WorldWideScience

Sample records for inch diameter mdt

  1. Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.P.; Onesto, A.T.; DeVita, V.

    1987-02-01

    This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis

  2. Interim results: fines recycle testing using the 4-inch diameter primary graphite burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.B.

    1975-05-01

    The results of twenty-two HTGR primary burner runs in which graphite fines were recycled pneumatically to the 4-inch diameter pilot-plant primary fluidized-bed burner are described. The result of the tests showed that zero fines accumulation can easily be achieved while operating at plant equivalent burn rates. (U.S.)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A NINE INCH DIAMETER, MACH 5.5, MONORAIL, ROCKET SLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nine inch diameter monorail rocket sled was designed, fabricated and tested at Holloman Air Force Base. The vehicle was designed to allow easy...replacement of appendages which were subject to severe aerodynamic heating and/or high wear rates. The monorail vehicle as described was shown to be

  4. Fabrication of 0.5-inch diameter FBR mixed oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Benecke, M.W.; McCord, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Large diameter (0.535 inch) mixed oxide fuel pellets for Fast Breeder Reactor application were successfully fabricated by the cold-press-and-sinter technique. Enriched UO 2 , PuO 2 -UO 2 , and PuO 2 -ThO 2 compositions were fabricated into nominally 90% theoretical density pellets for the UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 compositions, and 88% and 93% T.D. for the PuO 2 -ThO 2 compositions. Some processing adjustments were required to achieve satisfactory pellet quality and density. Furnace heating rate was reduced from 200 to 50 0 C/h for the organic binder burnout cycle for the large, 0.535-inch diameter pellets to eliminate pellet cracking during sintering. Additional preslugging steps and die wall lubrication during pressing were used to eliminate pressing cracks in the PuO 2 -ThO 2 pellets

  5. High spatial resolution gamma imaging detector based on a 5 inch diameter R3292 Hamamatsu PSPMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, R.; Majewski, S.; Kross, B.; Weisenberger, A.G.; Steinbach, D.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution imaging gamma-ray detectors were developed using Hamamatsu's 5 inch diameter R3292 position sensitive PMT (PSPMT) and a variety of crystal scintillator arrays. Special readout techniques were used to maximize the active imaging area while reducing the number of readout channels. Spatial resolutions approaching 1 mm were obtained in a broad energy range from 20 to 511 keV. Results are also presented of coupling the scintillator arrays to the PMT via imaging light guides consisting of acrylic optical fibers

  6. The dimensional changes of a 24 inch diameter vessel during a campaign of successive glass making runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidley, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout the life of a 24 inch diameter Glass Making Vessel used on the inactive Harvest Vitrification Plant dimensional measurements have been recorded. When glass is present the diameter increases due to thermal stresses. Some permanent longitudinal extension (about 1%) occurred over the 20 runs comprising the glass-making campaign. (author)

  7. Preparatory Study of Photomultiplier Tubes of 10-inch and 3-inch Diameter for KM3NeT Underwater Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.

    2015-01-01

    Large area photomultipliers are widely used in neutrino and astro-particle detectors to measure Cherenkov light in media like water or ice. The key element of these detectors are the so-called 'optical module', which consists of a photodetector enclosed in a transparent pressure-resistant container to protect it and ensure good light transmission. KM3NeT collaboration aims to construct an underwater 'hybrid' neutrino telescope by using two models detection unit. The 'tower' detection unit will be composed of large area 10-inch photomultipliers tube enclosed into 13-inch glass vessel sphere. In the 'string' detection unit instead, the light detector will be the 'digital optical module' (DOM) a glass vessel of 17-inch with 31 photomultipliers of 3- inch diameter looking upwards and downwards. The choice of two different kinds of photomultipliers, obliges us to investigate their main characteristics. Noise pulses at the anode of each photomultiplier strongly affect the performance of the detector. A large study was conducted on noise pulses of large area photomultipliers, considering time and charge distributions of dark pulses, pre-pulses, delayed pulses, and after-pulses. The contribution to noise pulses due to the presence of the external glass vessels was also studied. Moreover the presence of the Earth's magnetic field should modify quantities like gain and transit time spread in photomultipliers and we will deeply investigate on this. (authors)

  8. Project W320 52-inch diameter equipment container load test: Test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report summarizes testing activities and documents the results of the load tests performed on-site and off-site to structural qualify the 52-inch equipment containers designed and fabricated under Project W-320

  9. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  10. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-02-16

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20–25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg–Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg–Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm-2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  11. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20-25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg-Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg-Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm-2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  12. Project Waiver of American Iron and Steel Requirements to the Napa Sanitation District for 24-Inch Diameter Butterfly Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiver approval by EPA pursuant to the American Iron and Steel Requirements of the Clean Water Act Section 608 to the Napa Sanitation District in California for the purchase of 24-inch butterfly valves.

  13. A study of performance and cost improvement potential of the 120 inch (3.05 m) diameter solid rocket motor. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, S. J.; Rossen, J. N.

    1971-01-01

    A parametric study of ballistic modifications to the 120 inch diameter solid propellant rocket engine which forms part of the Air Force Titan 3 system is presented. 576 separate designs were defined and 24 were selected for detailed analysis. Detailed design descriptions, ballistic performance, and mass property data were prepared for each design. It was determined that a relatively simple change in design parameters could provide a wide range of solid propellant rocket engine ballistic characteristics for future launch vehicle applications.

  14. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on 3-inch diameter photomultipliers used in KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be the largest underwater neutrino telescope and will be located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module and for KM3NeT it consists of 31 PMTs stored inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere of 17-inch that serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. Since the PMTs installed into an underwater neutrino telescope can change their orientation because of movements of the detector structure due to sea currents, the influence of Earth's magnetic field has been investigated. Magnetic shielding by means of a mu-metal cage is used to reduce magnetic effects and to make the response of the PMT sufficiently orientation independent. In order to quantify the effect on magnetic field, we compared measurements on variation of gain, transit time spread and detection efficiency for a 3-inch PMT in shielded and unshielded condition at 3 PMT inclinations. Data shows that variations are sufficiently low especially for timing properties.

  15. Experimental and numerical approach on fracture behaviour of four inches diameter carbon-manganese cracked welded pipes in four point bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semete, P.; Faidy, C.; Lautier, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    EDF has conducted a research programme to demonstrate the fracture resistance of carbon-manganese welded pipes. The main task of this programme consisted of testing three four inches diameter (114.3 mm O.D.) thin welded pipes (8.56 mm thick) which are representative of those of the sites. The three pipes were loaded under four point bending at a quasi-static rate at -20 C till their maximum bending moment was reached. This paper presents the experimental results, finite element calculations and their comparison with the simplified fracture assessment method of the RSE-M Code. (author)

  16. A novel 2D silicon nano-mold fabrication technique for linear nanochannels over a 4 inch diameter substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhifu; Qi, Liping; Zou, Helin; Sun, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A novel low-cost 2D silicon nano-mold fabrication technique was developed based on Cu inclined-deposition and Ar+ (argon ion) etching. With this technique, sub-100 nm 2D (two dimensional) nano-channels can be etched economically over the whole area of a 4 inch n-type  silicon wafer. The fabricating process consists of only 4 steps, UV (Ultraviolet) lithography, inclined Cu deposition, Ar+ sputter etching, and photoresist & Cu removing. During this nano-mold fabrication process, we investigated the influence of the deposition angle on the width of the nano-channels and the effect of Ar+ etching time on their depth. Post-etching measurements showed the accuracy of the nanochannels over the whole area: the variation in width is 10%, in depth it is 11%. However, post-etching measurements also showed the accuracy of the nanochannels between chips: the variation in width is 2%, in depth it is 5%. With this newly developed technology, low-cost and large scale 2D nano-molds can be fabricated, which allows commercial manufacturing of nano-components over large areas. PMID:26752559

  17. Project W420 Air Sampler Probe Placement Qualification Tests for Four 6-Inch Diameter Stacks: 296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, A.D.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The W420 project covers the upgrading of effluent monitoring systems at six ventilation exhaust stacks in tank-farm facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The discharge stacks of five of the six systems will be completely replaced. Four of these (296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18) will be of the same size, 6-inches in diameter and about 12-ft high. This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that these four stacks meet the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe. These criteria ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the location of the probe such that the extracted sample represents the whole. There are also criteria addressing the transport of the sample to the collection device. These are not covered in this report, but will need to be addressed later. These tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on a full-scale model of the 6-inch stick. The sequence of tests addresses the acceptability of the flow angle relative to the probe and the uniformity of air velocity and gaseous and particle tracers in the cross section of the stack. All tests were successful, and all acceptance criteria were met

  18. Ductile fracture behavior of 6-inch diameter type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel piping containing a through-wall or part-through crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Kaneko, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Norio.

    1986-05-01

    The double ended guillotine break philosophy in the design base accident of the nuclear power plant is considered to be overly conservative from the view point of piping design. Through the past experiences and developments of the fabrication, inspection, and operation of nuclear power plants, it has been recognized that the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept can be justified in the LWR pressure boundary pipings. In order to verify the LBB concept, extensive experimental and theoretical works are being conducted in many countries. Furthermore, a revised piping design standard, in which LBB concept is introduced, is under preparation in Japan, U.S.A., and European countries. At JAERI, a research program to investigate the unstable ductile fracture behavior of LWR piping under bending load has been carried out as a part of the LBB verification researches since 1983. This report summarizes the result of the ductile fracture tests conducted at room temperature in 1983 and 84. The 6-inch diameter pipes of type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel pipe with a through-wall or part-through crack were tested under bending load with low or high compliance condition at room temperature. Pipe fracture data were obtained from the test as regards to load- displacement curve, crack extension, net section stress, J-resistance curve, and so on. Besides, the influence of the compliance on the fracture behavior was examined. Discussions are performed on the ductile pipe fracture criterion, flaw evaluation criterion, and LBB evaluation method. (author)

  19. MDT-ASD, CMOS front-end for ATLAS MDT

    CERN Document Server

    Posch, C; Oliver, J

    2007-01-01

    This document serves as the main reference and user`s manual for the read-out chip of the Monitored Drift Tubes in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. The eight-channel front-end ASIC is referred to as MDT-ASD. The document contains the requirements and complete specifications, a detailed description of the design with characteristics of all sub-circuits and building blocks, a comprehensive section on functionality and performance test results, and a complete bibliography.

  20. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  1. Upgrades Of The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer With sMDT Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Claudio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer demonstrated that they provide very precise and robust tracking over large areas. Goals of ATLAS muon detector upgrades are to increase the acceptance for precision muon momentum measurement and triggering and to improve the rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions when the LHC luminosity increases. Small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages with the MDTs, but have more than ten times higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, reducing cost and construction time considerably and improving the sense wire positioning accuracy to better than ten microns. Two sMDT chambers have been installed in 2014 to improve the mom...

  2. Test Report for MSFC Test No. 83-2: Pressure scaled water impact test of a 12.5 inch diameter model of the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster filament wound case and external TVC PCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Water impact tests using a 12.5 inch diameter model representing a 8.56 percent scale of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster configuration were conducted. The two primary objectives of this SRB scale model water impact test program were: 1. Obtain cavity collapse applied pressure distributions for the 8.56 percent rigid body scale model FWC pressure magnitudes as a function of full-scale initial impact conditions at vertical velocities from 65 to 85 ft/sec, horizontal velocities from 0 to 45 ft/sec, and angles from -10 to +10 degrees. 2. Obtain rigid body applied pressures on the TVC pod and aft skirt internal stiffener rings at initial impact and cavity collapse loading events. In addition, nozzle loads were measured. Full scale vertical velocities of 65 to 85 ft/sec, horizontal velocities of 0 to 45 ft/sec, and impact angles from -10 to +10 degrees simulated.

  3. Upgrades of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with sMDT Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Claudio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    With half the drift-tube diameter of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers provide an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit. The chamber assembly time has been reduced by a factor of seven to one working day and the sense wire positioning accuracy improved by a factor of two to better than ten microns. Two sMDT chambers have been installed in ATLAS in 2014 to improve the momentum resolution in the barrel part of the spectrometer. The construction of additional twelve chambers covering the feet regions of the ATLAS detector has started. It will be followed by the replacement of the MDT chambers at the ends of the barrel inner layer by sMDTs improving the Performance at the high expected background rates and providing space for additional RPC trigger chambers.

  4. Upgrades of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with sMDT Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, C

    2016-01-01

    With half the drift-tube diameter of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers provide an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit. The chamber assembly time has been reduced by a factor of seven to one working day and the sense wire positioning accuracy improved by a factor of two to better than ten microns. Two sMDT chambers have been installed in ATLAS in 2014 to improve the momentum resolution in the barrel part of the spectrometer. The construction of an additional twelve chambers covering the feet regions of the ATLAS detector has started. It will be followed by the replacement of the MDT chambers at the ends of the barrel inner layer by sMDTs improving the Performance at the high expected background rates and providing space for additional RPC trigger chambers.

  5. ATLAS MDT neutron sensitivity measurement and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlen, S.; Hu, G.; Osborne, D.; Schulz, A.; Shank, J.; Xu, Q.; Zhou, B.

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of the ATLAS precision muon detector element, the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT), to fast neutrons has been measured using a 5.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The major mechanism of neutron-induced signals in the drift tubes is the elastic collisions between the neutrons and the gas nuclei. The recoil nuclei lose kinetic energy in the gas and produce the signals. By measuring the ATLAS drift tube neutron-induced signal rate and the total neutron flux, the MDT neutron signal sensitivities were determined for different drift gas mixtures and for different neutron beam energies. We also developed a sophisticated simulation model to calculate the neutron-induced signal rate and signal spectrum for ATLAS MDT operation configurations. The calculations agree with the measurements very well. This model can be used to calculate the neutron sensitivities for different gaseous detectors and for neutron energies above those available to this experiment

  6. Optimization of the ATLAS (s)MDT readout electronics for high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Nowak, Sebastian; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the ATLAS muon spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers are used for precise muon track measurement. For the high background rates expected at HL-LHC, which are mainly due to neutrons and photons produced by interactions of the proton collision products in the detector and shielding, new small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT)-chambers with half the drift tube diameter of the MDT-chambers and ten times higher rate capability have been developed. The standard MDT readout electronics uses bipolar shaping in front of a discriminator. This shaping leads to an undershoot of same charge but opposite polarity following each pulse. With count rates also the probability of having the subsequent pulse in this undershoot increases, which leads to losses in efficiency and spatial resolution. In order to decrease this effect, discrete prototype electronics including Baseline Restoration has been developed. Results of their tests and data taken with them during muon beamtime measurements at CERN's Gamma Irradiation Facility will be presented. which causes a deterioration of signal pulses by preceding background hits, leading to losses in muon efficiency and drift tube spatial resolution. In order to mitigate these so-called signal pile-up effects, new readout electronics with active baseline restoration (BLR) is under development. Discrete prototype electronics with BLR functionality has been tested in laboratory measurements and in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN under high γ-irradiation rates. Results of the measurements are presented.

  7. SU-E-T-396: Dosimetric Accuracy of Proton Therapy for Patients with Metal Implants in CT Scans Using Metal Deletion Technique (MDT) Artifacts Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X; Kantor, M; Zhu, X; Frank, S; Sahoo, N; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric accuracy for proton therapy patients with metal implants in CT using metal deletion technique (MDT) artifacts reduction. Methods: Proton dose accuracies under CT metal artifacts were first evaluated using a water phantom with cylindrical inserts of different materials (titanium and steel). Ranges and dose profiles along different beam angles were calculated using treatment planning system (Eclipse version 8.9) on uncorrected CT, MDT CT, and manually-corrected CT, where true Hounsfield units (water) were assigned to the streak artifacts. In patient studies, the treatment plans were developed on manually-corrected CTs, then recalculated on MDT and uncorrected CTs. DVH indices were compared between the dose distributions on all the CTs. Results: For water phantom study with 1/2 inch titanium insert, the proton range differences estimated by MDT CT were with 1% for all beam angles, while the range error can be up to 2.6% for uncorrected CT. For the study with 1 inch stainless steel insert, the maximum range error calculated by MDT CT was 1.09% among all the beam angles compared with maximum range error with 4.7% for uncorrected CT. The dose profiles calculated on MDT CTs for both titanium and steel inserts showed very good agreements with the ones calculated on manually-corrected CTs, while large dose discrepancies calculated using uncorrected CTs were observed in the distal end region of the proton beam. The patient study showed similar dose distribution and DVHs for organs near the metal artifacts recalculated on MDT CT compared with the ones calculated on manually-corrected CT, while the differences between uncorrected and corrected CTs were much pronounced. Conclusion: In proton therapy, large dose error could occur due to metal artifact. The MDT CT can be used for proton dose calculation to achieve similar dose accuracy as the current clinical practice using manual correction

  8. Pixel-Tilecal-MDT Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Di Girolamo

    A test with many expectations When an additional week of running (from September 11th to 18th) was allocated for the test-beam, it was decided to give priority to a combined run with the participation of the Pixel, Tilecal and MDT sub-detectors. The integration of these three sub-detectors was possible as they all use the baseline (DAQ-1/EF based) DAQ for test beams (as reported in a previous e-news). The tests and the addition of a common trigger and busy were organized in a short timescale by experts from the three sub-detectors and DAQ/EF. The expectations were many; both looking for problems and finding solutions. The setup The setup, shown in the figure, consisted of the Pixel telescope normally used during the sub-detector tests, two Tilecal barrel modules, two Tilecal extended barrel modules, and six MDT barrel chambers. This fully occupied a length of some 30 meters in the H8 line of the SPS North Area. Each sub-detector used their own specialized front-end electronics. The data collected by modu...

  9. Precision Muon Tracking at Future Hadron Colliders with sMDT Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Kortner, Oliver; Müller, Felix; Nowak, Sebastian; Richter, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) chambers are a cost-effective technology for high-precision muon tracking. The rate capability of the sMDT chambers has been extensively tested at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN in view of expected rates at future high-energy hadron colliders. Results show that it fulfills the requirements over most of the acceptance of muon detectors. The optimization of the read-out electronics to further increase the rate capability of the detectors is discussed. Chambers of this type are under construction for upgrades of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at high LHC luminosities. Design and construction procedures have been optimized for mass production while providing a precision of better than 10 micrometers in the sense wire positions and the mechanical stability required to cover large areas.

  10. Temperature Studies for ATLAS MDT BOS Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, A.; Biebel, O.; Mameghani, R.; Merkl, D.; Rauscher, F.; Schaile, D.; Ströhmer, R.

    Data sets with high statistics taken at the cosmic ray facility, equipped with 3 ATLAS BOS MDT chambers, in Garching (Munich) have been used to study temperature and pressure effects on gas gain and drifttime. The deformation of a thermally expanded chamber was reconstructed using the internal RasNik alignment monitoring system and the tracks from cosmic data. For these studies a heating system was designed to increase the temperature of the middle chamber by up to 20 Kelvins over room temperature. For comparison the temperature effects on gas properties have been simulated with Garfield. The maximum drifttime decreased under temperature raise by -2.21 +- 0.08 ns/K, in agreement with the results of pressure variations and the Garfield simulation. The increased temperatures led to a linear increase of the gas gain of about 2.1% 1/K. The chamber deformation has been analyzed with the help of reconstructed tracks. By the comparison of the tracks through the reference chambers with these through the test chamber ...

  11. Construction and test of sMDT chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasugi, Eric; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the ATLAS muon spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs) are used for precise tracking measurements. In order to increase the geometric acceptance and rate capability, new chambers have been designed and are under construction to be installed in ATLAS during the winter shutdown of 2016/17 of the LHC. The new chambers have a drift tube diameter of 15 mm (compared to 30 mm of the other MDTs) and are therefore called sMDT chambers. This presentation reports on the progress of chamber construction and on the results of quality assurance tests.

