5 results was BFKH, and the check on BFKH was the PTB results who also participated in the CCPR-K5 comparison. The participants were GUM, INM, LNE, METAS, BFKH, PTB, SP. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Rapid, specific determination of iodine and iodide by combined solid-phase extraction/diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Arena, Matteo P.; Porter, Marc D.; Fritz, James S.


    A new, rapid methodology for trace analysis using solid-phase extraction is described. The two-step methodology is based on the concentration of an analyte onto a membrane disk and on the determination by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the amount of analyte extracted on the disk surface. This method, which is adaptable to a wide range of analytes, has been used for monitoring ppm levels of iodine and iodide in spacecraft water. Iodine is used as a biocide in spacecraft water. For these determinations, a water sample is passed through a membrane disk by means of a 10-mL syringe that is attached to a disk holder assembly. The disk, which is a polystyrene-divinylbenzene composite, is impregnated with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which exhaustively concentrates iodine as a yellow iodine-PVP complex. The amount of concentrated iodine is then determined in only 2 s by using a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrometer by comparing the result with a calibration curve based on the Kubelka-Munk function. The same general procedure can be used to determine iodide levels after its facile and exhaustive oxidation to iodine by peroxymonosulfate (i.e., Oxone reagent). For samples containing both analytes, a two-step procedure can be used in which the iodide concentration is calculated from the difference in iodine levels before and after treatment of the sample with peroxymonosulfate. With this methodology, iodine and iodide levels in the 0.1-5.0 ppm range can be determined with a total workup time of approximately 60 s with a RSD of approximately 6%.

  6. Integral particle reflection coefficient for oblique incidence of photons as universal function in the domain of initial energies up to 300 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of calculations and analyses of the integral particle reflection coefficient of photons for oblique photon incidence on planar targets, in the domain of initial photon energies from 100 keV to 300 keV. The results are based on the Monte Carlo simulations of the photon reflection from water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper materials, performed by the MCNP code. It has been observed that the integral particle reflection coefficient as a function of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material shows universal behavior for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain. Analytical formulas for different angles of photon incidence have been proposed, which describe the reflection of photons for all the materials and energies analyzed.

  7. Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy (United States)

    Belau, Markus; Ninck, Markus; Hering, Gernot; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Contini, Davide; Torricelli, Alessandro; Gisler, Thomas


    We introduce a method for noninvasively measuring muscle contraction in vivo, based on near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS). The method exploits the information about time-dependent shear motions within the contracting muscle that are contained in the temporal autocorrelation function g(1)(τ,t) of the multiply scattered light field measured as a function of lag time, τ, and time after stimulus, t. The analysis of g(1)(τ,t) measured on the human M. biceps brachii during repetitive electrical stimulation, using optical properties measured with time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, shows that the tissue dynamics giving rise to the speckle fluctuations can be described by a combination of diffusion and shearing. The evolution of the tissue Cauchy strain e(t) shows a strong correlation with the force, indicating that a significant part of the shear observed with DWS is due to muscle contraction. The evolution of the DWS decay time shows quantitative differences between the M. biceps brachii and the M. gastrocnemius, suggesting that DWS allows to discriminate contraction of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  8. A Quantitative Diffuse Reflectance Imaging (QDRI System for Comprehensive Surveillance of the Morphological Landscape in Breast Tumor Margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Nichols

    Full Text Available In an ongoing effort to address the clear clinical unmet needs surrounding breast conserving surgery (BCS, our group has developed a next-generation multiplexed optical-fiber-based tool to assess breast tumor margin status during initial surgeries. Specifically detailed in this work is the performance and clinical validation of a research-grade intra-operative tool for margin assessment based on diffuse optical spectroscopy. Previous work published by our group has illustrated the proof-of-concept generations of this device; here we incorporate a highly optimized quantitative diffuse reflectance imaging (QDRI system utilizing a wide-field (imaging area = 17 cm(2 49-channel multiplexed fiber optic probe, a custom raster-scanning imaging platform, a custom dual-channel white LED source, and an astronomy grade imaging CCD and spectrograph. The system signal to noise ratio (SNR was found to be greater than 40 dB for all channels. Optical property estimation error was found to be less than 10%, on average, over a wide range of absorption (μa = 0-8.9 cm(-1 and scattering (μs' = 7.0-9.7 cm(-1 coefficients. Very low inter-channel and CCD crosstalk was observed (2% max when used on turbid media (including breast tissue. A raster-scanning mechanism was developed to achieve sub-pixel resolution and was found to be optimally performed at an upsample factor of 8, affording 0.75 mm spatially resolved diffuse reflectance images (λ = 450-600 nm of an entire margin (area = 17 cm(2 in 13.8 minutes (1.23 cm(2/min. Moreover, controlled pressure application at the probe-tissue interface afforded by the imaging platform reduces repeated scan variability, providing <1% variation across repeated scans of clinical specimens. We demonstrate the clinical utility of this device through a pilot 20-patient study of high-resolution optical parameter maps of the ratio of the β-carotene concentration to the reduced scattering coefficient. An empirical cumulative

  9. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming


    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies.

  10. A study on hydrogen bond in coal macerals with in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR by using a new experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.T.; Li, W.; Sun, Q.L.; Li, B.Q. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). Inst. for Coal Chemistry


    A new method using the small porcelain as the reactor combined with increasing the flow rate of carrier gas was proposed, which has the advantage of excluding the condensation of volatile produced by heated solid samples on the windows during in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR experiment. Moreover, the feasibility of this method was also discussed. Using this method, the distribution and thermal stability of hydrogen bonds in coal macerals obtained from two coals were studied. The results show that the differences between the distribution of hydrogen bonds formed by hydroxyl group in the macerals of two coals were very similar. For the vitrinites the thermal stability of SH-N, carboxylic acid dimmers and self-associated OH is higher than those in inertinites but for OH-N and hydroxyl tetramers and OH-OR{sub 2} there are no obvious laws. For OH-{pi}, its content increased with increasing temperature to 350-380{sup o}C, and then decreased with further heating. The variation of hydrogen bonds in macerals reflects the difference in their structure.

  11. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)


    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.


    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those instruments. To assess the ability of laboratories to provide accurate Ultra Violet (UV) diffuse BRDF measurements, a BRDF measurement comparison was initiated by the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrom...

  12. Acquiring Sediment and Element Compositional Changes Based on a Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometry Technology from Cores Offshore Southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Pan, H. J.; Chen, M. T.


    Heavy summer monsoon rainfall along with typhoon-induced extreme precipitation cause frequent geological hazards that often threaten the human's safety and property in Taiwan. These geological hazards can be triggered by both natural factors, and/or have become deteriorated by perturbations from more and more human activities ever since few thousand years ago. However, due to the limit of instrumental records for observing long-term environmental changes in Taiwan, few evidence exist for distinguishing the human-induced impacts from natural climate change. Here we report a study on a high quality marine sediment core (MD103264) which were retrieved from the high sedimentation rate area from offshore southwestern Taiwan and present evidence for the long-term climate and possibly human-induced environmental changes since the last glacial. We are using the VIS-NIR Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometry (DRS) methods to study the cores. Interpreting the VIS-NIR reflectance spectra through the VARIMAX-rotation, principle component analysis (VPCA) helps conducting rapid and inexpensive measurements for acquiring high-resolution biogenic component, clay, and iron oxide mineral compositional data from the cores. We are also using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis, which is also useful in determining the element compositional changes in the core. Our studies aim toward understanding the sediment and element compositional changes that reflect the patterns of changes in precipitation and soil erosion on land since the last glacial to the Holocene, during which the human activities (deforestation, agriculture, and land uses change) may have increased drastically. We will report and interpret the preliminary results of the optical analyses of the core.

  13. Feasibility of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to quantify iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes in soil (United States)

    Sut-Lohmann, Magdalena; Raab, Thomas


    Contaminated sites create a significant risk to human health, by poisoning drinking water, soil, air and as a consequence food. Continuous release of persistent iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes from various industrial sources poses a high hazard to the environment and indicates the necessity to analyze considerable amount of samples. At the present time quantitative determination of Fe-CN concentration in soil usually requires a time consuming two step process: digestion of the sample (e.g., micro distillation system) and its analytical detection performed, e.g., by automated spectrophotometrical flow injection analysis (FIA). In order to determine the feasibility of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to quantify the Fe-CN complexes in soil matrix, 42 soil samples were collected (8 to 12.520 mg kg-1CN) indicating single symmetrical CN band in the range 2092 - 2084 cm-1. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration-validation model revealed IR response to CNtot exceeding 1268 mg kg-1 (limit of detection, LOD). Subsequently, leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) was performed on soil samples containing low CNtot (900 mg kg-1 resulted in LOD equal to 3494 mg kg-1. Our results indicate that spectroscopic data in combination with PLS statistics can efficiently be used to predict Fe-CN concentrations in soil. We conclude that the protocol applied in this study can strongly reduce the time and costs essential for the spatial and vertical screening of the site affected by complexed Fe-CN.

  14. Political Entrepreneurialism: Reflections of a Civil Servant on the Role of Political Institutions in Technology Innovation and Diffusion in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Bitange Ndemo


    Full Text Available This paper narrates how an innovative political institution in Kenya gained support from private sector players in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT sector. The paper is centered on the reflections of a top civil servant who leveraged Lewin’s theoretical foundations and leadership to propel Kenya from obscurity to global renown in the ICT arena. The paper details the leadership of key players in the political system explaining on how their tolerance for risk encouraged ICT diffusion and innovation in Kenya. The paper delves into the details of executive decision making and how those decisions influence different stakeholders. The analysis reveals why Kenya succeeded where its neighbours did not. It shows that Kenya’s continued success in ICTs depends upon its stability – endemic corruption and previous political decisions could threaten this. The paper will also highlight the emergence of a new crop of innovators developing new applications across all sectors including education, health, agriculture and financial services.

  15. In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures (United States)

    Spliethoff, Jarich W.; de Boer, Lisanne L.; Meier, Mark A. J.; Prevoo, Warner; de Jong, Jeroen; Kuhlmann, Koert; Bydlon, Torre M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Ruers, Theo J. M.


    There is a strong need to develop clinical instruments that can perform rapid tissue assessment at the tip of smart clinical instruments for a variety of oncological applications. This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during 24 liver biopsy procedures using diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy at the tip of a core biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. DR measurements were performed along each needle path, followed by biopsy of the target lesion using the same needle. Interventional imaging was coregistered with the DR spectra. Pathology results were compared with the DR spectroscopy data at the final measurement position. Bile was the primary discriminator between normal liver tissue and tumor tissue. Relative differences in bile content matched with the tissue diagnosis based on histopathological analysis in all 24 clinical cases. Continuous DR measurements during needle insertion in three patients showed that the method can also be applied for biopsy guidance or tumor recognition during surgery. This study provides an important validation step for DR spectroscopy-based tissue characterization in the liver. Given the feasibility of the outlined approach, it is also conceivable to make integrated fiber-optic tools for other clinical procedures that rely on accurate instrument positioning.

  16. Study of Surface Wettability Change of Unconsolidated Sand Using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. (United States)

    Gómora-Herrera, Diana; Navarrete Bolaños, Juan; Lijanova, Irina V; Olivares-Xometl, Octavio; Likhanova, Natalya V


    The effects exerted by the adsorption of vapors of a non-polar compound (deuterated benzene) and a polar compound (water) on the surface of Ottawa sand and a sample of reservoir sand (Channel), which was previously impregnated with silicon oil or two kinds of surfactants, (2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium oleate (HETAO) and (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium azelate (HETAA), were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The surface chemistry of the sandstone rocks was elucidated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Terminal surface groups such as hydroxyls can strongly adsorb molecules that interact with these surface groups (surfactants), resulting in a wettability change. The wettability change effect suffered by the surface after treating it with surfactants was possible to be detected by the DRIFTS technique, wherein it was observed that the surface became more hydrophobic after being treated with silicon oil and HETAO; the surface became more hydrophilic after treating it with HETAA.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of multiple adulterants in roasted coffee by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics. (United States)

    Reis, Nádia; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S


    The current study presents an application of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for detection and quantification of fraudulent addition of commonly employed adulterants (spent coffee grounds, coffee husks, roasted corn and roasted barley) to roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants (pure and mixed), with total adulteration levels ranging from 1% to 66% w/w. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was used to relate the processed spectra to the mass fraction of adulterants and the model obtained provided reliable predictions of adulterations at levels as low as 1% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented that included the detection of outliers. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for calibration; 0.98 for validation) coupled with low degrees of error (1.23% for calibration; 2.67% for validation) confirmed that DRIFTS can be a valuable analytical tool for detection and quantification of adulteration in ground, roasted coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues (United States)

    Lappa, Alexander V.; Kulikovskiy, Artem N.; Busarov, Oleg G.


    The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics. It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: the value to be determined is absolute concentration of admixtures; the method needs no calibration measurements on phantoms; it needs no reference measurements on sample with zero admixture concentration; it uses a two parametric kinetic light propagation model and original algorithms to resolve direct and inverse tasks of radiation transport theory. Experimental testing passed with tissue equivalent phantoms and different admixtures, including a chlorine photosensitizer, showed accuracy under 10% in all cases.

  19. Histogram analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient reflect tumor cellularity and proliferation activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Winter, Karsten; Richter, Cindy; Hoehn, Anna-Kathrin


    Our purpose was to analyze associations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis parameters and histopathologicalfeatures in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The study involved 32 patients with primary HNSCC. For every tumor, the following histogram analysis parameters were calculated: ADCmean, ADCmax, ADC min , ADC median , ADC mode , P10, P25, P75, P90, kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. Furthermore, proliferation index KI 67, cell count, total and average nucleic areas were estimated. Spearman's correlation coefficient (p) was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. In overall sample, all ADC values showed moderate inverse correlations with KI 67. All ADC values except ADCmax correlated inversely with tumor cellularity. Slightly correlations were identified between total/average nucleic area and ADC mean , ADC min , ADC median , and P25. In G1/2 tumors, only ADCmode correlated well with Ki67. No statistically significant correlations between ADC parameters and cellularity were found. In G3 tumors, Ki 67 correlated with all ADC parameters except ADCmode. Cell count correlated well with all ADC parameters except ADCmax. Total nucleic area correlated inversely with ADC mean , ADC min , ADC median , P25, and P90. ADC histogram parameters reflect proliferation potential and cellularity in HNSCC. The associations between histopathology and imaging depend on tumor grading.

  20. Sensitive determination of trace mercury by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy after complexation and membrane filtration-enrichment. (United States)

    Yin, Changhai; Iqbal, Jibran; Hu, Huilian; Liu, Bingxiang; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Bilin; Du, Yiping


    A simple, sensitive and selective solid phase reflectometry method is proposed for the determination of trace mercury in aqueous samples. The complexation reagent dithizone was firstly injected into the properly buffered solution with vigorous stirring, which started a simultaneous formation of nanoparticles suspension of dithizone and its complexation reaction with the mercury(II) ions to make Hg-dithizone nanoparticles. After a definite time, the mixture was filtered with membrane, and then quantified directly on the surface of the membrane by using integrating sphere accessory of the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The quantitative analysis was carried out at a wavelength of 485 nm since it yielded the largest difference in diffuse reflectance spectra before and after reaction with mercury(II).A good linear correlation in the range of 0.2-4.0 μg/L with a squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9944 and a detection limit of 0.12 μg/L were obtained. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by the analysis of spiked mercury(II) concentrations determined using this method along with those determined by the atomic fluorescence mercury vapourmeter and the results obtained were in good agreement. The proposed method was applied to the determination of mercury in tap water and river water samples with the recovery in an acceptable range (95.7-105.3%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra? (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas


    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  2. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) of radiation-induced re-oxygenation in sensitive and resistant head and neck tumor xenografts (United States)

    Dadgar, Sina; Rodríguez Troncoso, Joel; Rajaram, Narasimhan


    Currently, anatomical assessment of tumor volume performed several weeks after completion of treatment is the clinical standard to determine whether a cancer patient has responded to a treatment. However, functional changes within the tumor could potentially provide information regarding treatment resistance or response much earlier than anatomical changes. We have used diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to assess the short and long-term re-oxygenation kinetics of a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in response to radiation therapy. First, we injected UM-SCC-22B cell line into the flank of 50 mice to grow xenografts. Once the tumor volume reached 200 mm3 (designated as Day 1), the mice were distributed into radiation and control groups. Members of radiation group underwent a clinical dose of radiation of 2 Gy/day on Days 1, 4, 7, and 10 for a cumulative dose of 8 Gy. DRS spectra of these tumors were collected for 14 days during and after therapy, and the collected spectra of each tumor were converted to its optical properties using a lookup table-base inverse model. We found statistically significant differences in tumor growth rate between two groups which is in indication of the sensitivity of this cell line to radiation. We further acquired significantly different contents of hemoglobin and scattering magnitude and size in two groups. The scattering has previously been associated with necrosis. We furthermore found significantly different time-dependent changes in vascular oxygenation and tumor hemoglobin concentration in post-radiation days.

  3. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Study of NOx Adsorption on CGO10 Impregnated with K2O or BaO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; Härelind Ingelsten, H.; Kammer Hansen, Kent


    In the present work Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is applied to study the adsorption of NOx at 300-500 °C in different atmospheres on gadolinium doped ceria (CGO), an important material in electrodes investigated for electrochemical NOx removal. Furthermore...

  4. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.


    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those

  5. Specific features of diffuse reflection of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolotov, L E; Sinichkin, Yu P; Tuchin, Valerii V; Al'tshuler, G B; Yaroslavskii, I V


    The specific features of diffuse reflection from different areas of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light have been investigated to localise the closed-eye (eyelid) region. In the visible spectral range the reflection from the eyelid skin surface can be differentiated by measuring the slope of the spectral dependence of the effective optical density of skin in the wavelength range from 650 to 700nm. In the near-IR spectral range the reflectances of the skin surface at certain wavelengths, normalised to the forehead skin reflectance, can be used as a criterion for differentiating the eyelid skin. In this case, a maximum discrimination is obtained when measuring the skin reflectances at laser wavelengths of 1310 and 1470nm, which correspond to the spectral ranges of maximum and minimum water absorption. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  6. Determination of point of incidence for the case of reflection or refraction at spherical surface knowing two points lying on the ray. (United States)

    Mikš, Antonín; Novák, Pavel


    The paper is focused on the problem of determination of the point of incidence of a light ray for the case of reflection or refraction at the spherical optical surface, assuming that two fixed points in space that the sought light ray should go through are given. The requirement is that one of these points lies on the incident ray and the other point on the reflected/refracted ray. Although at first glance it seems to be a simple problem, it will be shown that it has no simple analytical solution. The basic idea of the solution is given, and it is shown that the problem leads to a nonlinear equation in one variable. The roots of the resulting nonlinear equation can be found by numerical methods of mathematical optimization. The proposed methods were implemented in MATLAB, and the proper function of these algorithms was verified on several examples.

  7. Modification of kaolinite surfaces through mechanochemical activation with quartz: A diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform and chemometrics study. (United States)

    Carmody, Onuma; Frost, Ray L; Kristóf, János; Kokot, Serge; Kloprogge, J Theo; Makó, Eva


    Studies of kaolinite surfaces are of industrial importance. One useful method for studying the changes in kaolinite surface properties is to apply chemometric analyses to the kaolinite surface infrared spectra. A comparison is made between the mechanochemical activation of Kiralyhegy kaolinites with significant amounts of natural quartz and the mechanochemical activation of Zettlitz kaolinite with added quartz. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods, the preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive assistance (GAIA). The clear discrimination of the Kiralyhegy spectral objects on the two PC scores plots (400-800 and 800-2030 cm(-1)) indicated the dominance of quartz. Importantly, no ordering of any spectral objects appeared to be related to grinding time in the PC plots of these spectral regions. Thus, neither the kaolinite nor the quartz are systematically responsive to grinding time according to the spectral criteria investigated. The third spectral region (2600-3800 cm(-1), OH vibrations), showed apparent systematic ordering of the Kiralyhegy and, to a lesser extent, Zettlitz spectral objects with grinding time. This was attributed to the effect of the natural quartz on the delamination of kaolinite and the accompanying phenomena (i.e., formation of kaolinite spheres and water). The mechanochemical activation of kaolinite and quartz, through dry grinding, results in changes to the surface structure. Different grinding times were adopted to study the rate of destruction of the kaolinite and quartz structures. This relationship (i.e., grinding time) was classified using PROMETHEE and GAIA methodology.

  8. [In situ diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy study of CO adsorption on Ni2P/mesoporous molecule sieve catalysts]. (United States)

    Liu, Qian-qian; Ji, Sheng-fu; Wu, Ping-yi; Hu, Lin-hua; Huang, Xiao-fan; Zhu, Ji-qin; Li, Cheng-yue


    Abstract The supported nickel phosphate precursors were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using nickel nitrate as nickel source, diammonium hydrogen phosphate as phosphorus source, and MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15 and SBA-16 as supports, respectively. Then, the supported Ni2 P catalysts were prepared by temperature-programmed reduction in flowing Hz from their nickel phosphate precursors. The in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis with the probe molecule CO was carried out to characterize the surface properties. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the spectral features of the samples. The upsilon(CO) absorbances observed for adsorbed CO on mesoporous molecule sieve was attributed to weak physical adsorption. There are four different kinds of upsilon(CO) absorbances observed for adsorbed CO on Ni2 P/MCM-41 catalyst with the following assignments: (1) the formation of Ni(CO)4 at 2055 cm(-1). (2) CO terminally bonded to cus Ni(delta+) (0

  9. Study of the oxidation of uranium by external and diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy using remote-sensing and evacuable cell techniques (United States)

    Powell, G. L.; Dobbins, A.; Cristy, S. S.; Cliff, T. L.; Meyer, H. M., III; Lucania, J.; Milosevic, Milan


    This report describes the application of reflectance FTIR spectroscopy to the measurement of the oxidation rate of uranium by environmental gases near room temperature. It also describes very efficient evacuable cells designed for 75 degree(s) external reflectance with polarized light and for diffuse reflectance using mid-infrared FTIR spectroscopy. These cells, along with functionally similar remote sensing accessories, have been applied to the study of the oxidation of uranium metal in air, oxygen, and water vapor by precisely measuring the 575 cm-1 band of UO2 and other properties of the corrosion film such as absorbed water and reflective losses caused by film degradation related to pitting or nucleation phenomena.

  10. Use of polyurethane foam and 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline for determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry. (United States)

    Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Ostrovskaya, V M; Anaev, E K; Zolotov, Y A


    Polyurethane foam (PUF) has been suggested as a solid polymeric reagent for determination of nitrite. The determination is based on the diazotization of end toluidine groups of PUF with nitrite in acidic medium followed by coupling of polymeric diazonium cation with 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline. The intensely colored polymeric azodye formed in this reaction can be used as a convenient analytic form for the determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (c (min) = 0.7 ng mL(-1)). The possibility of using a desktop scanner, digital camera, and computer data processing for the numerical evaluation of the color intensity of the polymeric azodye has been investigated. A scanner and digital camera can be used for determination of nitrite with the same sensitivity and reproducibility as with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The approach developed was applied for determination of nitrite in river water and human exhaled breath condensate.

  11. Calculation of deuterium retention in, re-emission and reflection from a tungsten material under D+ ions irradiation with ACAT-DIFFUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, T.; Muramoto, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Kawamura, T.