  12. Measurements of Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on an 8-Inch-Diameter Hemisphere-Cylinder in Free Flight for a Mach Number Range of 2.00 to 3.88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Benjamine J.; Chauvin, Leo T.

    1957-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made along the hemisphere and cylinder of a hemisphere-cylinder rocket-propelled model in free flight up to a Mach number of 3.88. The test Reynolds number based on free-stream condition and diameter of model covered a range from 2.69 x l0(exp 6) to 11.70 x 10(exp 6). Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer coefficients were obtained. The laminar data along the body agreed with laminar theory for blunt bodies whereas the turbulent data along the cylinder were consistently lower than that predicted by the turbulent theory for a flat plate. Measurements of heat transfer at the stagnation point were, in general, lower than the theory for stagnation-point heat transfer. When the Reynolds number to the junction of the hemisphere-cylinder was greater than 6 x l0(exp 6), the transitional Reynolds number varied from 0.8 x l0(exp 6) to 3.0 x 10(exp 6); however, than 6 x l(exp 6) when the Reynolds number to the junction was less, than the transitional Reynolds number varied from 7.0 x l0(exp 6) to 24.7 x 10(exp 6).

  13. Low back pain: an assessment using positional MRI and MDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Karen; Alexander, Lyndsay A; Cooper, Kay; Hancock, Elizabeth; Ross, Jenny; Smith, Francis W

    2013-04-01

    Current guidelines advise against the use of routine imaging for low back pain. Positional MRI can provide enhanced assessment of the lumbar spine in functionally loaded positions which are often relevant to the presenting clinical symptoms. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the use of positional MRI in the assessment and classification of a subject with low back pain. A low back pain subject underwent a Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) assessment and positional MRI scan of the lumbar spine. The MDT assessment classified the subject as "other" since the subjective history indicated a possible posterior derangement whilst the objective assessment indicated a possible anterior derangement. Positional MRI scanning in flexed, upright and extended sitting postures confirmed the MDT assessment findings to reveal a dynamic spinal stenosis which reduced in flexion and increased in extension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rigorous covariance propagation of geoid errors to geodetic MDT estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pail, R.; Albertella, A.; Fecher, T.; Savcenko, R.

    2012-04-01

    The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is defined as the difference between the mean sea surface (MSS) derived from satellite altimetry, averaged over several years, and the static geoid. Assuming geostrophic conditions, from the MDT the ocean surface velocities as important component of global ocean circulation can be derived from it. Due to the availability of GOCE gravity field models, for the very first time MDT can now be derived solely from satellite observations (altimetry and gravity) down to spatial length-scales of 100 km and even below. Global gravity field models, parameterized in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients, are complemented by the full variance-covariance matrix (VCM). Therefore, for the geoid component a realistic statistical error estimate is available, while the error description of the altimetric component is still an open issue and is, if at all, attacked empirically. In this study we make the attempt to perform, based on the full gravity VCM, rigorous error propagation to derived geostrophic surface velocities, thus also considering all correlations. For the definition of the static geoid we use the third release of the time-wise GOCE model, as well as the satellite-only combination model GOCO03S. In detail, we will investigate the velocity errors resulting from the geoid component in dependence of the harmonic degree, and the impact of using/no using covariances on the MDT errors and its correlations. When deriving an MDT, it is spectrally filtered to a certain maximum degree, which is usually driven by the signal content of the geoid model, by applying isotropic or non-isotropic filters. Since this filtering is acting also on the geoid component, the consistent integration of this filter process into the covariance propagation shall be performed, and its impact shall be quantified. The study will be performed for MDT estimates in specific test areas of particular oceanographic interest.

  15. MDT-MB therapy in paucibacillary leprosy: A clinicopathological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends treatment regimens for paucibacillary (PB and multibacillary (MB leprosy, which differ in their duration and components. Hence accurate classification of the disease is required. To overcome difficulties in classification Uniform Multi Drug Therapy (U-MDT has been recommended. AIM : To evaluate the benefit of adding clofazimine to paucibacillary regimens in leprosy patients by measuring clinical and histological resolution. METHODS: Forty-four paucibacillary patients were included in the study. Twenty-two patients were given MDT-PB regimen and the remaining MDT-MB regimen for six months . Skin biopsies were done before the commencement and at the end of treatment. Clinical and histological resolutions were measured according to the standard criteria a laid down. The results were analyzed using Fishers′ test and Crammers′ V test. RESULTS: Clinical improvement was observed in 90.9% in the MB group as compared to 27.3% in the PB group. Regression in the nerve swelling was observed in 70% in the MB group and in 37.5% in the PB group while histological resolution was observed in 72.8% and 54.5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of clofazimine helps to resolve leprosy lesions both clinically and histologically, thus justifying the concept of Uniform MDT regimen for all patients.

  16. Measuring the quality of MDT working: an observational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Cath

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer multidisciplinary teams (MDTs are established in many countries but little is known about how well they function. A core activity is regular MDT meetings (MDMs where treatment recommendations are agreed. A mixed methods descriptive study was conducted to develop and test quality criteria for observational assessment of MDM performance calibrated against consensus from over 2000 MDT members about the “characteristics of an effective MDT”. Methods Eighteen of the 86 ‘Characteristics of Effective MDTs’ were considered relevant and feasible to observe. They collated to 15 aspects of MDT working covering four domains: the team (e.g. attendance, chairing, teamworking; infrastructure for meetings (venue, equipment; meeting organisation and logistics; and patient-centred clinical decision-making (patient-centredness, clarity of recommendations. Criteria for rating each characteristic from ‘very poor’ to ‘very good’ were derived from literature review, observing MDMs and expert input. Criteria were applied to 10 bowel cancer MDTs to assess acceptability and measure variation between and within teams. Feasibility and inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing three observers. Results Observational assessment was acceptable to teams and feasible to implement. Total scores from 29 to 50 (out of 58 highlighted wide diversity in quality between teams. Eight teams were rated either ‘very good/good’ or ‘very poor/poor’ for at least three domains demonstrating some internal consistency. ‘Very good’ ratings were most likely for attendance and administrative preparation, and least likely for patient-centredness of decision-making and prioritisation of complex cases. All except two characteristics had intra-class correlations of ≥0.50. Conclusions This observational tool (MDT-OARS may contribute to the assessment of MDT performance. Further testing to confirm validity and reliability is required.

  17. Construction and test of high precision drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; Kroha, Hubert; Schwegler, Philipp; Sforza, Federico

    2014-01-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in March 2014 new muon tracking chambers (sMDT) with drift-tubes of 15 mm diameter, half of the value of the standard ATLAS Monitored Drift-Tubes (MDT) chambers, and 10~$\\mu$m positioning accuracy of the sense wires have been constructed. The new chambers are designed to be fully compatible with the present ATLAS services but, with respect to the previously installed ATLAS MDT chambers, they are assembled in a more compact geometry and they deploy two additional tube layers that provide redundant rack information. The chambers are composed of 8 layers of in total 624 aluminium drift-tubes. The assembly of a chamber is completed within a week. A semi-automatized production line is used for the assembly of the drift-tubes prior to the chamber assembly. The production procedures and the quality control tests of the single components and of the complete chambers will be discussed. The wire position in the completed chambers have been measured by using a coordinate me...

  18. MDT Performance in a High Rate Background Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin; Hessey, N P; Riegler, W

    1998-01-01

    A Cs137 gamma source with different lead filters in the SPS beam-line X5 has been used to simulate the ATLAS background radiation. This note shows the impact of high background rates on the MDT efficiency and resolution for three kinds of pulse shaping and compares the results with GARFIELD simulations. Furthermore it explains how the performance can be improved by time slewing corrections and double track separation.

  19. Quality control results of the drift tubes for the ATLAS MDT-BIS chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Avramidou, R.; Dris, M.; Filippas, T.A.; Gazis, E.N.; Katsoufis, E.; Maltezos, S.; Savva, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tzamariudaki, E.

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a general purpose experiment, which will start its operation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in 2007. The ATLAS detector is designed to study the products of proton-proton collisions at c.m.s. energies of up to 14 TeV. Three Greek Universities have taken the responsibility to construct 112 BIS-MDT (Barrel Inner Small) chambers using 29 000 drift tubes of 170 cm length and 3 cm diameter that have been quality tested before assembly. This work describes the Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA Q C) procedures for the drift tubes, followed at the High Energy Physics Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens, while emphasis is given on the obtained results for the above mentioned number of tubes

  20. A study of gas mixtures for the ATLAS MDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; He, L.

    1996-01-01

    Results of a gas study for the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) are reported. The electron drift velocity, Lorentz angle and tube radius to drift time relations are calculated for selected gas mixtures by using the CERN drift chamber simulation code GARFIELD/MAGBOLTZ. The drift tube efficiency, gas gain, avalanche size and self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode fraction as functions of anode voltage are measured by using radioactive sources. Discussions of the results, including effects of nitrogen and water vapor, are presented

  1. 8-inch IBM floppy disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.

  2. Microgrid Design Toolkit (MDT) Technical Documentation and Component Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguello, Bryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Microgrid Design Toolkit (MDT) is a decision support software tool for microgrid designers to use during the microgrid design process. The models that support the two main capabilities in MDT are described. The first capability, the Microgrid Sizing Capability (MSC), is used to determine the size and composition of a new microgrid in the early stages of the design process. MSC is a mixed-integer linear program that is focused on developing a microgrid that is economically viable when connected to the grid. The second capability is focused on refining a microgrid design for operation in islanded mode. This second capability relies on two models: the Technology Management Optimization (TMO) model and Performance Reliability Model (PRM). TMO uses a genetic algorithm to create and refine a collection of candidate microgrid designs. It uses PRM, a simulation based reliability model, to assess the performance of these designs. TMO produces a collection of microgrid designs that perform well with respect to one or more performance metrics.

  3. The updated geodetic mean dynamic topography model – DTU15MDT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Maximenko, Nikolai

    An update to the global mean dynamic topography model DTU13MDT is presented. For DTU15MDT the newer gravity model EIGEN-6C4 has been combined with the DTU15MSS mean sea surface model to construct this global mean dynamic topography model. The EIGEN-6C4 is derived using the full series of GOCE data...

  4. The Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers metabolic adaptation to ingested material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Taubert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (Pol(II dependent gene expression requires accessory factors termed transcriptional coregulators. One coregulator that universally contributes to Pol(II-dependent transcription is the Mediator, a multisubunit complex that is targeted by many transcriptional regulatory factors. For example, the Caenorhabditis elegans Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers the regulatory actions of the sterol response element binding protein SBP-1 and the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 on fatty acid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that MDT-15 displays a broader spectrum of activities, and that it integrates metabolic responses to materials ingested by C. elegans. Depletion of MDT-15 protein or mutation of the mdt-15 gene abrogated induction of specific detoxification genes in response to certain xenobiotics or heavy metals, rendering these animals hypersensitive to toxin exposure. Intriguingly, MDT-15 appeared to selectively affect stress responses related to ingestion, as MDT-15 functional defects did not abrogate other stress responses, e.g., thermotolerance. Together with our previous finding that MDT-15:NHR-49 regulatory complexes coordinate a sector of the fasting response, we propose a model whereby MDT-15 integrates several transcriptional regulatory pathways to monitor both the availability and quality of ingested materials, including nutrients and xenobiotic compounds.

  5. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  6. Multifactor Regulation of the MdtJI Polyamine Transporter in Shigella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Leuzzi

    Full Text Available The polyamine profile of Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery in humans, differs markedly from that of E. coli, its innocuous commensal ancestor. Pathoadaptive mutations such as the loss of cadaverine and the increase of spermidine favour the full expression of the virulent phenotype of Shigella. Spermidine levels affect the expression of the MdtJI complex, a recently identified efflux pump belonging to the small multi-drug resistance family of transporters. In the present study, we have addressed the regulation of the mdtJI operon in Shigella by asking which factors influence its expression as compared to E. coli. In particular, after identifying the mdtJI promoter by primer extension analysis, in vivo transcription assays and gel-retardation experiments were carried out to get insight on the silencing of mdtJI in E. coli. The results indicate that H-NS, a major nucleoid protein, plays a key role in repressing the mdtJI operon by direct binding to the regulatory region. In the Shigella background mdtJI expression is increased by the high levels of spermidine typically found in this microorganism and by VirF, the plasmid-encoded regulator of the Shigella virulence regulatory cascade. We also show that the expression of mdtJI is stimulated by bile components. Functional analyses reveal that MdtJI is able to promote the excretion of putrescine, the spermidine precursor. This leads us to consider the MdtJI complex as a possible safety valve allowing Shigella to maintain spermidine to a level optimally suited to survival within infected macrophages and, at the same time, prevent toxicity due to spermidine over-accumulation.

  7. SAFT 4{1/2} inch nickel hydrogen battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquesne, D.; Lacout, B.; Sennet, A. [SAFT Advanced Batteries, Poitiers (France)

    1995-12-31

    SAFT Advanced Batteries has now produced over 400 high capacity 4{1/2} inch Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells for flight programs. The 4.5 inch diameter, rabbit-ear cell design is designed to provide the anticipated energy required at the lowest practical weight. SAFT has incorporated into the design of the dry-powder nickel electrode, truly hermetic ceramic to metal seals, qualified terminal feedthroughs, high reliability mechanical design, composite pure platinum negative electrode, and zircar separator, plus more than 25 years experience in aerospace nickel cell technology, resulting in a 4{1/2} inch configuration with the 3{1/2} inch cell design carryover heritage. General performance requirements for GEO missions that SAFT cells meet are 15 years in orbit lifetime, 80% DOD, low mass to energy ratios, and flexible capacity by modifying number of electrodes in the stack. This design is qualified for geostationary orbits based on SAFT`s 3{1/2} inch qualification heritage, design verification, and cycling performed by customer Space Systems/LORAL in support of the INTELSAT VIIA and N-STAR flight programs.

  8. On-chamber readout system for the ATLAS MDT Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J; Ball, R; Brandenburg, G; Hazen, E; Oliver, J; Posch, C

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS MDT Muon Spectrometer is a system of approximately 380,000 pressurized cylindrical drift tubes of 3 cm diameter and up to 6 meters in length. These Monitored Drift Tubes (MDTs) are precision- glued to form super-layers, which in turn are assembled into precision chambers of up to 432 tubes each. Each chamber is equipped with a set of mezzanine cards containing analog and digital readout circuitry sufficient to read out 24 MDTs per card. Up to 18 of these cards are connected to an on-chamber DAQ element referred to as a Chamber Service Module, or CSM. The CSM multiplexes data from the mezzanine cards and outputs this data on an optical fiber which is received by the off-chamber DAQ system. Thus, the chamber forms a highly self-contained unit with DC power in and a single optical fiber out. The Monitored Drift Tubes, due to their length, require a terminating resistor at their far end to prevent reflections. The readout system has been designed so that thermal noise from this resistor remains the domi...

  9. MDT Commissioning Procedures Guidelines for Certifying RFI Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Beretta, M; Branchini, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Dubbert, J; Gazis, E N; Hertenberger, R; Hurst, P; Kojine, A; Lanza, A; Marin, A; Mockett, P; Petridou, C; Tskhadadze, E G; Valente, P; Wotschack, J; Xie, Y; Zhao, Z

    2004-01-01

    Aim of the document is the definition of a common set of guidelines and test procedures for commissioning the MDT chambers. Commissioning is different for Barrel and Endcap chambers. The former will be tested at a single chamber level before going to the ATLAS pit, ready for the last quick test before final installation, while the latter will be first tested at a single chamber level (phase one), then installed into the Small and Big Wheel sectors (SW and BW), tested after the integration (phase two) and transported to the ATLAS pit for final wheel installation. The present document concerns all tests, including those of phase two for Endcap chambers, but it is possible that some specific tests, at the moment not planned, will be implemented during the Endcap phase two commissioning. It is composed of three sections: 1 â€" Guidelines for checking chamber conformity, where the main rules for declaring that chambers conform to the reference drawings and requirements are described; 2 â€" Commissioning tests,...

  10. Test procedure for the Master-Lee and the modified Champion four inch hydraulic cutters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Master-Lee and the modified Champion 4 Inch hydraulic cutters are being retested to gather and document information related to the following: determine if the Master-Lee cutters will cut the trunnions of an Aluminum fuel canister and a Stainless Steel fuel canister; determine if the Master-Lee cutters will cut 1 1/2 inch diameter fire hose; determine if the modified Champion 4 inch blade will cut sections of piping; and determine the effectiveness of the centering device for the Champion 4 Inch cutters. Determining the limitations of the hydraulic cutter will aid in the process of debris removal in the K-Basin. Based on a previous test, the cutters were returned to the manufacturer for modifications. The modifications to the Champion 4 Inch Cutter and further testing of the Master-Lee Cutter are the subjects of these feature tests

  11. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can (open-quotes F-canclose quotes); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can (open-quotes Z-canclose quotes); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle (open-quotes CO-4close quotes). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO 2 F 2 +H 2 O and UF 4 +oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U 3 O 8 , and H 2 O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k eff + 2σ < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant

  12. 40 CFR Table 25 to Subpart G of... - Effective Column Diameter (Fc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective Column Diameter (Fc) 25 Table..., Table 25 Table 25 to Subpart G of Part 63—Effective Column Diameter (Fc) Column type Fc (feet) 9-inch by 7-inch built-up columns 1.1 8-inch-diameter pipe columns 0.7 No construction details known 1.0 ...

  13. Development of front-end electronics and TDC LSI for the ATLAS MDT

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Y

    2000-01-01

    Architecture of the front-end electronics for the ATLAS muon precision chamber (MDT) is presented. Especially, test results of a prototype TDC chip are described in detail. The chip was fabricated in a 0.3 mu m CMOS gate-array technology. Measurements of critical elements of the chip such as the PLL, and data buffering circuits demonstrated adequate performance. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation, using a /sup 60/Co source, and neutron irradiation, were also examined. The test results revealed radiation tolerance adequate for the operation of the circuits in the environment of the ATLAS MDT. Mounting of the front-end electronics to the MDT is scheduled to start in the year 2001. (10 refs).

  14. Microgrid Design Toolkit (MDT) User Guide Software v1.2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Microgrid Design Toolkit (MDT) supports decision analysis for new ("greenfield") microgrid designs as well as microgrids with existing infrastructure. The current version of MDT includes two main capabilities. The first capability, the Microgrid Sizing Capability (MSC), is used to determine the size and composition of a new, grid connected microgrid in the early stages of the design process. MSC is focused on developing a microgrid that is economically viable when connected to the grid. The second capability is focused on designing a microgrid for operation in islanded mode. This second capability relies on two models: the Technology Management Optimization (TMO) model and Performance Reliability Model (PRM).

  15. Celiac Disease: Four Inches and Seven Pounds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 ...

  16. Study of the ATLAS MDT spectrometer using high energy CERN combined test beam data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adorisio, C.; et al., [Unknown; Barisonzi, M.; Bobbink, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Brouwer, G.; Groenstege, H.; Hart, R.; Konig, A.; Linde, F.; van der Graaf, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Vreeswijk, M.; Werneke, P.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a combined system test was performed in the H8 beam line at the CERN SPS with a setup reproducing the geometry of sectors of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, formed by three stations of Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT). The full ATLAS analysis chain was used to obtain the results presented in this

  17. The DTU12MDT global mean dynamic topography and ocean circulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    combined with the DTU10MSS mean sea surface model to construct a global mean dynamic topography model named DTU10MDT. The results of analyses clearly demonstrated the value of the GOCE mission. Both the resolution and the estimation of the surface currents have been improved significantly compared...