    We calculated, with a dynamic Monte Carlo code ACAT-DIFFUSE, fluxes of thermal D 2 re-emission, reflection and self-sputtering from a wrought tungsten material during a time sequence of 100 eV D + implantation, post-implanted isothermal out-gassing and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The obtained result agreed well with an existing experiment, where diffusion was considered in the calculations from the beginning of implantation. The three fluxes in the implantation period were shown to be almost comparable. The integrated deuterium flux released in the same period was estimated. The depth profiles of deuterium retained at 300 K in that period indicate that, while their maximum locations did not move, the profiles were broadened out because of fast diffusion. The amount of deuterium retained at 300 K was one order of magnitude higher than that at 473 K. (author)

  12. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibin, G. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX110DE (United Kingdom); IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, L.go S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail:; Marcelli, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Sala, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ' A. Desio' , Sez. Mineralogia, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marino, F.; Delmonte, B. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Albani, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dottorato in Scienze Polari, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pignotti, S. [IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy)


    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 {mu}g range.

  13. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibin, G.; Marcelli, A.; Maggi, V.; Sala, M.; Marino, F.; Delmonte, B.; Albani, S.; Pignotti, S.


    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 μg range

  14. The child sexual abuse epidemic in addis ababa: some reflections on reported incidents, psychosocial consequences and implications. (United States)

    Jemal, Jibril


    Though child sexual abuse is a universal phenomenon, only reported cases of the incidence are common source of information to get insight on how to understand the problem. Besides, investigating complaints presented by victims themselves would be a stepping stone for designing prevention and rehabilitation programs. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of sexual incidence and experience victims face. The research was conducted by collecting reported child sexual abuse cases from Child Protection Units of Addis Ababa Police Commission and three selected non-governmental organizations working for the welfare of sexually abused children in Addis Ababa. 64 selected samples of victim children were included from the three organizations. They completed a semi-structured questionnaire and data were analyzed. Of the total reported crime cases committed against children (between July 2005 and December 2006), 23% of them were child sexual victimization. On average, 21 children were reported to be sexually abused each month where majority of the sexual abuse incidence were committed against female children in their own home by someone they closely know. The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and depression. It was found out that child sexual abuse cases presented to the legal office was not properly managed. Female children appear to be more prone to sexual abuse than their male counterparts. By virtue of their nature, many children are at risk of sexual victimization by people they truest. Based on the findings, several implications are made, which includes the importance of nation-wide study to formulate a comprehensive policy guideline for protection and criminalization of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia.

  15. Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations. Interim Revision, March 1976 (United States)

    Gordon, S.; Mcbride, B. J.


    A detailed description of the equations and computer program for computations involving chemical equilibria in complex systems is given. A free-energy minimization technique is used. The program permits calculations such as (1) chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states (T,P), (H,P), (S,P), (T,V), (U,V), or (S,V), (2) theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion, (3) incident and reflected shock properties, and (4) Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties. The program considers condensed species as well as gaseous species.

  16. Effect of diffuse roof cover with anti-reflection coating for roses; Effect van diffuus kasdek met Anti Reflectie coating bij Roos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Kempkes, F.


    The rose Red Naomi was cultivated in two greenhouses at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk, Netherlands (August 2010 - September 2011). One greenhouse covered with normal float glass; the other with AR coated diffuse glass (70% haze). This Anti-Reflection coating on both glass sides compensated for the loss in light transmission caused by the diffusing structure in the glass. The diffuse AR glass lead to a 5.2% higher production (>6.1% fresh weight). Sunscreens were necessary in spring and summer to avoid high light levels on the flower buds, as they cause very high bud temperatures leading to quality problems (blue petal edges and burnt leaf tips). The diffuse greenhouse cover allowed a 100 W/m{sup 2} higher screening threshold than the reference glass. This caused a 2.7% higher daily light integral, able to explain part of the extra production obtained. Part of the extra production achieved can not be explained by the measured factors as no differences were found in the amount of light intercepted by the crop or in leaf photosynthesis under both cover types. The light under the diffuse AR cover was nevertheless much smoother, so the crop seemed to suffer less (lower bud temperatures and less burned leaf tips), and this should provide an explanation for the rest of the extra production. The cover properties did not influence disease development (powdery mildew). The obtained extra production makes the tempered, diffuse glass with Anti Reflection coating on both sides economically feasible [Dutch] Tussen augustus 2010 en september 2011 is bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw het effect van diffuus glas, met dubbelzijdige AR coating, op de productie en energiegebruik van roos 'Red Naomi' onderzocht. Onder het diffuse glas werden 5,2% meer bloemtakken geproduceerd, deze rozen waren ook iets langer en zwaarder (6,1% meer versgewicht). Dit verschil kan deels verklaard worden doordat er onder het diffuse glas pas bij hogere stralingsniveau

  17. Ranges, Reflection and Secondary Electron Emission for keV Hydrogen Ions Incident on Solid N2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, P.; Sørensen, H.; Hao-Ming, Chen


    Ranges were measured for 0.67–3.3 keV/amu hydrogen and deuterium ions in solid N2. Comparisons with similar results for N2-gas confirm the previously observed large phase effect in the stopping cross section. Measurements of the secondary electron emission coefficient for bulk solid N2 bombarded...... by 0.67–9 keV/amu ions also seem to support such a phase effect. It is argued that we may also extract information about the charge state of reflected projectiles....

  18. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction at free-standing nanoscale islands: fine structure of diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, D; Hanke, M; Schmidbauer, M; Schaefer, P; Konovalov, O; Koehler, R


    We have investigated the x-ray intensity distribution around 220 reciprocal lattice point in case of grazing incidence diffraction at SiGe nanoscale free-standing islands grown on Si(001) substrate by LPE. Experiments and computer simulations based on the distorted wave Born approximation utilizing the results of elasticity theory obtained by FEM modelling have been carried out. The data reveal fine structure in the distribution of scattered radiation with well-pronounced maxima and complicated fringe pattern. Explanation of the observed diffraction phenomena in their relation to structure and morphology of the island is given. An optimal island model including its shape, size and Ge spatial distribution was elaborated

  19. Assessment of Microcirculatory Hemoglobin Levels in Normal and Diabetic Subjects using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Visible Region — a Pilot Study (United States)

    Sujatha, N.; Anand, B. S. Suresh; Nivetha, K. Bala; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, R.


    Light-based diagnostic techniques provide a minimally invasive way for selective biomarker estimation when tissues transform from a normal to a malignant state. Spectroscopic techniques based on diffuse reflectance characterize the changes in tissue hemoglobin/oxygenation levels during the tissue transformation process. Recent clinical investigations have shown that changes in tissue oxygenation and microcirculation are observed in diabetic subjects in the initial and progressive stages. In this pilot study, we discuss the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the visible (Vis) range to differentiate the skin microcirculatory hemoglobin levels between normal and advanced diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy. Average concentration of hemoglobin as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation within the probed tissue volume is estimated for a total of four different sites in the foot sole. The results indicate a statistically significant decrease in average total hemoglobin and increase in hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels for diabetic foot compared with a normal foot. The present study demonstrates the ability of reflectance spectroscopy in the Vis range to determine and differentiate the changes in tissue hemoglobin and hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels in normal and diabetic subjects.

  20. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian


    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 ≥ −0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 ≥ −0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42–0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo. PMID:22029364

  1. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian


    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 >= -0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 >= -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo.

  2. How diffusivity, thermocline and incident light intensity modulate the dynamics of deep chlorophyll maximum in Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Valenti

    Full Text Available During the last few years theoretical works have shed new light and proposed new hypotheses on the mechanisms which regulate the spatio-temporal behaviour of phytoplankton communities in marine pelagic ecosystems. Despite this, relevant physical and biological issues, such as effects of the time-dependent mixing in the upper layer, competition between groups, and dynamics of non-stationary deep chlorophyll maxima, are still open questions. In this work, we analyze the spatio-temporal behaviour of five phytoplankton populations in a real marine ecosystem by using a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-taxis model. The study is performed, taking into account the seasonal variations of environmental variables, such as light intensity, thickness of upper mixed layer and profiles of vertical turbulent diffusivity, obtained starting from experimental findings. Theoretical distributions of phytoplankton cell concentration was converted in chlorophyll concentration, and compared with the experimental profiles measured in a site of the Tyrrhenian Sea at four different times (seasons of the year, during four different oceanographic cruises. As a result we find a good agreement between theoretical and experimental distributions of chlorophyll concentration. In particular, theoretical results reveal that the seasonal changes of environmental variables play a key role in the phytoplankton distribution and determine the properties of the deep chlorophyll maximum. This study could be extended to other marine ecosystems to predict future changes in the phytoplankton biomass due to global warming, in view of devising strategies to prevent the decline of the primary production and the consequent decrease of fish species.

  3. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels. [using a reflectometer which separately evaluates spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces (United States)


    A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces is described. A phase locked detection system for the reflectometer is also described. A selective coating on aluminum potentially useful for flat plate solar collector applications is presented. The coating is composed of strongly bound copper oxide (divalent) and is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content. Fabrication costs are expected to be small due to the one stop fabrication process. A number of conclusions gathered from the literature as to the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are discussed.

  4. Optical transmission through aerosol deposits on diffusely reflective filters: a method for measuring the absorbing component of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, H.; Novakov, T.


    It is unclear why the backscattered radiation from nonabsorbing particles should not make a significant contribution to the optical attenuation measurement. This is especially true where the absorbing component represents only a very small fraction of the aerosol mass. In this Letter we present a simple theoretical model which accounts for all these observations and points out the critical role of the filter substrate as an almost perfect diffuse reflector in the technique

  5. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction from multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P.; Swygenhoven, H. van; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Grazing incidence scattering geometries using synchrotron radiation have been applied in order to characterise the roughness profiles and the structural coherence of multilayers. The lateral correlation length of the roughness profiles was evaluated using diffuse reflectivity in the `out of plane` geometry. This type of measurement is the only diffuse reflectivity technique allowing large lateral momentum transfer. It is typically suitable for correlation lengths smaller than 1000 A. The lateral structural coherence length of Ni{sub 3}Al/Ni multilayers as a function of the layer thickness was obtained by grazing incidence diffraction (GID). 3 figs., 1 ref.

  6. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingerle, D., E-mail: [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Meirer, F. [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D. [MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)


    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted

  7. Computer simulation of nuclear pollutant diffusion from Shimane nuclear power plants and development of an evacuation strategy in the event of a nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakura, Haruna; Kurimasa, Akihiro


    Beginning from Tohoku (northeastern) Earthquake on March 11, an accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant resulted in a substantial release of radioactivity to the environment. The accident forced a large number of residents to evacuate from surrounding areas. Moreover, the nuclear incident was life-threatening for the elderly and for people with serious illnesses who were confined in hospital or nursing homes. Strikingly, the causes of death were not directly attributed to radiation exposure but to problems encountered during evacuation. Using nuclear diffusion data from the Fukushima incident, we simulated nuclear pollutant dispersion using computer software A2C in an area of Tottori and Shimane Prefectures surrounding the Shimane Nuclear Power Plant. We generated a model for the spread of nuclear pollutants around the Emergency Planning Zone, id est (i.e.) EPZ. From these findings, we proposed evacuation strategies for residents near the power plant to ensure a safe and reliable escape from nuclear pollutants. Our recommendations include: immediate evacuation from PAZ area (within 5 km), securing indoor shelter in the area of the UPZ (from 5 km to 30 km) and preparations to evacuate further outwards from the nuclear plant site, daytime evacuation within a 30 km area after considering wind direction and velocity, and preparation of a planned evacuation strategy that identifies secure facilities for weaker people in the event of a disaster. (author)

  8. Modified Hitschfeld-Bordan Equations for Attenuation-Corrected Radar Rain Reflectivity: Application to Nonuniform Beamfilling at Off-Nadir Incidence (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Liao, Liang


    As shown by Takahashi et al., multiple path attenuation estimates over the field of view of an airborne or spaceborne weather radar are feasible for off-nadir incidence angles. This follows from the fact that the surface reference technique, which provides path attenuation estimates, can be applied to each radar range gate that intersects the surface. This study builds on this result by showing that three of the modified Hitschfeld-Bordan estimates for the attenuation-corrected radar reflectivity factor can be generalized to the case where multiple path attenuation estimates are available, thereby providing a correction to the effects of nonuniform beamfilling. A simple simulation is presented showing some strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  9. Whole Tumor Histogram-profiling of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images Reflects Tumorbiological Features of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma. (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Münch, Benno; Dieckow, Julia; Quäschling, Ulf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Richter, Cindy; Garnov, Nikita; Frydrychowicz, Clara; Krause, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Surov, Alexey


    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) quantifies motion of hydrogen nuclei in biological tissues and hereby has been used to assess the underlying tissue microarchitecture. Histogram-profiling of DWI provides more detailed information on diffusion characteristics of a lesion than the standardly calculated values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-minimum, mean and maximum. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate, which parameters of histogram-profiling of DWI in primary central nervous system lymphoma can be used to specifically predict features like cellular density, chromatin content and proliferative activity. Pre-treatment ADC maps of 21 PCNSL patients (8 female, 13 male, 28-89 years) from a 1.5T system were used for Matlab-based histogram profiling. Results of histopathology (H&E staining) and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 expression) were quantified. Correlations between histogram-profiling parameters and neuropathologic examination were calculated using SPSS 23.0. The lower percentiles (p10 and p25) showed significant correlations with structural parameters of the neuropathologic examination (cellular density, chromatin content). The highest percentile, p90, correlated significantly with Ki-67 expression, resembling proliferative activity. Kurtosis of the ADC histogram correlated significantly with cellular density. Histogram-profiling of DWI in PCNSL provides a comprehensible set of parameters, which reflect distinct tumor-architectural and tumor-biological features, and hence, are promising biomarkers for treatment response and prognosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reflects activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 during focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-juan Wu


    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT is a unique protein family that binds to DNA, coupled with tyrosine phosphorylation signaling pathways, acting as a transcriptional regulator to mediate a variety of biological effects. Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion can activate STATs signaling pathway, but no studies have confirmed whether STAT activation can be verified by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Here, we established a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia injury using the modified Longa method. DWI revealed hyperintensity in parts of the left hemisphere before reperfusion and a low apparent diffusion coefficient. STAT3 protein expression showed no significant change after reperfusion, but phosphorylated STAT3 expression began to increase after 30 minutes of reperfusion and peaked at 24 hours. Pearson correlation analysis showed that STAT3 activation was correlated positively with the relative apparent diffusion coefficient and negatively with the DWI abnormal signal area. These results indicate that DWI is a reliable representation of the infarct area and reflects STAT phosphorylation in rat brain following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

  11. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique. (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi


    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process.

  12. Planar Dirac diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, Stefano de; Rotelli, Pietro


    We present the results of the planar diffusion of a Dirac particle by step and barrier potentials, when the incoming wave impinges at an arbitrary angle with the potential. Except for right-angle incidence this process is characterized by the appearance of spin flip terms. For the step potential, spin flip occurs for both transmitted and reflected waves. However, we find no spin flip in the transmitted barrier result. This is surprising because the barrier result may be derived directly from a two-step calculation. We demonstrate that the spin flip cancellation indeed occurs for each ''particle'' (wave packet) contribution. (orig.)

  13. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775. The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003. The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006 and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006. There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026 and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030. CONCLUSION: Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  14. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer. (United States)

    Sun, Yiqun; Tong, Tong; Cai, Sanjun; Bi, Rui; Xin, Chao; Gu, Yajia


    We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775). The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003). The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006) and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006). There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026) and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030). Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  15. Low Group Delay Dispersion Optical Coating for Broad Bandwidth High Reflection at 45° Incidence, P Polarization of Femtosecond Pulses with 900 nm Center Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Bellum


    Full Text Available We describe an optical coating design suitable for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR at 45° angle of incidence (AOI, P polarization (Ppol of femtosecond (fs laser pulses whose wavelengths range from 800 to 1000 nm. Our design process is guided by quarter-wave HR coating properties. The design must afford low group delay dispersion (GDD for reflected light over the broad, 200 nm bandwidth in order to minimize temporal broadening of the fs pulses due to dispersive alteration of relative phases between their frequency components. The design should also be favorable to high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT. We base the coating on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs produced by means of e-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition, and use OptiLayer Thin Film Software to explore designs starting with TiO2/SiO2 layers having thicknesses in a reverse chirped arrangement. This approach led to a design with R > 99% from 800 to 1000 nm and GDD < 20 fs2 from 843 to 949 nm (45° AOI, Ppol. The design’s GDD behaves in a smooth way, suitable for GDD compensation techniques, and its electric field intensities show promise for high LIDTs. Reflectivity and GDD measurements for the initial test coating indicate good performance of the BBHR design. Subsequent coating runs with improved process calibration produced two coatings whose HR bands satisfactorily meet the design goals. For the sake of completeness, we summarize our previously reported transmission spectra and LIDT test results with 800 ps, 8 ps and 675 fs pulses for these two coatings, and present a table of the LIDT results we have for all of our TiO2/SiO2 BBHR coatings, showing the trends with test laser pulse duration from the ns to sub-ps regimes.

  16. Study of magnetic thin films by polarized neutron reflectivity. Off-specular diffusion on periodical structures; Etude de couches minces magnetiques par reflectivite de neutrons polarises. Diffusion non speculaire sur des structures periodiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, F


    Theoretical (Zeeman energy effects) and experimental (beam polarisation problems) progress have been made in the understanding of polarized neutron reflectivity with polarisation analysis. It has been shown that modelization and numerical simulations makes it possible to avoid to have to systematically measure a full set of reflectivity curves for each field and temperature condition. It has been possible to determine a magnetic profile as a function of the field in a magnetic bilayer system by using only a few points in the reciprocal space. This technique allows to considerable reduce the experiment time. In single nickel layer systems, we have shown that it is possible to induce magnetic rotation inhomogeneities when these systems are subjects to deformation strains. The effect are related to magneto-elastic constants gradients. In trilayer systems, with a ME constant modulation, we have been able to induce large magnetic rotation gradients. A new magneto-optic technique to measure the magnetization direction without rotating the magnetic field has been developed. The field of neutron reflectivity has been extended to off-specular studies. It has been possible to account quantitatively of the off-specular diffusion on 2-D model systems (prepared by optical lithography). This new technique should make it possible in the future to determine magnetic structures with a in-depth as well as lateral resolution. (author)

  17. Calculation of deuterium retention, re-emission and reflection from a tungsten material under D+ ions irradiation with ACAT-DIFFUSE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Muramoto, T.; Kawamura, T.


    We calculated, with a dynamic Monte Carlo code ACAT-DIFFUSE, fluxes of thermal D 2 re-emission, reflection and segregated self-sputtering of D from a D + implanted wrought tungsten material during a time sequence of l00 eV D + implantation, post-implanted isothermal out-gassing and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The obtained result was in good agreement with an existing experiment if two different trap sites with de-trapping energy of 0.85 eV and 2.2 eV and density fraction of 0.05 D/W and 0.01 D/W were assumed to exist. The re-emission, reflection and self-sputtering fluxes in the implantation period were shown to be almost comparable. The integrated deuterium flux released in the same period was estimated. The amount of deuterium retained at 300 K was nearly six times higher than that at 473 K, which reflects the result that mobile atoms and atoms trapped in 0.85 eV trap existed abundantly at 300 K but scarcely at 473 K.

  18. Ultraviolet Survey of CO and H2 in Diffuse Molecular Clouds: The Reflection of Two Photochemistry Regimes in Abundance Relationships (United States)

    Sheffer, Y.; Rogers, M.; Federman, S. R.; Abel, N. P.; Gredel, R.; Lambert, D. L.; Shaw, G.


    We carried out a comprehensive far-UV survey of 12CO and H2 column densities along diffuse molecular Galactic sight lines. This sample includes new measurements of CO from HST spectra along 62 sight lines and new measurements of H2 from FUSE data along 58 sight lines. In addition, high-resolution optical data were obtained at the McDonald and European Southern Observatories, yielding new abundances for CH, CH+, and CN along 42 sight lines to aid in interpreting the CO results. These new sight lines were selected according to detectable amounts of CO in their spectra and provide information on both lower density (production route for CO in higher density gas. Similar logarithmic plots among all five diatomic molecules reveal additional examples of dual slopes in the cases of CO versus CH (break at log N = 14.1, 13.0), CH+ versus H2 (13.1, 20.3), and CH+ versus CO (13.2, 14.1). We employ both analytical and numerical chemical schemes in order to derive details of the molecular environments. In the denser gas, where C2 and CN molecules also reside, reactions involving C+ and OH are the dominant factor leading to CO formation via equilibrium chemistry. In the low-density gas, where equilibrium chemistry studies have failed to reproduce the abundance of CH+, our numerical analysis shows that nonequilibrium chemistry must be employed for correctly predicting the abundances of both CH+ and CO.

  19. Multivariate analysis of nystatin and metronidazole in a semi-solid matrix by means of diffuse reflectance NIR spectroscopy and PLS regression. (United States)

    Baratieri, Sabrina C; Barbosa, Juliana M; Freitas, Matheus P; Martins, José A


    A multivariate method of analysis of nystatin and metronidazole in a semi-solid matrix, based on diffuse reflectance NIR measurements and partial least squares regression, is reported. The product, a vaginal cream used in the antifungal and antibacterial treatment, is usually, quantitatively analyzed through microbiological tests (nystatin) and HPLC technique (metronidazole), according to pharmacopeial procedures. However, near infrared spectroscopy has demonstrated to be a valuable tool for content determination, given the rapidity and scope of the method. In the present study, it was successfully applied in the prediction of nystatin (even in low concentrations, ca. 0.3-0.4%, w/w, which is around 100,000 IU/5g) and metronidazole contents, as demonstrated by some figures of merit, namely linearity, precision (mean and repeatability) and accuracy.

  20. Gas sensing properties and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy study of trichloroethylene adsorption and reactions on SnO2 films (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxin; Huang, Kaijin; Yuan, Fangli; Xie, Changsheng


    The detection of trichloroethylene has attracted much attention because it has an important effect on human health. The sensitivity of the SnO2 flat-type coplanar gas sensor arrays to 100 ppm trichloroethylene in air was investigated. The adsorption and surface reactions of trichloroethylene were investigated at 100-200 °C by in-situ diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DIRFTS) on SnO2 films. Molecularly adsorbed trichloroethylene, dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC), phosgene, HCl, CO, H2O, CHCl3, Cl2 and CO2 surface species are formed during trichloroethylene adsorption at 100-200 °C. A possible mechanism of the reaction process is discussed.

  1. Investigation on H-containing shallow trap of hydrogenated TiO2 with in situ Fourier transform infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy. (United States)

    Han, Bing; Hang Hu, Yun


    A novel technique, high temperature high pressure in situ Fourier transform infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy, was successfully used to investigate the formation and stability of shallow trap states in P25 TiO 2 nanoparticles. Two types of shallow traps (with and without H atoms) were identified. The H-containing shallow trap can be easily generated by heating in H 2 atmosphere. However, the trap is unstable in vacuum at 600 °C. In contrast, the H-free shallow trap, which can be formed by heating in vacuum, is stable even at 600 °C. The energy gaps between shallow trap states and the conduction band are 0.09 eV for H-containing shallow trap and 0.13 eV for H-free shallow trap, indicating that the H-containing shallow trap state is closer to the conduction band than that without H.