  18. Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for precise measurement of muon trajectories in the ATLAS muon spectrometer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The basic detection component of the chamber is the cylindrical, aluminium, gas-filled MDT with its central tungsten rhenium wire. Each chamber is an assembly of two parallel multilayers of MDTs separated by a spacer frame. The chambers are pictured here in building 887 on the Prévessin site where they are being tested.

  19. Thermal studies on a mechanical prototype of A BIS MDT chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Petridou, C; Wotschack, J; Zisis, A

    1998-01-01

    The deformations of a BIS MDT chamber owing to temperature gradients between the two multilayers and between the two Faraday cages were studied on a mechanical prototype. The influence of thermal insulation on the thermal behaviour of the chamber is also reported.

  20. Radiation induced Single Event Effects in the ATLAS MDT-ASD front-end chip

    CERN Document Server

    Posch, C

    2002-01-01

    Single Event Effect (SEE) tests of the MDT-ASD, the ATLAS MDT front-end chip have been performed at the Harvard Cyclotron Lab. The MDT-ASD is an 8-channel drift tube read-out ASIC fabricated in a commercial 0.5um CMOS process (AMOS14TB). The chip contains a 53 bit register which holds the setup information and an associated shift register of the same length plus some additional control logic. 10 test devices were exposed to a 160 MeV proton beam with a fluence of 1.05E9 p.cm-2.s-1 up to >4.4E p.cm-2 per device. After a total fluence of 4.46E13 p.cm-2, 7 soft SEEs (non-permanent bit flips in the registers) and 0 hard/destructive SEE (e.g. latch-ups, SEL) had occurred. The simulated fluence for 10 years of LHC operation at nominal luminosity for worst case location MDT components is 2.67E11 h.cm-2. The rate of SEUs in the ASD setup register for all of ATLAS, derived from these numbers, is 2.4 per day. It is foreseen to update the active registers of the on-detector electronics at regular intervals. Depending on...

  1. Development of a 10-inch HPD with integrated readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Giunta, M; Malakhov, N; Menzione, A; Pegna, R; Piccioli, A; Raffaelli, F; Sartori, G

    2003-01-01

    A round 10-in. diameter Hybrid Photodiode (HPD) with spherical entrance window is under development for Cherenkov imaging applications in cosmic ray astronomy. The HPD adopts the fountain focusing electron optics, which, as already demonstrated in the 5 inch Pad HPD, allows for a linear demagnification of the image over practically the full tube diameter. Self-triggering front-end electronics providing also sparse readout capability, has been tested. High-efficiency Rb//2Te cathodes have been produced on a UV extended borosilicate glass windows with very thin conductive underlayers of Indium Tin Oxide. We report on the design of the 10- in. HPD, the fabrication procedure and first tests of a 5-in. HPD with Rb//2Te photocathode and 2048 channels.

  2. Suspected resistance of MDT-MB in Multibacillary Leprosy of Hansen's disease: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudo Irawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to multidrug therapy (MDT is one of the complications in the treatment of Hansen’s disease/Morbus Hansen (MH. There are two types of resistancy, which are primary and secondary. MDT-multibacillary (MB resistance must be suspected when no clinical improvement and the acid-fast bacilli (AFB index is not reduced after 12 months of therapy. A 28-year-old woman with paresthesia on her face, arms and legs since 2.5 years ago, accompanied by thickening of the right posterior tibial nerve. The AFB examination showed a bacteriological index (BI of 15/6 and morphological index (MI of 0.50%. The second case, a 42-year-old man came with paresthetic lesions on his face, chest, back, both arms and legs since 2 years ago, accompanied by thickening of ulnar and lateral peroneal nerve. The BI was 12/5 and the MI was 0.40%. Both patients were diagnosed with borderline lepromatous type of MH and received MDT-MB for 12 months. Diagnosis of suspected resistance was established because no clinical improvement or any significant decrease of AFB index after completing the MDT treatment. The patients had secondary resistance after polymerase chain reaction evaluation showed that they were still rifampicin-sensitive. There was clinical improvement and significant decrease in FAB index after the patients continued the MDT-MB treatment with 600 mg additional rifampicin. The diagnosis of bacterial resistance should be made based on clinical evaluation before completion of treatment. Based on the two case reports, the resistance suspected may be secondary. Treatment using additional regimen can be initiated once the resistance has been proven.

  3. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  4. 83-inch cyclotron research program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, W.C.

    1983-07-01

    In June of 1960 the US Atomic Energy Commission authorized the construction of a modern variable energy cyclotron facility at The University of Michigan to be used for research in nuclear spectroscopy. The Legislature of the State of Michigan made available funds for construction of a building to house the 83-inch cyclotron and auxiliary equipment as well as the University's remodeled 42-inch cyclotron. The research program centered around the 83-inch cyclotron was funded by the AEC and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), from September 1964 through March 1977. The program represented a continuation of the research effort using the 42-inch cyclotron facility which had been supported continuously by the AEC since February 1950. This final report to DOE briefly describes the research facility, the research program, and highlights the principal accomplishments of the effort. It begins with a historical note to place this effort within the context of nuclear physics research in the Department of Physics of the University of Michigan

  5. The Read-Out Driver for the ATLAS MDT Muon Precision Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Boterenbrood, H; Kieft, G; König, A; Vermeulen, J C; Wijnen, T A M; 14th IEEE - NPSS Real Time Conference 2005 Nuclear Plasma Sciences Society

    2006-01-01

    Some 200 MDT Read Out Drivers (MRODs) will be built to read out the 1200 MDT precision chambers of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The MRODs receive event data via optical links (one per chamber, up to 8 per MROD), build event fragments at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, output these to the ATLAS data-acquisition system and take care of monitoring and error checking, handling and flagging. The design of the MROD-1 prototype (a 9U VME64 module in which this functionality is implemented using FPGAs and ADSP-21160 Digital Signal Processors programmed in C++) is described, followed by a presentation of results of performance measurements. Then the implications for the production version (called MROD-X) and the experience with pre-production modules of the MROD-X are discussed.

  6. Intensive irradiation studies, monitoring and commissioning data analysis on the ATLAS MDT chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071390; Susinno, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS MDT chambers have been extensively studied, starting from irradiation test to commissioning activities. First, a detailed description of high rate and high background tests is given. These tests have been carried out on a small ATLAS-like MDT chamber, by the Cosenza and Roma TRE groups. The precision tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer, in fact, have to operate for more than 10 years in the harsh LHC background, due mainly to low energy neutrons and photons. Aging effects, such as the deterioration of the tube themselves can appear and difficulties in pattern recognition and tracking may occur. Moreover an upgrade to Super-LHC is foreseen. Then, there is an accurate description of the MDTGnam package, the official software for the on-line monitoring of MDT performances. When dealing with a complex apparatus, such as the ATLAS experiment, an on-line monitoring system is a fundamental tool. The GNAM project, developed by Cosenza, Pavia, Pisa and Napoli groups, is a monitoring framework to be us...

  7. Fabrication of a 40-inch diameter ceramic to metal seal for PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, G.; Mullaney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The design and fabrication details for the ceramic to metal seal for PLT are presented. The method used for the successful casting and firing of the 90% Al 2 O 3 ceramic body and the subsequent grinding and brazing of the ceramic to 430 S.S. are discussed

  8. Test report on experimental stress analysis of a 24 inch diameter tee (ORNL T-13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.

    1975-03-01

    The experimental stress analysis and low cycle fatigue test of one 24 in. x 24 in. x 10 in. schedule 160 carbon steel, ANSI B16.9 tee performed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. are described. The tee was instrumented with 230 rectangular strain gage rosettes. Elastic data was obtained for 12 loading conditions consisting of internal pressure and orthogonal pure moments and orthogonal direct forces applied individually to the free branch and run ends of the tee. One of the run ends of the tee was ''built in'' throughout the test. All loads were applied through pipe extensions welded to the tee. The tee was tested to failure in a low cycle pressure fatigue test with a cyclic internal pressure between 100 psi and 7000 psi. A through-the-wall fatigue crack occurred at 15,084 cycles. Significant test results are summarized and compared with design values tabulated in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1971. (U.S.)

  9. Test report on experimental stress analysis of a 24 inch diameter tee (ORNL T-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.

    1975-04-01

    The experimental stress analysis and low cycle fatigue test of one 24'' x 24'' x 10'' schedule 40 carbon steel, ANSI B16.9 tee performed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. is described. The tee was instrumented with 230 rectangular strain gage rosettes. Elastic data was obtained for 12 loading conditions consisting of internal pressure and orthogonal pure moments and orthogonal direct forces applied individually to the free branch and run ends of the tee. One of the run ends of the tee was ''built in'' throughout the test. All loads were applied through pipe extensions welded to the tee. The tee was tested to failure in a low cycle pressure fatigue test with a cyclic internal pressure between 0 psi and 1800 psi. A through-the-wall fatigue crack occurred at 76620 cycles. Significant test results are summarized and compared with design values tabulated in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1971. (U.S.)

  10. Comparision of Incidental Reflection From Containerized Maintenance/Housekeeping Solutions and One Inch of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); MacQuigg, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wysong, Andrew Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids which will be analyzed as water that may be present under normal conditions of an operation. The reactivity worth is compared to the reactivity worth due to I-inch of close-fitting 4n water reflection and I-inch of close-fitting radial water reflection. Both have been used to bound incidental reflection by 2-liter bottles in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that, when the maintenance/housekeeping fluids are containerized the reactivity increase from a configuration which is bounding of normal conditions (up to eight bottles modeled with 2-liters of solution at varying diameter) is bound by I-inch of close fitting 4n water relection.

  11. ROOT Analysis of 2004 H8 Test Beam Data & Studies of MDT Sense Wire Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Tests are being carried out at the CERN H8 Test Facility on the subdetectors of ATLAS. Using MUTRAK, a tool developed by Dan Levin, data from test muon beam runs are converted to PAW plots and ntuples for easy analysis. ROOT classes are currently being developed to convert the PAW output of MUTRAK to ROOT files for more detailed analysis. Also studies are currently underway to understand the effect of sense wire displacements in Monitored Drift Tubes on drift time spectra. Concurrent tests using simulations in GARFIELD and Cosmic Ray MDT experiments are underway to study wire sags which may be up to 480 micrometers due to gravitational and electrostatic forces .

  12. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  13. Operational maneuvers and pipelines activities repairs for the 32 inches scraper tool recovering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia, Jose; Salguero, Luis; Villanueva, Pedro [Compania Operadora del Gas Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2009-07-01

    Transportadora de Gas del Peru and the Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas, responsible companies of the transport, operation and maintenance of the pipelines who transport natural gas and natural gas liquids respectively of the Camisea Project - Peru, following the internal policies and the maintenance plan of the pipeline transportation system was planned the activities for the internal pipeline inspection of these activities for 729.3 Km of natural gas pipeline covering diameters of 32 inches, 24 inches and 18 inches. After the first run of the cleaning tool, was scheduled the launch of the dummy scraper (scraper tool) along to the first 210 Km of the 32 inches natural gas pipeline , given changes in elevation along the trace and the low flow of transport. This scraper tool could not reach the final destination. After many series operational maneuvers as venting, creation of differential pressure in valves, the scraper tool only reach the first 75 Km of the trace. After an exhaustive analysis of trending pressure variations, it was concluded that this scraper showed intermittent progress of short durations, concluding that this scraper had not reach the next check point. In this way was decided to conduct operational maneuvers in order to locate, relocated and retrieve the scrapper tool from de 32 inches natural gas pipeline. (author)

  14. Size of silicon strip sensor from 6 inch wafer (right) compared to that from a 4 inch wafer (left).

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Silicon strip sensors made from 6 inch wafers will allow for much larger surface area coverage at a reduced cost per unit surface area. A prototype sensor of size 8cm x 11cm made by Hamamatsu from a 6 inch wafer is shown next to a traditional 6cm x 6cm sensor from a 4 inch wafer.

  15. FILTRAGEM DE NUVEM LASER PARA GERAÇÃO DE MDT POR KRIGAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jordão Marcato Fernandes

    Full Text Available Esse artigo apresenta um método de filtragem de nuvem de pontos LASER para obtenção de um Modelo Digital de Terreno (MDT. O processo de filtragem é realizado com base em uma superfície aproximada gerada a partir de pontos amostrados sobre vias urbanas. Esses pontos são determinados por meio de linhas detectadas na imagem de intensidade do pulso laser via detector de Steger. A principal suposição do método é que o terreno tem um comportamento suave no interior das quadras e, dessa forma, os pontos amostrados ao longo das vias permitem, utilizando o método de interpolação por krigagem, uma representação adequada do terreno no interior das quadras, ou seja, relativamente próxima dos pontos LASER de terreno dessas regiões. Assim, a filtragem é realizada pela verificação da proximidade dos pontos da nuvem LASER original com a superfície aproximada gerada. Por fim, um MDT é obtido da nova amostra pelo método de interpolação por krigagem, melhorando a descrição da superfície. A partir dos experimentos realizados foi possível verificar a viabilidade do método proposto, com resultados de boa coerência visual e indicadores numéricos satisfatórios

  16. Application of the ATLAS DAQ and Monitoring System for MDT and RPC Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqualucci, E

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS DAQ and monitoring software are currently commonly used to test detectors during the commissioning phase. In this paper, their usage in MDT and RPC commissioning is described, both at the surface pre-commissioning and commissioning stations and in the ATLAS pit. Two main components are heavily used for detector tests. The ROD Crate DAQ software is based on the ATLAS Readout application. Based on the plug-in mechanism, it provides a complete environment to interface any kind of detector or trigger electronics to the ATLAS DAQ system. All the possible flavours of this application are used to test and run the MDT and RPC detectors at the pre-commissioning and commissioning sites. Ad-hoc plug-ins have been developed to implement data readout via VME, both with ROD prototypes and emulating final electronics to read out data with temporary solutions, and to provide trigger distribution and busy management in a multi-crate environment. Data driven event building functionality is also used to combine data f...

  17. 3-D trajectory model for MDT using micro-spheres implanted within large blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree

    2016-09-01

    Implant assisted magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets implanted within large blood vessels and subjected to a uniform externally applied magnetic field (H0) has been investigated and reported for the first time. The capture areas (As) of magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs) were determined from the analysis of particle trajectories simulated from equations of motion. Then, the effects of various parameters, such as types of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the strength of H0 on the As were obtained. Furthermore, the effects of saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic materials in the MDCPs and within the targets on the As were analyzed. After this, the suitable strengths of H0 and Rp for IA-MDT designs were reported. Dimensionless As, ranging from 2 to 7, was obtained with Rp ranging from 500 to 2500 nm, μ0H0 less than 0.8 T and a blood flow rate of 0.1 m s-1. The target-MDCP materials considered are iron-iron, iron-magnetite and SS409-magnetite, respectively.

  18. IMPACT TESTING OF MATERIALS USING AN EIGHT-INCH AIR GUN AND COMPUTER REDUCTION OF DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, L. F.

    1973-10-01

    A mechanical shock actuator has been converted into an air gun capable of firing 8-inch-·diameter (20.32 cm) projectiles to velocities exceeding 1000 fps (304.8 m/ s). This new capability has been used to study the effect of impact velocity upon the energy.absorbed by crushable materials. Shockpulse data is reduced by computer techniques and test results are displayed in either tabular or graphic format by use of the C DC 6600 Calcomp plotter.

  19. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  20. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; McEwan, Deborah L; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-05-01

    Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  1. Non-Linear MDT Drift Gases like Ar/CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Detailed measurements and simulations have been performed, investigating the properties of Ar/CO2 mixtures as a MDT drift gas. This note presents these measurements and compares them to other drift gases that have been simulated using GARFIELD, HEED and MAGBOLTZ.This note also describes systematic errors to be considered in the operation of precision drift chambers using such gases. In particular we analyze effects of background rate variations, gas-density changes, variations of the gas composition, autocalibration, magnetic field differences and non-concentricity of the wire. Their impact on the reconstructed muon momentum resolution was simulated with DICE/ATRECON.The different properties of linear and non-linear drift gases and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed in detail.

  2. Sag compensation system for assembly of MDT-chambers for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Evtukhovich, P.G.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Kotov, S.A.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The description of a system of the devices created for compensation of the gravitational deflection of the drift chamber during its assembly is presented. By means of this system during stage-by-stage gluing of layers of tube drift detectors to the chamber the transversal deflection considerably decreases and by that high accuracy of mutual position of separate tubes is provided. The devices were applied at assembly of 74 MDT-chambers of the ATLAS experiment. Design values of deformation of the chambers as well as the results of measurement of transversal deflections obtained during the assembly with the use of the system of sag compensation are given. Testing of chambers on the X-ray tomograph at CERN has shown that the accuracy of the positions of separate signal wires inside the assembled chambers is within the limits of the required 20 μm

  3. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  4. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections influence Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) pain response classification in candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helvoirt, Hans; Apeldoorn, Adri T; Knol, Dirk L; Arts, Mark P; Kamper, Steven J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2016-04-27

    Prospective cohort study. Although lumbar radiculopathy is regarded as a specific diagnosis, the most effective treatment strategy is unclear. Commonly used treatments include transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TESIs) and Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT), but no studies have investigated the effectiveness of this combination. MDT differentiates pain centralization (C) from non-centralization (NC), which indicates good vs. poor prognostic validity respectively. The main aims were 1) to determine changes in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) pain response classifications after transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TESIs) in candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery and 2) to evaluate differences in short and long term outcomes for patients with different pain response classifications. Candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery were assessed with a MDT protocol and their pain response classified as centralizing or peripheralizing. For this study,only patients were eligible who showed a peripheralizing pain response at intake. All patients then received TESIs and were reassessed and classified using the MDT protocol, into groups according to pain response (resolved, centralizing, peripheralizing with less pain and peripheralising with severe pain). After receiving targeted treatment based on pain response after TESIs, ranging from advice, MDT or surgery, follow-up assessments were completed at discharge and at 12 months. The primary outcomes were disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RMDQ] for Sciatica), pain severity in leg (visual analogue scale [VAS], 0-100) and global perceived effect (GPE). Linear mixed-models were used to determine between-groups differences in outcome. A total of 77 patients with lumbar disc herniation and peripheralizing symptoms were included. Patients received an average of 2 (SD 0.7) TESIs. After TESIs, 17 patients (22%) were classified as peripheralizing with continuing severe pain.These patients

  5. The MDT-15 subunit of mediator interacts with dietary restriction to modulate longevity and fluoranthene toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schleit

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR, the limitation of calorie intake while maintaining proper nutrition, has been found to extend life span and delay the onset of age-associated disease in a wide range of species. Previous studies have suggested that DR can reduce the lethality of environmental toxins. To further examine the role of DR in toxin response, we measured life spans of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans treated with the mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLA. FLA is a direct byproduct of combustion, and is one of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's sixteen priority environmental toxins. Treatment with 5 µg/ml FLA shortened the life spans of ad libitum fed nematodes, and DR resulted in increased sensitivity to FLA. To determine the role of detoxifying enzymes in the toxicity of FLA, we tested nematodes with mutations in the gene encoding the MDT-15 subunit of mediator, a transcriptional coactivator that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification. Mutation of mdt-15 increased the life span of FLA treated animals compared to wild-type animals with no difference observed between DR and ad libitum fed mdt-15 animals. We also examined mutants with altered insulin-IGF-1-like signaling (IIS, which is known to modulate life span and stress resistance in C. elegans independently of DR. Mutation of the genes coding for the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 or the FOXO-family transcription factor DAF16 did not alter the animals' susceptibility to FLA compared to wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that certain compounds have increased toxicity when combined with a DR regimen through increased metabolic activation. This increased metabolic activation appears to be mediated through the MDT-15 transcription factor and is independent of the IIS pathway.