  2. Reference-free spectroscopic determination of fat and protein in milk in the visible and near infrared region below 1000nm using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance fiber probe. (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Belikova, Valeria; Galyanin, Vladislav; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Meyer, Hans


    New technique of diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of milk fat and total protein content in the visible (Vis) and adjacent near infrared (NIR) region (400-995nm) has been developed and tested. Sample analysis was performed through a probe having eight 200-µm fiber channels forming a linear array. One of the end fibers was used for the illumination and other seven - for the spectroscopic detection of diffusely reflected light. One of the detection channels was used as a reference to normalize the spectra and to convert them into absorbance-equivalent units. The method has been tested experimentally using a designed sample set prepared from industrial raw milk standards with widely varying fat and protein content. To increase the modelling robustness all milk samples were measured in three different homogenization degrees. Comprehensive data analysis has shown the advantage of combining both spectral and spatial resolution in the same measurement and revealed the most relevant channels and wavelength regions. The modelling accuracy was further improved using joint variable selection and preprocessing optimization method based on the genetic algorithm. The root mean-square errors of different validation methods were below 0.10% for fat and below 0.08% for total protein content. Based on the present experimental data, it was computationally shown that the full-spectrum analysis in this method can be replaced by a sensor measurement at several specific wavelengths, for instance, using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination. Two optimal sensor configurations have been suggested: with nine LEDs for the analysis of fat and seven - for protein content. Both simulated sensors exhibit nearly the same component determination accuracy as corresponding full-spectrum analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffusion Profiling via a Histogram Approach Distinguishes Low-grade from High-grade Meningiomas, Can Reflect the Respective Proliferative Potential and Progesterone Receptor Status. (United States)

    Gihr, Georg Alexander; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Garnov, Nikita; Kohlhof-Meinecke, Patricia; Ganslandt, Oliver; Henkes, Hans; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey; Schob, Stefan


    Presurgical grading, estimation of growth kinetics, and other prognostic factors are becoming increasingly important for selecting the best therapeutic approach for meningioma patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides microstructural information and reflects tumor biology. A novel DWI approach, histogram profiling of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volumes, provides more distinct information than conventional DWI. Therefore, our study investigated whether ADC histogram profiling distinguishes low-grade from high-grade lesions and reflects Ki-67 expression and progesterone receptor status. Pretreatment ADC volumes of 37 meningioma patients (28 low-grade, 9 high-grade) were used for histogram profiling. WHO grade, Ki-67 expression, and progesterone receptor status were evaluated. Comparative and correlative statistics investigating the association between histogram profiling and neuropathology were performed. The entire ADC profile (p10, p25, p75, p90, mean, median) was significantly lower in high-grade versus low-grade meningiomas. The lower percentiles, mean, and modus showed significant correlations with Ki-67 expression. Skewness and entropy of the ADC volumes were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression. ROC analysis revealed entropy to be the most accurate parameter distinguishing low-grade from high-grade meningiomas. ADC histogram profiling provides a distinct set of parameters, which help differentiate low-grade versus high-grade meningiomas. Also, histogram metrics correlate significantly with histological surrogates of the respective proliferative potential. More specifically, entropy revealed to be the most promising imaging biomarker for presurgical grading. Both, entropy and skewness were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression and therefore should be investigated further as predictors for prognostically relevant tumor biological features. Since absolute ADC

  4. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging of infarct core and peri-infarct depolarization in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Nishidate, Izumi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Sato, Shunichi


    To understand the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, in vivo imaging of the brain tissue viability and related spreading depolarization is crucial. In the infarct core, impairment of energy metabolism causes anoxic depolarization (AD), which considerably increases energy consumption, accelerating irreversible neuronal damage. In the peri-infarct penumbra region, where tissue is still reversible despite limited blood flow, peri-infarct depolarization (PID) occurs, exacerbating energy deficit and hence expanding the infarct area. We previously showed that light-scattering signal, which is sensitive to cellular/subcellular structural integrity, was correlated with AD and brain tissue viability in a rat hypoxia-reoxygenation model. In the present study, we performed transcranial NIR diffuse reflectance imaging of the rat brain during middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and examined whether the infarct core and PIDs can be detected. Immediately after occluding the left MCA, light scattering started to increase focally in the occlusion site and a bright region was generated near the occlusion site and spread over the left entire cortex, which was followed by a dark region, showing the occurrence of PID. The PID was generated repetitively and the number of times of occurrence in a rat ranged from four to ten within 1 hour after occlusion (n=4). The scattering increase in the occlusion site was irreversible and the area with increased scattering expanded with increasing the number of PIDs, indicating an expansion of the infarct core. These results suggest the usefulness of NIR diffuse reflectance signal to visualize spatiotemporal changes in the infarct area and PIDs.

  5. Comparison of Portable and Bench-Top Spectrometers for Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Measurements of Soils. (United States)

    Hutengs, Christopher; Ludwig, Bernard; Jung, András; Eisele, Andreas; Vohland, Michael


    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has received widespread interest as a method to complement traditional soil analysis. Recently available portable MIR spectrometers additionally offer potential for on-site applications, given sufficient spectral data quality. We therefore tested the performance of the Agilent 4300 Handheld FTIR (DRIFT spectra) in comparison to a Bruker Tensor 27 bench-top instrument in terms of (i) spectral quality and measurement noise quantified by wavelet analysis; (ii) accuracy of partial least squares (PLS) calibrations for soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), pH, clay and sand content with a repeated cross-validation analysis; and (iii) key spectral regions for these soil properties identified with a Monte Carlo spectral variable selection approach. Measurements and multivariate calibrations with the handheld device were as good as or slightly better than Bruker equipped with a DRIFT accessory, but not as accurate as with directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) data collected with an integrating sphere. Variations in noise did not markedly affect the accuracy of multivariate PLS calibrations. Identified key spectral regions for PLS calibrations provided a good match between Agilent and Bruker DHR data, especially for SOC and N. Our findings suggest that portable FTIR instruments are a viable alternative for MIR measurements in the laboratory and offer great potential for on-site applications.

  6. Comparison of Portable and Bench-Top Spectrometers for Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Measurements of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hutengs


    Full Text Available Mid-infrared (MIR spectroscopy has received widespread interest as a method to complement traditional soil analysis. Recently available portable MIR spectrometers additionally offer potential for on-site applications, given sufficient spectral data quality. We therefore tested the performance of the Agilent 4300 Handheld FTIR (DRIFT spectra in comparison to a Bruker Tensor 27 bench-top instrument in terms of (i spectral quality and measurement noise quantified by wavelet analysis; (ii accuracy of partial least squares (PLS calibrations for soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (N, pH, clay and sand content with a repeated cross-validation analysis; and (iii key spectral regions for these soil properties identified with a Monte Carlo spectral variable selection approach. Measurements and multivariate calibrations with the handheld device were as good as or slightly better than Bruker equipped with a DRIFT accessory, but not as accurate as with directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR data collected with an integrating sphere. Variations in noise did not markedly affect the accuracy of multivariate PLS calibrations. Identified key spectral regions for PLS calibrations provided a good match between Agilent and Bruker DHR data, especially for SOC and N. Our findings suggest that portable FTIR instruments are a viable alternative for MIR measurements in the laboratory and offer great potential for on-site applications.

  7. Packing stress reduction in polymer-lipid monolayers at the air-water interface: An X-ray grazing-incidence diffraction and reflectivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, T.L.; Majewski, J.; Howes, P.B.; Kjaer, K.; Nahmen, A. von; Lee, K.Y.C.; Ocko, B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Smith, G.S.


    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity (XR), the authors have determined the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface as a function of hydrophilic lipid headgroup size. Di-stearoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DSPE) lipid monolayers were systematically modified by chemically grafting hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of MW = 90 g/mol (2 ethylene oxide, EO, units), MW = 350 g/mol (8 EO units), and MW = 750 g/mol (17 EO units) to the lipid headgroups. The monolayers were studied in the solid phase at a surface pressure of 42 mN/m. At these high lipid packing densities, the PEG chains are submerged in the water subphase. The increased packing stresses from these bulky polymer headgroups distort the unit cell and the in-plane packing modes of the monolayers, leading to large out-of-plane alterations and staggering of the lipid molecules. Surprisingly, a change in the molecular packing of the monolayer toward higher packing densities (lower area per molecule) was observed on increasing the PEG MW to 750 g/mol (17 EO units). This rearrangement of the monolayer structure may be due to a conformational change in the PEG chains.

  8. Label-Free and Real-Time Monitor of Binding and Dissociation Processes between Protein A and Swine IgG by Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Li-Ping; Liu Shuang; Dai Jun; Lu Hui-Bin; Jin Kui-Juan; Yang Guo-Zhen; Wu Lin; Liu Guo-Zhen; Wei Han-Fu


    Life science has a need for detection methods that are label-free and real-time. In this paper, we have selected staphylococcal protein A (SPA) and swine immunoglobulin G (IgG), and monitor the bindings between SPA and swine IgG with different concentrations, as well as the dissociations of SPA-swine IgG complex in different pH values of phosphate buffer by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) in a label-free and real-time fashion. We obtain the ON and OFF reaction dynamic curves corresponding to the bindings and dissociations of SPA and swine IgG. Through our analysis of the experimental results, we have been able to obtain the damping coefficients and the dissociation time of SPA and swine IgG for different pH values of the phosphate buffer. The results prove that the OIRD technique is a competing method for monitoring the dynamic processes of biomolecule interaction and achieving the quantitative information of reaction kinetics. (general)

  9. In situ x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction study of L 1{sub 0} ordering in {sup 57}Fe/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra Reddy, V; Gupta, Ajay; Gome, Anil [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452 017 (India); Leitenberger, Wolfram [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14469 Potsdam (Germany); Pietsch, U [Physics Department, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    In situ high temperature x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements in the energy dispersive mode are used to study the ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) L 1{sub 0} phase formation in [Fe(19 A)/Pt(25 A)]{sub x 10} multilayers prepared by ion beam sputtering. With the in situ x-ray measurements it is observed that (i) the multilayer structure first transforms to a disordered FePt and subsequently to an ordered fct L 1{sub 0} phase, (ii) the ordered fct L 1{sub 0} FePt peaks start to appear at 320 deg. C annealing, (iii) the activation energy of the interdiffusion is 0.8 eV and (iv) ordered fct FePt grains have preferential out-of-plane texture. The magneto-optical Kerr effect and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopies are used to study the magnetic properties of the as-deposited and 400 deg. C annealed multilayers. The magnetic data for the 400 {sup 0}C annealed sample indicate that the magnetization is at an angle of {approx}50 deg. from the plane of the film.

  10. Real-Time, Label-Free Detection of Biomolecular Interactions in Sandwich Assays by the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shin Sun


    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in proteomics is to detect the real-time kinetics of diverse biomolecular interactions. Fluorescence, which requires extrinsic tags, is a commonly and widely used method because of its high convenience and sensitivity. However, in order to maintain the conformational and functional integrality of biomolecules, label-free detection methods are highly under demand. We have developed the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD technique for label-free, kinetic measurements of protein-biomolecule interactions. Incorporating the total internal refection geometry into the OI-RD technique, we are able to detect as low as 0.1% of a protein monolayer, and this sensitivity is comparable with other label-free techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR. The unique advantage of OI-RD over SPR is no need for dielectric layers. Moreover, using a photodiode array as the detector enables multi-channel detection and also eliminates the over-time signal drift. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the OI-RD technique by measuring the kinetics of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions in sandwich assays.

  11. Modification of the Fitzpatrick system of skin phototype classification for the Indian population, and its correlation with narrowband diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Gupta, V; Jangid, B L; Pathak, M


    The Fitzpatrick classification for skin phototyping is widely used, but its usefulness in dark-skinned populations has been questioned by some researchers. Recently, skin colour measurement has been proposed for phototyping skin colour objectively. To modify the Fitzpatrick system of skin phototyping for the Indian population and to study its correlation with skin colour using narrowband diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry METHODS: Answer choices for three items (eye colour, hair colour, colour of unexposed skin) out of 10 in the original Fitzpatrick questionnaire were modified, followed by self-administration of the original and the modified Fitzpatrick questionnaire by 70 healthy Indian volunteers. Skin colour (melanin and erythema indices) was measured from two photoexposed and two photoprotected sites using a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer. The mean ± SD scores for the original and modified Fitzpatrick questionnaires were 25.40 ± 4.49 and 23.89 ± 4.82, respectively (r = 0.97, P Spectrophotometry can be a useful objective tool for skin phototyping. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Evaluation of light scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in skin tissue based on diffuse reflectance signals at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin (United States)

    Yokokawa, Takumi; Nishidate, Izumi


    We investigate a method to evaluate light-scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in human skin tissue through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using the reflectance signals acquired at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin (420, 450, 500, and 585 nm). In the proposed method, Monte Carlo simulation-based empirical formulas are used to specify the scattering parameters of skin tissue, such as the scattering amplitude a and the scattering power b, as well as the concentration of melanin C m and the total blood concentration C tb. The use of isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin enables the values of C m, C tb, a, and b to be estimated independently of the oxygenation of hemoglobin. The spectrum of the reduced scattering coefficient is reconstructed from the scattering parameters. Experiments using in vivo human skin tissues were performed to confirm the feasibility of the proposed method for evaluating the changes in scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in skin tissue. The experimental results revealed that light scattering is significantly reduced by the application of a glycerol solution, which indicates an optical clearing effect due to osmotic dehydration and the matching of the refractive indices of scatterers in the epidermis.

  13. Impacts of the Angular Dependence of the Solar Diffuser BRDF Degradation Factor on the SNPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Band On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong


    Using an onboard sunlit solar diffuser (SD) as the primary radiance source, the visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite regularly performs radiometric calibration of its reflective solar bands (RSBs). The SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) value decreases over time. A numerical degradation factor is used to quantify the degradation and is determined by an onboard SD stability monitor (SDSM), which observes the sun and the sunlit SD at almost the same time. We had shown previously that the BRDF degradation factor was angle-dependent. Consequently, due to that the SDSM and the RSB view the SD at very different angles relative to both the solar and the SD surface normal vectors, directly applying the BRDF degradation factor determined by the SDSM to the VIIRS RSB calibration can result in large systematic errors. We develop a phenomenological model to calculate the BRDF degradation factor for the RSB SD view from the degradation factor for the SDSM SD view. Using the yearly undulations observed in the VIIRS detector gains for the M1-M4 bands calculated with the SD BRDF degradation factor for the SDSM SD view and the difference between the VIIRS detector gains calculated from the SD and the lunar observations, we obtain the model parameter values and thus establish the relation between the BRDF degradation factors for the RSB and the SDSM SD view directions.

  14. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)


    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  15. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich


    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  16. Histogram analysis derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is more sensitive to reflect serological parameters in myositis than conventional ADC analysis. (United States)

    Meyer, Hans Jonas; Emmer, Alexander; Kornhuber, Malte; Surov, Alexey


    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the potential of being able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize tissues on MRI. The aim of this study was to correlate histogram parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with serological parameters in myositis. 16 patients with autoimmune myositis were included in this retrospective study. DWI was obtained on a 1.5 T scanner by using the b-values of 0 and 1000 s mm - 2 . Histogram analysis was performed as a whole muscle measurement by using a custom-made Matlab-based application. The following ADC histogram parameters were estimated: ADCmean, ADCmax, ADCmin, ADCmedian, ADCmode, and the following percentiles ADCp10, ADCp25, ADCp75, ADCp90, as well histogram parameters kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. In all patients, the blood sample was acquired within 3 days to the MRI. The following serological parameters were estimated: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and myoglobin. All patients were screened for Jo1-autobodies. Kurtosis correlated inversely with CRP (p = -0.55 and 0.03). Furthermore, ADCp10 and ADCp90 values tended to correlate with creatine kinase (p = -0.43, 0.11, and p = -0.42, = 0.12 respectively). In addition, ADCmean, p10, p25, median, mode, and entropy were different between Jo1-positive and Jo1-negative patients. ADC histogram parameters are sensitive for detection of muscle alterations in myositis patients. Advances in knowledge: This study identified that kurtosis derived from ADC maps is associated with CRP in myositis patients. Furthermore, several ADC histogram parameters are statistically different between Jo1-positive and Jo1-negative patients.

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming


    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming; He, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Xin; Li, Lihua


    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  19. Quantitative cerebral blood flow calculation method using xenon CT. Introduction of a factor reflecting diffusing capacity of the lung for xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sase, Shigeru; Honda, Mitsuru; Noguchi, Yoshitaka


    In calculating cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the Fick principle, time-course information on arterial tracer concentration is indispensable and exerts considerable influence on the accuracy of CBF. In xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT), the time-course change rate for end-tidal xenon concentration (Ke), which can be measured, and that for arterial xenon concentration (Ka) have been assumed to be equal. However, it has been pointed out that there are large differences between Ke and Ka in many cases. We have introduced a single factor (γ) which correlates Ke with Ka in the equation Ka=γ x (1-e -Ke/γ ). This factor, γ, reflects the diffusing capacity of the lung for xenon; larger γ values correspond to larger diffusing capacities and Ka is equal to Ke when γ is infinity. Kety's equation contains two parameters: CBF and xenon solubility coefficient We added a third parameter, γ, to Kety's equation, and developed an efficient method to obtain the γ value for each Xe-CT study. Applying this method to ten normal subjects (35.4±16.3 years, mean±standard deviation (SD)), we obtained γ value of 1.01±0.17 and the average CBF value of 38.8±7.5 mL/100 g/min in basal ganglia. The wash-in period could be shortened to two minutes using this method. Xe-CT with this factor (γ) as a parameter enhances its clinical availability as well as the accuracy of CBF. (author)

  20. Capabilities and limitations of handheld Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for the analysis of colourants and binders in 20th-century reverse paintings on glass (United States)

    Steger, Simon; Stege, Heike; Bretz, Simone; Hahn, Oliver


    A non-invasive method has been carried out to show the capabilities and limitations of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for identifying of colourants and binders in modern reverse glass paintings. For this purpose, the reverse glass paintings "Zwei Frauen am Tisch" (1920-22), "Bäume" (1946) (both by Heinrich Campendonk), "Lofoten" (1933) (Edith Campendonk-van Leckwyck) and "Ohne Titel" (1954) (Marianne Uhlenhuth), were measured. In contrast to other techniques (e.g. panel and mural painting), the paint layers are applied in reverse succession. In multi-layered paint systems, the front paint layer may no longer be accessible. The work points out the different spectral appearance of a given substance (gypsum, basic lead white) in reverse glass paintings. However, inverted bands, band overlapping and derivative-shaped spectral features can be interpreted by comparing the spectra from the paintings with spectra from pure powders and pigment/linseed oil mock-ups. Moreover, the work focuses on this method's capabilities in identifying synthetic organic pigments (SOP). Reference spectra of three common SOP (PG7, PY1, PR83) were obtained from powders and historical colour charts. We identified PR83 and PY1 in two reverse glass paintings, using the measured reference spectra. The recorded DRIFTS spectra of pure linseed oil, gum Arabic, mastic, polyvinyl acetate resin and bees wax can be used to classify the binding media of the measured paintings.

  1. Direct and simultaneous quantification of tannin mean degree of polymerization and percentage of galloylation in grape seeds using diffuse reflectance fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Pappas, Christos; Kyraleou, Maria; Voskidi, Eleni; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Taranilis, Petros A; Kallithraka, Stamatina


    The direct and simultaneous quantitative determination of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the degree of galloylation (%G) in grape seeds were quantified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS). The results were compared with those obtained using the conventional analysis employing phloroglucinolysis as pretreatment followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV and mass spectrometry detection. Infrared spectra were recorded in solid state samples after freeze drying. The 2nd derivative of the 1832 to 1416 and 918 to 739 cm(-1) spectral regions for the quantification of mDP, the 2nd derivative of the 1813 to 607 cm(-1) spectral region for the degree of %G determination and PLS regression were used. The determination coefficients (R(2) ) of mDP and %G were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding values of the root-mean-square error of calibration were found 0.506 and 0.692, the root-mean-square error of cross validation 0.811 and 0.921, and the root-mean-square error of prediction 0.612 and 0.801. The proposed method in comparison with the conventional method is simpler, less time consuming, more economical, and requires reduced quantities of chemical reagents and fewer sample pretreatment steps. It could be a starting point for the design of more specific models according to the requirements of the wineries. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. A comparative UV-vis-diffuse reflectance study on the location and interaction of cerium ions in Al- and Zr-pillared montmorillonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G. Ranga; Mishra, Braja Gopal


    The environment, location and interaction of the Ce 3+ ions in the micropores of Al- and Zr-pillared clays have been studied by UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS). The DRS spectra show that the chemical environment of the Ce 3+ ions in cerium exchanged clay is different from that of the Al- and Zr-pillared clays. The Al-Ce pillared clays (Al-Ce-PM) show four distinct absorption bands at 224, 263, 294 and 342 nm in the UV region which are attributed to 4f → 5d interconfigurational transitions of Ce 3+ ions associated with alumina pillars. The O 2- → Ce 3+ charge transfer band observed at 263 nm for Ce-exchanged and Al-Ce-PM clays is blue shifted by 10 nm for Ce-Zr-pillared clays (Ce-Zr-PM) due to fully hydrated Ce 3+ ions. The Ce 3+ ions are incorporated in the Al- and Zr-pillars possibly as AlCeO 3 and Ce x Zr 1-x O 2 particles upon heat treatment

  3. A novel combined approach of diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for non-destructive examination of blue ballpoint pen inks in forensic application. (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Vishal


    The present research is focused on the analysis of writing inks using destructive UV-Vis spectroscopy (dissolution of ink by the solvent) and non-destructive diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy along with Chemometrics. Fifty seven samples of blue ballpoint pen inks were analyzed under optimum conditions to determine the differences in spectral features of inks among same and different manufacturers. Normalization was performed on the spectroscopic data before chemometric analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and K-mean cluster analysis were used on the data to ascertain whether the blue ballpoint pen inks could be differentiated by their UV-Vis/UV-Vis NIR spectra. The discriminating power is calculated by qualitative analysis by the visual comparison of the spectra (absorbance peaks), produced by the destructive and non-destructive methods. In the latter two methods, the pairwise comparison is made by incorporating the clustering method. It is found that chemometric method provides better discriminating power (98.72% and 99.46%, in destructive and non-destructive, respectively) in comparison to the qualitative analysis (69.67%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative assessment of hemodynamic and structural characteristics of in vivo brain tissue using total diffuse reflectance spectrum measured in a non-contact fashion. (United States)

    Song, Yinchen; Garcia, Sarahy; Frometa, Yisel; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Soltani, Mohammad; Almadi, Mohamed; Riera, Jorge J; Lin, Wei-Chiang


    Here we present a new methodology that investigates the intrinsic structural and hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo brain tissue, in a non-contact fashion, and can be easily incorporated in an intra-operative environment. Within this methodology, relative total diffuse reflectance spectra (R TD (λ)) were acquired from targets using a hybrid spectroscopy imaging system. A spectral interpretation algorithm was subsequently applied to R TD (λ) to retrieve optical properties related to the compositional and structural characteristics of each target. Estimation errors of the proposed methodology were computationally evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation model for photon migration under various conditions. It was discovered that this new methodology could handle moderate noise and achieve very high accuracy, but only if the refractive index of the target is known. The accuracy of the technique was also validated using a series of tissue phantom studies, and consistent and accurate estimates of μ s '(λ)/μ a (λ) were obtained from all the phantoms tested. Finally, a small-scale animal study was conducted to demonstrate the clinical utility of the reported method, wherein a forepaw stimulation model was utilized to induce transient hemodynamic responses in somatosensory cortices. With this approach, significant stimulation-related changes (p < 0.001) in cortical hemodynamic and structural characteristics were successfully measured.

  5. The effect of radiation-thermal treatment on the physicochemical properties of the Ni-Mo/Al2O3 hydrotreatment catalyst. II. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra of surface compounds after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovetskii, Yu.I.; Miroshinichenko, I.I.; Lunin, V.V.


    Radiation-thermal damage of the surface and the active metal phases of hydrodesulfurization Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 catalysts by a fast electron beam of up to 2.0 MeV energy was studied. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra of the industrial and model coked systems after radiation-thermal treatment were measured. 14 refs., 2 figs

  6. [Determination of Trace Lead in Water by UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Combined with Surfactant and Membrane Filtration-Enrichment]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-fang; Zhu, Bi-lin; Li, Wei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ting; Du, Yi-ping


    In this paper, a method of determination of trace lead in water by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combined with surfactant and membrane filtration enrichment was proposed. In the NH3 x H2O-NH4Cl buffer solution with pH 8.5, the lead(II) ion would react with dithizone to form the red complex under vigorous stirring, which is hydrophobic and can be enriched by the mixed cellulose ester membrane. In addition, the nonionic surfactant Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij-30) was added into the solution to improve the enrichment efficiency, then visible diffuse reflectance spectra of the membrane were measured directly after the membrane were naturally dried. We also optimized the reaction conditions which may affect the complexation reaction process, such as type of surfactants, the concentration of the surfactant, the reaction acidity, the concentration of dithizone as well as the reaction time. The research results show that under the optimum conditions, a good linear correlation between absorbance at 485 nm and concentration of lead in the range of 5.0-100.0 microg x L(-1) was obtained with a squared correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9906, and the detection limit was estimated accordingly to be 2.88 microg x L(-1). To determine real water sample, the interference from some potential coexisting ions was also studied at the optimal conditions when the concentration of lead (II) ion standard solution was fixed to 20 microg x L(-1). The results indicate that the following ions cannot interfere in the determination of lead with the proposed method: 500 times of the K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, CH3COO-, SO4(2-); 10 times of the Al3+ (using 10% NaF as a masking reagent to avoid the interference); 10 times of the Fe3+ (using 10% NaF and 10% sodium potassium tartrate as masking reagents); 10 times of Hg2+ or Zn2+ (using 10% NaSCN and 10% potassium sodium tartrate as masking reagents); the same amount of Cd2+, Cu2+. The proposed method was applied to the

  7. Closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function for diffuse reflection and small-angle scattering in a random medium. (United States)

    Yura, H T; Thrane, L; Andersen, P E


    Within the paraxial approximation, a closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function is derived for diffuse reflection and small-angle scattering in a random medium. This solution is based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle for the optical field, which is widely used in studies of wave propagation through random media. The results are general in that they apply to both an arbitrary small-angle volume scattering function, and arbitrary (real) ABCD optical systems. Furthermore, they are valid in both the single- and multiple-scattering regimes. Some general features of the Wigner phase-space distribution function are discussed, and analytic results are obtained for various types of scattering functions in the asymptotic limit s > 1, where s is the optical depth. In particular, explicit results are presented for optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. On this basis, a novel way of creating OCT images based on measurements of the momentum width of the Wigner phase-space distribution is suggested, and the advantage over conventional OCT images is discussed. Because all previous published studies regarding the Wigner function are carried out in the transmission geometry, it is important to note that the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the ABCD matrix formalism may be used successfully to describe this geometry (within the paraxial approximation). Therefore for completeness we present in an appendix the general closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function in ABCD paraxial optical systems for direct propagation through random media, and in a second appendix absorption effects are included.

  8. Using visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for predicting soil properties based on regression with peaks parameters as derived from continuum-removed spectra (United States)

    Vasat, Radim; Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Drabek, Ondrej; Boruvka, Lubos


    Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VNIR-DRS) provides a rapid and inexpensive tool for simultaneous prediction of a variety of soil properties. Usually, some sophisticated multivariate mathematical or statistical methods are employed in order to extract the required information from the raw spectra measurement. For this purpose especially the Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and Support vector machines (SVM) are the most frequently used. These methods generally benefit from the complexity with which the soil spectra are treated. But it is interesting that also techniques that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as a simple linear regression with selected continuum-removed spectra (CRS) characteristic (e.g. peak depth), can often provide competitive results. Therefore, we decided to enhance the potential of CRS taking into account all possible CRS peak parameters (area, width and depth) and develop a comprehensive methodology based on multiple linear regression approach. The eight considered soil properties were oxidizable carbon content (Cox), exchangeable (pHex) and active soil pH (pHa), particle and bulk density, CaCO3 content, crystalline and amorphous (Fed) and amorphous Fe (Feox) forms. In four cases (pHa, bulk density, Fed and Feox), of which two (Fed and Feox) were predicted reliably accurately (0.50 interestingly, in the case of particle density, the presented approach outperformed the PLSR and SVM dramatically offering a fairly accurate prediction (R2cv = 0.827) against two failures (R2cv = 0.034 and 0.121 for PLSR and SVM, resp.). In last two cases (Cox and CaCO3) a slightly worse results were achieved then with PLSR and SVM with overall fairly accurate prediction (R2cv > 0.80). Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant No. QJ1230319).

  9. Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.


    When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3deg, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 10 5:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirrorreg, Melinexreg and Tyvekreg. Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

  10. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA) (United States)

    Clymer, B. D.


    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  11. Ionization current in N2 gas. Part 7. ; Diffusion and reflection of metastable particles. N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 7. ; Jun antei reiki ryushi no kakusan to hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H. (Chiba Inst. of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Ikuta, N. (Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan))


    The energy loss process in quenching of excited particles by collision to other ones and solid surfaces was investigated with metastable excited particles formed in weakly ionized gases. The measured lifetime of N2 metastable particles in N2, N2/CO, N2/CH3 gases during Townsent discharge did not agree with the Molnar's theoretical value which was obtained by solving diffusion equations using the boundary condition that assumes the density of excited particles to be zero at electrodes and tube walls. Strange behavior was observed too, that is, coefficients of diffusion and reaction rate determined by the theoretical lifetime change systematically with the distance between electrodes. Then, the novel boundary condition that takes reflection coefficient into account was applied to solve diffusion equations. The results obtained could account for experimental results without any discrepancy. The analysis of results clarified the dependence of various parameters of metastable excited particles on the reflection coefficient. The increase of reflection coefficient decreases the surface quenching of excited particles at electrodes and elongs effectively excited lifetime and increases the number of collisional quenching in gas phases. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Measurement of the ferric diffusion coefficient in agarose and gelatine gels by utilization of the evolution of a radiation induced edge as reflected in relaxation rate images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Torje V.; Olsen, Dag R.; Skretting, Arne


    A method has been developed to determine the diffusion coefficients of ferric ions in ferrous sulphate doped gels. A radiation induced edge was created in the gel, and two spin-echo sequences were used to acquire a pair of images of the gel at different points of time. For each of these image pairs, a longitudinal relaxation rate image was derived. From profiles through these images, the standard deviations of the Gaussian functions that characterize diffusion were determined. These data provided the basis for the determination of the ferric diffusion coefficients by two different methods. Simulations indicate that the use of single spin-echo images in this procedure may in some cases lead to a significant underestimation of the diffusion coefficient. The technique was applied to different agarose and gelatine gels that were prepared, irradiated and imaged simultaneously. The results indicate that the diffusion coefficient is lower in a gelatine gel than in an agarose gel. Addition of xylenol orange to a gelatine gel lowers the diffusion coefficient from 1.45 to 0.81 mm 2 h -1 , at the cost of significantly lower R 1 sensitivity. The addition of benzoic acid to the latter gel did not increase the R 1 sensitivity. (author) OK

  13. High incidence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in HIV-related solid immunoblastic/plasmablastic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deloose, S. T. P.; Smit, L. A.; Pals, F. T.; Kersten, M.-J.; van Noesel, C. J. M.; Pals, S. T.


    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ( KSHV) is known to be associated with two distinct lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD)/MCD-associated plasmablastic lymphoma. We here report a high incidence of KSHV infection in solid

  14. A functional equation for the specular reflection of rays. (United States)

    Le Bot, A


    This paper aims to generalize the "radiosity method" when applied to specular reflection. Within the field of thermics, the radiosity method is also called the "standard procedure." The integral equation for incident energy, which is usually derived for diffuse reflection, is replaced by a more appropriate functional equation. The latter is used to solve some specific problems and it is shown that all the classical features of specular reflection, for example, the existence of image sources, are embodied within this equation. This equation can be solved with the ray-tracing technique, despite the implemented mathematics being quite different. Several interesting features of the energy field are presented.

  15. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from a geochemical survey of North America (United States)

    Reeves, J. B.; Smith, D.B.


    In 2004, soils were collected at 220 sites along two transects across the USA and Canada as a pilot study for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). The objective of the current study was to examine the potential of diffuse reflectance (DR) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy to reduce the need for conventional analysis for the determination of major and trace elements in such continental-scale surveys. Soil samples (n = 720) were collected from two transects (east-west across the USA, and north-south from Manitoba, Canada to El Paso, Texas (USA), n = 453 and 267, respectively). The samples came from 19 USA states and the province of Manitoba in Canada. They represented 31 types of land use (e.g., national forest, rangeland, etc.), and 123 different land covers (e.g., soybeans, oak forest, etc.). The samples represented a combination of depth-based sampling (0-5 cm) and horizon-based sampling (O, A and C horizons) with 123 different depths identified. The set was very diverse with few samples similar in land use, land cover, etc. All samples were analyzed by conventional means for the near-total concentration of 49 analytes (Ctotal, Ccarbonate and Corganic, and 46 major and trace elements). Spectra were obtained using dried, ground samples using a Digilab FTS-7000 FT spectrometer in the mid- (4000-400 cm-1) and near-infrared (10,000-4000 cm-1) at 4 cm-1 resolution (64 co-added scans per spectrum) using a Pike AutoDIFF DR autosampler. Partial least squares calibrations were develop using: (1) all samples as a calibration set; (2) samples evenly divided into calibration and validation sets based on spectral diversity; and (3) samples divided to have matching analyte concentrations in calibration and validation sets. In general, results supported the conclusion that neither mid-IR nor NIRS would be particularly useful in reducing the need for conventional

  16. Decay Lengths for Diffusive Transport Activated by Andreev Reflections in Al/n-GaAs/Al Superconductor-Semiconductor-Superconductor Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Clausen, Thomas


    In a highly doped GaAs semiconductor with superconducting contacts of Al, clear conductance peaks are observed at zero voltage bias and at V = +/-2 Delta/e, +/-Delta/e. The subharmonic energy gap structure originates from Andreev scattering with diffusive, but energy conserving, transport in the ...

  17. Implementation of 350-2500 nm diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography to rapidly assess manufacturing consistency and quality of cotrimoxazole tablets in Tanzania. (United States)

    Kaale, Eliangiringa; Hope, Samuel M; Jenkins, David; Layloff, Thomas


    To assess the quality of cotrimoxazole tablets produced by a Tanzanian manufacturer by a newly instituted quality assurance programme. Tablets underwent a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy procedure with periodic quality assessment confirmation by assay and dissolution testing using validated HPTLC techniques (including weight variation and disintegration evaluations). Based on results from the primary test methods, the first group of product was 99% compliance. This approach provides a model for rapidly assuring product quality of future procurements of other products that is more cost-effective than traditional pharmaceutical testing techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of terraces, surface steps and 'over-specular' reflection due to inelastic energy losses on angular scattering spectra for glancing incidence scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Danailov, D; O'Connor, D J


    Recent experiments and our molecular-dynamics simulations indicate that the main signal of the angular scattering spectra of glancing incidence scattering are not affected by the thermal motion of surface atoms and can be explained by our row-model with averaged cylindrical potentials. At the ICACS-18 Conference [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 164-165 (2000) 583] we reported good agreement between experimental and calculated multimodal azimuthal angular scattering spectra for the glancing scattering of 10 and 15 keV [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 180 (2001) 265, Appl. Surf. Sci. 171 (2001) 113] He sup 0 beam along the [1 0 0] direction on the Fe(1 0 0) face. Our simulations also predicted that in contrast to the 2D angular scattering distribution, the 1D azimuthal angular distribution of scattered particles is very sensitive to the interaction potential used. Here, we report more detailed calculations incorporating the influence of terraces and surface steps on surface channeling, which show a reduction of the angular s...

  19. Transmission versus reflectance spectroscopy for quantitation (United States)

    Gardner, Craig M.


    The objective of this work was to compare the accuracy of analyte concentration estimation when using transmission versus diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of a scattering medium. Monte Carlo ray tracing of light through the medium was used in conjunction with pure component absorption spectra and Beer-Lambert absorption along each ray's pathlength to generate matched sets of pseudoabsorbance spectra, containing water and six analytes present in skin. PLS regression models revealed an improvement in accuracy when using transmission compared to reflectance for a range of medium thicknesses and instrument noise levels. An analytical expression revealed the source of the accuracy degradation with reflectance was due both to the reduced collection efficiency for a fixed instrument etendue and to the broad pathlength distribution that detected light travels in the medium before exiting from the incident side.

  20. Iguanas and Salmonella marina infection in children: a reflection of the increasing incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis in the United States. (United States)

    Mermin, J; Hoar, B; Angulo, F J


    To investigate clinical aspects and risk factors for Salmonella serotype Marina infection in the United States. We identified all isolates of S Marina reported in 1994 to the National Salmonella Surveillance System. Patients were interviewed about demographic information, clinical course, diet, travel history, and contact with reptiles before illness. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 patients were infants (iguana exposure, only 4 (14%) touched the reptile, and only 12 respondents (43%) realized that it might have been the source of infection. Seven (32%) of 22 families who owned an iguana at the time of illness continued to own an iguana when contacted a median of 28 weeks later. Persons who thought that the iguana was the source of infection were more likely to have given away or sold the pet than those who did not. Four isolates (13%) were from blood. Bacteremia was associated with taking antibiotics during the 30 days before S Marina infection (odds ratio: 24; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-1309). S Marina infection is a potentially serious illness associated with iguana exposure, and it reflects the larger problem of reptile-associated salmonellosis. Many parents do not know that owning an iguana puts their children at risk for Salmonella infection. Pediatricians, veterinarians, and pet store owners should inform their patients and customers of the potential risks of owning reptiles and provide appropriate preventive education.

  1. Fabrication of silicon solar cell with >18% efficiency using spin-on-film processing for phosphorus diffusion and SiO{sub 2}/graded index TiO{sub 2} anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yi-Yu; Ho, Wen-Jeng, E-mail:; Yeh, Chien-Wu


    Highlights: • Employed SOF technology for both phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer ARCs. • Optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, and SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} films are characterized. • Photovoltaic performances of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. • An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes. - Abstract: This study employed spin-on film (SOF) technology for the fabrication of phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) with a graded index on silicon (Si) wafers. Low cost and high efficiency solar cells are important issues for the operating cost of a photovoltaic system. SOF technology for the fabrication of solar cells can be for the achievement of this goal. This study succeeded in the application of SOF technology in the preparation of both phosphorus diffusion and SiO{sub 2}/graded index TiO{sub 2} ARCs for Si solar cells. Optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, and multi-layer SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} deposition by SOF are characterized. Electrical and optical characteristics of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes.

  2. Wave reflections from breakwaters


    Dickson, William S.


    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  3. Diffuse scattering from laser-irradiated plane targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.G.M. van; Olsen, J.N.; Sachsenmaier, P.; Sigel, R.; Eidmann, K.; Godwin, R.P.


    Optical calorimetry of the laser radiation scattered from plane targets irradiated by 0.3 Joule/30 ps Nd-laser pulses with intensities up to 10 16 W cm -2 has been performed with an emphasis on diffuse scattering. Diffuse scattering outside the solid angle of the focusing lens is found to be a major reflection loss from the target. A fraction of 0.3 to 0.5 of the incident pulse energy was absorbed in the target with only a very weak dependence on pulse energy and target material. (orig.) [de

  4. Propagation of plane waves at the interface of an elastic solid half-space and a microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The problem of reflection and refraction phenomenon due to plane waves incident obliquely at a plane interface between uniform elastic solid half-space and microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space has been studied. It is found that the amplitude ratios of various reflected and refracted waves are functions of angle of incidence, frequency of incident wave and are influenced by the microstretch thermoelastic diffusion properties of the media. The expressions of amplitude ratios and energy ratios are obtained in closed form. The energy ratios have been computed numerically for a particular model. The variations of energy ratios with angle of incidence are shown for thermoelastic diffusion media in the context of Lord-Shulman (L-S (1967 and Green-Lindsay (G-L (1972 theories. The conservation of energy at the interface is verified. Some particular cases are also deduced from the present investigation.

  5. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  6. Determinação não destrutiva do nitrogênio total em plantas por espectroscopia de reflectância difusa no infravermelho próximo Non-destructive determination of total nitrogen in plants by diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio M. G. Lima


    Full Text Available Diffuse reflectance near-infrared (DR-NIR spectroscopy associated with partial least squares (PLS multivariate calibration is proposed for a direct, non-destructive, determination of total nitrogen in wheat leaves. The procedure was developed for an Analytical Instrumental Analysis course, carried out at the Institute of Chemistry of the State University of Campinas. The DR-NIR results are in good agreement with those obtained by the Kjeldhal standard procedure, with a relative error of less than ± 3% and the method may be used for teaching purposes as well as for routine analysis.

  7. Galerkin methods for Boltzmann-Poisson transport with reflection conditions on rough boundaries (United States)

    Morales Escalante, José A.; Gamba, Irene M.


    We consider in this paper the mathematical and numerical modeling of reflective boundary conditions (BC) associated to Boltzmann-Poisson systems, including diffusive reflection in addition to specularity, in the context of electron transport in semiconductor device modeling at nano scales, and their implementation in Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes. We study these BC on the physical boundaries of the device and develop a numerical approximation to model an insulating boundary condition, or equivalently, a pointwise zero flux mathematical condition for the electron transport equation. Such condition balances the incident and reflective momentum flux at the microscopic level, pointwise at the boundary, in the case of a more general mixed reflection with momentum dependant specularity probability p (k →). We compare the computational prediction of physical observables given by the numerical implementation of these different reflection conditions in our DG scheme for BP models, and observe that the diffusive condition influences the kinetic moments over the whole domain in position space.

  8. Gene expression changes reflect clinical response in a placebo-controlled randomized trial of abatacept in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    Chakravarty, Eliza F; Martyanov, Viktor; Fiorentino, David; Wood, Tammara A; Haddon, David James; Jarrell, Justin Ansel; Utz, Paul J; Genovese, Mark C; Whitfield, Michael L; Chung, Lorinda


    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. We sought to assess the clinical and molecular effects associated with response to intravenous abatacept in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic. Adult diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis patients were randomized in a 2:1 double-blinded fashion to receive abatacept or placebo over 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were safety and the change in modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) at week 24 compared with baseline. Improvers were defined as patients with a decrease in mRSS of ≥30% post-treatment compared to baseline. Skin biopsies were obtained for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analyses and intrinsic gene expression subset assignment. Ten subjects were randomized to abatacept (n = 7) or placebo (n = 3). Disease duration from first non-Raynaud's symptom was significantly longer (8.8 ± 3.8 years vs. 2.4 ± 1.6 years, p = 0.004) and median mRSS was higher (30 vs. 22, p = 0.05) in the placebo compared to abatacept group. Adverse events were similar in the two groups. Five out of seven patients (71%) randomized to abatacept and one out of three patients (33%) randomized to placebo experienced ≥30% improvement in skin score. Subjects receiving abatacept showed a trend toward improvement in mRSS at week 24 (-8.6 ± 7.5, p = 0.0625) while those in the placebo group did not (-2.3 ± 15, p = 0.75). After adjusting for disease duration, mRSS significantly improved in the abatacept compared with the placebo group (abatacept vs. placebo mRSS decrease estimate -9.8, 95% confidence interval -16.7 to -3.0, p = 0.0114). In the abatacept group, the patients in the inflammatory intrinsic subset showed a trend toward greater improvement in skin score at 24 weeks compared with the patients in the normal-like intrinsic subset (-13.5 ± 3.1 vs. -4.5 ± 6.4, p = 0.067). Abatacept resulted in decreased CD28 co-stimulatory gene expression in improvers

  9. Tunable Reflective Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer: A Technique for High Resolving Power, Wide Field Of View Observation Of Diffuse Emission Line Sources (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Sona

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discuss the need for new technology in broadband high-resolution spectroscopy based on the emerging technique of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) and to propose new solutions that should enhance and generalize this technology to other fields. Spectroscopy is a proven tool for determining compositional and other properties of remote objects. Narrow band imaging and low resolving spectroscopic measurements provide information about composition, photochemical evolution, energy distribution and density. The extension to high resolving power provides further access to temperature, velocity, isotopic ratios, separation of blended sources, and opacity effects. In current high resolving power devices, the drawback of high-resolution spectroscopy is bound to the instrumental limitations of lower throughput, the necessity of small entrance apertures, sensitivity, field of view, and large physical instrumental size. These limitations quickly become handicapping for observation of faint and/or extended targets and for spacecraft encounters. A technique with promise for the study of faint and extended sources at high resolving power is the reflective format of the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS). SHS instruments are compact and naturally tailored for both high etendue (defined in section 2.2.5) and high resolving power. In contrast, to achieve similar spectral grasp, grating spectrometers require large telescopes. For reference, SHS is a cyclical interferometer that produces Fizeau fringe pattern for all other wavelengths except the tuned wavelength. The large etendue obtained by SHS instruments makes them ideal for observations of extended, low surface brightness, isolated emission line sources, while their intrinsically high spectral resolution enables one to study the dynamical and physical properties described above. This document contains four chapters. Chapter 1, introduces a class of scientific targets that formerly have

  10. Model of bidirectional reflectance distribution function for metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Zhu Jing-Ping; Liu Hong; Hou Xun


    Based on the three-component assumption that the reflection is divided into specular reflection, directional diffuse reflection, and ideal diffuse reflection, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model of metallic materials is presented. Compared with the two-component assumption that the reflection is composed of specular reflection and diffuse reflection, the three-component assumption divides the diffuse reflection into directional diffuse and ideal diffuse reflection. This model effectively resolves the problem that constant diffuse reflection leads to considerable error for metallic materials. Simulation and measurement results validate that this three-component BRDF model can improve the modeling accuracy significantly and describe the reflection properties in the hemisphere space precisely for the metallic materials. (paper)

  11. Model of bidirectional reflectance distribution function for metallic materials (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Hong; Hou, Xun


    Based on the three-component assumption that the reflection is divided into specular reflection, directional diffuse reflection, and ideal diffuse reflection, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model of metallic materials is presented. Compared with the two-component assumption that the reflection is composed of specular reflection and diffuse reflection, the three-component assumption divides the diffuse reflection into directional diffuse and ideal diffuse reflection. This model effectively resolves the problem that constant diffuse reflection leads to considerable error for metallic materials. Simulation and measurement results validate that this three-component BRDF model can improve the modeling accuracy significantly and describe the reflection properties in the hemisphere space precisely for the metallic materials.