  6. 3-D MDT with spherical targets by bilinear interpolation for determining blood velocity profiles including the vessel wall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree

    2018-02-01

    A numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3-D) implant assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets, including the effect from the vessel wall on the blood flow, is presented. The targets were implanted within arterioles and subjected to an externally uniform applied magnetic field in order to increase the effectiveness of targeting magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs). The capture area (As) of the MDCPs was determined by inspection of the particle trajectories simulated from the particle equations of motion. The blood flow velocities at any particle position around the target were obtained by applying bilinear interpolation to the numerical blood velocity data. The effects on As of the type of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, average blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the externally applied magnetic field strength (μ0H0) were evaluated. Furthermore, the appropriate μ0H0 and Rp for the IA-MDT design is suggested. In the case of the SS409 target and magnetite MDCPs, dimensionless capture areas ranging from 4.1- to 12.4 and corresponding to particle capture efficiencies of 31-94% were obtained with Rp ranging from 100- to 500 nm, weight fraction of 80%, μ0H0 of 0.6 T and an average blood flow rate of 0.01 ms-1. In addition, the more general 3-D modelling of IA-MDT in this work is applicable to IA-MDT using spherical targets implanted within blood vessels for both laminar and potential blood flows including the wall effect.

  7. Fast track segment finding in the Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer using a Legendre transform algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Ntekas, Konstantinos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Many of the physics goals of ATLAS in the High Luminosity LHC era, including precision studies of the Higgs boson, require an unprescaled single muon trigger with a 20 GeV threshold. The selectivity of the current ATLAS first-level muon trigger is limited by the moderate spatial resolution of the muon trigger chambers. By incorporating the precise tracking of the MDT, the muon transverse momentum can be measured with an accuracy close to that of the offline reconstruction at the trigger level, sharpening the trigger turn-on curves and reducing the single muon trigger rate. A novel algorithm is proposed which reconstructs segments from MDT hits in an FPGA and find tracks within the tight latency constraints of the ATLAS first-level muon trigger. The algorithm represents MDT drift circles as curves in the Legendre space and returns one or more segment lines tangent to the maximum possible number of drift circles.  This algorithm is implemented without the need of resource and time consuming hit position calcul...

  8. The high-precision x-ray tomograph for quality control of the ATLAS MDT muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Drakoulakos, D G; Maugain, J M; Rohrbach, F; Sedykh, Yu

    1997-01-01

    For the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the next millennium, a large general-purpose high-energy physics experiment, the ATLAS project, is being designed by a world-wide collaboration. One of its detectors, the ATLAS muon tracking detector, the MDT project, is on the scale of a very large industrial project: the design, the construction and assembly of twelve hundred large muon drift chambers are aimed at producing an exceptional quality in terms of accuracy, material reliability, assembly, and monitoring. This detector, based on the concept of very high mechanical precision required by the physics goals, will use tomography as a quality control platform. An X-ray tomograph prototype, monitored by a set of interferometers, has been developed at CERN to provide high-quality control of the MDT chambers which will be built in the collaborating institutes of the ATLAS project. First results have been obtained on MDT prototypes showing the validity of the X-ray tomograph approach for mechanical control of the detec...

  9. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Advanced productivity forecast using petrophysical wireline data calibrated with MDT tests and numerical reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Carlos de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canas, Jesus A.; Low, Steven; Barreto, Wesley [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an integrated and rigorous approach for viscous and middle oil reservoir productivity evaluation using petrophysical models calibrated with permeability derived from mini tests (Dual Packer) and Vertical Interference Tests (VIT) from open hole wire line testers (MDT SLB TM). It describes the process from Dual Packer Test and VIT pre-job design, evaluation via analytical and inverse simulation modeling, calibration and up scaling of petrophysical data into a numerical model, history matching of Dual Packer Tests and VIT with numerical simulation modeling. Finally, after developing a dynamic calibrated model, we perform productivity forecasts of different well configurations (vertical, horizontal and multilateral wells) for several deep offshore oil reservoirs in order to support well testing activities and future development strategies. The objective was to characterize formation static and dynamic properties early in the field development process to optimize well testing design, extended well test (EWT) and support the development strategies in deep offshore viscous oil reservoirs. This type of oil has limitations to flow naturally to surface and special lifting equipment is required for smooth optimum well testing/production. The integrated analysis gave a good overall picture of the formation, including permeability anisotropy and fluid dynamics. Subsequent analysis of different well configurations and lifting schemes allows maximizing formation productivity. The simulation and calibration results are compared to measured well test data. Results from this work shows that if the various petrophysical and fluid properties sources are integrated properly an accurate well productivity model can be achieved. If done early in the field development program, this time/knowledge gain could reduce the risk and maximize the development profitability of new blocks (value of the information). (author)

  11. Performance of the new amplifier-shaper-discriminator chip for the ATLAS MDT chambers at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00218480

    2016-01-01

    The Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Detector requires new electronics for the readout of the MDT drift tubes. The first processing stage, the Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator (ASD), determines the performance of the readout for crucial parameters like time resolution, gain uniformity, efficiency and noise rejection. An 8-channel ASD chip, using the IBM 130 nm CMOS 8RF-DM technology, has been designed, produced and tested. The area of the chip is 2.2 x 2.9 square mm size. We present results of detailed measurements as well as a comparision with simulation results of the chip behaviour at three different levels of detail.

  12. Performance of a First-Level Muon Trigger with High Momentum Resolution Based on the ATLAS MDT Chambers for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gadow, P.; Kortner, S.; Kroha, H.; Müller, F.; Richter, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highly selective first-level triggers are essential to exploit the full physics potential of the ATLAS experiment at High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The concept for a new muon trigger stage using the precision monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers to significantly improve the selectivity of the first-level muon trigger is presented. It is based on fast track reconstruction in all three layers of the existing MDT chambers, made possible by an extension of the first-level trigger latency to six microseconds and a new MDT read-out electronics required for the higher overall trigger rates at the HL-LHC. Data from $pp$-collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ is used to study the minimal muon transverse momentum resolution that can be obtained using the MDT precision chambers, and to estimate the resolution and efficiency of the MDT-based trigger. A resolution of better than $4.1\\%$ is found in all sectors under study. With this resolution, a first-level trigger with a threshold of $18\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ becomes fully e...

  13. Refurbishment and modification of existing protective shipping packages (for 30-inch UF{sub 6} cylinders) per USDOT specification No. USA-DOT-21PF-1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housholder, W.R. [Nuclear Containers, Incorporated, Elizabethton, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper addresses the refurbishment procedures for existing shipping containers for 30-inch diameter UF{sub 6} cylinders in accordance with DOT Specification 21PF-1 and the criteria used to determine rejection when such packages are unsuitable for refurbishment.

  14. A Highly Selective First-Level Muon Trigger With MDT Chamber Data for ATLAS at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00390105

    2016-07-11

    Highly selective triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will be about an order of magnitude larger than the LHC instantaneous luminosity in Run 1. The first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons below the nominal trigger threshold due to the moderate momentum resolution of the Resistive Plate and Thin Gap trigger chambers. The resulting high trigger rates at HL-LHC can be su?ciently reduced by using the data of the precision Muon Drift Tube chambers for the trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and of a fast MDT track reconstruction algorithm with a latency of at most 6 microseconds. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain has been successfully tested at the HL-LHC operating conditions at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. The fast track reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on a fast trigger processor.

  15. A Highly Selective First-Level Muon Trigger With MDT Chamber Data for ATLAS at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will be about an order of magnitude larger than the LHC design luminosity. The Level-1 muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons below the nominal trigger threshold due to the limited momentum resolution of the Resistive Plate and Thin Gap trigger chambers. The resulting high trigger rates at HL-LHC can be sufficient reduced by using the data of the precision Muon Drift Tube chambers for the trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and of a fast MDT track reconstruction algorithm with a latency of at most 6~$\\mu$s. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain has been successfully tested at the high HL-LHC background rates at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. The fast track reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on a fas trigger processor.

  16. A new Highly Selective First Level ATLAS Muon Trigger With MDT Chamber Data for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective first level triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will exceed the LHC's instantaneous luminosity by almost an order of magnitude. The ATLAS first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum sub-trigger threshold muons due to the poor momentum resolution at trigger level caused by the moderate spatial resolution of the resistive plate and thin gap trigger chambers. This limitation can be overcome by including the data of the precision muon drift tube chambers in the first level trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and a fast MDT track reconstruction. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain was successfully tested under HL-LHC operating conditions at CERN's Gamma Irradiation Facility. It could be shown that the data provided by the demonstrator can be processed with a fast track reconstruction algorithm on an ARM CPU within the 6 microseconds latency...

  17. Pressure scaled water impact test of a 12.5 inch diameter model of the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A total of 59 tail first drops were made. Model entry conditions simulated full scale vertical velocities of approximately 75 to 110 ft/sec with horizontal velocities up to 45 ft/sec and impact angles to + or - 10 deg. These tests were conducted at scaled atmospheric pressures (1.26 psia or 65 mm.Hg). The model, test program, test facility, test equipment, instrumentation system, data reduction procedures, and test results are described.

  18. Structural reinforcement of a {theta}16 inches tee made during operation with composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beim, Andre [Tresca Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vilani, Eduardo Cesar [Rust Engenharia Ltda., Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    An industrial installation went through a turnaround to increase capacity. A tie-in line had to be made for this, and a 16 inches diameter branch was required to be made on an existing 16 inches pipe. The joining of these elements resulted in a 'tee' that was supposed to receive a reinforcement plate. This reinforcement plate was not installed before the plant start-up. Code calculations and a finite element stress analysis showed that reinforcement was necessary. The only viable solution was the application of a composite material reinforcement, designed to substitute the missing reinforcement plate, and reduce the stresses to allowable levels. A new finite element stress analysis was made to determine the required thickness of this reinforcement. The first part of this work shows the results of the finite element stress analysis. Figures with stress contours of the analyses show the results. The second part shows the details of the installation of the reinforcement, which was made during normal operation of the plant. Pictures illustrate the main steps of the installation procedure. (author)

  19. Study on water leak-tightness of small leaks on a 1 inch cylinder valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, T.; Kasai, Y.; Inabe, N.; Aritomi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Practical thresholds for water leak-tightness of small leaks were determined by experimentation. Measurements for small leak samples were taken of air leakage rates and water leakage rates for identical leak samples in order to identify parameters that influence water leak-tightness threshold. Four types of leaks were evaluated: a fine wire inserted in an O-ring seal, a glass capillary tube, a stainless steel orifice, and a scratched valve stem on a 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve. Experimental results demonstrated that the key parameter for water leak-tightness is the opening size of the leak hole. The maximum allowable hole size to achieve water leak-tightness ranged from 10 to 20 μm in diameter in this study. Experimental results with 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve samples demonstrated that the acceptance criteria for preshipment leakage test, 1x10 -3 ref-cm 3 .s -1 , as prescribed in ANSI N14.5 is an appropriate value from the point of view of water leak-tightness for enriched UF 6 packages. The mechanism of water leak-tightness is plugging by tiny particles existing in water. The water used in experiments in this study contained far fewer particles than in water assumed to be encountered under accident conditions of transport. Therefore, the water leak-tightness threshold determined in this study is a conservative value in a practical evaluation. (author)

  20. Development of laser cladding system to repair wall thinning of 1-inch heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    We developed a laser cladding system to repair the inner wall wastage of heat exchanger tubes. Our system, which is designed to repair thinning tube walls within 100 mm from the edge of a heat exchanger tube, consists of a fiber laser, a composite-type optical fiberscope, a coupling device, a laser processing head, and a wire-feeding device. All of these components were reconfigured from the technologies of FBR maintenance. The laser processing head, which has a 15-mm outer diameter, was designed to be inserted into a 1-inch heat exchanger tube. We mounted a heatproof broadband mirror for laser cladding and fiberscope observation with visible light inside the laser processing head. The wire-feeding device continuously supplied 0.4-mm wire to the laser irradiation spot with variable feeding speeds from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. We are planning to apply our proposed system to the maintenance of aging industrial plants. (author)

  1. Classificação de pontos LIDAR para a geração do MDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admilson da Penha Pacheco

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem se observado uma representativa evolução da tecnologia LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging na aquisição automática do MDT (Modelo Digital do Terreno em áreas urbanas e rurais. Os métodos existentes na literatura remetem a regiões para casos específicos no hemisfério norte, onde as condições de vegetação e uso do solo são diferentes das encontradas no Brasil. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar e discutir métodos de classificação de dados LIDAR utilizados para a geração automática do MDT, usando os conceitos de morfologia matemática no processo de filtragem e classificação dos pontos. O processo metodológico compreendeu: definição e caracterização da área de aplicação dos testes de verificação, bem como as condições de aquisição dos dados utilizados; descrição do método denominado Filtro Morfológico; e, por fim, o método para a análise e comportamento da metodologia proposta. A qualidade dos produtos gerados nos experimentos realizados mostrou-se satisfatória, considerando os aspectos numéricos relacionados com o erro médio e a variância das áreas testadas. Os resultados mostraram que a geração do MDT em áreas urbanas apresentou maior consistência em conseqüência, principalmente, da presença de áreas livres ao nível do terreno, favorecendo a viabilidade do uso do método de classificação.

  2. Total ionizing dose radiation hardness of the ATLAS MDT-ASD and the HP-Agilent 0.5 um CMOS process

    CERN Document Server

    Posch, C

    2002-01-01

    A total ionizing dose (TID) test of the MDT-ASD, the ATLAS MDT front-end chip has been performed at the Harvard Cyclotron Lab. The MDT-ASD is an 8-channel drift tube read-out ASIC fabricated in a commercial 0.5 um CMOS process (AMOS14TB). The accumulated TID at the end of the test was 300 krad, delivered by 160 MeV protons at a rate of approximately 70 rad/sec. All 10 irradiated chips retained their full functionality and performance and showed only irrelevantly small changes in device parameters. As the total accumulated dose is substantially higher than the relevant ATLAS Radiation Tolerance Criteria (RTCtid), the results of this test indicate that MDT-ASD meets the ATLAS TID radiation hardness requirements. In addition, the results of this test correspond well with results of a 30 keV gamma TID irradiation test performed by us on an earlier prototype at the CERN x-ray facility as well as with results of other irradiation test on this process found in literature.

  3. A global mean ocean circulation estimation using goce gravity models - the DTU12MDT mean dynamic topography model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Ocean Circulation Experiment - GOCE satellite mission measure the Earth gravity field with unprecedented accuracy leading to substantial improvements in the modelling of the ocean circulation and transport. In this study of the performance of GOCE, a newer gravity model have been...... combined with the DTU10MSS mean sea surface model to construct a global mean dynamic topography model named DTU10MDT. The results of preliminary analyses using preliminary GOCE gravity models clearly demonstrated the potential of GOCE mission. Both the resolution and the estimation of the surface currents...... have been improved significantly compared to results obtained using pre-GOCE gravity field models. The results of this study show that geostrophic surface currents associated with the mean circulation have been further improved and that currents having speeds down to 5 cm/s have been recovered....

  4. Short description of BMS/BMF MDT chamber production for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Gongadze, I.B.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gus'kov, A.V.; Dedovich, D.V.; Demichev, M.A.; Evtukhovich, P.G.; Elagin, A.L.; Zhemchugov, A.S.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Kotov, S.A.; Kotova, T.I.; Korolevich, Ya.V.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Krumshtejn, Z.V.; Kuznetsov, N.K.; Lomidze, D.D.; Nikolaev, K.V.; Potrap, I.N.; Rudenko, T.O.; Kharchenko, D.V.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.; Shiyakova, M.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Podkladkin, S.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The method of assembly of the MDT chambers for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is described. During 2000-2004 ∼ 25000 drift tubes were produced at the DLNP, JINR. The tubes were assembled into 84 muon chambers of BMS/BMF type, one of the six main types for the barrel part of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. Particle momenta must be measured in the ATLAS spectrometer with very high precision (2% at 100 GeV/c and 10% at 1000 GeV/c), which required to produce the coordinate detectors with very high (∼80 μm) precision. We describe the method of assembly of large-scale 5-10 m 2 muon chambers with the signal wire mean deviation from the nominal position less than 20 μm

  5. Pipe rupture test results; 4 inch pipe whip tests under BWR operational condition-clearance parameter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Syuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Kato, Rokuro; Saito, Kazuo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of pipe rupture studies in JAERI is to perform the model tests on pipe whip, restraint behavior, jet impingement and jet thrust force, and to establish the computational method for analyzing these phenomena. This report describes the experimental results of pipe whip on the pipe specimens of 4 inch in diameter under BWR condition on which the pressure is 6.77 MPa and the temperature is 285 0 C. The pipe specimens were 114.3 mm (4 inch) in diameter and 8.6 mm in thickness and 4500 mm in length. Four pipe whip restraints used in the tests were the U-bar type of 8 mm in diameter and fabricated from type 304 stainless steel. The experimental parameter was the clearance (30, 50 and 100 mm). The dynamic strain behavior of the pipe specimen and the restraints was investigated by strain gages and their residual deformation was obtained by measuring marking points provided on their surface. The Pressure-time history in the pipe specimens was also obtained by pressure gages. The maximum pipe strain is caused near the restraints and increases with increase of the clearance. The experimental results of pipe whip tests indicate the effectiveness of pipe whip restraints. The ratio of absorbed strain energy of the pipe specimen to that of the restraints is nearly constant for different clearances at the overhang length of 400 mm. (author)

  6. NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N.; Bruzzese, J.; Patton, R.; Sutton, J.; Yentsch, R.; Gaitonde, D. V.; Lempert, W. R.; Miller, J. D.; Meyer, T. R.; Parker, R.; Wadham, T.; Holden, M.; Danehy, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging is demonstrated at a 10-kHz repetition rate in the Calspan University at Buffalo Research Center's (CUBRC) 48-inch Mach 9 hypervelocity shock tunnel using a pulse burst laser-based high frame rate imaging system. Sequences of up to ten images are obtained internal to a supersonic combustor model, located within the shock tunnel, during a single ~10-millisecond duration run of the ground test facility. Comparison with a CFD simulation shows good overall qualitative agreement in the jet penetration and spreading observed with an average of forty individual PLIF images obtained during several facility runs.

  7. The 52-inch last-stage blades for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last-stage blades (LSB) of steam turbines are one of the most important components determining the plant's maximum capacity and efficiency. The development of LSBs necessitates high-technology including advanced methods of analyses and verifications as well as ample accumulation of technical data. The 52-inch LSB recently developed by Toshiba has raised nuclear power plant's capacity up to 1,300 ∼ 1,800 MW, has effected compact design of turbine units, and has improved thermal efficiency, keeping high reliability. (author)

  8. Cryogenic vacuum pumping at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elo, D.; Morris, D.; Clark, D.J.; Gough, R.A.