  12. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice


    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  13. Impact of Lipid Oxidization on Vertical Structures and Electrostatics of Phospholipid Monolayers Revealed by Combination of Specular X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing-Incidence X-ray Fluorescence. (United States)

    Korytowski, Agatha; Abuillan, Wasim; Makky, Ali; Konovalov, Oleg; Tanaka, Motomu


    The influence of phospholipid oxidization of floating monolayers on the structure perpendicular to the global plane and on the density profiles of ions near the lipid monolayer has been investigated by a combination of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF) and specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Systematic variation of the composition of the floating monolayers unravels changes in the thickness, roughness and electron density of the lipid monolayers as a function of molar fraction of oxidized phospholipids. Simultaneous GIXF measurements enable one to qualitatively determine the element-specific density profiles of monovalent (K(+) or Cs(+)) and divalent ions (Ca(2+)) in the vicinity of the interface in the presence and absence of two types of oxidized phospholipids (PazePC and PoxnoPC) with high spatial accuracy (±5 Å). We found the condensation of Ca(2+) near carboxylated PazePC was more pronounced compared to PoxnoPC with an aldehyde group. In contrast, the condensation of monovalent ions could hardly be detected even for pure oxidized phospholipid monolayers. Moreover, pure phospholipid monolayers exhibited almost no ion specific condensation near the interface. The quantitative studies with well-defined floating monolayers revealed how the elevation of lipid oxidization level alters the structures and functions of cell membranes.

  14. Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution. (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Liang, Lanju; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Jin, Biaobing; Liu, Weiwei


    Suppressing specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section is important and of broad interests in practical electromagnetic engineering. Here, we present a scheme to achieve broadband backward scattering reduction through diffuse terahertz wave reflection by a flexible metasurface. The diffuse scattering of terahertz wave is caused by the randomized reflection phase distribution on the metasurface, which consists of meta-particles of differently sized metallic patches arranged on top of a grounded polyimide substrate simply through a certain computer generated pseudorandom sequence. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the ultralow specular reflection over a broad frequency band and wide angle of incidence due to the re-distribution of the incident energy into various directions. The diffuse scattering property is also polarization insensitive and can be well preserved when the flexible metasurface is conformably wrapped on a curved reflective object. The proposed design opens up a new route for specular reflection suppression, and may be applicable in stealth and other technology in the terahertz spectrum.

  15. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András


    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  16. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM


    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  17. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (second report): sensitivity improvement of Fourier-spectroscopic imaging to detect diffuse reflection lights from internal human tissues for healthcare sensors (United States)

    Kawashima, Natsumi; Hosono, Satsuki; Ishimaru, Ichiro


    We proposed the snapshot-type Fourier spectroscopic imaging for smartphone that was mentioned in 1st. report in this conference. For spectroscopic components analysis, such as non-invasive blood glucose sensors, the diffuse reflection lights from internal human skins are very weak for conventional hyperspectral cameras, such as AOTF (Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter) type. Furthermore, it is well known that the spectral absorption of mid-infrared lights or Raman spectroscopy especially in long wavelength region is effective to distinguish specific biomedical components quantitatively, such as glucose concentration. But the main issue was that photon energies of middle infrared lights and light intensities of Raman scattering are extremely weak. For improving sensitivity of our spectroscopic imager, the wide-field-stop & beam-expansion method was proposed. Our line spectroscopic imager introduced a single slit for field stop on the conjugate objective plane. Obviously to increase detected light intensities, the wider slit width of the field stop makes light intensities higher, regardless of deterioration of spatial resolutions. Because our method is based on wavefront-division interferometry, it becomes problems that the wider width of single slit makes the diffraction angle narrower. This means that the narrower diameter of collimated objective beams deteriorates visibilities of interferograms. By installing the relative inclined phaseshifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected optical systems, the collimated half flux of objective beams derived from single-bright points on objective surface penetrate through the wedge prism and the cuboid glass respectively. These two beams interfere each other and form the infererogram as spatial fringe patterns. Thus, we installed concave-cylindrical lens between the wider slit and objective lens as a beam expander. We successfully obtained the spectroscopic characters of hemoglobin from reflected lights from

  18. Calculation of Reflectance and Transmittance of Coating With Optically Rough Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Depsy, A.; Shawky, A.M.


    For ideal surfaces, components of the reflected beam are related to the components of the incident beam by Fresnel reflection equation. The surfaces encountered in engineering applications deviate from ideal as a result of roughness, oxidization and contamination; hence the Radiative properties of these real surfaces differ greatly from those predicted by electromagnetic theory. In regard to problems of radiative heat transfer; the roughness of surfaces may be divided into two categories: (1) small surface irregularities such that the incident radiation cannot undergo more than a single reflection, (2) deep cavities in which the incident radiation undergoes multi-reflection. The normally incident radiation from rough surface having small irregularities is reflected partly specularly and partly diffusely [1]. Kubelka-Munk theory (K-M) [2] describes optical characteristics (e.g. reflectance, transmittance and absorbance) by a variety of light scattering media including paints, textiles and papers, and It is widely used in various industrial applications. Moder developments in radiative transfer theory (RTT) enable the derivation of (K-M) parameters from first principles [3]. Kubelka and Munk proposed a theory based on a model of two light fluxes travelling in the forward and backward directions. Subsequently a number of authors refined the theory and compared it with experimental data [4]. Several authors attempted to relate the Kubelka- Munk coefficients to the transport coefficients [5,6

  19. Diffraction and diffusion in room acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit


    Diffraction and diffusion are two phenomena that are both related to the wave nature of sound. Diffraction due to the finite size of reflecting surfaces and the design of single reflectors and reflector arrays are discussed. Diffusion is the result of scattering of sound reflected from surfaces...... that are not plane but curved or irregular. The importance of diffusion has been demonstrated in concert halls. Methods for the design of diffusing surfaces and the development of new types of diffusers are reviewed. Finally, the importance of diffraction and diffusion in room acoustic computer models is discussed....

  20. Contribution to {pi}{sup +}p inelastic scattering at incoming pion energies near 1 GeV; Contribution a la diffusion inelastique {pi}{sup +}p pour des energies du {pi} incident voisines de 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deler, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Results on {pi}{sup +}p scattering at 810 and 1300 MeV incoming kinetic energy are presented. In the three-body final states ({pi}{sup +}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p or {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}n) the N{sup *}{sub 33} production is strongly dominant. At 1300 MeV one also observes the {rho}, N{sup *}{sub 1/2} {sub 3/2} and N{sup *}{sub 1/2} {sub 5/2} productions. The difficulty in correctly separating these channels demands trying a more general analysis, taking simultaneously into account several processes (N{sup *}{pi}, {rho}N,...). A generalized isobaric model is discussed. Assuming the interaction of particles by pairs, we can carry out a partial wave analysis of the three body final state reactions. The expansion of the differential cross section in spherical harmonics for data between 600 and 1460 MeV (compilation of data from different laboratories) leads to a simple discussion of the angular effects for different parts of the Dalitz plot. A partial wave analysis has been made below 1 GeV. The reaction p {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} is correctly explained by considering only the N{sup *}{sub 33} production. The different partial waves are in agreement with the elastic phase shift analysis, except for the wave SD1 (corresponding to the elastic wave S31) which is found to be small. Therefore, the S31 resonance appears weakly coupled to the N{sup *}{sub 33}-{pi} channel. (author) [French] Les resultats de la mesure de la diffusion {pi}{sup +}p pour des energies cinetiques du {pi} incident egales a 810 MeV et 1300 MeV sont presentes. Dans les reactions a trois corps, {pi}{sup +}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p ou {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}n, la production de l'isobare 3/2 3/2 est fortement dominante. A 1300 MeV, on observe egalement la production du {rho} et des isobares 1/2 3/2 et 1/2 5/2. L'impossibilite de separer correctement ces differentes productions demande de chercher a effectuer l'analyse des donnees sous une forme plus generale permettant de tenir compte

  1. On the Aharonov-Bohm diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasnieres de Veigy, A.; Ouvry, S.; Paris-6 Univ., 75


    The diffusion of a charged particle by a singular flux tube is revisited. A simple and rigourous derivation shows that the action of the propagator on an incident plane wave precisely yields the Aharonov-Bohm diffusion amplitude. The forward diffusion is discussed as well as the singularity of the interaction at the position of the flux tube. (orig.)

  2. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.


    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  3. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P


    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  4. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William


    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  5. Experimental evidence of an effective medium seen by diffuse light in turbid colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Tello, H; Garcia-Valenzuela, A


    The propagation of diffuse light in turbid media is usually modeled with radiative transfer theory. When diffuse light travelling in a turbid colloid is reflected and transmitted at a flat interface where there is a refractive index mismatch, it is not clear whether one should assume the incident diffuse-light is travelling in a medium with a refractive index equal to that of the background medium (usually referred to as the matrix) or if one should assume it travels in an effective medium. Most authors simply avoid this issue and most often use the refractive index of the matrix. While this might be a good approximation for dilute turbid media one may suspect that for highly scattering materials it may not be the case. In this work we investigate experimentally this issue. Our experimental results provide clear evidence that diffuse light inside the turbid colloid travels in an effective medium and not in the matrix.

  6. Application of the three-component bidirectional reflectance distribution function model to Monte Carlo calculation of spectral effective emissivities of nonisothermal blackbody cavities. (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander; Prokhorova, Nina I


    We applied the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model consisting of diffuse, quasi-specular, and glossy components to the Monte Carlo modeling of spectral effective emissivities for nonisothermal cavities. A method for extension of a monochromatic three-component (3C) BRDF model to a continuous spectral range is proposed. The initial data for this method are the BRDFs measured in the plane of incidence at a single wavelength and several incidence angles and directional-hemispherical reflectance measured at one incidence angle within a finite spectral range. We proposed the Monte Carlo algorithm for calculation of spectral effective emissivities for nonisothermal cavities whose internal surface is described by the wavelength-dependent 3C BRDF model. The results obtained for a cylindroconical nonisothermal cavity are discussed and compared with results obtained using the conventional specular-diffuse model.

  7. Spectrometer system for diffuse extreme ultraviolet radiation (United States)

    Labov, Simon E.


    A unique grazing incidence spectrometer system has been designed to study diffuse line emission between 80 and 650 A with 10-30 A resolution. The minimum detectable emission line strength during a 5-min observation ranges from 100-2000 ph/sq cm sec str. The instrument uses mechanically ruled reflection gratings placed in front of a linear array of mirrors. These mirrors focus the spectral image on microchannel plate detectors located behind thin filters. The field of view is 40 min of arc by 15 deg, and there is no spatial imaging. This instrument has been fabricated, calibrated, and successfully flown on a sounding rocket to observe the astronomical background radiation.

  8. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.


    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  9. Conservative diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, E.A.


    In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions. These diffusions are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients. Using PDE methods, we prove the existence of solutions. This reult provides a rigorous basis for stochastic mechanics. (orig.)

  10. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  11. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.


    A scintillating crystal's surface reflectance has to be well understood in order to accurately predict and optimize the crystal's light collection through Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we measure the inner surface reflectance properties for BGO. The measurements include BGO crystals with a mechanically polished surface, rough-cut surface, and chemically etched surface, and with various reflectors attached, both air-coupled and with coupling compound. The measurements are performed with a laser aimed at the center of a hemispherical shaped BGO crystal. The hemispherical shape eliminates any non-perpendicular angles for light entering and exiting the crystal. The reflected light is collected with an array of photodiodes. The laser can be set at an arbitrary angle, and the photodiode array is rotated to fully cover 2pi of solid angle. The current produced in the photodiodes is readout with a digital multimeter connected through a multiplexer. The two rows of photodiodes achieve 5-degree by 4-degree resolution, and the current measurement has a dynamic range of 105:1. The acquired data was not described by the commonly assumed linear combination of specular and diffuse (Lambertian) distributions, except for a very few surfaces. Surface roughness proved to be the most important parameter when choosing crystal setup. The reflector choice was of less importance and of almost no consequence for rough-cut surfaces. Pure specular reflection distribution for all incidence angles was measured for polished surfaces with VM2000 film, while the most Lambertian distribution for any surface finish was measured for titanium dioxide paint. The distributions acquired in this paper will be used to create more accurate Monte Carlo models for light reflection distribution within BGO crystals.

  12. Selectively reflective transparent sheets (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.


    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  13. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  14. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.


    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  15. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde


    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  16. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay


    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  17. Studies of diffuse and direct solar radiation over snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesely, M.L.; Everett, R.G.


    Two interesting questions can be addressed by examination of solar radiation records obtained while the surface is covered with snow. One concerns the extent to which airborne particulate matter affects solar radiation received at the surface during winter conditions that are typical of those in the northeastern quarter of the United States. The other relates to the importance of complicated light scatterng in the earth-atmosphere system when the surface albedo is large. With the snow surface reflecting 50% or more of the incident radiation, it is likely that a significant addition to diffuse radiation would result from light that is reflected from the surface and then scattered back to the earth by the atmosphere. Preliminary data from measurements made during the winter of 1975 to 1976 are reported

  18. Long-term calibration monitoring of Spectralon diffusers BRDF in the air-ultraviolet. (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T; Butler, James J


    Long-term calibration monitoring of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of Spectralon diffusers in the air-ultraviolet is presented. Four Spectralon diffusers were monitored in this study. Three of the diffusers, designated as H1, H2, and H3, were used in the prelaunch radiance calibration of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/2 (SBUV/2) satellite instruments on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 14 and 16. A fourth diffuser, designated as the 400 diffuser, was used in the prelaunch calibration of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument scheduled for initial flight in 2009 on the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project. The BRDF data of this study were obtained between 1994 and 2005 using the scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Diffuser Calibration Laboratory. The diffusers were measured at 13 wavelengths between 230 and 425 nm at the incident and scatter angles used in the prelaunch calibrations of SBUV/2 and OMPS. Spectral features in the BRDF of Spectralon are also discussed. The comparison shows how the air-ultraviolet BRDF of these Spectralon samples changed over time under clean room deployment conditions.

  19. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin


    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  20. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.


    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12 degrees). Beamline calorimeters, of a ''V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ''V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected

  1. Reflectance Modeling (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.


    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  2. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients ... (United States)

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. The products included the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd_490) and for the visible range (Kd_PAR), and euphotic depth (Zeu, corresponding to 1% of the surface incident photosynthetically available radiation or PAR). Above-water hyperspectral reflectance data collected over optically shallow waters of the Florida Keys between June 1997 and August 2011 were used to help understand algorithm performance over optically shallow waters. The in situ data covered a variety of water types in South Florida and the Caribbean Sea, ranging from deep clear waters, turbid coastal waters, and optically shallow waters (Kd_490 range of ~0.03 – 1.29m-1). An algorithm based on Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) showed the best performance (RMSD turbidity or shallow bottom contamination. Similar results were obtained when only in situ data were used to evaluate algorithm performance. The excellent agreement between satellite-derived remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and in situ Rrs suggested that

  3. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown


    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ

  4. Interface morphology of Mo/Si multilayer systems with varying Mo layer thickness studied by EUV diffuse scattering. (United States)

    Haase, Anton; Soltwisch, Victor; Braun, Stefan; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank


    We investigate the influence of the Mo-layer thickness on the EUV reflectance of Mo/Si mirrors with a set of unpolished and interface-polished Mo/Si/C multilayer mirrors. The Mo-layer thickness is varied in the range from 1.7 nm to 3.05 nm. We use a novel combination of specular and diffuse intensity measurements to determine the interface roughness throughout the multilayer stack and do not rely on scanning probe measurements at the surface only. The combination of EUV and X-ray reflectivity measurements and near-normal incidence EUV diffuse scattering allows to reconstruct the Mo layer thicknesses and to determine the interface roughness power spectral density. The data analysis is conducted by applying a matrix method for the specular reflection and the distorted-wave Born approximation for diffuse scattering. We introduce the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method into the field in order to determine the respective confidence intervals for all reconstructed parameters. We unambiguously detect a threshold thickness for Mo in both sample sets where the specular reflectance goes through a local minimum correlated with a distinct increase in diffuse scatter. We attribute that to the known appearance of an amorphous-to-crystallization transition at a certain thickness threshold which is altered in our sample system by the polishing.

  5. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.


    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  6. A geometrical optics polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function for dielectric and metallic surfaces. (United States)

    Hyde, M W; Schmidt, J D; Havrilla, M J


    A polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), based on geometrical optics, is presented. The pBRDF incorporates a visibility (shadowing/masking) function and a Lambertian (diffuse) component which distinguishes it from other geometrical optics pBRDFs in literature. It is shown that these additions keep the pBRDF bounded (and thus a more realistic physical model) as the angle of incidence or observation approaches grazing and better able to model the behavior of light scattered from rough, reflective surfaces. In this paper, the theoretical development of the pBRDF is shown and discussed. Simulation results of a rough, perfect reflecting surface obtained using an exact, electromagnetic solution and experimental Mueller matrix results of two, rough metallic samples are presented to validate the pBRDF.

  7. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.


    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  8. Measures of Disease Frequency: Prevalence and Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.


    To describe how often a disease or another health event occurs in a population, different measures of disease frequency can be used. The prevalence reflects the number of existing cases of a disease. In contrast to the prevalence, the incidence reflects the number of new cases of disease and can be

  9. Diffusion MRI findings in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)


    Two patients with phenylketonuria were studied who were under dietary control since infancy, and who were mentally normal. Diffusion MRI was obtained using a spin-echo, echo-planar sequence with a gradient strength of 30 mT/m at 1.5 T. A trace sequence (TR=5700 ms, and TE=139 ms) was used, acquired in 22 s. Heavily diffusion-weighted (b=1000 mm{sup 2}/s) images, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from automatically generated ADC maps were studied. There were two different patterns in these two patients, restricted and increased diffusion patterns. Restricted diffusion pattern consisted of high-signal on b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images with low ADC values ranging from 0.46 to 0.57 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. Increased diffusion pattern consisted of normal b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images with high ADC values ranging from 1.37 to 1.63 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. It is likely that these values reflected presence of two different histopathological changes in phenylketonuria or reflected different stages of the same disease. (orig.)

  10. Diffusion MRI findings in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, R.N.


    Two patients with phenylketonuria were studied who were under dietary control since infancy, and who were mentally normal. Diffusion MRI was obtained using a spin-echo, echo-planar sequence with a gradient strength of 30 mT/m at 1.5 T. A trace sequence (TR=5700 ms, and TE=139 ms) was used, acquired in 22 s. Heavily diffusion-weighted (b=1000 mm 2 /s) images, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from automatically generated ADC maps were studied. There were two different patterns in these two patients, restricted and increased diffusion patterns. Restricted diffusion pattern consisted of high-signal on b=1000 s/mm 2 images with low ADC values ranging from 0.46 to 0.57 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. Increased diffusion pattern consisted of normal b=1000 s/mm 2 images with high ADC values ranging from 1.37 to 1.63 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. It is likely that these values reflected presence of two different histopathological changes in phenylketonuria or reflected different stages of the same disease. (orig.)

  11. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.


    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  12. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  13. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.


    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  14. Multipassage diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalis, A.; Rouviere, R.; Simon, G.


    A multipassage diffuser having 2p passages comprises a leak-tight cylindrical enclosure closed by a top cover and a bottom end-wall, parallel porous tubes which are rigidly assembled in sectors between tube plates and through which the gas mixture flows, the tube sectors being disposed at uniform intervals on the periphery of the enclosure. The top tube plates are rigidly fixed to an annular header having the shape of a half-torus and adapted to communicate with the tubes of the corresponding sector. Each passage is constituted by a plurality of juxtaposed sectors in which the mixture circulates in the same direction, the header being divided into p portions limited by radial partition-walls and each constituting two adjacent passages. The diffuser is provided beneath the bottom end-wall with p-1 leak-tight chambers each adapted to open into two different portions of the header, and with two collector-chambers each fitted with a nozzle for introducing the gas mixture and discharging the fraction of the undiffused mixture. By means of a central orifice formed in the bottom end-wall the enclosure communicates with a shaft for discharging the diffused fraction of the gas mixture

  15. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel


    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  16. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo


    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  17. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette


    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  18. Reflective Packaging (United States)


    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  19. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    research evidence.Perhaps EBLIP proponents need to start thinking about the best ways to be reflective practitioners. Could we start a new type of “journal club” where practitioners keep journals as reflective tools, and meet regularly to work through problems and give one another feedback? Or pair up with a reflective partner to have discussions on critical incidents that occurred within our practice? I am sure some people are already doing this, or are finding other mediums such as blogs, wikis, and mailing lists to reflect on elements of practice and engage others who are interested in the topic. However, coming up with concrete strategies for developing reflection within our profession needs to be more widely discussed and articulated. Our professional bodies would be a good starting place, and via these bodies developing skills through continuing professional development. We can learn a lot from other fields such as Education and Nursing, which have more fully incorporated elements of reflection into their practice. We also need to consider the best way to integrate our reflection with available research. I’m sure there are many ideas just waiting to be put into action, or already happening (in which case we would love to hear about them. As with anything worthwhile, there is no simple formula for success, but there is a valuable goal; in this case, improving our practice for the benefit of our patrons and a better understanding of how and why we do what we do as librarians and information professionals.

  20. Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lekner, John


    This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods,  reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...

  1. In vivo determination of the optical properties of muscle with time-resolved reflectance using a layered model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, A.; Glanzmann, T.


    We have investigated the possibility of determining the optical coefficients of muscle in the extremities with in vivo time-resolved reflectance measurements using a layered model. A solution of the diffusion equation for two layers was fitted to three-layered Monte Carlo calculations simulating the skin, the subcutaneous fat and the muscle. Relative time-resolved reflectance data at two distances were used to derive the optical coefficients of the layers. We found for skin and subcutaneous fat layer thicknesses (l 2 ) of up to 10 mm that the estimated absorption coefficients of the second layer of the diffusion model have differences of less than 20% compared with those of the muscle layer of the Monte Carlo simulations if the thickness of the first layer of the diffusion model is also fitted. If l 2 is known, the differences are less than 5%, whereas the use of a semi-infinite model delivers differences of up to 55%. Even if l 2 is only approximately known the absorption coefficient of the muscle can be determined accurately. Experimentally, the time-resolved reflectance was measured on the forearms of volunteers at two distances from the incident beam by means of a streak camera. The thicknesses of the tissues involved were determined by ultrasound. The optical coefficients were derived from these measurements by applying the two-layered diffusion model, and results in accordance with the theoretical studies were observed. (author)

  2. Quantum diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.


    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source

  3. Frustrated Total Internal Reflection: A Simple Application and Demonstration. (United States)

    Zanella, F. P.; Magalhaes, D. V.; Oliveira, M. M.; Bianchi, R. F.; Misoguti, L.; Mendonca, C. R.


    Describes the total internal reflection process that occurs when the internal angle of incidence is equal to or greater than the critical angle. Presents a demonstration of the effect of frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR). (YDS)

  4. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  5. The UHV Experimental Chamber For Optical Measurements (Reflectivity and Absorption) and Angle Resolved Photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, L.; Nannarone, S.; De Luisa, A.


    The experimental station of the BEAR (Bending magnet for Emission, Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline at ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) is an UHV chamber conceived to fully exploit the spectroscopic possibilities offered by the light spot produced by the beamline. Spectroscopies include reflectivity (θ-2θ and diffuse), optical absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission. The chamber can be rotated around the beam axis to select the s (TE) or p (TM) incidence conditions and/or the position of the ellipse of polarization with respect to the sample. Photon detectors (e.g. photodiodes) and electron detector (hemispherical analyzer - 1 deg. angular resolution, 20 meV energy resolution) cover about completely the full 2π solid angle above the sample surface in any light incidence condition

  6. Reflected Glory (United States)


    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  7. Thin transparent film characterization by photothermal reflectance (abstract) (United States)

    Li Voti, R.; Wright, O. B.; Matsuda, O.; Larciprete, M. C.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.


    Photothermal reflectance methods have been intensively applied to the nondestructive testing of opaque thin films [D. P. Almond and P. M. Patel, Photothermal Science and Techniques (Chapman and Hall, London, 1996); C. Bento and D. P. Almond, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1022 (1995); J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, and D. Willenborg, Appl. Opt. 22, 3169 (1983)]. The basic principle is based on thermal wave interferometry: the opaque specimen is illuminated by a laser beam, periodically chopped at the frequency f, so as to generate a plane thermal wave in the surface region. This wave propagates in the film, approaches the rear interface (film-bulk), is partially reflected back, reaches the front surface, is again partially reflected back and so on, giving rise to thermal wave interference. A consequence of this interference is that the surface temperature may be enhanced (constructive interference) or reduced (destructive interference) by simply scanning the frequency f (that is, the thermal diffusion length μ=√D/πf ), so as to observe damped oscillations as a function of f; in practice only the first oscillation may be clearly resolved and used to measure either the film thickness d or the film thermal diffusivity D, and this situation occurs when μ≈d. In general, photothermal reflectance does not measure directly the surface temperature variation, but rather a directly related signal determined by the thermo-optic coefficients and the sample geometry; for detection it is common to monitor the optical reflectivity variation of a probe beam normally incident on the sample. If the thin film is partially transparent to the probe, the theory becomes more difficult [O. Matsuda and O. B. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (in press)] and one should consider the probe beam multiple reflections in the thin film. The probe modulation is optically inhomogeneous due to the temperature-induced changes in refractive index. Although in the past the complexity of the analysis has impeded

  8. Timing the total reflection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, Dominique; Bonnet, Christophe; Dunseath, Kevin; Emile, Olivier; Le Floch, Albert


    We have identified for the first time the absolute delay at total reflection, envisioned by Newton. We show that there are in fact two divergent Wigner delays, depending on the polarisation of the incident light. These measurements give a new insight on the passage from total reflection to refraction

  9. Diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de.


    The use of neutron scattering to study atomic disorder in metals and alloys is described. The diffuse elastic scattering of neutrons by a perfect crystal lattice leads to a diffraction spectrum with only Bragg spreads. the existence of disorder in the crystal results in intensity and position modifications to these spreads, and above all, to the appearance of a low intensity scatter between Bragg peaks. The elastic scattering of neutrons is treated in this text, i.e. by measuring the number of scattered neutrons having the same energy as the incident neutrons. Such measurements yield information on the static disorder in the crystal and time average fluctuations in composition and atomic displacements [fr

  10. Comparing near-infrared conventional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for determination of the bulk properties of solid samples by multivariate regression: determination of Mooney viscosity and plasticity indices of natural rubber. (United States)

    Juliano da Silva, Carlos; Pasquini, Celio


    Conventional reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and hyperspectral imaging (HI) in the near-infrared region (1000-2500 nm) are evaluated and compared, using, as the case study, the determination of relevant properties related to the quality of natural rubber. Mooney viscosity (MV) and plasticity indices (PI) (PI0 - original plasticity, PI30 - plasticity after accelerated aging, and PRI - the plasticity retention index after accelerated aging) of rubber were determined using multivariate regression models. Two hundred and eighty six samples of rubber were measured using conventional and hyperspectral near-infrared imaging reflectance instruments in the range of 1000-2500 nm. The sample set was split into regression (n = 191) and external validation (n = 95) sub-sets. Three instruments were employed for data acquisition: a line scanning hyperspectral camera and two conventional FT-NIR spectrometers. Sample heterogeneity was evaluated using hyperspectral images obtained with a resolution of 150 × 150 μm and principal component analysis. The probed sample area (5 cm(2); 24,000 pixels) to achieve representativeness was found to be equivalent to the average of 6 spectra for a 1 cm diameter probing circular window of one FT-NIR instrument. The other spectrophotometer can probe the whole sample in only one measurement. The results show that the rubber properties can be determined with very similar accuracy and precision by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression models regardless of whether HI-NIR or conventional FT-NIR produce the spectral datasets. The best Root Mean Square Errors of Prediction (RMSEPs) of external validation for MV, PI0, PI30, and PRI were 4.3, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Though the quantitative results provided by the three instruments can be considered equivalent, the hyperspectral imaging instrument presents a number of advantages, being about 6 times faster than conventional bulk spectrometers, producing robust spectral data by ensuring sample

  11. Characterizing the reflectivity of handheld display devices. (United States)

    Liu, Peter; Badano, Aldo


    With increased use of handheld and tablet display devices for viewing medical images, methods for consistently measuring reflectivity of the devices are needed. In this note, the authors report on the characterization of diffuse reflections for handheld display devices including mobile phones and tablets using methods recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 (TG18). The authors modified the diffuse reflectance coefficient measurement method outlined in the TG18 report. The authors measured seven handheld display devices (two phones and five tablets) and three workstation displays. The device was attached to a black panel with Velcro. To study the effect of the back surface on the diffuse reflectance coefficient, the authors created Styrofoam masks with different size square openings and placed it in front of the device. Overall, for each display device, measurements of illuminance and reflected luminance on the display screen were taken. The authors measured with no mask, with masks of varying size, and with display-size masks, and calculated the corresponding diffuse reflectance coefficient. For all handhelds, the diffuse reflectance coefficient measured with no back panel were lower than measurements performed with a mask. The authors found an overall increase in reflectivity as the size of the mask decreases. For workstations displays, diffuse reflectance coefficients were higher when no back panel was used, and higher than with masks. In all cases, as luminance increased, illuminance increased, but not at the same rate. Since the size of handheld displays is smaller than that of workstation devices, the TG18 method suffers from a dependency on illumination condition. The authors show that the diffuse reflection coefficients can vary depending on the nature of the back surface of the illuminating box. The variability in the diffuse coefficient can be as large as 20% depending on the size of the mask. For all measurements

  12. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk


    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  13. Determinação de sibutramina em formas farmacêuticas através de espectroscopia no infravermelho com refletância difusa e métodos de calibração multivariada Determination of sibutramine in pharmaceutical formulations by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Florencio Maluf


    Full Text Available The goal of this work is the development and validation of an analytical method for fast quantification of sibutramine in pharmaceutical formulations, using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and partial least square regression. The multivariate model was elaborated from 22 mixtures containing sibutramine and excipients (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide and magnesium stearate and using fragmented (750-1150/ 1350-1500/ 1850-1950/ 2600-2900 cm-1 and smoothing spectral data. Using 10 latent variables, excellent predictive capacity were observed in the calibration (n=20, RMSEC=0.004, R= 0.999 and external validation (n=5, RMSEC= 9.36, R=0.999 phases. In the analysis of synthetic mixtures the precision (SD=3,47% was compatible with the rules of the Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA-Brazil. In the analysis of commercial drugs good agreement was observed between spectroscopic and chromatographic methods.

  14. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Discrepant Fractional Anisotropy Between the Frontal and Parietal Lobes After Whole-Brain Irradiation in Childhood Medulloblastoma Survivors: Reflection of Regional White Matter Radiosensitivity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Deqiang; Kwong, Dora; Chan, Godfrey; Leung, Lucullus; Khong, P.-L.


    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that fractional anisotropy (FA) is more severely reduced in white matter of the frontal lobe compared with the parietal lobe after receiving the same whole-brain irradiation dose in a cohort of childhood medulloblastoma survivors. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two medulloblastoma survivors (15 male, mean [± SD] age = 12.1 ± 4.6 years) and the same number of control subjects (15 male, aged 12.0 ± 4.2 years) were recruited for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans. Using an automated tissue classification method and the Talairach Daemon atlas, FA values of frontal and parietal lobes receiving the same radiation dose, and the ratio between them were quantified and denoted as FFA, PFA, and FA f/p , respectively. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for significant differences of FFA, PFA, and FA f/p between medulloblastoma survivors and control subjects. Results: Frontal lobe and parietal lobe white matter FA were found to be significantly less in medulloblastoma survivors compared with control subjects (frontal p = 0.001, parietal p = 0.026). Moreover, these differences were found to be discrepant, with the frontal lobe having a significantly larger difference in FA compared with the parietal lobe. The FA f/p of control and medulloblastoma survivors was 1.110 and 1.082, respectively (p = 0.029). Conclusion: Discrepant FA changes after the same irradiation dose suggest radiosensitivity of the frontal lobe white matter compared with the parietal lobe. Special efforts to address the potentially vulnerable frontal lobe after treatment with whole-brain radiation may be needed so as to balance disease control and treatment-related morbidity

  15. Diffusing diffusivity: a new derivation and comparison with simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rohit Jain

    active media, where the relation of Eq.(1) is not valid at all times.4–6 ... tional diffusion of dumbbells in 2D porous media of stationary hard ..... reflecting boundary condition at D = 0, i.e., πeq(D) = 1. D0 .... Superdiffusion and viscoelastic vortex flows in a two- .... gator for Free, Linear, and Harmonic Potentials in the. Over- and ...

  16. Quadratic soliton self-reflection at a quadratically nonlinear interface (United States)

    Jankovic, Ladislav; Kim, Hongki; Stegeman, George; Carrasco, Silvia; Torner, Lluis; Katz, Mordechai


    The reflection of bulk quadratic solutions incident onto a quadratically nonlinear interface in periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate was observed. The interface consisted of the boundary between two quasi-phase-matched regions displaced from each other by a half-period. At high intensities and small angles of incidence the soliton is reflected.

  17. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction. (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl


    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  18. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflections optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.


    The role of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices is discussed. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  19. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.


    The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  20. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir


    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  1. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  2. Breached cylinder incident at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelens, R.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)


    On June 16, 1990, during an inspection of valves on partially depleted product storage cylinders, a 14-ton partially depleted product cylinder was discovered breached. The cylinder had been placed in long-term storage in 1977 on the top row of Portsmouth`s (two rows high) storage area. The breach was observed when an inspector noticed a pile of green material along side of the cylinder. The breach was estimated to be approximately 8- inches wide and 16-inches long, and ran under the first stiffening ring of the cylinder. During the continuing inspection of the storage area, a second 14-ton product cylinder was discovered breached. This cylinder was stacked on the bottom row in the storage area in 1986. This breach was also located adjacent to a stiffening ring. This paper will discuss the contributing factors of the breaching of the cylinders, the immediate response, subsequent actions in support of the investigation, and corrective actions.

  3. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of Spectralon white reflectance standard illuminated by incoherent unpolarized and plane-polarized light. (United States)

    Bhandari, Anak; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øvynd; Zhao, Lu; Stamnes, Jakob J; Kildemo, Morten


    A Lambert surface would appear equally bright from all observation directions regardless of the illumination direction. However, the reflection from a randomly scattering object generally has directional variation, which can be described in terms of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). We measured the BRDF of a Spectralon white reflectance standard for incoherent illumination at 405 and 680 nm with unpolarized and plane-polarized light from different directions of incidence. Our measurements show deviations of the BRDF for the Spectralon white reflectance standard from that of a Lambertian reflector that depend both on the angle of incidence and the polarization states of the incident light and detected light. The non-Lambertian reflection characteristics were found to increase more toward the direction of specular reflection as the angle of incidence gets larger.

  4. Full four-dimensional and reciprocal Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function of sintered polytetrafluoroethylene. (United States)

    Germer, Thomas A


    We measured the Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a sintered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sample over the scattering hemisphere for six incident angles (0°-75° in 15° steps) and for four wavelengths (351 nm, 532 nm, 633 nm, and 1064 nm). The data for each wavelength were fit to a phenomenological description for the Mueller matrix BRDF, which is an extension of the bidirectional surface scattering modes developed by Koenderink and van Doorn [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.15, 2903 (1998)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.15.002903] for unpolarized BRDF. This description is designed to be complete, to obey the appropriate reciprocity conditions, and to provide a full description of the Mueller matrix BRDF as a function of incident and scattering directions for each wavelength. The description was further extended by linearizing the surface scattering mode coefficients with wavelength. This data set and its parameterization provides a comprehensive on-demand description of the reflectance properties for this commonly used diffuse reflectance reference material over a wide range of wavelengths.

  5. Estimating the diffuseness of sound fields: A wavenumber analysis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Davy, John L.; Brunskog, Jonas


    The concept of a diffuse sound field is widely used in the analysis of sound in enclosures. The diffuse sound field is generally described as composed of plane waves with random phases, which wave number vectors are uniformly distributed over all angles of incidence. In this study, an interpretat...

  6. Diffusion weighted imaging by MR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Naruse, Shoji; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Tokumitsu, Takuaki; Ueda, Satoshi; Tanaka, Chuzo; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Umeda, Masahiro.


    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a recently developed technique used to examine the micromovement of water molecules in vivo. We have applied this technique to examine various kinds of brain diseases, both experimentally and clinically. The calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in vivo showed reliable values. In experimentally induced brain edema in rats, the pathophysiological difference of the type of edema (such as cytotoxic, and vasogenic) could be differentiated on the diffusion weighted MR images. Cytotoxic brain edema showed high intensity (slower diffusion) on the diffusion weighted images. On the other hand, vasogenic brain edema showed a low intensity image (faster diffusion). Diffusion anisotropy was demonstrated according to the direction of myelinated fibers and applied motion proving gradient (MPG). This anisotropy was also demonstrated in human brain tissue along the course of the corpus callosum, pyramidal tract and optic radiation. In brain ischemia cases, lesions were detected as high signal intensity areas, even one hour after the onset of ischemia. Diffusion was faster in brain tumor compared with normal brain. Histological differences were not clearly reflected by the ADC value. In epidermoid tumor cases, the intensity was characteristically high, was demonstrated, and the cerebrospinal fluid border was clearly demonstrated. New clinical information obtainable with this molecular diffusion method will prove to be useful in various clinical studies. (author)

  7. An improved method to estimate reflectance parameters for high dynamic range imaging (United States)

    Li, Shiying; Deguchi, Koichiro; Li, Renfa; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Chihara, Kunihiro


    Two methods are described to accurately estimate diffuse and specular reflectance parameters for colors, gloss intensity and surface roughness, over the dynamic range of the camera used to capture input images. Neither method needs to segment color areas on an image, or to reconstruct a high dynamic range (HDR) image. The second method improves on the first, bypassing the requirement for specific separation of diffuse and specular reflection components. For the latter method, diffuse and specular reflectance parameters are estimated separately, using the least squares method. Reflection values are initially assumed to be diffuse-only reflection components, and are subjected to the least squares method to estimate diffuse reflectance parameters. Specular reflection components, obtained by subtracting the computed diffuse reflection components from reflection values, are then subjected to a logarithmically transformed equation of the Torrance-Sparrow reflection model, and specular reflectance parameters for gloss intensity and surface roughness are finally estimated using the least squares method. Experiments were carried out using both methods, with simulation data at different saturation levels, generated according to the Lambert and Torrance-Sparrow reflection models, and the second method, with spectral images captured by an imaging spectrograph and a moving light source. Our results show that the second method can estimate the diffuse and specular reflectance parameters for colors, gloss intensity and surface roughness more accurately and faster than the first one, so that colors and gloss can be reproduced more efficiently for HDR imaging.

  8. Diffusing diffusivity: Rotational diffusion in two and three dimensions (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, K. L.


    We consider the problem of calculating the probability distribution function (pdf) of angular displacement for rotational diffusion in a crowded, rearranging medium. We use the diffusing diffusivity model and following our previous work on translational diffusion [R. Jain and K. L. Sebastian, J. Phys. Chem. B 120, 3988 (2016)], we show that the problem can be reduced to that of calculating the survival probability of a particle undergoing Brownian motion, in the presence of a sink. We use the approach to calculate the pdf for the rotational motion in two and three dimensions. We also propose new dimensionless, time dependent parameters, αr o t ,2 D and αr o t ,3 D, which can be used to analyze the experimental/simulation data to find the extent of deviation from the normal behavior, i.e., constant diffusivity, and obtain explicit analytical expressions for them, within our model.

  9. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.


    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  10. Entropy production of stationary diffusions on non-compact Riemannian manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚光鲁; 钱敏平


    The closed form of the entropy production of stationary diffusion processes with bounded Nelson’s current velocity is given.The limit of the entropy productions of a sequence of reflecting diffusions is also discussed.

  11. Evaluation of downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Yellepeddi, Sarma B.; Jones, Burton


    to comprehend the diffuse attenuation coefficient and its relationship with in situ properties. Two apparent optical properties, spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), are calculated from vertical

  12. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting. (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  13. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction


    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl


    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring — perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial d...

  14. Buckling determination in reflected systems, program FLUXFIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotic, O [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)


    An improvement in accuracy of determining radial and axial buckling from foil activation distributions measured in reflected cylindrical systems is given. resultant activities are fitted to radial and axial spatial functions derived from homogeneous diffusion theory. A Fortran program FLUXFIT based on the derived method is included. (author)

  15. Low reflectance radio frequency load (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M


    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  16. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven


    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  17. Reflectivity and energy balance in pulsed-laser deposition experiments from mono- and bi-atomic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.; Rohr, K.P.; Sinha, B. K.


    Reflectivity and complete energy balance from the planar targets of aluminum, copper, nickel, and molybdenum have been measured using a Nd: glass laser (λ=1060 nm,τ=5 ns) in the low intensity regime of laser plasma interaction as a function of focal spot size. The magnitude of partition of total incident laser energy into different channels is observed to decrease as the focal spot size increases. It is further observed that the magnitude of partition of the incident energy into these channels, in general, decreases as the atomic number increases for any given focal spot size, although, the reflectivity component of the partitioned energy increases with focal spot size for any given element. The reflectivities of copper and tungsten and their alloy were measured separately. The reflectivity from the alloy plasma was reduced by a factor of 6 compared to either element separately. This observation confirms the recent theory that in the multiion plasma the ion acoustic waves are additionally damped due to additional Joule, thermal diffusion, and viscous terms in the modified ion-fluid theory of the ion acoustic waves in a multiion species plasma

  18. Adaptive weak approximation of reflected and stopped diffusions

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Christian; Szepessy, Anders; Tempone, Raul


    , Pacchiarotti and Sartoretto [Costantini et al., SIAM J. Appl. Math., 58(1):73-102, 1998], based on which we introduce two new algorithms. The first one uses a correction term from the representation in order to obtain a higher order of convergence

  19. Measurement of diffuse and specular reflections through single cell layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE


    Full Text Available ) • On average 50 000 new cases/year • LR at least • Male: 1 in 6 • Female: 1 in 7 Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 Background • Diabetes • High prevalence in SA • Not a notifiable disease • Indian: Av. 17% (11% - 30%) • Black...: 8% • White: 6% • Type II diabetes on the increase • Limp amputation • Research aimed at PDT and accelerated wound healing Slide 5 © CSIR 2006 Experimental work at UJ WS1Cell line Induce wound: sterile...

  20. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter B.; Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.


    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources

  1. Spin-diffusions and diffusive molecular dynamics (United States)

    Farmer, Brittan; Luskin, Mitchell; Plecháč, Petr; Simpson, Gideon


    Metastable configurations in condensed matter typically fluctuate about local energy minima at the femtosecond time scale before transitioning between local minima after nanoseconds or microseconds. This vast scale separation limits the applicability of classical molecular dynamics (MD) methods and has spurned the development of a host of approximate algorithms. One recently proposed method is diffusive MD which aims at integrating a system of ordinary differential equations describing the likelihood of occupancy by one of two species, in the case of a binary alloy, while quasistatically evolving the locations of the atoms. While diffusive MD has shown itself to be efficient and provide agreement with observations, it is fundamentally a model, with unclear connections to classical MD. In this work, we formulate a spin-diffusion stochastic process and show how it can be connected to diffusive MD. The spin-diffusion model couples a classical overdamped Langevin equation to a kinetic Monte Carlo model for exchange amongst the species of a binary alloy. Under suitable assumptions and approximations, spin-diffusion can be shown to lead to diffusive MD type models. The key assumptions and approximations include a well-defined time scale separation, a choice of spin-exchange rates, a low temperature approximation, and a mean field type approximation. We derive several models from different assumptions and show their relationship to diffusive MD. Differences and similarities amongst the models are explored in a simple test problem.

  2. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth


    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  3. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.


    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  4. Diffusion in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, G.B.; Smirnov, E.A.


    The monograph contains a brief description of the principles underlying the theory of diffusion, as well as modern methods of studying diffusion. Data on self-diffusion and diffusion of impurities in a nuclear fuel and fissionable materials (uranium, plutonium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, hafnium, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, beryllium, etc.) is presented. Anomalous diffusion, diffusion of components, and interdiffusion in binary and ternary alloys were examined. The monograph presents the most recent reference material on diffusion. It is intended for a wide range of researchers working in the field of diffusion in metals and alloys and attempting to discover new materials for application in nuclear engineering. It will also be useful for teachers, research scholars and students of physical metallurgy

  5. Gas-induced friction and diffusion of rigid rotors (United States)

    Martinetz, Lukas; Hornberger, Klaus; Stickler, Benjamin A.


    We derive the Boltzmann equation for the rotranslational dynamics of an arbitrary convex rigid body in a rarefied gas. It yields as a limiting case the Fokker-Planck equation accounting for friction, diffusion, and nonconservative drift forces and torques. We provide the rotranslational friction and diffusion tensors for specular and diffuse reflection off particles with spherical, cylindrical, and cuboidal shape, and show that the theory describes thermalization, photophoresis, and the inverse Magnus effect in the free molecular regime.

  6. Diffusion in flowing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, K.W.


    This thesis is concerned with the back-diffusion method of calculating the mutual diffusion coefficient of two gases. The applicability of this method for measuring diffusion coefficients at temperatures up to 1300 K is considered. A further aim of the work was to make a contribution to the description of the interatomic potential energy of noble gases at higher energies as a function of the internuclear distance. This was achieved with the measured diffusion coefficients, especially with those for high temperatures. (Auth.)

  7. Diffusion Under Geometrical Constraint


    Ogawa, Naohisa


    Here we discus the diffusion of particles in a curved tube. This kind of transport phenomenon is observed in biological cells and porous media. To solve such a problem, we discuss the three dimensional diffusion equation with a confining wall forming a thinner tube. We find that the curvature appears in a effective diffusion coefficient for such a quasi-one-dimensional system. As an application to higher dimensional case, we discuss the diffusion in a curved surface with ...

  8. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik


    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  9. Energy loss from internal reflection off metal layers on glass (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Bezuidenhout, D. F.; Klee, H. W.; Theron, E.


    The reflection characteristics of metal layers are considered for the situation where the electromagnetic radiation is incident from the glass side. Theoretical and measured reflectance values are presented which indicate that for some metals the reflection has a strong dependence on the refractive index of the incident medium. Some examples are given of recent cases where the above results were an important consideration in the choice of the metallic reflecting material. These results indicate that aluminium should not be automatically considered the best choice for the visible region nor gold for the infra-red.

  10. Diffuse neutron scattering signatures of rough films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Lujan, M. Jr.


    Patterns of diffuse neutron scattering from thin films are calculated from a perturbation expansion based on the distorted-wave Born approximation. Diffuse fringes can be categorised into three types: those that occur at constant values of the incident or scattered neutron wavevectors, and those for which the neutron wavevector transfer perpendicular to the film is constant. The variation of intensity along these fringes can be used to deduce the spectrum of surface roughness for the film and the degree of correlation between the film's rough surfaces

  11. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Compared with conventional ventilation systems, diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk due to the low...

  12. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.