    1978-09-01

    A cryogenic vacuum pumping panel has been in operation at the 88-inch cyclotron since 1974. The nude pumping panel is located in the acceleration chamber. The pumping surface consists of tubing cooled to 20 0 K by a closed loop helium refrigeration system. The pumping surfaces are shielded from radiation heat loads and water vapors by liquid nitrogen cooled baffles. The panel was designed for an average pumping speed of 14,000 liters/sec. for air. This approximately tripled the total effective pumping on the acceleration chamber from the existing diffusion pumped system, significantly reducing charge exchange losses of heavy ions during acceleration. Design, installation and performance characteristics are described

  9. Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture

  10. Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)

  11. Leak in spiral weld in a 16 inches gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo G; Bona, Jeremias de [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina); Otegui, Jose L [University of Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses a failure analysis after a leak in the spiral weld of a 16 inches natural gas pipeline, in service since 1974. The leak was the result of the coalescence of two different defects, on each surface of the pipe wall, located in the center of the inner cord of the helical DSAW weld. Fractographic and metallographic studies revealed that the leak was a combination of three conditions. During fabrication of the pipe, segregation in grain boundary grouped in mid weld. During service, these segregations underwent a process of selective galvanic corrosion. One of these volumetric defects coincided with a tubular pore in the outer weld. Pigging of the pipeline in 2005 for cleaning likely contributed to the increase of the leak flow, when eliminating corrosion product plugs. Although these defects are likely to repeat, fracture mechanics shows that a defect of this type is unlikely to cause a blowout. (author)

  12. NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, N.; Bruzzese, J.; Patton, R.; Sutton, J.; Yentsch, R.; Gaitonde, D.V.; Lempert, W.R. [The Ohio State University, Departments of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Columbus, OH (United States); Miller, J.D.; Meyer, T.R. [Iowa State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Parker, R.; Wadham, T.; Holden, M. [CUBRC, Buffalo, NY (United States); Danehy, P.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging is demonstrated at a 10-kHz repetition rate in the Calspan University at Buffalo Research Center's (CUBRC) 48-inch Mach 9 hypervelocity shock tunnel using a pulse burst laser-based high frame rate imaging system. Sequences of up to ten images are obtained internal to a supersonic combustor model, located within the shock tunnel, during a single {proportional_to}10-millisecond duration run of the ground test facility. Comparison with a CFD simulation shows good overall qualitative agreement in the jet penetration and spreading observed with an average of forty individual PLIF images obtained during several facility runs. (orig.)

  13. NO PLIF Imaging in the CUBRC 48 Inch Shock Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N.; Bruzzese, J.; Patton, R.; Sutton J.; Lempert W.; Miller, J. D.; Meyer, T. R.; Parker, R.; Wadham, T.; Holden, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Nitric Oxide Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging is demonstrated at a 10 kHz repetition rate in the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center s (CUBRC) 48-inch Mach 9 hypervelocity shock tunnel using a pulse burst laser-based high frame rate imaging system. Sequences of up to ten images are obtained internal to a supersonic combustor model, located within the shock tunnel, during a single approx.10-millisecond duration run of the ground test facility. This represents over an order of magnitude improvement in data rate from previous PLIF-based diagnostic approaches. Comparison with a preliminary CFD simulation shows good overall qualitative agreement between the prediction of the mean NO density field and the observed PLIF image intensity, averaged over forty individual images obtained during several facility runs.

  14. Radiation effects testing at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Koga, Rokotura

    2002-01-01

    The effects of ionizing particles on sensitive microelectronics is an important component of the design of systems as diverse as satellites and space probes, detectors for high energy physics experiments and even internet server farms. Understanding the effects of radiation on human cells is an equally important endeavor directed towards future manned missions in space and towards cancer therapy. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Berkeley Laboratory, facilities are available for radiation effects testing (RET) with heavy ions and with protons. The techniques for doing these measurements and the advantages of using a cyclotron will be discussed, and the Cyclotron facilities will be compared with other facilities worldwide. RET of the same part at several facilities of varying beam energy can provide tests of the simple models used in this field and elucidate the relative importance of atomic and nuclear effects. The results and implications of such measurements will be discussed

  15. Remote target removal for the Oak Ridge 86-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A remotely operated target remover has been plaed in operation at the 86-Inch Cyclotron located in Oak Ridge. The system provides for the remote removal of a target from inside the cyclotron, loading it into a cask, and the removal of the cask from the 1.5 m (5-ft) shielding walls. The remote system consists of multiple electrical and pneumatically operated equipment which is designed for controlled step-by-step operation, operated with an electrical control panel, and monitored by a television system. The target remover has reduced the radiation exposures to operating personnel at the facility and has increased the effective operating time. The system is fast, requires a minimum of skill to operate, and has demonstrated both reliability and durability

  16. The impact of wire caliber on ERCP outcomes: a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch guidewires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Milan S; Sundaralingam, Praka; Fanning, Scott B; Lau, James; Menon, Jayaram; Ong, Evan; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Seo, Dong-Wan; Teo, Eng Kiong; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Reddy, D Nageshwar; Goh, Khean Lee; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-06-01

    Wire-guided biliary cannulation has been demonstrated to improve cannulation rates and reduce post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), but the impact of wire caliber has not been studied. This study compares successful cannulation rates and ERCP adverse events by using a 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch guidewire. A randomized, single blinded, prospective, multicenter trial at 9 high-volume tertiary-care referral centers in the Asia-Pacific region was performed. Patients with an intact papilla and conventional anatomy who did not have malignancy in the head of the pancreas or ampulla and were undergoing ERCP were recruited. ERCP was performed by using a standardized cannulation algorithm, and patients were randomized to either a 0.025-inch or 0.035-inch guidewire. The primary outcomes of the study were successful wire-guided cannulation and the incidence of PEP. Overall successful cannulation and ERCP adverse events also were studied. A total of 710 patients were enrolled in the study. The primary wire-guided biliary cannulation rate was similar in 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch wire groups (80.7% vs 80.3%; P = .90). The rate of PEP between the 0.025-inch and the 0.035-inch wire groups did not differ significantly (7.8% vs 9.3%; P = .51). No differences were noted in secondary outcomes. Similar rates of successful cannulation and PEP were demonstrated in the use of 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch guidewires. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01408264.). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Ageing studies for the ATLAS MDT muonchambers and development of a gas filter to prevent drift tube ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.

    2008-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector, which is currently assembled at the LHC accelerator at CERN, uses drift tubes as basic detection elements over most of the solid angle. The performance of these monitored drift tubes (MDTs), in particular their spatial resolution of 80 μm, determines the precision of the spectrometer. If ageing effects occur, the precision of the drift tubes will be degraded. Hence ageing effects have to be minimized or avoided altogether if possible. Even with a gas mixture of Ar:CO 2 =93:7, which was selected for its good ageing properties, ageing effects were observed in test systems. They were caused by small amounts of impurities, in particular volatile silicon compounds. Systematic studies revealed the required impurity levels deteriorating the drift tubes to be well below 1 ppm. Many components of the ATLAS MDT gas system are supplied by industry. In a newly designed ageing experiment in Freiburg these components were validated for their use in ATLAS. With a fully assembled ATLAS gas distribution rack as test component ageing effects were observed. It was therefore decided to install gas filters in the gas distribution lines to remove volatile silicon compounds efficiently from the gas mixture. Finally a filter was designed that can adsorb up to 5.5 g of volatile silicon compounds, hereby reducing the impurities in the outlet gas mixture to less than 30 ppb. (orig.)

  18. Ageing studies for the ATLAS MDT muonchambers and development of a gas filter to prevent drift tube ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, S.

    2008-01-15

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector, which is currently assembled at the LHC accelerator at CERN, uses drift tubes as basic detection elements over most of the solid angle. The performance of these monitored drift tubes (MDTs), in particular their spatial resolution of 80 {mu}m, determines the precision of the spectrometer. If ageing effects occur, the precision of the drift tubes will be degraded. Hence ageing effects have to be minimized or avoided altogether if possible. Even with a gas mixture of Ar:CO{sub 2}=93:7, which was selected for its good ageing properties, ageing effects were observed in test systems. They were caused by small amounts of impurities, in particular volatile silicon compounds. Systematic studies revealed the required impurity levels deteriorating the drift tubes to be well below 1 ppm. Many components of the ATLAS MDT gas system are supplied by industry. In a newly designed ageing experiment in Freiburg these components were validated for their use in ATLAS. With a fully assembled ATLAS gas distribution rack as test component ageing effects were observed. It was therefore decided to install gas filters in the gas distribution lines to remove volatile silicon compounds efficiently from the gas mixture. Finally a filter was designed that can adsorb up to 5.5 g of volatile silicon compounds, hereby reducing the impurities in the outlet gas mixture to less than 30 ppb. (orig.)

  19. Ageing studies for the ATLAS MDT Muonchambers and development of a gas filter to prevent drift tube ageing

    CERN Document Server

    König, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at CERN uses drift tubes as basic detection elements over most of the solid angle. The performance of these monitored drift tubes (MDTs), in particular their spatial resolution of 80 µm, determines the precision of the spectrometer. If ageing effects occur, the precision of the drift tubes will be degraded. Hence ageing effects have to be minimized or avoided altogether if possible. Even with a gas mixture of Ar:CO2 (93:7), which was selected for its good ageing properties, ageing effects were observed in test systems. They were caused by small amounts of impurities, in particular volatile silicon compounds. Systematic studies revealed the required impurity levels deteriorating the drift tubes to be well below 1 ppm. Many components of the ATLAS MDT gas system are supplied by industry. In a newly designed ageing experiment in Freiburg these components were validated for their use in ATLAS. With a fully assembled ATLAS gas distribution rack as test component ageing ...

  20. Analyses of production tests and MDT tests conducted in Mallik and Alaska methane hydrate reservoirs : what can we learn from these well tests?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M.; Funatsu, K.; Ouchi, H. [Japan Oil Engineering Co., Tokyo (Japan); Masuda, Y. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Yamamoto, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Dallimore, S.R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Collett, T.S. [United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Hancock, S.H. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described a series of pressure drawdown tests conducted to evaluate a modular formation dynamics tester (MDT) wireline tool. The tests were conducted at the Mallik methane hydrate (MH) reservoir as well as in MH reservoirs in Alaska over a period of several years. Production tests were also conducted to evaluate depressurization methods, and measure production and bottomhole pressure (BHP) below known MH stability pressures in order to estimate permeability and MH dissociation radius properties. The results of the tests were then history-matched using a numerical simulator. An analysis of the simulation study showed that the MDT tests were useful in estimating initial effective permeability levels in the presence of MH. However, wellbore storage erased important data used to indicate the radius of MH dissociation and effective permeability after partial MH dissociation. The study also showed that steady flow conditions must be established before obtaining solutions from history-matched production tests. Parameters accurately estimated using the MDT and production tests were outlined, and suggestions for future designs and analyses for MH reservoirs were presented. 14 refs., 7 tabs., 17 figs.

  1. Fission tracks diameters in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon Ruiperez, L.; Veiguela, J.

    1974-01-01

    Standard glass microscope slides have been irradiated with fission fragments from the uranium. The etching track conditions have been the same for the series, having changed the etching time only for each specimen. For each glass, a minimum of 250 measurements of the tracks diameters have been made, the distributions of which are the bimodal type. Diameters-etching dependence with time is roughly lineal. Energy determinations have been made with the help of the diameters-energy relations. The calculated values agree very well with the know ones. (author) [es

  2. Investigation of the ductile fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel plate, welds, and 4-inch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.; Hays, R.A.; Gudas, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral fracture toughness tests were performed on welded 304 stainless steel 2-inch plate and 4-inch diameter pipe. The 2-inch plate was welded using a hot-wire automatic gas tungsten arc process. The tests were performed at 550 0 F, 300 0 F and room temperature. The results of the J-integral tests indicate that the Jsub(Ic) of the base plate ranged from 4400 to 6100 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values for the tests performed at 300 0 F and room temperature were beyond the measurement capacity of the specimens and appear to indicate that Jsub(Ic) was greater than 8000 in lb/in 2 . The J-integral tests performed on the weld metal specimens indicate that the Jsub(Ic) values ranged from 930 to 2150 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values of the weld metal specimens tested at 300 0 F and room temperature were 2300 and 3000 in lbs/in 2 respectively. One HAZ specimen was tested at 550 0 F and found to have a Jsub(Ic) value of 2980 in lbs/in 2 which indicates that the HAZ is an average of the base metal and weld metal toughness. These test results indicate that there is a significant reduction in the initiation fracture toughness as a result of welding. The second phase of this task dealt with the fracture toughness testing of 4-inch diameter 304 stainless steel pipes containing a gas tungsten arc weld. The pipes were tested at 550 0 F in four point bending. Three tests were performed, two with a through wall flaw growing circumferentially and the third pipe had a part through radial flaw in combination with the circumferential flaw. These tests were performed using unloading compliance and d.c. potential drop crack length estimate methods. The results of these tests indicate that the presence of a complex crack (radial and circumferential) reduces in the initiation toughness and the tearing modulus of the pipe material compared to a pipe with only a circumferentially growing crack. (orig.)

  3. Diameter 2 properties and convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abrahamsen, T. A.; Hájek, Petr Pavel; Nygaard, O.; Talponen, J.; Troyanski, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 3 (2016), s. 227-242 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : diameter 2 property * midpoint locally uniformly rotund * Daugavet property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.535, year: 2016 https://www.impan.pl/pl/wydawnictwa/czasopisma-i-serie-wydawnicze/studia- mathematica /all/232/3/91534/diameter-2-properties-and-convexity

  4. Test results of a jet impingement from a 4 inch pipe under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Ueda, Shuzo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    Hypothetical instantaneous pipe rupture is now considered to be one of the design basis accidents during the operation of the light water reactor. If a pipe rupture accidnet occurs, the pipe will start moving with the sudden discharge of internal fluid. So, the various apparatus such as pipe whip restraints and jet deflectors are being installed near the postulated break location to protect the nuclear power plants against the effect of postulated pipe rupture. Pipe whipping test and jet discharge test are now being conducted at the Division of Reactor Safety of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report describes the test results of the jet discharge from a 4 inch pipe under BWR LOCA condition. In front of the pipe exit the target disk of 1000 mm in diameter was installed. The distance between the pipe exit and the target was 500 mm. 13 pressure transducers and 13 thermocouples were mounted on the target disk to measure the pressure and temperature increase due to jet impingement on the target. (author)

  5. Lowell Observatory's 24-inch Clark Refractor: Its History and Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kevin; Nye, Ralph; Rosenthal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In 1895, Percival Lowell hired eminent telescope maker Alvan G. Clark to build a 24-inch refractor. Lowell intended the telescope intitally for observing Mars in support of his controversial theories about life on that planet. Clark finished the telescope within a year and at a cost of $20,000. Lowell and his staff of assistants and astronomers began observing through it on July 23, 1896, setting off a long and productive career for the telescope.While Lowell's Mars studies dominated early work with the Clark, V.M. Slipher by the 1910s was using it to observe planetary rotations and atmospheric compositions. He soon revolutionized spectroscopic studies, gathering excruciatingly long spectra - some in excess of 40 hours - of the so-called white nebula and determining startling radial velocities, evidence of an expanding universe. In the 1960s, scientists and artists teamed up on the Clark and created detailed lunar maps in support of the Apollo program.In recent decades, the Clark has played a central role in the education programs at Lowell, with general public audiences, students, and private groups all taking advantage of this unique resource.With this nearly 120 years of contant use, the Clark had been wearing down in recent years. The telescope was becoming more difficult to move, old electrical wiring in the dome was a fire hazard, and many of the telescope's parts needed to be repaired or replaced.In 2013, Lowell Observatory began a fundraising campaign, collecting $291,000 to cover the cost of dome and telescope renovation. Workers removed the entire telescope mount and tube assembly from the dome, examining every part from tube sections to individuals screws. They also stabilized the dome, adding a water vapor barrier and new outer wall while reinforcing the upper dome. The project lasted from January, 2014 through August, 2015. The facility reopened for daytime tours in September, 2015 and evening viewing the following month.

  6. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of sawlog-size Appalachian hardwood crop trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1988-01-01

    In previously thinned, even-aged Appalachian hardwood stands, 5-year diameter growth of 102 wounded and 102 unwounded codominant crop trees were compared. A wounded crop tre was defined as one with at least one exposed sapwood logging wound at least 100 inch2 in size. An unwounded crop tree of the same species and size was selected near each of the 102 wounded trees....

  7. Validation and Application of Computed Radiography (CR) Tangential Technique for Wall Thickness Measurement of 10 Inch Carbon Steel Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Amry Amin Abas; Arshad Yassin; Sukhri Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas industry requires Non Destructive Testing (NDT) to ensure each components, in-service and critical, are fit-for-purpose. Pipes that are used to transfer oil or gas are amongst the critical component that needs to be well maintained and inspected. Typical pipe discontinuities that may lead to unintended incidents are erosion, corrosion, dent, welding defects, etc. Wall thickness assessment, with Radiography Testing (RT) is normally used to inspect such discontinuities and can be performed with two approaches; (a) center line beam tangential technique (b) offset from the centre pipe tangential technique. The latter is a method of choice for this work because of the pipe dimension and limited radiation safe distance at site. Two successful validation approaches (simulation and experimental) were performed to determine the probability of successfulness before the actual RT work with tangential technique is carried out. The pipe was a 10 inch diameter in-service wrapped carbon steel. A 9 Ci Ir-192 and white Imaging Plate (IP) were used as a gamma radiation source and to record the radiographic image. Result of this work suggest that RT with tangential technique for 10 inch wrapped in-service carbon steel pipe can be successfully performed. (author)

  8. Comparison of silicon strip tracker module size using large sensors from 6 inch wafers

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Two large silicon strip sensor made from 6 inch wafers are placed next to each other to simulate the size of a CMS outer silicon tracker module. On the left is a prototype 2 sensor CMS inner endcap silicon tracker module made from 4 inch wafers.

  9. Torque expression of 0.018 and 0.022 inch conventional brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sifakakis, I.; Pandis, N.; Makou, M.; Eliades, T.; Katsaros, C.; Bourauel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the moments generated with low- and high-torque brackets. Four different bracket prescription-slot combinations of the same bracket type (Mini Diamond(R) Twin) were evaluated: high-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch and low-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch.

  10. Clinical characteristics and outcome in multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients treated with 12 months WHO MDT-MBR: a retrospective analysis of 730 patients from a leprosy clinic at a tertiary care hospital of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Sunil; Kumaran, Muthu Sendhil; Narang, Tarun; Radotra, Bishan Dass; Kumar, Bhushan

    2013-03-01

    Shortened (12 months) multidrug multibacillary regimen (MDT MBR) was implemented in India in 1998, however there is yet a paucity of crucial data on its long-term outcome. To assess the efficacy of 12 months MDT MBR in multibacillary (MB) patients at our centre. This was a retrospective study undertaken analysing the clinic records of 1210 patients registered at the leprosy clinic of our institute from 1999 to 2010. 730 MB patients were treated with 12 months MDT MBR over this period. High bacillary index (BI) > or = 3 + was observed in 313 patients at the time of registration. Four hundred and one (54.9%) patients experienced lepra reactions. Recurrent ENL was observed in only 14 patients which manifested even after 5 years of stopping treatment. Clinico-histological correlation was noted in 361 (49.5%) patients. During follow up period ranging from 9 months to 10 years, nearly all patients had clearance of skin lesions including histopathological/bacteriological improvement. Only 13 (1.7%) patients relapsed. All patients responded well with 12 months MDT MBR without significant side effects. The overall relapse rate was only 1.7%. Thus, the recommendation for 12 months MDT MBR for all MB patients is robust and operationally practical, a decision which seems logical.

  11. Test of a demonstrator of an MDT-based first-level muon Trigger for HL-LHC under realistic operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Kroha, Hubert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective first level triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS Experiment at the HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will exceed the LHC’s instantaneous luminosity by almost an order of magnitude. The ATLAS first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum sub-trigger threshold muons due to the limited momentum resolution at trigger level caused by the moderate spatial resolution of the resistive plate and thin gap trigger chambers. This limitation can be overcome by including the data of the precision muon drift tube chambers in the first level Trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and a fast MDT track reconstruction. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain was successfully tested under HL-LHC operating conditions at CERN’s Gamma Irradiation Facility. It could be shown that the data provided by the demonstrator can be processed with a fast track reconstruction algorithm on an ARM CPU within the 6 microseconds ...

  12. Corrosion and deposit determination in large diameter pipes by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, W.