    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  13. Police Incident Blotter (Archive) (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  14. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  15. Prediction of Safety Incidents (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  16. Marine Animal Incident Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  17. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  18. Thermal diffusion (1963); Diffusion thermique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemarechal, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report brings together the essential principles of thermal diffusion in the liquid and gaseous phases. The macroscopic and molecular aspects of the thermal diffusion constant are reviewed, as well as the various measurement method; the most important developments however concern the operation of the CLUSIUS and DICKEL thermo-gravitational column and its applications. (author) [French] Ce rapport rassemble les principes essentiels de la diffusion thermique en phase liquide et en phase gazeuse. Les aspects macroscopique et moleculaire de la constante de diffusion thermique sont passes en revue ainsi que ses differentes methodes de mesure; mais les developpements les plus importants concernent le fonctionnement de ls colonne thermogravitationnelle de CLUSIUS et DICKEL et ses applications. (auteur)

  19. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto


    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  20. Reflection from a flat dielectric film with negative refractive index


    Hillion, Pierre


    We analyse the reflection of a TM electromagnetic field first on a flat dielectric film and second on a Veselago film with negative refractive index, both films being deposited on a metallic substrat acting as a mirror. An incident harmonic plane wave generates inside a conventional dielectric film a refracted propagating wave and an evanescent wave that does not contribute to reflection on the metallic substrat so that part of the information conveyed by the incident field is lost. At the op...

  1. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.


    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  2. Diffusion in molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, M.; Mehrer, H.


    The diffusion behaviour of the high-temperature material molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2 ) was completely unknown until recently. In this paper we present studies of Mo self-diffusion and compare our present results with our already published studies of Si and Ge diffusion in MoSi 2 . Self-diffusion of molybdenum in monocrystalline MoSi 2 was studied by the radiotracer technique using the radioisotope 99 Mo. Deposition of the radiotracer and serial sectioning after the diffusion anneals to determine the concentration-depth profiles was performed using a sputtering device. Diffusion of Mo is a very slow process. In the entire temperature region investigated (1437 to 2173 K), the 99 Mo diffusivities in both principal directions of the tetragonal MoSi 2 crystals obey Arrhenius laws, where the diffusion perpendicular to the tetragonal axis is faster by two to three orders of magnitude than parallel to it. The activation enthalpies for diffusion perpendicular and parallel to the tetragonal axis are Q perpendicular to = 468 kJ mol -1 (4.85 eV) and Q parallel = 586 kJ mol -1 (6.07 eV), respectively. Diffusion of Si and its homologous element Ge is fast and is mediated by thermal vacancies of the Si sublattice of MoSi 2 . The diffusion of Mo is by several orders of magnitude slower than the diffusion of Si and Ge. This large difference suggests that Si and Mo diffusion are decoupled and that the diffusion of Mo likely takes place via vacancies on the Mo sublattice. (orig.)

  3. Uneven-Layered Coding Metamaterial Tile for Ultra-wideband RCS Reduction and Diffuse Scattering. (United States)

    Su, Jianxun; He, Huan; Li, Zengrui; Yang, Yaoqing Lamar; Yin, Hongcheng; Wang, Junhong


    In this paper, a novel uneven-layered coding metamaterial tile is proposed for ultra-wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction and diffuse scattering. The metamaterial tile is composed of two kinds of square ring unit cells with different layer thickness. The reflection phase difference of 180° (±37°) between two unit cells covers an ultra-wide frequency range. Due to the phase cancellation between two unit cells, the metamaterial tile has the scattering pattern of four strong lobes deviating from normal direction. The metamaterial tile and its 90-degree rotation can be encoded as the '0' and '1' elements to cover an object, and diffuse scattering pattern can be realized by optimizing phase distribution, leading to reductions of the monostatic and bi-static RCSs simultaneously. The metamaterial tile can achieve -10 dB RCS reduction from 6.2 GHz to 25.7 GHz with the ratio bandwidth of 4.15:1 at normal incidence. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement and validate the proposed uneven-layered coding metamaterial tile can greatly expanding the bandwidth for RCS reduction and diffuse scattering.

  4. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, B.


    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  5. Design and simulation of reflect-array metasurfaces in the visible regime

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.


    gradient phase gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces that exhibit high conversion efficiency (up to ∼97% of total reflected light) to the anomalous reflection angle for blue, green, and red wavelengths at normal and oblique incidence, and where light

  6. Inverting reflections using full-waveform inversion with inaccurate starting models

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.


    We present a method for inverting seismic reflections using full-waveform inversion (FWI) with inaccurate starting models. For a layered medium, near-offset reflections (with zero angle of incidence) are unlikely to be cycle-skipped regardless

  7. Production of Xylella fastidiosa diffusible signal factor in transgenic grape causes pathogen confusion and reduction in severity of Pierce's disease. (United States)

    Lindow, Steven; Newman, Karyn; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Baccari, Clelia; Lavarone, Anthony T; Ionescu, Michael


    The rpfF gene from Xylella fastidiosa, encoding the synthase for diffusible signal factor (DSF), was expressed in 'Freedom' grape to reduce the pathogen's growth and mobility within the plant. Symptoms in such plants were restricted to near the point of inoculation and incidence of disease was two- to fivefold lower than in the parental line. Both the longitudinal and lateral movement of X. fastidiosa in the xylem was also much lower. DSF was detected in both leaves and xylem sap of RpfF-expressing plants using biological sensors, and both 2-Z-tetradecenoic acid, previously identified as a component of X. fastidiosa DSF, and cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid were detected in xylem sap using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A higher proportion of X. fastidiosa cells adhered to xylem vessels of the RpfF-expressing line than parental 'Freedom' plants, reflecting a higher adhesiveness of the pathogen in the presence of DSF. Disease incidence in RpfF-expressing plants in field trials in which plants were either mechanically inoculated with X. fastidiosa or subjected to natural inoculation by sharpshooter vectors was two- to fourfold lower in than that of the parental line. The number of symptomatic leaves on infected shoots was reduced proportionally more than the incidence of infection, reflecting a decreased ability of X. fastidiosa to move within DSF-producing plants.

  8. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  9. Bistable Reflective Etalon (BRET)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shellenbarger, Zane


    This project designed, fabricated, and characterized normal-incidence etalon structures at 1550 nm wavelength operation for application, as bistable elements, to photonic analog-to-digital conversion...

  10. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  11. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.


    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  12. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.


    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  13. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M


    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  14. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R., E-mail:; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)


    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO{sub 2} films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  15. HRCT of diffuse interstitial pneumonia during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi


    HRCT was carried out in twenty patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonia: 13 cases of IIP, 3 of BOOP, 2 of drug-induced pneumonia, 1 of rheumatoid lung and acute interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. With special attention to inflammatory activity, the patients underwent HRCT periodically during the treatment. Correlative investigation between HRCT image and grade of accumulation in 67 Ga scintigraphy was also performed. Response to steroid therapy was clearly reflected on HRCT image, that was shown as decreasing pulmonary density or thinning of honeycomb wall. HRCT is considered to be useful in assessing the activity of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  16. Diffusion weighted imaging in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Cher Heng [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Jihong [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Imaging Physics, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Kundra, Vikas [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)


    Diffusion-weighted imaging has generated substantial interest in the hope that it can be developed into a robust technique to improve the accuracy of MRI for the evaluation of prostate cancer. This technique has the advantages of short acquisition times, no need for intravenous administration of contrast medium, and the ability to study diffusion of water molecules that indirectly reflects tissue cellularity. In this article, we review the existing literature on the utility of DWI in tumour detection, localisation, treatment response, limitations of the technique, how it compares with other imaging techniques, technical considerations and future directions. (orig.)

  17. Liberating Moral Reflection (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.


    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  18. Correlated diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Alexander; Glaister, Jeffrey; Cameron, Andrew; Haider, Masoom


    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the male population. Fortunately, the prognosis is excellent if detected at an early stage. Hence, the detection and localization of prostate cancer is crucial for diagnosis, as well as treatment via targeted focal therapy. New imaging techniques can potentially be invaluable tools for improving prostate cancer detection and localization. In this study, we introduce a new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging, where the tissue being imaged is characterized by the joint correlation of diffusion signal attenuation across multiple gradient pulse strengths and timings. By taking into account signal attenuation at different water diffusion motion sensitivities, correlated diffusion imaging can provide improved delineation between cancerous tissue and healthy tissue when compared to existing diffusion imaging modalities. Quantitative evaluation using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, tissue class separability analysis, and visual assessment by an expert radiologist were performed to study correlated diffusion imaging for the task of prostate cancer diagnosis. These results are compared with that obtained using T2-weighted imaging and standard diffusion imaging (via the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)). Experimental results suggest that correlated diffusion imaging provide improved delineation between healthy and cancerous tissue and may have potential as a diagnostic tool for cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. A new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging (CDI) was developed for the purpose of aiding radiologists in cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. Preliminary results show CDI shows considerable promise as a diagnostic aid for radiologists in the detection and localization of prostate cancer

  19. Gaseous diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, G.A.; Shacter, J.


    A gaseous diffusion system is described comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of the diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof

  20. Measurement and application of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (United States)

    Liao, Fei; Li, Lin; Lu, Chengwen


    When a beam of light with certain intensity and distribution reaches the surface of a material, the distribution of the diffused light is related to the incident angle, the receiving angle, the wavelength of the light and the types of the material. Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is a method to describe this distribution. For an optical system, the optical and mechanical materials' BRDF are unique, and if we want to calculate stray light of the system we should know the correct BRDF data of the whole materials. There are fundamental significances in the area of space remote sensor where BRDF is needed in the precise radiation calibration. It is also important in the military field where BRDF can be used in the object identification and target tracking, etc. In this paper, 11 kinds of aerospace materials' BRDF are measured and more than 310,000 groups of BRDF data are achieved , and also a BRDF database is established in China for the first time. With the BRDF data of the database, we can create the detector model, build the stray light radiation surface model in the stray light analysis software. In this way, the stray radiation on the detector can be calculated correctly.

  1. Electron diffraction patterns with thermal diffuse scattering maxima around Kikuchi lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakhanyan, R. K.; Karakhanyan, K. R.


    Transmission electron diffraction patterns of silicon with thermal diffuse maxima around Kikuchi lines, which are analogs of the maxima of thermal diffuse electron scattering around point reflections, have been recorded. Diffuse maxima are observed only around Kikuchi lines with indices that are forbidden for the silicon structure. The diffraction conditions for forming these maxima are discussed.

  2. Inpainting using airy diffusion (United States)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara


    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  3. Diffusion in compacted betonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Rantanen, J.


    The objective of this report is to collect the literature bearing on the diffusion in compacted betonite, which has been suggested as possible buffer material for the disposal of spent fuel. Diffusion in a porous, water-saturated material is usually described as diffusion in the pore-water where sorption on the solid matter can delay the migration in the instationary state. There are also models which take into consideration that the sorbed molecules can also move while being sorbed. Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been reported by many authors. Gases, anions, cations and actinides have been used as diffusing molecules. The report collects the results and the information on the measurement methods. On the basis of the results can be concluded that different particles possibly follow different diffusion mechanisms. The parameters which affect the diffusion seem to be for example the size, the electric charge and the sorption properties of the diffusing molecule. The report also suggest the parameters to be used in the diffusion calculation of the safety analyses of spent fuel disposal. (author)

  4. Generalized laws of reflection and refraction from transformation optics


    Xu, Yadong; Yao, Kan; Chen, Huanyang


    Based on transformation optics, we introduce another set of generalized laws of reflection and refraction (differs from that of [Science 334, 333 (2011)]), through which a transformation media slab is derived as a meta-surface, producing anomalous reflection and refraction for all polarizations of incident light.

  5. Incident spectrum determination for time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, J. P.


    Accurate characterization of the incident neutron spectrum is an important requirement for precise Rietveld analysis of time-of-flight powder neutron diffraction data. Without an accurate incident spectrum the calculated model for the measured relative intensities of individual Bragg reflections will possess systematic errors. We describe a method for obtaining an accurate numerical incident spectrum using data from a transmitted beam monitor

  6. Total internal reflection tomography of small objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong


    The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method is applied to determine the locations of a collection of small anisotropic spherical scatterers in the framework of the total internal reflection tomography. Multiple scattering between scatterers is considered and the inverse scattering problem is nonlinear, which, however, is solved by the proposed fast analytical approach where no associated forward problem is iteratively evaluated. The paper also discusses the role of the polarization of incidence waves, the incidence angle, the separation of scatterers from the surface of the substrate, and the level of noise on the resolution of imaging.

  7. Neutron reflectivity studies of ionomer blends

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, B J; Bucknall, D G; Vesely, D; Braiewa, R; Weiss, R A


    Preliminary results are presented of a neutron reflectivity study of the interfacial width between lithium- and zinc-sulphonated deuterated polystyrene with polycarbonate (PC). Both systems are partially miscible and exhibit an upper critical solution temperature behaviour. The interdiffusion in these systems was measured by annealing at a temperature above the glass-transition temperature of both polymers. The interfacial profiles obtained for these systems were described by symmetric Gaussian interfaces. No significant diffusion was observed. (orig.)

  8. Evaluating neighborhood structures for modeling intercity diffusion of large-scale dengue epidemics. (United States)

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Shun; Hu, Ming-Che


    Dengue fever is a vector-borne infectious disease that is transmitted by contact between vector mosquitoes and susceptible hosts. The literature has addressed the issue on quantifying the effect of individual mobility on dengue transmission. However, there are methodological concerns in the spatial regression model configuration for examining the effect of intercity-scale human mobility on dengue diffusion. The purposes of the study are to investigate the influence of neighborhood structures on intercity epidemic progression from pre-epidemic to epidemic periods and to compare definitions of different neighborhood structures for interpreting the spread of dengue epidemics. We proposed a framework for assessing the effect of model configurations on dengue incidence in 2014 and 2015, which were the most severe outbreaks in 70 years in Taiwan. Compared with the conventional model configuration in spatial regression analysis, our proposed model used a radiation model, which reflects population flow between townships, as a spatial weight to capture the structure of human mobility. The results of our model demonstrate better model fitting performance, indicating that the structure of human mobility has better explanatory power in dengue diffusion than the geometric structure of administration boundaries and geographic distance between centroids of cities. We also identified spatial-temporal hierarchy of dengue diffusion: dengue incidence would be influenced by its immediate neighboring townships during pre-epidemic and epidemic periods, and also with more distant neighbors (based on mobility) in pre-epidemic periods. Our findings suggest that the structure of population mobility could more reasonably capture urban-to-urban interactions, which implies that the hub cities could be a "bridge" for large-scale transmission and make townships that immediately connect to hub cities more vulnerable to dengue epidemics.

  9. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory. (United States)

    Dearing, James W


    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  10. Ponzi scheme diffusion in complex networks (United States)

    Zhu, Anding; Fu, Peihua; Zhang, Qinghe; Chen, Zhenyue


    Ponzi schemes taking the form of Internet-based financial schemes have been negatively affecting China's economy for the last two years. Because there is currently a lack of modeling research on Ponzi scheme diffusion within social networks yet, we develop a potential-investor-divestor (PID) model to investigate the diffusion dynamics of Ponzi scheme in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks. Our simulation study of artificial and real Facebook social networks shows that the structure of investor networks does indeed affect the characteristics of dynamics. Both the average degree of distribution and the power-law degree of distribution will reduce the spreading critical threshold and will speed up the rate of diffusion. A high speed of diffusion is the key to alleviating the interest burden and improving the financial outcomes for the Ponzi scheme operator. The zero-crossing point of fund flux function we introduce proves to be a feasible index for reflecting the fast-worsening situation of fiscal instability and predicting the forthcoming collapse. The faster the scheme diffuses, the higher a peak it will reach and the sooner it will collapse. We should keep a vigilant eye on the harm of Ponzi scheme diffusion through modern social networks.

  11. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren


    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  12. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie


    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  13. Library search with regular reflectance IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staat, H.; Korte, E.H.; Lampen, P.


    Characterisation in situ for coatings and other surface layers is generally favourable, but a prerequisite for precious items such as art objects. In infrared spectroscopy only reflection techniques are applicable here. However for attenuated total reflection (ATR) it is difficult to obtain the necessary optical contact of the crystal with the sample, when the latter is not perfectly plane or flexible. The measurement of diffuse reflectance demands a scattering sample and usually the reflectance is very poor. Therefore in most cases one is left with regular reflectance. Such spectra consist of dispersion-like feature instead of bands impeding their interpretation in the way the analyst is used to. Furthermore for computer search in common spectral libraries compiled from transmittance or absorbance spectra a transformation of the reflectance spectra is needed. The correct conversion is based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation. This somewhat time - consuming procedure can be speeded up by using appropriate approximations. A coarser conversion may be obtained from the first derivative of the reflectance spectrum which resembles the second derivative of a transmittance spectrum. The resulting distorted spectra can still be used successfully for the search in peak table libraries. Experiences with both transformations are presented. (author)

  14. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan


    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  15. Discrimination of thermal diffusivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.


    Materials such as wood or metal which are at equal temperatures are perceived to be of different ‘coldness’ due to differences in thermal properties, such as the thermal diffusivity. The thermal diffusivity of a material is a parameter that controls the rate with which heat is extracted from the

  16. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon


    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  17. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon


    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  18. Adaptation and Cultural Diffusion. (United States)

    Ormrod, Richard K.


    Explores the role of adaptation in cultural diffusion. Explains that adaptation theory recognizes the lack of independence between innovations and their environmental settings. Discusses testing and selection, modification, motivation, and cognition. Suggests that adaptation effects are pervasive in cultural diffusion but require a broader, more…

  19. Modelling of Innovation Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kijek


    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, research on the modelling of the diffusion of innovation resulted in a vast body of scientific literature consisting of articles, books, and studies of real-world applications of this model. The main objective of the diffusion model is to describe a pattern of spread of innovation among potential adopters in terms of a mathematical function of time. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art in mathematical models of innovation diffusion and procedures for estimating their parameters. Moreover, theoretical issues related to the models presented are supplemented with empirical research. The purpose of the research is to explore the extent to which the diffusion of broadband Internet users in 29 OECD countries can be adequately described by three diffusion models, i.e. the Bass model, logistic model and dynamic model. The results of this research are ambiguous and do not indicate which model best describes the diffusion pattern of broadband Internet users but in terms of the results presented, in most cases the dynamic model is inappropriate for describing the diffusion pattern. Issues related to the further development of innovation diffusion models are discussed and some recommendations are given. (original abstract

  20. Thermal diffusion (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarechal, A.


    This report brings together the essential principles of thermal diffusion in the liquid and gaseous phases. The macroscopic and molecular aspects of the thermal diffusion constant are reviewed, as well as the various measurement method; the most important developments however concern the operation of the CLUSIUS and DICKEL thermo-gravitational column and its applications. (author) [fr

  1. Diffusion of Botulinum Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Brodsky


    Full Text Available Background: It is generally agreed that diffusion of botulinum toxin occurs, but the extent of the spread and its clinical importance are disputed. Many factors have been suggested to play a role but which have the most clinical relevance is a subject of much discussion.Methods: This review discusses the variables affecting diffusion, including protein composition and molecular size as well as injection factors (e.g., volume, dose, injection method. It also discusses data on diffusion from comparative studies in animal models and human clinical trials that illustrate differences between the available botulinum toxin products (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, and rimabotulinumtoxinB.Results: Neither molecular weight nor the presence of complexing proteins appears to affect diffusion; however, injection volume, concentration, and dose all play roles and are modifiable. Both animal and human studies show that botulinum toxin products are not interchangeable, and that some products are associated with greater diffusion and higher rates of diffusion-related adverse events than others.Discussion: Each of the botulinum toxins is a unique pharmacologic entity. A working knowledge of the different serotypes is essential to avoid unwanted diffusion-related adverse events. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the factors influencing diffusion may range from properties intrinsic to the drug to accurate muscle selection as well as dilution, volume, and dose injected.

  2. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals. (United States)

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K


    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.

  3. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques


    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  4. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo


    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  5. Oxygen diffusion in monazite (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.


    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  6. The solar ultraviolet B radiation protection provided by shading devices with regard to its diffuse component. (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G


    The composition of the incident solar global ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation with regard to its beam and diffuse radiation fractions is highly relevant with regard to outdoor sun protection. This is especially true with respect to sun protection during leisure-time outdoor sun exposure at the shore and pools, where people tend to escape the sun under shade trees or different types of shading devices, e.g., umbrellas, overhangs, etc., believing they offer protection from the erythemal solar radiation. The degree of sun protection offered by such devices is directly related to the composition of the solar global UVB radiation, i.e., its beam and diffuse fractions. The composition of the incident solar global UVB radiation can be determined by measuring the global UVB (using Solar Light Co. Inc., Model 501A UV-Biometer) and either of its components. The beam component of the UVB radiation was determined by measuring the normal incidence beam radiation using a prototype, tracking instrument consisting of a Solar Light Co. Inc. Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The horizontal beam component of the global UVB radiation was calculated from the measured normal incidence using a simple geometric correlation and the diffuse component is determined as the difference between global and horizontal beam radiations. Horizontal and vertical surfaces positioned under a horizontal overhang/sunshade or an umbrella are not fully protected from exposure to solar global UVB radiation. They can receive a significant fraction of the UVB radiation, depending on their location beneath the shading device, the umbrella radius and the albedo (reflectance) of the surrounding ground surface in the case of a vertical surface. Shading devices such as an umbrella or horizontal overhang/shade provide relief from the solar global radiation and do block the solar global UVB radiation to some extent; nevertheless, a significant fraction of the solar global UVB

  7. Dynamic grazing incidence fast atom diffraction during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, P., E-mail:; Eddrief, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Etgens, V. H. [CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); VeDeCom-Université Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Versailles (France); Khemliche, H., E-mail:; Debiossac, M.; Mulier, M.; Lalmi, B.; Roncin, P. [ISMO UMR8214 CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91400 (France); Momeni, A. [ISMO UMR8214 CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91400 (France); Univ. Cergy Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy (France)


    A Grazing Incidence Fast Atom Diffraction (GIFAD) system has been mounted on a commercial molecular beam epitaxy chamber and used to monitor GaAs growth in real-time. In contrast to the conventionally used Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction, all the GIFAD diffraction orders oscillate in phase, with the change in intensity related to diffuse scattering at step edges. We show that the scattered intensity integrated over the Laue circle is a robust method to monitor the periodic change in surface roughness during layer-by-layer growth, with oscillation phase and amplitude independent of incidence angle and crystal orientation. When there is a change in surface reconstruction at the start of growth, GIFAD intensity oscillations show that there is a corresponding delay in the onset of layer-by-layer growth. In addition, changes in the relative intensity of different diffraction orders have been observed during growth showing that GIFAD has the potential to provide insight into the preferential adatom attachment sites on the surface reconstruction during growth.

  8. Suppression of Specular Reflections by Metasurface with Engineered Nonuniform Distribution of Reflection Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mi Yang


    Full Text Available We make preliminary investigations on a new approach to reducing radar cross section (RCS of conducting objects. This approach employs novel planar metasurfaces characterizing nonuniform distribution of reflection phase. The operation principle of this approach and the design rule of the associated metasurfaces are explained using a simplified theoretical model. We then present a design example of such metasurfaces, in which three-layer stacked square patches with variable sizes are utilized as the reflecting elements. The proposed RCS-reduction approach is verified by both numerical simulations and measurements on the example, under the assumption of normal plane wave incidence. It is observed that, in a fairly wide frequency band (from 3.6 to 5.5 GHz, the presented example is capable of suppressing the specular reflections of conducting plates significantly (by more than 7 dB for two orthogonal incident polarizations.

  9. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten


    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  10. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J


    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  11. Approximate reflection coefficients for a thin VTI layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi


    We present an approximate method to derive simple expressions for the reflection coefficients of P- and SV-waves for a thin transversely isotropic layer with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) embedded in a homogeneous VTI background. The layer thickness is assumed to be much smaller than the wavelengths of P- and SV-waves inside. The exact reflection and transmission coefficients are derived by the propagator matrix method. In the case of normal incidence, the exact reflection and transmission coefficients are expressed in terms of the impedances of vertically propagating P- and S-waves. For subcritical incidence, the approximate reflection coefficients are expressed in terms of the contrast in the VTI parameters between the layer and the background. Numerical examples are designed to analyze the reflection coefficients at normal and oblique incidence, and investigate the influence of transverse isotropy on the reflection coefficients. Despite giving numerical errors, the approximate formulae are sufficiently simple to qualitatively analyze the variation of the reflection coefficients with the angle of incidence.

  12. Sustained currents in coupled diffusive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larralde, Hernán; Sanders, David P


    Coupling two diffusive systems may give rise to a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) with a non-trivial persistent, circulating current. We study a simple example that is exactly soluble, consisting of random walkers with different biases towards a reflecting boundary, modelling, for example, Brownian particles with different charge states in an electric field. We obtain analytical expressions for the concentrations and currents in the NESS for this model, and exhibit the main features of the system by numerical simulation. (paper)

  13. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  14. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.


    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  15. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.


    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  16. Improved age-diffusion model for low-energy electron transport in solids. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.; Dubus, A.; Dehaes, J.C.


    We have developed in this paper a semianalytical electron transport model designed for parametric studies of secondary-electron emission induced by low-energy electrons (keV range) and by fast light ions (100 keV range). The primary-particle transport is assumed to be known and to give rise to an internal electron source. The importance of the nearly isotropic elastic scattering in the secondary-electron energy range (50 eV) and the slowing-down process strongly reduce the influence of the anisotropy of the internal electron source, and the internal electron flux is nearly isotropic as is evidenced by the experimental results. The differential energy behavior of the inelastic scattering kernel is very complicated and the real kernel is replaced by a synthetic scattering kernel of which parameters are obtained by energy and angle moments conservation. Through a P 1 approximation and the use of the synthetic scattering kernel, the Boltzmann equation is approximated by a diffusion--slowing-down equation for the isotropic part of the internal electron flux. The energy-dependent partial reflection boundary condition reduces to a Neumann-Dirichlet boundary condition. An analytical expression for the Green's function of the diffusion--slowing-down equation with the surface boundary condition is obtained by means of approximations close to the age-diffusion theory and the model allows for transient conditions. Independently from the ''improved age-diffusion'' model, a correction formula is developed in order to take into account the backscattering of primary electrons for an incident-electron problem

  17. Diffusion Maps for Multimodal Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Piella


    Full Text Available Multimodal image registration is a difficult task, due to the significant intensity variations between the images. A common approach is to use sophisticated similarity measures, such as mutual information, that are robust to those intensity variations. However, these similarity measures are computationally expensive and, moreover, often fail to capture the geometry and the associated dynamics linked with the images. Another approach is the transformation of the images into a common space where modalities can be directly compared. Within this approach, we propose to register multimodal images by using diffusion maps to describe the geometric and spectral properties of the data. Through diffusion maps, the multimodal data is transformed into a new set of canonical coordinates that reflect its geometry uniformly across modalities, so that meaningful correspondences can be established between them. Images in this new representation can then be registered using a simple Euclidean distance as a similarity measure. Registration accuracy was evaluated on both real and simulated brain images with known ground-truth for both rigid and non-rigid registration. Results showed that the proposed approach achieved higher accuracy than the conventional approach using mutual information.

  18. The effect of impeller–diffuser interactions on diffuser performance in a centrifugal compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Zhao


    Full Text Available The unsteady phenomenon abounds in centrifugal compressors and significantly affects the compressor performance. In this paper, unsteady simulations are carried out to investigate the aerodynamic performance of a process-unshrouded centrifugal compressor and the unsteady mechanism in the vaned diffuser. The predicted stage performance and pressure fluctuations at some locations are in good agreement with experimental data. The predicted main pressure fluctuation frequency spectrums at the diffuser inlet and outlet are consistent with the measured results. The results indicate that at the inlet of the diffuser there are two pressure peaks in a passage cycle. The higher pressure peak relates to the impeller wake and the lower peak is connected with the vortex generated at the diffuser’s leading edge. With a decrease in the mass flow coefficient, the vortex core region becomes larger and the lower pressure peak becomes more pronounced. The change in circumferential flow angle at the diffuser inlet is mainly responsible for the unsteadiness in the diffuser flow field, which in turn affects the inlet incidence of the diffuser vane and the vane loading distributions.

  19. Polymer diffusion in the interphase between surface and solution. (United States)

    Weger, Lukas; Weidmann, Monika; Ali, Wael; Hildebrandt, Marcus; Gutmann, Jochen Stefan; Hoffmann-Jacobsen, Kerstin


    Total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS) is applied to study the self-diffusion of polyethylene glycol solutions in the presence of weakly attractive interfaces. Glass coverslips modified with aminopropyl- and propyl-terminated silanes are used to study the influence of solid surfaces on polymer diffusion. A model of three phases of polymer diffusion allows to describe the experimental fluorescence autocorrelation functions. Besides the two-dimensional diffusion of adsorbed polymer on the substrate and three-dimensional free diffusion in bulk solution, a third diffusion time scale is observed with intermediate diffusion times. This retarded three-dimensional diffusion in solution is assigned to long range effects of solid surfaces on diffusional dynamics of polymers. The respective diffusion constants show Rouse scaling (D~N -1 ) indicating a screening of hydrodynamic interactions by the presence of the surface. Hence, the presented TIR-FCS method proves to be a valuable tool to investigate the effect of surfaces on polymer diffusion beyond the first adsorbed polymer layer on the 100 nm length scale.

  20. Diffuse interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.


    The author defines and discusses the nature of diffuse interstellar clouds. He discusses how they contribute to the general extinction of starlight. The atomic and molecular species that have been identified in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared regions of the spectrum of a diffuse cloud are presented. The author illustrates some of the practical considerations that affect absorption line observations of interstellar atoms and molecules. Various aspects of the theoretical description of diffuse clouds required for a full interpretation of the observations are discussed

  1. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.


    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  2. Self diffusion in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundy, J.N.; Rothman, S.J.; Lam, N.Q.; Nowicki, L.J.; Hoff, H.A.


    The lack of understanding of self-diffusion in Group VI metals together with the wide scatter in the measured values of tungsten self-diffusion has prompted the present measurements to be made over a wide temperature range (1/2Tsub(m) to Tsub(m)). The diffusion coefficients have been measured in the temperature range 1430-2630 0 C. The present measurements show non-linear Arrhenius behavior but a reliable two-exponential fit of the data should await further measurements. (Auth.)

  3. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.


    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  4. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel


    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  5. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina


    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  6. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent


    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  7. Reflection of ion acoustic waves by the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Kuehl, H.H.


    The reflection coefficient R for linear monochromatic ion acoustic waves incident on the transonic layer and sheath from the plasma interior is calculated. The treatment differs from previous analyses in that (1) the exact zero-order ion density and velocity profiles for a planar, bounded plasma are used, and the zero-order charge separation is not neglected, and (2) the first-order quantities near the transonic layer are considered in detail, including first-order charge separation, whereby it is found that no coupling to the beam modes exists, and that the functional form of the first-order solution is completely determined. It is shown that the upper bound for Vertical BarRVertical Bar is (1)/(3) . The largest reflection occurs for frequencies which are small compared with the ionization frequency, and generally decreases with increasing frequency. By Fourier superposition, the reflection of a pulse is computed. For a narrow incident pulse, the reflected pulse is greatly distorted and is small compared with the incident pulse. For a broad pulse, the reflected pulse is similar in shape to the incident pulse, and has a magnitude which is approximately (1)/(3) of the incident pulse

  8. Reflection: A Socratic approach. (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H


    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  9. Wave Augmented Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressor (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)


    A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.

  10. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.


    rates increased annually by 7.0% (95% confidence interval 3.4%-10.7%) and 3.4% (0.1%-6.8%), respectively, in men and by 13.7% (9.1%-18.6%) and 12.2% (7.8-16.8%), respectively, in women between 1968 and 2004. However, the incidence peak remained considerably lower than what can be observed in young......A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  11. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.


    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A

  12. Diffusion of Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, A.M.; Lenz, F.; Thies, M.; Negele, J.W.


    A phenomenological analysis of the distribution of Wilson loops in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is presented in which Wilson loop distributions are described as the result of a diffusion process on the group manifold. It is shown that, in the absence of forces, diffusion implies Casimir scaling and, conversely, exact Casimir scaling implies free diffusion. Screening processes occur if diffusion takes place in a potential. The crucial distinction between screening of fundamental and adjoint loops is formulated as a symmetry property related to the center symmetry of the underlying gauge theory. The results are expressed in terms of an effective Wilson loop action and compared with various limits of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

  13. Diffusion between evolving interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntunen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha


    Diffusion in an evolving environment is studied by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations. Diffusion is modeled by continuous-time random walkers on a lattice, in a dynamic environment provided by bubbles between two one-dimensional interfaces driven symmetrically towards each other. For one-dimensional random walkers constrained by the interfaces, the bubble size distribution dominates diffusion. For two-dimensional random walkers, it is also controlled by the topography and dynamics of the interfaces. The results of the one-dimensional case are recovered in the limit where the interfaces are strongly driven. Even with simple hard-core repulsion between the interfaces and the particles, diffusion is found to depend strongly on the details of the dynamical rules of particles close to the interfaces.

  14. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.


    concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements

  15. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard


    approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...... resulting from the design were two-day training workshops conceptually anchored to TBP. The design theory was evaluated through execution of eight diffusion workshops involving three different groups in the same company. The findings indicate that the match between the practice and the context materialized...... that the behavior will be effective). These two factors were especially critical if the source context of the best practice is qualitatively different from the target context into which the organization is seeking to diffuse the best practice....

  16. Detection of diffusible substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warembourg, M [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France)


    The different steps of a radioautographic technique for the detection of diffusible substances are described. Using this radioautographic method, the topographic distribution of estradiol-concentrating neurons was studied in the nervous system and pituitary of the ovariectomized mouse and guinea-pig. A relatively good morphological preservation of structures can be ascertained on sections from unfixed, unembedded tissues prepared at low temperatures and kept-under relatively low humidity. The translocation or extraction of diffusible substances is avoided by directly mounting of frozen sections on dried photographic emulsion. Since no solvent is used, this technique excludes the major sources of diffusion artifacts and permits to be in favourable conditions for the localization of diffusible substances.

  17. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.


    Diffusion and permeation are discussed within the context of irreversible thermodynamics. A new expression for the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is obtained which links the permeability to the diffusivity of a two-component solution and contains the poroelastic Biot-Willis coefficient. The theory is illustrated by predicting the concentration and pressure profiles during the filtration of a protein solution. At low concentrations the proteins diffuse independently while at higher concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. © 2009 Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

  18. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo


    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  19. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  20. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.


    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  1. Now consider diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungey, J.W.


    The authors want to talk about future work, but first he will reply to Stan Cowley's comment on his naivety in believing in the whole story to 99% confidence in '65, when he knew about Fairfield's results. Does it matter whether you make the right judgment about theories? Yes, it does, particularly for experimentalists perhaps, but also for theorists. The work you do later depends on the judgment you've made on previous work. People have wasted a lot of time developing on insecure or even wrong foundations. Now for future work. One mild surprise the authors have had is that they haven't heard more about diffusion, in two contexts. Gordon Rostoker is yet to come and he may talk about particles getting into the magnetosphere by diffusion. Lots of noise is observed and so diffusion must happen. If time had not been short, the authors were planning to discuss in a handwaving way what sort of diffusion mechanisms one might consider. The other aspect of diffusion he was going to talk about is at the other end of things and is velocity diffusion, which is involved in anomalous resistivity

  2. Improving freight crash incident management. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  3. Quantum reflection in the linearly downward potential (United States)

    Chamnan, N.; Krunavakarn, B.


    In this work, the motion of a particle in one dimension under the influence of the linearly downward potential well is studied within the context of the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The attention is paid on the paradoxical phenomenon of the reflection of a particle that is in contrast between classical and quantum physics. Classically, the reflection effect occurs only at a potential barrier. To demonstrate such counter-intuitive phenomenon, the Schrödinger equation is solved to obtain the reflection coefficient in the scattering state by considering an incident particle that is represented by a monochromatic plane wave having an energy E > 0, propagates freely from left to right, pass through the potential well. The continuity conditions at boundaries give the desired result that is expressed in terms of the Airy functions which depends on the incident energy E, the strength jV 0 j and the range L of the well. The value of the reflection coefficient R lies in the interval 0 < R < 1, and its behavior is the decreasing function with respect to the range L.

  4. Incidents/accidents classification and reporting in Statoil. (United States)

    Berentsen, Rune; Holmboe, Rolf H


    Based on requirements in the new petroleum regulations from Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) and the realisation of a need to improve and rationalise the routines for reporting and follow up of incidents, Statoil Exploration & Production Norway (Statoil E&P Norway) has formulated a new strategy and process for handling of incidents/accidents. The following past experiences serve as basis for the changes made to incident reporting in Statoil E&P Norway; too much resources were spent on a comprehensive handling and analysis of a vast amount of incidents with less importance for the safety level, taking the focus away from the more severe and important issues at hand, the assessment of "Risk Factor", i.e. the combination of recurrence frequency and consequence, was difficult to use. The high degree of subjectivity involved in the determination of the "Risk Factor" (in particular the estimation of the recurrence frequency) resulted in poor data quality and lack of consistency in the data material. The new system for categorisation and handling of undesirable incidents was established in January 2002. The intention was to get a higher degree of focus on serious incidents (injuries, damages, loss and near misses), with a thorough handling and follow-up. This is reflected throughout the handling of the serious incidents, all the way from immediate notification of the incident, through investigation and follow-up of corrective and preventive actions. Simultaneously, it was also an objective to rationalise/simplify the handling of less serious incidents. These incidents are, however, subjected to analyses twice a year in order to utilize the learning opportunity that they also provide. A year after the introduction of this new system for categorisation and follow-up of undesirable incidents, Statoil's experiences are predominantly good; the intention to get a higher degree of focus on serious incidents (injuries, damages, loss and near misses), has been met, the data

  5. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G


    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  6. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants (United States)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert


    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  7. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.


    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  8. Theory of relativistic radiation reflection from plasmas (United States)

    Gonoskov, Arkady


    We consider the reflection of relativistically strong radiation from plasma and identify the physical origin of the electrons' tendency to form a thin sheet, which maintains its localisation throughout its motion. Thereby, we justify the principle of relativistic electronic spring (RES) proposed in [Gonoskov et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 046403 (2011)]. Using the RES principle, we derive a closed set of differential equations that describe the reflection of radiation with arbitrary variation of polarization and intensity from plasma with an arbitrary density profile for an arbitrary angle of incidence. We confirm with ab initio PIC simulations that the developed theory accurately describes laser-plasma interactions in the regime where the reflection of relativistically strong radiation is accompanied by significant, repeated relocation of plasma electrons. In particular, the theory can be applied for the studies of plasma heating and coherent and incoherent emissions in the RES regime of high-intensity laser-plasma interaction.

  9. Incident Management: Process into Practice (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian


    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  10. Reflective and refractive objects for mixed reality. (United States)

    Knecht, Martin; Traxler, Christoph; Winklhofer, Christoph; Wimmer, Michael


    In this paper, we present a novel rendering method which integrates reflective or refractive objects into a differential instant radiosity (DIR) framework usable for mixed-reality (MR) applications. This kind of objects are very special from the light interaction point of view, as they reflect and refract incident rays. Therefore they may cause high-frequency lighting effects known as caustics. Using instant-radiosity (IR) methods to approximate these high-frequency lighting effects would require a large amount of virtual point lights (VPLs) and is therefore not desirable due to real-time constraints. Instead, our approach combines differential instant radiosity with three other methods. One method handles more accurate reflections compared to simple cubemaps by using impostors. Another method is able to calculate two refractions in real-time, and the third method uses small quads to create caustic effects. Our proposed method replaces parts in light paths that belong to reflective or refractive objects using these three methods and thus tightly integrates into DIR. In contrast to previous methods which introduce reflective or refractive objects into MR scenarios, our method produces caustics that also emit additional indirect light. The method runs at real-time frame rates, and the results show that reflective and refractive objects with caustics improve the overall impression for MR scenarios.

  11. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  12. Effect of diffusion of light on thin-film photovoltaic laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Mohanty

    Full Text Available A large fraction of the daylight incident on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV laminates is diffuse irradiance. In this study, fabrics of various weaves were used to simulate combinations of direct and diffuse irradiance on façade-mounted PV. The scattering of light achieved with the fabrics at varying angles of incidence was measured with a goniophotometer. The transmittance distribution was used to quantify the percentage of diffusion created by the fabrics. A photovoltaic (PV laminate was shaded with the fabrics to simulate diffuse irradiance and the short circuit current of the module was measured. The experimental results indicate fabrics of different porosity can be used to simulate various combinations of direct and diffuse irradiance. However, these fabrics can affect the module output. Preliminary results show that the proximity of the fabric to the thin-film PV laminate during the test skews the measured electrical parameters. Keywords: Scattering, BRDF, Solar energy, Diffused irradiance, Photovoltaics, Goniophotometry

  13. Effects of incident cluster size, substrate temperature, and incident energy on bombardment of Ni clusters onto Cu (0 0 1) surface studied using molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shiang-Jiun; Wu, Cheng-Da; Fang, Te-Hua; Chen, Guan-Hung


    The bombardment process of a Ni cluster onto a Cu (0 0 1) surface is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the tight-binding second-moment approximation (TB-SMA) many-body potential. The effects of incident cluster size, substrate temperature, and incident energy are evaluated in terms of molecular trajectories, kinetic energy, stress, self-diffusion coefficient, and sputtering yield. The simulation results clearly show that the penetration depth and Cu surface damage increase with increasing incident cluster size for a given incident energy per atom. The self-diffusion coefficient and the penetration depth of a cluster significantly increase with increasing substrate temperature. An incident cluster can be scattered into molecules or atoms that become embedded in the surface after incidence. When the incident energy is increased, the number of volcano-like defects and the penetration depth increase. A high sputtering yield can be obtained by increasing the incident energy at high temperature. The sputtering yield significantly increases with cluster size when the incident energy is above 5 eV/atom.

  14. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.


    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  15. Diffusion and crystal growth in plasma deposed thin ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, H.; Wulff, H.; Quaas, M.; Tun, Tin Maung.; Hipple, R.


    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited by means of DC-planar magnetron sputtering. A metallic In/Sn (90/10) target an Ar/O 2 gas mixture were used. The oxygen flow was varied between 0 and 2 sccm. Substrate voltages between 0 and -100 V were used. With increasing oxygen flow film structure and composition change from crystalline metallic In/Sn to amorphous ITO. Simultaneously the deposition rate decreases and the film density increases. The diffusion of oxygen into metallic In/Sn films and the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of ITO were studied using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), grazing incidence reflectometry (GIXR), and AFM. From the X-ray integral intensities diffusion constants, activation energies of the diffusion, reaction order and activation energy of the crystal growth were extracted. (authors)

  16. Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarotski, Dmitry Anatolievitch [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    On Thursday November 19, 2015, LANL postdoc received an eye injury from a reflected, nonvisible laser beam (Class 4, pulsed, wavelength 800 nanometer). The setup is configured to split the laser output into two work areas in which qualified operators conduct research experiments. During this incident, the laser output beam was being projected to both experimental work areas, although only one experimental area was actively being used. The second laser beam directed to the second work area was blocked by an inappropriate device (Plexiglas, reflective, non-normal incidence) that reflected substantial portion of the beam toward the first setup. In preparation for the measurements, worker stepped on the stepstool and decided to remove the laser goggles to better see the micrometer readings which were difficult to see due to insufficient lighting. Immediately, he noticed a flash of light in his eye. The operator quickly replaced the laser eye-wear and then, using an infrared viewer, located a stray laser beam being reflected from the plexiglas beam block. The operator did not think he had sustained any injury and continued working. Later that day, however, he noticed a blurry spot in the vision of his left eye. He notified his supervisor on Friday morning, November 20, 2015, and was taken by CINT management to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) medical facility for evaluation. SNL Medical did not find any abnormalities, but referred the operator to a local ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Further evaluations by the ophthalmologist on November 21 and November 23 identified a small spot of inflammation near the fovea on the retina in his left eye. The ophthalmologist stated that this spot would most likely heal on its own and that the blurry spot on the operator's vision would go away. A follow-up visit was scheduled. The employee was released back to work without restrictions.

  17. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.


    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  18. Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow. (United States)

    Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava; Selb, Juliette; Farzam, Parisa; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Carp, Stefan A


    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow rely on the sensitivity of the temporal autocorrelation function of diffusively scattered light to red blood cell (RBC) mean square displacement (MSD). For RBCs flowing with convective velocity [Formula: see text], the autocorrelation is expected to decay exponentially with [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the delay time. RBCs also experience shear-induced diffusion with a diffusion coefficient [Formula: see text] and an MSD of [Formula: see text]. Surprisingly, experimental data primarily reflect diffusive behavior. To provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of convective and diffusive movements, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering through tissue of varying vessel densities. We assumed laminar vessel flow profiles and accounted for shear-induced diffusion effects. In agreement with experimental data, we found that diffusive motion dominates the correlation decay for typical DCS measurement parameters. Furthermore, our model offers a quantitative relationship between the RBC diffusion coefficient and absolute tissue blood flow. We thus offer, for the first time, theoretical support for the empirically accepted ability of the DCS blood flow index ([Formula: see text]) to quantify tissue perfusion. We find [Formula: see text] to be linearly proportional to blood flow, but with a proportionality modulated by the hemoglobin concentration and the average blood vessel diameter.

  19. Neutron transmission and reflection at a copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Fayek, M.; Habib, N.; Wahba, M.


    Neutron transmission and reflection at a copper single crystal cut along the (111) plane were studied with the fixed-scattering-angle spectrometer installed at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The transmission was measured for neutron wavelengths between 0.15 and 0.46 nm and various orientations of the (111) plane with respect to the incident beam. When used as a neutron band pass filter, the crystal is optimally oriented when the neutron beam is incident parallel to the [111] direction. The reflectivity was measured for the (111) plane at 45deg with respect to the incident beam. The results were found to be in reasonable agreement with a value predicted for the reflected intensity at an imperfect crystal with finite absorption. (orig.) [de

  20. Neutron transmission and reflection at a copper single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Fayek, M.; Habib, N. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.); Wahba, M. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics)


    Neutron transmission and reflection at a copper single crystal cut along the (111) plane were studied with the fixed-scattering-angle spectrometer installed at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The transmission was measured for neutron wavelengths between 0.15 and 0.46 nm and various orientations of the (111) plane with respect to the incident beam. When used as a neutron band pass filter, the crystal is optimally oriented when the neutron beam is incident parallel to the (111) direction. The reflectivity was measured for the (111) plane at 45deg with respect to the incident beam. The results were found to be in reasonable agreement with a value predicted for the reflected intensity at an imperfect crystal with finite absorption. (orig.).