    2006-08-01

    Two steel reference pipes with outer diameters of 8 and 12 inches were machined to make artificial defects on each of them, such as inside and outside steps of different wall thicknesses, inside and outside flat bottomed holes (FBH) of different diameters and depths on steps, flat area (FA), and ground patch (GP). The artificial defect were made to simulate natural corrosion attack as regular corrosion and pitting. The two reference pipes were tested according to tangential radiography technique and double wall single image technique. Tangential radiography technique had been applied using Co-60 radio-isotope to determine the steps thicknesses, the FBH, the remaining wall thickness under the FA, the remaining wall thickness above the GP, and the minimum detectable thickness of the artificial cement deposit on the two reference pipes, with and without insulation. Double wall single image technique had also been applied on the two reference pipes with and without insulation using Ir-192 radio-isotope to measure the flat bottomed holes depths, GP depth, and FA depth by density measurement. The measurement results obtained from the radiographs confirm that, tangential radiography technique can be applied to detect and evaluate the inside and outside regular corrosion attack in the large diameter pipes. It can also be applied to detect and evaluate the outside FBH with depth equal or greater than 10%. Inside 10% FBH and inside 20% FBH can not be detected if their diameters are not larger than certain value related to diameter and wall thickness of the pipe under test. Increasing the film density up to 5 outside the pipe did not provide any detection improvement of 10% and 20% inside FBH. Tangential radiography technique can also be applied to detect and measure the deposit inside the pipes. Double wall technique can be applied as an alternative method of the tangential radiography technique to detect and to evaluate the shallow and small diameter, 10% and 20% inside FBH

  13. The Step approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT): A conceptual framework to guide the development and evaluation of persuasive health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M

    2016-12-01

    This paper provides an important and timely overview of a conceptual framework designed to assist with the development of message content, as well as the evaluation, of persuasive health messages. While an earlier version of this framework was presented in a prior publication by the authors in 2009, important refinements to the framework have seen it evolve in recent years, warranting the need for an updated review. This paper outlines the Step approach to Message Design and Testing (or SatMDT) in accordance with the theoretical evidence which underpins, as well as empirical evidence which demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of, each of the framework's steps. The development and testing of the framework have thus far been based exclusively within the road safety advertising context; however, the view expressed herein is that the framework may have broader appeal and application to the health persuasion context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent

  15. A pre-post test evaluation of the impact of the PELICAN MDT-TME Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cath; Sippitt, Joanna M; Collins, Gary; McManus, Chris; Richardson, Alison; Dawson, Jeremy; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2010-06-29

    The PELICAN Multidisciplinary Team Total Mesorectal Excision (MDT-TME) Development Programme aimed to improve clinical outcomes for rectal cancer by educating colorectal cancer teams in precision surgery and related aspects of multidisciplinary care. The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members. The impact of participating in the programme on team members' self-reported job stress, job satisfaction and team performance was assessed in a pre-post course study. 333/568 (59%) team members, from the 75 multidisciplinary teams who attended the final year of the Programme, completed questionnaires pre-course, and 6-8 weeks post-course. Across all team members, the main sources of job satisfaction related to working in multidisciplinary teams; whilst feeling overloaded was the main source of job stress. Surgeons and clinical nurse specialists reported higher levels of job satisfaction than team members who do not provide direct patient care, whilst MDT coordinators reported the lowest levels of job satisfaction and job stress. Both job stress and satisfaction decreased after participating in the Programme for all team members. There was a small improvement in team performance. Participation in the Development Programme had a mixed impact on the working lives of team members in the immediate aftermath of attending. The decrease in team members' job stress may reflect the improved knowledge and skills conferred by the Programme. The decrease in job satisfaction may be the consequence of being unable to apply these skills immediately in clinical practice because of a lack of required infrastructure and/or equipment. In addition, whilst the Programme raised awareness of the challenges of teamworking, a greater focus on tackling these issues may have improved working lives further.

  16. Price regulation to remove EE-DSM disincentives and pressure for increased energy sales in monopoly segments of restructured electricity and gas markets: the multiple drivers target (MDT) tariff scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliano, L.; Alari, P.; Ruggieri, G.; Irrek, W.; Thomas, S.; Leprich, U.

    2002-01-01

    Even in restructured markets a part of the energy business remains a monopoly and should be correctly regulated. We present an analysis which reveals common structures in schemes enacted in UK, Norway, Portugal and recently (on the basis of this study) in Italy. The identified structure, which we named Multiple Driver Target (MDT) regulation is a performance-based regulation scheme, which provides incentives for greater economic efficiency, without creating biases against environmental efficiency. The method relies on a statistical analysis of the correlation of utility costs and a few 'cost drivers' (e.g. number of customers served, grid length, sold or transported energy). We discuss how MDT can be used to set price levels and price changes in the regulatory period in such a way to correctly match the evolution of costs and avoid awarding unwanted signals to utilities. At the opposite, pure Price Cap regulation provides artificial incentives to utilities to increase energy sales (even if this is not economic for the customers nor for society ) beyond the predicted levels foreseen in the price fixing Rate Cases. We show that Under MDT regulation the reduction in profits due to reduced sales as a consequence of DSM is minimised. In so doing this procedure removes the most important disincentive for utilities to implement DSM programmes since lost profits due to reduced sales can be substantially higher than direct costs of DSM programmes; once MDT regulation is in place, also these direct costs can be recovered through a small part of the tariff. We also discuss how MDT can be implemented with a moderate effort by regulatory authorities. (author)

  17. Progress in Electron Beam Mastering of 100 Gbit/inch2 Density Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Minoru; Furuki, Motohiro; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Aki, Yuichi; Kawase, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Miyokawa, Toshiaki; Mutou, Masao; Handa, Nobuo

    2004-07-01

    We developed an electron beam recorder (EBR) capable of recording master discs under atmospheric conditions using a novel differential pumping head. Using the EBR and optimized fabrication process for Si-etched discs with reactive ion etching (RIE), a bottom signal jitter of 9.6% was obtained from a 36 Gbit/inch2 density disc, readout using a near-field optical pickup with an effective numerical aperture (NA) of 1.85 and a wavelength of 405 nm. We also obtained the eye patterns from a 70 Gbit/inch2 density disc readout using an optical pickup with a 2.05 NA and the same wavelength, and showed almost the same modulation ratio as the simulation value. Moreover, the capability of producing pit patterns corresponding to a 104 Gbit/inch2 density is demonstrated.

  18. A small diameter, flexible, all attitude, self-contained germanium spectrometer. Operator's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordzindki, R.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Reeves, J.H.; Kohli, R.

    1997-05-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought about tremendous changes in the nuclear complex of the Department of Energy. One of the many changes has been the shutdown or decommissioning of many facilities that performed nuclear work. One of the steps in the process of decommissioning a facility involves the decontamination or removal of drain lines or pipes that may have carried radioactive materials at one time. The removal of all these pipes and drain lines to a nuclear disposal facility could be quite costly. It was suggested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that a germanium spectrometer could be built that could fit through straight pipes with a diameter as small as 5.08 cm (2 inches) and pass through curved pipes with a diameter as small as 7.6 cm (3 inches) such as that of a 3-inch p-trap in a drain line. The germanium spectrometer could then be used to simultaneously determine all gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in or surrounding the pipe. By showing the absence of any gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the pipes could then be reused in place or disposed of as non-radioactive material, thus saving significantly in disposal costs. A germanium spectrometer system has been designed by PNNL and fabricated by Princeton Gamma Tech (PGT) that consists of three segments, each 4.84 cm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Flexible stainless steel bellows were used to connect the segments. Segment 1 is a small liquid nitrogen reservoir. The reservoir is filled with a sponge-like material which enables the detector to be used in any orientation. A Stirling cycle refrigerator is under development which can replace the liquid nitrogen reservoir to provide continuous cooling and operation

  19. Pile load test on large diameter steel pipe piles in Timan-Pechora, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, S. [Golder Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tart, B. [Golder Associates Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Swartz, R. [Paragon Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pile load testing conducted in May and June of 1993 at the Polar Lights Ardalin project in Arkangelsk province, Russia, was documented. Pile load testing was conducted to determine the ultimate and allowable pile loads for varying pile lengths and ground temperature conditions and to provide creep test data for deformation under constant load. The piles consisted of 20 inch diameter steel pipe piles driven open ended through prebored holes into the permafrost soils. Ultimate pile capacities, adfreeze bond, and creep properties observed were discussed. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ziqing; Shan, Yue; Pan, Qing; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Aixin

    2013-01-01

    The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of Escherichia coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF in the operon has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798 bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full-length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  1. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing eDeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of E. coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  2. Diameter-speed relation of sprite streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanmae, T; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H C; McHarg, M G; Haaland, R K

    2012-01-01

    Propagation and splitting of sprite streamers has been observed at high temporal and spatial resolution using two intensified high-speed CMOS cameras recording at 10 000 and 16 000 frames per second. Concurrent video recordings from a remote site provided data for triangulation allowing us to determine accurate altitude scales for the sprites. Diameters and speeds of the sprite streamers were measured from the high-speed images, and the diameters were scaled to the reduced diameters based on the triangulated locations. The sprite streamers with larger reduced diameter move faster than those with smaller diameter; the relation between the reduced diameter and speed is roughly linear. The reduced diameters at ≈65-70 km altitude are larger than streamer diameters measured at ground pressure in laboratory discharges indicating a deviation from the similarity law possibly due to the effects of the photoionization and an expansion of the streamer head along its propagation over a long distance. The reduced diameter and speed of the sprite streamers agree well with the diameter-velocity relation proposed by Naidis (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 057401), and the peak electric field of the sprite streamers is estimated to be approximately 3-5 times the breakdown threshold field. (paper)

  3. Evaluation of 3 Inch SN-219 Failure and S and SX Tank Farm Saltwell Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSEN, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of direct buried piping currently in use or designated for future Saltwell pumping in S and SX Farms. Documented evaluation of failed S-103 saltwell pumping transfer line 3 inch SN-219. This evaluation is intended to reflect current status of Saltwell piping, when taken in context with referenced documents

  4. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-08-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic study, level III; Therapeutic study, level V.

  5. Full scale ambient water flow tests of a 10-inch emergency release coupling for LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, L.J. van der; Webber, T.; Bokhorst, E. van; Revell, C.

    2016-01-01

    For LNG transfer in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore configurations emergency release couplings (F.RC) in combination with loading arms and multi-composite hoses are applied In view of a demand for increasing transfer flow rates in offshore LNG applications a 10-inch ERC has been developed intended

  6. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to...

  7. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid-Actuated Gas-Operated VPS System Ball Valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valve incorporates a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. The valve is normally open and fails safe to the closed position. The associated valve position switch is class GS

  8. Numerical Investigation of Liquid Carryover in T-Junction with Different Diameter Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, William; Sam, Ban; Saieed, Ahmed; Tran, Cong Minh

    2018-03-01

    In offshore Malaysia, T-junction is installed at the production header as a compact separator to tap produced gas from reservoir as fuel gas for power generation. However, excessive liquid carryover in T-junction presents a serious operational issue because it trips the whole production platform. The primary objective of present study is to numerically investigate the liquid carryover due to formation of slug, subsequently its liquid carryover at different diameter ratio. The analyses were carried out on a model with 0.0254 m (1 inch) diameter horizontal main arm and a vertically upward side arm using Volume of Fluid Method. Three different sides to main arm diameter ratio of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3 were investigated with different gas and liquid superficial velocities. The results showed that, while the general trend is true that smaller diameter ratio T-junction has lesser liquid take off capacity, it has a very high frequency of low liquid carryover threshold. In other words, under slug flow, smaller diameter ratio T-junction is constantly transporting liquid even though at a lesser volume in comparison to regular T-junction.

  9. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter...

  10. Diameter-dependent coloration of silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mindy S; Qiu Chao; Jiang Chaoyang; Kattumenu, Ramesh; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanowires were synthesized with a green method and characterized with microscopic and diffractometric methods. The correlation between the colors of the nanowires deposited on a solid substrate and their diameters was explored. Silver nanowires that appear similar in color in the optical micrographs have very similar diameters as determined by atomic force microscopy. We have summarized the diameter-dependent coloration for these silver nanowires. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition, microreflectance spectra were obtained from individual nanowires and the observed spectra can be explained with the optical interference theory. This work provides a cheap, quick and simple screening method for studying the diameter distribution of silver nanowires, as well as the diameter variations of individual silver nanowires, without complicated sample preparation.

  11. 12-inch x-ray image intensifier with thin metal input window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Yoshiharu; Anno, Hidero; Harao, Norio [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1982-08-01

    Borosilicate glass has been used for X-ray input window of image intensifiers (I.I.) up to now. Now two new types of 12-inch metal I.I., RT12301C and RT12302C, have been developed. They use convex 1-mm aluminum (instead of 5-mm borosilicate glass) for the input window. Adopting a high-performance penta-electronic lens and a new type of light guide CsI film, these intensifiers have greatly improved contrast, quantum detection efficiency (QDE) and resolution capability. In spite of low dosage, image quality equivalent to that in the conventional direct radiograph is obtained through combined use of the new-type 12-inch metal I.I. with 0.3-mm small-focal-spot X-ray tube. Great contribution to digital radiography is expected of this I.I.

  12. Health physics challenges involved with opening a "seventeen-inch" concrete waste vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick T; Pizzulli, Michelle

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the various activities involved with opening a sealed legacy "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault and the health physics challenges and solutions employed. As part of a legacy waste stream that was removed from the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault labeled 1-95 was moved to the new Waste Management Facility for ultimate disposal. Because the vault contained 239Pu foils with a total activity in excess of the transuranic waste limits, the foils needed to be removed and repackaged for disposal. Conventional diamond wire saws could not be used because of facility constraints, so this project relied mainly on manual techniques. The planning and engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to open the vault and remove the waste while keeping dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  13. Design of a 18F production system at ORNL 86-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, M.C.; Barreto, F.; Datesh, J.R.; Goldstein, B.R.

    1977-01-01

    A target system for the production of 18 F by proton bombardment of H 2 18 O was designed for the ORNL 86-inch cyclotron facility. The system consists of concentric titanium and aluminum cylinders. Oxygen-18-enriched H 2 O circulates through the inner titanium cylinder and through an external heat exchanger with cooling water flowing in the annulus. Yields of 5.0 curies are expected for a 250-μA proton beam current and 24-min irradiation time

  14. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-11-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p guidelines for an adult seat belt do not meet safety requirements for fit, especially in larger, commonly used vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic level 1.

  15. Heat Exchanger Design and Testing for a 6-Inch Rotating Detonation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    water-cooled rotating detonation engine ( RDE ) run on hydrogen and air. The change in water temperature as it cooled the engine was used to find the...a quick-response resistance temperature detector (RTD) was used in an uncooled RDE of similar dimension to the cooled RDE to estimate the transient...double-checking my design calculations, providing his experience with cooling the 3-inch RDE , and for providing technical expertise in regard to the

  16. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid-Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated

  17. Normal ureteral diameter in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, M.; Hjaelmaas, K.; Jacobsson, B.; Jodal, U.; Oden, A.; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Goeteborg Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Ureteral diameters were estimated on films from intravenous urography in 194 children (100 boys and 94 girls) aged 0-16 years. Children with signs of urinary tract infection, calculi, obstruction, duplication or malformation were excluded. Films obtained without abdominal compression were used for measurements, including only ureters visualized over 50 per cent of their lengths. A good correlation was demonstrated between ureteral diameter and age and between ureteral diameter and the length of a segment of the lumbar spine. The widest part of the ureter was most often located just above the crossing of the iliac vessels. The right ureter was slightly wider than the left one. No difference between boys and girls was noted. The results are in good agreement with those of others obtained at autopsy. Bearing in mind the possible physiologic variations, it would seem that measuring the ureteral diameter can be of value for a more objective differentiation between dilated and non-dilated ureters. (orig.)

  18. SEX DETERMINATION FROM FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-03-01

    Mar 1, 2000 ... In medico-legal cases where sophisticated methods of sex determination is lacking, these ... scientific methods(3). Using the visual method ... between the sexes and the values of the right and left femoral head diameters.

  19. Effective diameters and corresponding states of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Fernando

    Effective hard-sphere diameters of fluids with purely repulsive interactions are derived from a generalized corresponding-states principle of Leland, Rowlinson and coworkers. Various alternative definitions are discussed and related. Virial expansions of the effective diameters and their corresponding volumes are obtained and compared with results of perturbation theory. Applications are made to inverse-power potentials, the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential and hard spherocylinders and dumbells.

  20. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  1. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  2. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orscheln, Emily S.; Trout, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  3. Diameter effect on critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, A.; Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Shan, J.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The critical heat flux look-up table (CHF LUT) is widely used to predict CHF for various applications, including design and safety analysis of nuclear reactors. Using the CHF LUT for round tubes having inside diameters different from the reference 8 mm involves conversion of CHF to 8 mm. Different authors [Becker, K.M., 1965. An Analytical and Experimental Study of Burnout Conditions in Vertical Round Ducts, Aktiebolaget Atomenergie Report AE 177, Sweden; Boltenko, E.A., et al., 1989. Effect of tube diameter on CHF at various two phase flow regimes, Report IPE-1989; Biasi, L., Clerici, G.C., Garriba, S., Sala, R., Tozzi, A., 1967. Studies on Burnout, Part 3, Energia Nucleare, vol. 14, pp. 530-536; Groeneveld, D.C., Cheng, S.C., Doan, T., 1986. AECL-UO critical heat flux look-up table. Heat Transfer Eng., 7, 46-62; Groeneveld et al., 1996; Hall, D.D., Mudawar, I., 2000. Critical heat flux for water flow in tubes - II subcooled CHF correlations. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, 2605-2640; Wong, W.C., 1996. Effect of tube diameter on critical heat flux, MaSC dissertation, Ottawa Carleton Institute for Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Ottawa] have proposed several types of correlations or factors to describe the diameter effect on CHF. The present work describes the derivation of new diameter correction factor and compares it with several existing prediction methods

  4. Nanomanipulation of 2 inch wafer fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.; Eichhorn, Volkmar; Carlson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are typically defined by electron beam lithography (EBL), and hence limited to small areas due to the low throughput. To obtain wafer‐scale fabrication we propose large area thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A 2‐inch stamp master is defined using EBL for subsequent......, efficient production of wafer‐scale/larger arrays of CNTs has been achieved. The CNTs have been deposited by wafer‐scale plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of C2H2/NH3. Substrates containing such nanotubes have been used to automate nanorobotic manipulation sequences of individual CNTs...

  5. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, T., E-mail: thomas.bergauer@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Dragicevic, M.; König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Hacker, J.; Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-09-11

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  6. The 88-Inch Cyclotron: A One-Stop Facility for Electronics Radiation and Detector Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kireeff Covo, M.; Albright, R. A.; Ninemire, B. F.; Johnson, M. B.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Benitez, J. Y.; Todd, D. S.; Xie, D. Z.; Perry, T.; Phair, L.; Bernsteiny, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Harasty, M.; Harrig, K. P.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.; Bushmaker, A.; Walker, D.; Oklejas, V.; Hopkins, A. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Chen, J.; Cronin, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    In outer space down to the altitudes routinely flown by larger aircrafts, radiation can pose serious issues for microelectronics circuits. The 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a sector-focused cyclotron and home of the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects Facility, where the effects of energetic particles on sensitive microelectronics are studied with the goal of designing electronic systems for the space community. This paper describes the flexibility of the facility and its capabilities for testing the bombardment of electronics by heavy ions, light ions, and neutrons. Experimental capabilities for the generation of neutron beams from deuteron breakups and radiation testing of carbon nanotube field effect transistor will be discussed.

  7. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 2 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. EWIT Phase 2 featured a 36-inch aluminum tank head. The tank head was outfitted with one accelerometer, twelve pressure transducers, three string potentiometers, and four strain gages. The tank head was dropped from heights of 1 foot and 2 feet. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data. As a measure of prediction accuracy, peak responses from the baseline LS-DYNA model were compared to peak responses from the tests.

  8. Measuring Electrospun Nanofibre Diameter: a Novel Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziabari, M.; Mottaghitalab, V.; Haghi, A. K.; McGovern, S. T.

    2008-01-01

    A new method based on image analysis for electrospun nanofibre diameter measurement is presented. First, the SEM micrograph of the nanofibre web obtained by electrospinning process is converted to binary image using local thresholding method. In the next step, skeleton and distance transformed image are generated. Then, the intersection points which bring about untrue measurements are identified and removed from the skeleton. Finally, the resulting skeleton and distance transformed image are used to determine fibre diameter. The method is evaluated by a simulated image with known characteristics generated by ?-randomness procedure. The results indicate that this approach is successful in making fast, accurate automated measurements of electrospun fibre diameters. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Selection of large diameter drills with the aid of a computer, between diesel and electric alternatives for sedimentary mining. Seleccion de perforadoras de gran diametro con ayuda de ordenador, alternativa diesel electrica en mineria sedimentaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomo Gomez, M. (ENCASUR, Ciudad Real (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    The communication develops a rotary drill rig selection study carried out in Mina Emma, ENCASUR Puertollano (Open pit coal mine), for diameters extended from 9 7/8 to 15 inches and bench heights 10, 15 and 20 meters. Since the choice of diameters is in the transition area from diesel to electric machines, the conclusions are specially interesting in making buying decisions of this kind. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Moisture monitoring in large diameter boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the neutron moisture gauge traditionally used in soil physics experiments can be extended for use in large diameter (up to 15 cm) steel-cased boreholes with excellent results. This application will permit existing saturated zone monitoring wells to be used for unsaturated zone monitoring of recharge, redistribution and leak detection from waste disposal facilities. Its applicability to large diameter cased wells also gives the soil physicist and ground-water hydrologist and new set of monitoring points in the unsaturated zone to study recharge and aquifer properties. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Insights into targeting young male drivers with anti-speeding advertising: An application of the Step approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, I; White, K M; Ho, B; Elliott, B; Watson, B

    2017-06-01

    In Australia, young drivers aged 17-25 years comprise 13% of the population yet account for 22% of all road deaths with young males over-represented in such trauma. Speeding represents a major contributing factor and advertising campaigns have long focused on promoting anti-speeding messages in the effort to reduce drivers' speeds. Positioned within a larger program of research aimed at developing, piloting, and evaluating a range of theoretically-informed anti-speeding messages, the current study reports results relating to the final phase of the research, the evaluation. Six messages were devised in accordance with the guiding framework, the Step approach to Message Design and Testing ([SatMDT]; Lewis et al., 2016) and based on the findings emerging from earlier qualitative and quantitative studies within the program of research. N=938 licensed drivers (n=455 males, 48%) aged 17-62 years completed an online survey. To ensure a controlled test of the persuasiveness of the message content, the messages were presented in an audio-based format and thus were devoid of potential confounds, such as images. The messages sought to address a particular belief (i.e., behavioural, normative, control) and to focus either on emphasising the positive aspects which make speeding less likely or challenging the negative aspects which make speeding more likely. Thus, key to this evaluation was to test the persuasiveness of the message content in terms of the particular belief and focus it was addressing. Participants were randomly assigned to either the Control condition (i.e., no exposure to a message) or the Intervention condition (i.e., exposed to one of the six messages presented as an audio-recorded message within the survey). Persuasiveness was assessed via a range of outcome measures including both direct (i.e., third-person perceptions, message rejection) as well as indirect measures (i.e., intentions, willingness to speed). Age, gender, and message type were independent

  12. A new alignment procedure for the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Booth, John A.; Doss, David; Loubser, Egan; O'Connor, James E.; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Worters, Hannah L.

    2016-07-01

    Considerable effort has gone into improving the performance and reliability of the SAAO's 74-inch telescope. This included replacing the telescope encoders, refining the pointing model and increasing the telescope throughput. The latter involved re-aluminising the primary and formulating a procedure to ensure optimal alignment of the telescope mirrors. To this end, we developed the necessary hardware and techniques to ensure that such alignment is achieved and maintained, particularly following re-aluminising of the mirrors. In essence, the procedure involves: placing a Taylor Hobson Alignment Telescope on the mechanical rotation axis of the 74-inch (which we define to be the optical axis, since the Cassegrain instruments attach to the associated turntable), then adjusting the tip/tilt of the secondary mirror to get it onto that axis and, lastly, adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to eliminate coma. An eyepiece (or wavefront camera) is installed at the Cassegrain port for this final step since comatic star images indicate the need to tip/tilt the primary mirror to align it to the secondary. Tuning out any brightness gradients seen in an out-of-focus image of a bright star may also be used for feedback when adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to null coma.

  13. Production of exotic beams at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron by the ISOL method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Users of the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron are preparing a proposal to produce exotic, i.e., radioactive beams. The facility will consist of a high-current 30 MeV cyclotron to generate the radioactive nuclei, an ECR source that can be coupled to different production targets, and the 88-Inch Cyclotron to accelerate the radioactive ions. Thus, the basic concept is that of the double cyclotron system pioneered at Louvain-la-Neuve, although the initial emphasis will be on producing a variety of light proton-rich beams at energies up to 10 MeV/A. At this workshop we wish to outline what is being planned, to invite comments and suggestions, and, especially, to encourage participation. We believe that this facility will be an important step toward establishing the scientific and technical basis for a National High Intensity Facility. This can be achieved through active participation by members of the radioactive beam (RB) community in (1) experiments with high quality radioactive beams of moderate intensity and, (2) R ampersand D on high beam-power targets and highly efficient ion sources. 5 refs., 4 figs

  14. Artist autonomy in a digital era: The case of Nine Inch Nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2009 presentation by Michael Masnick (CEO and founder of insight company Floor64 entitled ‘How Trent Reznor and Nine Inch Nails represent the Future of the Music Business’ brought the success of the business models employed by Reznor in distributing Nine Inch Nails’ music into the spotlight. The present review provides a comprehensive timeline of the band circa 2005-2010, evaluating the success of the distribution methods employed in accordance with Masnick’s (2009 proposed business model of connecting with fans and providing them with a reason to buy. The model is conceptualised in the wider context in which Reznor’s distribution methods take place (including a brief consideration of Radiohead’s much cited pay-what-you- want model, addressing the perceived gaps in the model by exploring the involvement of musical preferences; age and consumer purchasing behavior and fan worship. Implications are discussed concerning the applicability of the model for new and emerging bands.

  15. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  16. Changing the Diameter of a Viewing Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the students' investigation about the relationship between the diameter of the view tubes (x) of constant lengths and the viewable vertical distance (y) on the wall while keeping the perpendicular distance from the eyeball to the wall constant. The students collected data and used and represented it in tabular and graphical…

  17. Height - Diameter predictive equations for Rubber (Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BUKOLA

    They proffer logistic data for modeling and futuristic prediction for sustainable forest management. Diameter is one of the most ... in various quantitative estimation following the intricacy of time, availability of modern equipments .... growth functions. This trend is shown in Figure 1 where the prediction equations are plotted.

  18. Numerical simulation of two-phase slug flow with liquid carryover in different diameter ratio T-junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, W.; Hon, L.; Saieed, A.; Ban, S.

    2017-10-01

    A smaller diameter conduit pointing at 12 o’clock position is typically hot-tapped to a horizontal laying production header in offshore platform to tap produced gas for downstream process train. This geometric feature is commonly known as T-junction. The nature of multiphase fluid splitting at the T-junction is a major operational challenge due to unpredictable production environment. Often, excessive liquid carryover occurs in the T-junction, leading to complete platform trip and halt production. This is because the downstream process train is not designed to handle excessive liquid. The objective of this research is to quantify the effect of different diameter ratio on phase separation efficiency in T-junction. The liquid carryover is modelled as two-phase air-water flow using Eulerian Mixture Model coupled with Volume of Fluid Method to mimic the slug flow in the main pipe. The focus in this paper is 0.0254 m (1 inch) diameter horizontal main arm and vertical branch arm with diameter ratio of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3. The present research narrowed the investigation to only slug flow regime using Baker’s map as reference. The investigation found that, contrary to common believe, smaller diameter ratio T-junction perform worse than larger diameter ratio T-junction.

  19. Tree diameter at breast height in relation to stump diameter by species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur G. Horn; Richard C. Keller

    1957-01-01

    A stump tally is one method of determining the volume of timber previously removed from an area in a logging operation. To estimate volume of standing timber from stumps, foresters must first know the relationship between stump diameters and tree diameters at breast height (d.b.h.).

  20. Simulation of adsorber tube diameter's effect on new design silica gel-water adsorption chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasruddin, Taufan, A.; Manga, A.; Budiman, D.

    2017-03-01

    A new design of silica gel-water adsorption chiller is proposed. The design configuration is composed of two sorption chambers with compact fin tube heat exchangers as adsorber, condenser, and evaporator. Heat and mass recovery were adopted in order to increase the cooling capacity. Numerical modelling and calculation were used to show the performance of the chiller with different adsorber tube diameter. Under typical condition for hot water inlet/cooling water inlet/chilled water outlet temperatures are 90/30/7°C, respectively, the simulation results showed the best average value of COP, SCP, and cooling power are 0.19, 15.88 W/kg and 279.89 W using 3/8 inch tube.

  1. DESIGN OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL COMPACTOR ROLLS DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peciar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, in a period of an industrial expansion great emphasis is placed on the environment. That means aiming for a reduced energy consumption, and also lessening dustiness from very fine powder material. This category also includes particulate material agglomeration processes. Because this process is very energy-intensive, it is necessary to correctly design these devices. The aim of this paper is to focus on a theoretical design of a production compactor with the rolls diameter for an experimental particulate material, based on Johanson’s theory and experimentally measured material properties. The material used for experimental measurements was an NPK-based industrial fertilizer consisting of several components. The results of this paper is the dependence of the ratio of the maximum compression pressure to the initial compression pressure from the rolls diameter of the proposed compactor.

  2. Device for guiding various diameter size cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, I.M.; Klauzer, L.P.; Yeganov, L.I.; Zaripov, A.M.

    1982-01-30

    A design is submitted for a device to guide cable of various diameters. This device consists of a profiled multiple-pass roller, and clamps for uniting cut cable. This design is simplified by allowing both the rollers and their supports to rotate on the roller axis thus facilitating interaction with the clamps. The working surface of the supports is evolute while the outside surfaces have screw-channels for transfering the cable from one roller pass to the other.

  3. Aplicação de modelos digitais do terreno (MDT em análises macrogeomorfológicas: o caso da bacia hidrográfica do Araguaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Morato de Carvalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho consiste na aplicação e teste de técnicas de geoprocessamento e sensoriamento remoto para estudo geomorfológico de macroescala em sistemas fluviais de grande porte. A área de estudo é a bacia do Rio Araguaia, 2 com uma área de drenagem que se estende por 375000 km ao longo do Brasil Central. Foi gerado um modelo digital do terreno (MDT através do sensor Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR, obtido da Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM. O objetivo foi identificar o potencial desta ferramenta para estudos geomorfológicos. Os principais produtos obtidos foram imagem sombreada, mapa hipsométrico, identificação de lineamentos estruturais, mapa de declividade e rede de drenagem, assim como perfis topográficos e o perfil longitudinal do rio Araguaia. Os resultados mostraram que em geral, os modelos tridimensionais do terreno - MDT - são ferramentas bastante eficientes para análises macrogeomorfológicas em grandes bacias hidrográficas. Entretanto, a baixa resolução vertical, produz alguns resultados de declividade relativamente pobres em áreas planas.

  4. DARK BURSTS IN THE SWIFT ERA: THE PALOMAR 60 INCH-SWIFT EARLY OPTICAL AFTERGLOW CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenko, S. B.; Harrison, F. A.; Kelemen, J.; Fox, D. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Frail, D. A.; Moon, D.-S.

    2009-01-01

    We present multicolor optical observations of long-duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs) made over a three-year period with the robotic Palomar 60 inch telescope (P60). Our sample consists of all 29 events discovered by Swift for which P60 began observations less than 1 hr after the burst trigger. We were able to recover 80% of the optical afterglows from this prompt sample, and we attribute this high efficiency to our red coverage. Like Melandri et al. (2008), we find that a significant fraction (∼50%) of Swift events show a suppression of the optical flux with regard to the X-ray emission (the so-called 'dark' bursts). Our multicolor photometry demonstrates this is likely due in large part to extinction in the host galaxy. We argue that previous studies, by selecting only the brightest and best-sampled optical afterglows, have significantly underestimated the amount of dust present in typical GRB environments.

  5. Analysis of ATLAS 6-inch cold leg break simulation with MARS-KS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Yun; Jun, Hwang Yong; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A Domestic Standard Problem (DSP) exercise using ATLAS facility has been organized by KAERI. As the second DSP exercise, the 6-inch cold leg bottom break was determined. This experiment is the counterpart test to the DVI line break to verify the safety performance of the DVI method over the traditional CLI method. Compared with the large break LOCA, the phases of the small break LOCA prior to core recovery occur over a long period. The blowdown, natural circulation, loop seal clearance, boil-off, and core recovery phase should be investigated minutely with relevant models of safety analysis codes in order to predict these thermal hydraulic phenomena correctly. To investigate the ECC bypass phenomena, a finer study on the thermalhydraulic behavior in upper annulus downcomer was carried out

  6. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, P.G. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  7. ECR heavy-ion source for the LBL 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.; Kalnins, J.G.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1983-03-01

    An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heavy-ion source is under construction at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron. This source will produce very-high-charge-state heavy ions, such as 0 8 + and Ar 12 + , which will increase cyclotron energies by a factor of 2-4, up to A = 80. It is a two-stage source using room-temperature coils, a permanent-magnet sextupole, and a 6-9 GHz microwave system. Design features include adjustable first-to-second-stage plasma coupling, a variable second-stage mirror ratio, high-conductance radial pumping of the second stage, and a beam-diagnostic system. A remotely movable extraction electrode will optimize extraction efficiency. The project includes construction of a transport line and improvements to the cyclotron axial-injection system. The construction period is expected to be two years

  8. Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.; Clark, D.J.; Glasgow, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 16 O 8+ . Total external intensities of these beams range from 10 12 particles/s for 6 Li 3+ to 0.1 particles/s for 16 O 8+ . Techniques have been developed for routine tune-out of the low intensity beams. These include use of model beams and reliance on the large systematic data base of cyclotron parameters which has been developed over many years of operation. Techniques for delivery of these weak beams to the experimental target areas are presented. Source design and operation, including special problems associated with Li, Be, and B beams are discussed

  9. Evaluation of new 5 inch photomultiplier for use in threshold Cherenkov detectors with aerogel radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtsekhowski, B.; Zorn, C.; Flyckt, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    A cost effective alternative to UV-sensitive 5 inch PMTs often used with threshold Aerogel Cherenkov detectors has been developed and tested. The photomultiplier -XP4572-is a variation of the Photonis XP4512 glass window tube with improved electron collection efficiency. Fast timing and high gain were only moderately compromised. The effective quantum efficiency has been measured as twice that of a Burle 8854 Quantacon when exposed to a Cherenkov spectrum generated by Ru-106 electrons (les;3.54 MeV) through 1 cm of high index, high transparency Matsushita Electric aerogel (n=1.05). This new phototube is being installed in an aerogel-based Cherenkov detector for Hall A at Jefferson Lab

  10. Development and characterization of a CCD camera system for use on six-inch manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logory, L.M.; Bell, P.M.; Conder, A.D.; Lee, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed, constructed, and fielded a compact CCD camera system for use on the Six Inch Manipulator (SIM) at the Nova laser facility. The camera system has been designed to directly replace the 35 mm film packages on all active SIM-based diagnostics. The unit's electronic package is constructed for small size and high thermal conductivity using proprietary printed circuit board technology, thus reducing the size of the overall camera and improving its performance when operated within the vacuum environment of the Nova laser target chamber. The camera has been calibrated and found to yield a linear response, with superior dynamic range and signal-to-noise levels as compared to T-Max 3200 optic film, while providing real-time access to the data. Limiting factors related to fielding such devices on Nova will be discussed, in addition to planned improvements of the current design

  11. LOFT transient thermal analysis for 10 inch primary coolant blowdown piping weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    A flaw in a weld in the 10 inch primary coolant blowdown piping was discovered by LOFT personnel. As a result of this, a thermal analysis and fracture mechanics analysis was requested by LOFT personnel. The weld and pipe section were analyzed for a complete thermal cycle, heatup and Loss of Coolant Experiment (LOCE), using COUPLE/MOD2, a two-dimensional finite element heat conduction code. The finite element representation used in this analysis was generated by the Applied Mechanics Branch. The record of nodal temperatures for the entire transient was written on tape VSN=T9N054, and has been forwarded to the Applied Mechanics Branch for use in their mechanical analysis. Specific details and assumptions used in this analysis are found in appropriate sections of this report

  12. Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyakuno, Haruka, E-mail: h-kyakuno@kanagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Nakai, Yusuke; Maniwa, Yutaka, E-mail: maniwa@phys.se.tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Matsuda, Kazuyuki [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Miyata, Yasumitsu [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-08-14

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature T{sub wd} ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter D{sub c} ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > D{sub c}) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at T{sub wd} upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below T{sub wd} freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < D{sub c}) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.

  13. Retrobulbar diameter of optic nerve in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The ultrasound diagnostics of the optic nerve includes the analysis of the optic nerve disc (PNO and measuring of its retrobulbar diameter. With B-scan, by Schraeder's method, it is possible to measure very precisely the optic nerve, the pial diameter, the normal values for the pial diameter being 2.8-4.1 mm. In glaucoma, the disease that is most frequently associated with higher intraocular pressure, there comes the destruction of nerve fibres, which can be visualized as the excavation of the optic nerve disc. Objective. In this paper, we were interested in finding whether in glaucoma, and in what phase of the disease, the optic nerve starts growing thinner. Aware of many forms of this very complex disease, we were interested in knowing if the visualization of excavation on the optic nerve disc is related to diminishing of the pial diameter of the retrobulbar nerve part. Methods. There were treated the patients who had already had the diagnosis of glaucoma and the visualized excavation of the optic disc of various dimensions. Echographically, there was measured the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve and the finding compared in relation to the excavation of the optic disc. Results. In all eyes with glaucoma, a normal size of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve was measured, ranging from 3.01 to 3.91 mm with the median of 3.36 mm. Also, by testing the correlation between the thickness of the optic nerve and the excavation of the PNO, by Pearson test, we found that there was no correlation between these two parameters (r=0.109; p>0.05. Conclusion. In the patients with glaucoma, the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve is not thinner (it has normal values, even not in the cases with a totally excavated optic disc. There is no connection between the size of the PNO excavation and the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve.

  14. 29 mm Diameter Target Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-10-23

    After numerous delays, the test of the 29 mm diameter target was conducted on 8/18/2017. The complete target design report, dated 8/15/2016, is reproduced below for completeness. This describes in detail the 10 disk target with varying thickness disks. The report presents and discusses the test results. In brief summary, there appears to have been multiple instrumentation errors. Measured temperatures, pressures and IR camera window temperature measurement are all suspect. All tests were done at 35 MeV, with 171 μA current, or 6 kW of beam power.

  15. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  16. Assessment of the MARS-KS Code Using Atlas 6-inch cold leg Break Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. G.; Kim, J. S.; Ahn, S. H.; Seul, K. W. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    An integral effect test on the SBLOCA (Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accident) aiming at 6-inch cold leg bottom break, SB-CL-09, was conducted with the Atlas on November, 13, 2009, by KAERI. In this study, the calculations using MARS-KS Vt1.2 code were conducted for 6-inch cold leg break test of Atlas (SB-CL-09) which is the second domestic standard problem (Dsp-02) to assess MARS-KS code capability to simulate the transient thermal-hydraulic behavior for SBLOCA. The steady state was determined by conducting a null transient calculation and the errors between the calculated and measured values are acceptable for almost primary/secondary system parameters. The predicted pressurizer pressure agrees relatively well with the experimental data and the predicted break flow and mass are in good agreement with experiment. In MARS-KS calculation, the decrease of core collapsed water level is predicted well in blowdown phase, but just before LSC, water level is higher than experiment. However, the sudden decrease and increase of water level is higher than experiment. However, the sudden decrease and increase of water level at the LSC are predicted qualitatively. After LSC, there is another water level dip at Sit injection time which is not in experiment. It is considered that this phenomenon is caused by rapid depressurization of downcomer due to significant condensation rate of vapor in downcomer when Sit water flows in it. For the downcomer water level is predicted well, however, it is significantly over-predicted at SIT injection time, water level is predicted well, however, it is significantly over-predicted at SIT injection time after SIT water flows in downcomer. Predicted cladding temperature generally agrees well with the experiment, while there is peak at SIT injection time in calculation which is not in experiment. The loop seals of 1A, 2B intermediate leg are cleared around 400 seconds in experiment, while only that of 1A is cleared in MARS-KS calculation at the

  17. Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    A 30 cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cm 2 at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of +- 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity

  18. Design evaluation of the 20-cm (8-inch) secondary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the design of the existing 20-cm (8-inch) engineering-scale secondary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) secondary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype secondary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling subsystems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes internal gas cooling of the burner, retains the existing heating subsystem for design compatibility, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated

  19. Isolation and identification of culturable extremely halophilic archaea of Inche-Boroun wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Rasooli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Haloarchaeal diversity of Inche-Boroun wetland in north of Iran in Golestan province was investigated by using culture-dependent methods. Sampling was carried out in May and September 2010. In each sampling, 4 distinct region of wetland were analyzed by using complex media like MGM, JCM168, MH1 and an alkaliphilic medium containing 23% salts. After incubation at 40ºC, a total of 406 isolates were prepared and 2.1×106 CFU/ml were obtained in culture media. Among all isolates, 361 isolates were obtained from MGM and 39 isolates from JCM 168, 3 isolates from MH1 and 3 isolate from alkaliphilic media. Initial morphological, biochemical and physiological tests were performed. According to the results, 45 isolates were selected and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA was performed for them. Among selected strains, 40 isolates belonged to Halobacteriacaea and were related to Haloarcula, Halorubrum, Haloferax, Halobellus, Halogeometricum, Halobacterium, Halolamina, Halorhabdus and Halostagnicola (respectively 30, 27.5, 17.5, 10, 5.2, 2.6, 2.6, 2.6 and 2.6 percent of Haloarchaeal strains. A total of 5 strains belonged to the kingdom of Bacteria and were related to Rhodovibrio, Pseudomonas and Salicola (respectively 40, 40 and 20 percent of bacterial strains. According to our results and the limited numbers of haloarchaeal genera that having been discovered until now, it seemed that the culturable prokaryotic populations in this hypersaline environment was diverse.

  20. Analysis of improved and original designs of a 16 inch long penultimate stage turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnero, A.; Kubiak, J.A.; Mendez, R.

    1994-01-01

    A finite element analysis of 16 inch long penultimate stage (L-1) blade was carried out to evaluate the improved and the original designs. The original design of the blade involved the ''blade-tenon-shroud'' system to make blade groups (6 blades per group). The improved design applied the concept of Integral Shroud Blade (ISB). Thus all the blades made a 360 degree group. The paper presents an application of the finite element analysis method to compute the natural frequencies, steady-state and alternating stresses, deformation due to forces acting on the blades and modal shapes of the blade group. In the case of the improved design it was also necessary to carry out computation of the dynamic response of a 360 degree blade-disk arc. This was to include the effect of the flexible disk fastening where blade and disk interaction were important to identify certain resonant conditions. It was concluded from the finite element results, that the steady-state stresses in the improved blade were lower, and the tangential mode shapes were eliminated. This was a great advantage since in the original design the first tangential mode shape and the higher steady-state stresses in the tenon contributed to the frequent failure of the ''blade-tenon-shroud'' system

  1. Pipe rupture test results: 4-inch pipe whip tests under PWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of 4-inch pipe whip tests (RUN No. 5506, 5507, 5508 and 5604) under the PWR LOCA conditions. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and restraints were studied in the tests. In the tests, the gap between the test pipe and the restraints was kept at the constant value of 8.85 mm and the overhang length was varied from 250 mm to 650 mm. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and the restraint were made clear by the outputs of strain gages and the measurements of residual deformations. The data of water hammer in subcooled water were also obtained by the pressure transducers mounted on the test pipe. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are as follows. (1) The whipping of pipe can be prevented more effectively as the overhang length becomes shorter. (2) The load acting on the restraint-support structure becomes larger as the overhang length becomes shorter. (3) The restraint farther from the break location does not limit the pipe movement except for the first impact when the overhang length is long. (4) The ultimate moment M sub(u) of the pipe at the restraint location can be used to predict the plastic collapse of the whipping pipe. (5) The restraints slide along the pipe axis and are subjected to bending moment, when the overhang length is long. (author)

  2. Summary of LaRC 2-inch Erectable Joint Hardware Heritage Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    As the National Space Transportation System (STS, also known as the Space Shuttle) went into service during the early 1980's, NASA envisioned many missions of exploration and discovery that could take advantage of the STS capabilities. These missions included: large orbiting space stations, large space science telescopes and large spacecraft for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. The missions required structures that were significantly larger than the payload volume available on the STS. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) conducted studies to design and develop the technology needed to assemble the large space structures in orbit. LaRC focused on technology for erectable truss structures, in particular, the joint that connects the truss struts at the truss nodes. When the NASA research in large erectable space structures ended in the early 1990's, a significant amount of structural testing had been performed on the LaRC 2-inch erectable joint that was never published. An extensive set of historical information and data has been reviewed and the joint structural testing results from this historical data are compiled and summarized in this report.

  3. Sugar maple height-diameter and age-diameter relationships in an uneven-aged northern hardwood stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; R.D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) height-diameter and age-diameter relationships are explored in a balanced uneven-aged northern hardwood stand in central New York. Results show that although both height and age vary considerably with diameter, these relationships can be described by statistically valid equations. The age-diameter relationship...

  4. Buckling Test Results and Preliminary Test and Analysis Correlation from the 8-Foot-Diameter Orthogrid-Stiffened Cylinder Test Article TA02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Thornburgh, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    Results from the testing of cylinder test article SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 (referred to herein as TA02) are presented. TA02 is an 8-foot-diameter (96-inches), 78.0-inch-long, aluminum-lithium (Al-Li), orthogrid-stiffened cylindrical shell similar to those used in current state-of-the-art launch-vehicle structures and was designed to exhibit global buckling when subjected to combined compression and bending loads. The testing was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), February 3-6, 2009, in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project (SBKF). The test was used to verify the performance of a newly constructed buckling test facility at MSFC and to verify the test article design and analysis approach used by the SBKF researchers.

  5. Aero-acoustic design and test of a multiple splitter exhaust noise suppressor for a 0.914m diameter lift fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    A lift fan exhaust suppression system to meet future VTOL aircraft noise goals was designed and tested. The test vehicle was a 1.3 pressure ratio, 36 inch (91.44 cm) diameter lift fan with two chord rotor to stator spacing. A two splitter fan exhaust suppression system thirty inches (76.2 cm) long achieved 10 PNdB exhaust suppression in the aft quadrant compared to a design value of 20 PNdB. It was found that a broadband noise floor limited the realizable suppression. An analytical investigation of broadband noise generated by flow over the treatment surfaces provided very good agreement with the measured suppression levels and noise floor sound power levels. A fan thrust decrement of 22% was measured for the fully suppressed configuration of which 11.1% was attributed to the exhaust suppression hardware.

  6. Waste system optimization - can diameter selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashline, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the waste system optimization study is to define in terms of cost incentives the preferred waste package for HLW which has been converted to glass at a commercial reprocessing plant. The Waste Management Economic Model (WMEM) was employed to analyze the effect of varying important design parameters on the overall net present cost of waste handling. The parameters found to have the greatest effect on the calculated overall net present cost were can diameter, repository type (salt, basalt/bentonite, or welded tuff), allowable areal heat loading, and the repository availability date. The overall net present of a waste handling option is calculated over a 20-year operating period. It includes the total capital and operating costs associated with high-level and intermediate-level liquid waste storage, liquid waste solidification, hulls storage and compaction, and general process trash handling. It also includes the cask leasing and transportation costs associated with each waste type and the waste repository disposal costs. The waste repository disposal costs used in WMEM for this analysis were obtained from Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories and thir RECON model. 2 figures, 2 tables

  7. Study of flow induce vibration inside 3.5 inch hard disk drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichitpon Seepangmon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on flow induced vibration of head stack assembly (HSA in a 3.5 inch hard disk drive with 5 disks and 10 read/write heads. We studied the effects of air flow on gimbal flex and resonance on arm. The comparison of vibrations on slider between the normal model and the experiment has been done for verifying the model. The peaks of frequency in experiment match the normal model at 1,040 1,320 and 1,400 Hz respectively. After that, the RNG K-ε turbulence model was used to determine the turbulent air flow of 7,200 rpm hard disk drive. The comparison between the normal model and the model with spoiler was investigated by using, computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS and FLUENT. The results shown velocity magnitudes at the arm were decreased by 0.725 - 57.689 % and pressure dropped by 74.028 - 87.222 %. The velocity magnitudes at the gimbal flex were decreased by 5.522 - 14.291 % and pressure dropped by 48.440 - 82.947 %. The peak of vibrations on arm and gimbal flex was occurred at the frequency 1200 Hz. The model with spoiler could reduce vibration at arm by 2.56 - 95.601 % and reduce vibration at gimbal flex by 4.065 - 95.503 %. In the conclusion, the model with a spoiler could decrease the vibration at all surface of the arm and gimbal flex due to the velocity and pressure reduction[1][4].

  8. Neutron flux density and secondary-particle energy spectra at the 184-inch synchrocyclotron medical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.R.; Schimmerling, W.; Henson, A.M.; Kanstein, L.L.; McCaslin, J.B.; Stephens, L.D.; Thomas, R.H.; Ozawa, J.; Yeater, F.W.

    1978-07-01

    Helium ions, with an energy of 920 MeV, produced by the 184-inch synchrocyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are now being used in a pilot series to determine their efficacy in the treatment of tumors of large volume. The techniques for production of the large uniform radiation fields required for these treatments involve the use of beam-limiting collimators and energy degraders. Interaction of the primary beam with these beam components produces secondary charged particles and neutrons. The sources of neutron production in the beam transport system of the alpha-particle beam have been identified and their magnitudes have been determined. Measurements with activation detectors and pulse counters of differing energy responses have been used to determine secondary particle spectra at various locations on the patient table. These spectra are compared to a calculation of neutron production based on best estimates derived from published cross sections. Agreement between the calculated spectra and those derived from experimental measurements is obtained (at the 10 to 20% level) when the presence of charged particles is taken into account. The adsorbed dose in soft tissue is not very sensitive to the shape of the incident neutron energy spectrum, and the values obtained from unfolding the experimental measurements agree with the values obtained from the calculated spectra within the estimated uncertainty of +-25%. These values are about 3 x 10 -3 rad on the beam axis and about 1 x 10 -3 rad at 20 cm or more from the beam axis, per rad deposited by the incident alpha-particle beam. Estimates of upper limit dose to the lens of the eye and red bone marrow are approximately 10 rad and approximately 1 rad, respectively, for a typical treatment plan. The absorbed dose to the lens of the eye is thus well below the threshold value for cataractogenesis estimated for fission neutrons. An upper limit for the risk of leukemia is estimated to be approximately 0.04%

  9. Flooding experiments with steam and water in a large diameter vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.N.; Solom, M.; Draznin, O.; Choutapalli, I.; Vierow, K.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study on flooding in a large diameter tube is being conducted. In a countercurrent, two-phase flow system, flooding can be defined as the onset of flow reversal of the liquid component which results in cocurrent flow. Flooding can be perceived as a limit to two-phase countercurrent flow, meaning that pairs of liquid and gas flow rates exist that define the envelope for stable countercurrent flow for a given system. Flooding in the AP600 pressurizer surge line can affect the vessel refill rate following a small break LOCA. Analysis of hypothetical severe accidents with current simplified flooding models show that these models represent the largest uncertainty in steam generator tube creep rupture. During a hypothetical station blackout scenario without auxiliary feedwater recovery, should the hot leg become voided, the pressurizer liquid will drain to the hot leg and flooding may occur in the surge line. Experiments have been conducted in a 3-inch (76.2 mm) diameter tube with subcooled water and superheated steam as the working fluids at atmospheric pressure. Water flows down the inside of the tube as an annulus while the steam flows upward in the middle. Water flow rates vary from 3.5 to 12 GPM (0.00022 to 0.00076 m 3 /s) and the water inlet temperature is about 70degC. The steam inlet temperature is about 110degC. It was found that a larger steam flow rate was needed to achieve flooding for a lower water flow rate and for a higher water flow rate. This unique data for flooding in steam-water systems in large diameter tubes will reduce uncertainty in flooding models currently utilized in reactor safety codes. (author)

  10. Demineralized water flow cancelling experiments with ice plug into high diameter horizontal tube (300 nominal diameter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.; Valeca, S.; Corbescu, B.; Puiu, D.; Panaitescu, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    The isolation with ice plug of a high diameter horizontal pipeline section is a specific technique for repairs activities/ replacements of components owning to thermo-hydraulic installations working with liquid agents. The application of such technique don.t assumes stopping of the entire system. The ice plugging inside of the pipeline assumes using of a special device and of an own specific technology for application. The paper contains a brief description of the experimental technological facilities used, followed by setting off the main moments in evolution of two experimental tests carried out on the test section with 300 mm nominal diameter for demineralized water and, finally, by a brief results analysis and some conclusions. The paper is dedicated to the specialists working in the research and technological engineering. (authors)

  11. Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in miombo woodlands of Tanzania. ... Individual tree diameter growth and mortality models, and area-based recruitment models were developed. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Instability of Reference Diameter in the Evaluation of Stenosis After Coronary Angioplasty: Percent Diameter Stenosis Overestimates Dilative Effects Due to Reference Diameter Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirami, Ryouichi; Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Matano, Shigeru; Murakami, Masaaki; Kita, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Noburu; Tsuji, Takao

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty.Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis.Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%).Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis

  13. Abnormal splenic artery diameter/hepatic artery diameter ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dao-Bing; Dai, Chuan-Zhou; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Ning; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine an optimal cutoff value for abnormal splenic artery diameter/proper hepatic artery diameter (S/P) ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (n = 770) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) underwent volumetric computed tomography three-dimensional vascular reconstruction to measure the internal diameters of the splenic artery and proper hepatic artery to calculate the S/P ratio. The cutoff value for abnormal S/P ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the prevalence of abnormal S/P ratio and associations between abnormal S/P ratio and major complications of portal hypertension were studied using logistic regression. RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cutoff points for abnormal splenic artery internal diameter and S/P ratio were > 5.19 mm and > 1.40, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 74.2%, 45.2%, 97.1%, and 6.6%, respectively. The prevalence of an abnormal S/P ratio in the patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension was 83.4%. Patients with a higher S/P ratio had a lower risk of developing ascites [odds ratio (OR) = 0.708, 95%CI: 0.508-0.986, P = 0.041] and a higher risk of developing esophageal and gastric varices (OR = 1.483, 95%CI: 1.010-2.175, P = 0.044) and forming collateral circulation (OR = 1.518, 95%CI: 1.033-2.230, P = 0.034). After splenectomy, the portal venous pressure and maximum and mean portal venous flow velocities were reduced, while the flow rate and maximum and minimum flow velocities of the hepatic artery were increased (P portal hypertension, and it can be used as an important marker of splanchnic hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:23483462

  14. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    optimize the design of the robot elements and surface control electronics and software. Task 6 (Design & Build Surface Control and Monitoring System) has been completed with the control and computer display functions being operated through LabView. Task 7 (Design & Fabricate Large Diameter Live Access System) progressed to the design, fabrication and testing of a entry fitting in a 4-inch prototype and is now being used to complete drawings for use in 12-inch diameter pipe. Task 8--System Integration and Laboratory Validation continued developing the robot module inter-connects and development of a master LabView-based system display and control software.

  15. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    ) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to optimize the design of the robot elements and surface control electronics and software. Task 6 (Design & Build Surface Control and Monitoring System) has been completed with the control and computer display functions being operated through LabView. Task 7 (Design & Fabricate Large Diameter Live Access System) progressed to completing the detailed design of the entry fitting for 12-inch diameter cast iron pipe. The fitting is now being manufactured. The 12-inch ball valve for allowing no-blow access was also procured. Task 8 (System Integration and Laboratory Validation) continued with the development of the robot module inter-connects and of a master LabView-based system display and control software.

  16. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties were considered.

  17. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  18. 60-inch annular pitch polisher for LASL's LASER-fusion effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.

    1978-01-01

    The Antares laser will require that about 100 high-precision NaCl windows of 18-in. diameter be produced, maintained, and repaired. To aid the industry in achieving the required production rates, a polishing development program was undertaken by LASL's Laser Division in collaboration with the Air Force and International Laser Systems. The design and initial shakedown of the polishing machine is described. Preliminary results indicate the machine's design is sound, its operation is generally simple, and it should be capable of finishing 18-in. NaCl to better than lambda/2 visible and 20-10 surface. Shakedown work with glass has demonstrated 0-0 surface, complete absence of edge roll, and lambda/16 over 12 in., and lambda/6 over 19 in

  19. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Methods and Results Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, ca...

  20. Database and prediction model for CANDU pressure tube diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J.Y.; Park, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The pressure tube (PT) diameter is basic data in evaluating the CCP (critical channel power) of a CANDU reactor. Since the CCP affects the operational margin directly, an accurate prediction of the PT diameter is important to assess the operational margin. However, the PT diameter increases by creep owing to the effects of irradiation by neutron flux, stress, and reactor operating temperatures during the plant service period. Thus, it has been necessary to collect the measured data of the PT diameter and establish a database (DB) and develop a prediction model of PT diameter. Accordingly, in this study, a DB for the measured PT diameter data was established and a neural network (NN) based diameter prediction model was developed. The established DB included not only the measured diameter data but also operating conditions such as the temperature, pressure, flux, and effective full power date. The currently developed NN based diameter prediction model considers only extrinsic variables such as the operating conditions, and will be enhanced to consider the effect of intrinsic variables such as the micro-structure of the PT material. (author)

  1. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuewei; Yuan Zhihao

    2010-01-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  2. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Wei; Yuan, Zhi Hao

    2010-05-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  3. 2 inch diameter single crystal growth and scintillation properties of Ce:Gd.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.Ga.sub.3./sub.O.sub.12./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamada, K.; Yanagida, T.; Endo, T.; Tsutumi, K.; Usuki, Y.; Nikl, Martin; Fujimoto, Y.; Fukabori, A.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 352, č. 1 (2012), s. 88-90 ISSN 0022-0248 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100100910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Czochralski method * oxides * scintillator materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.552, year: 2012

  4. China's modern day Great Wall : the 40 inch West to East Gas Pipeline Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to fuel China's economic growth, PetroChina began construction of the West to East Natural Gas Pipeline Project (WEPP) in 2001 to transport large quantities of natural gas reserves from the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China to markets in eastern China. The WEPP is the first large diameter, cross-country pipeline project ever constructed in China, and was the first to use automatic welding and automatic ultrasonic inspection on pipelines in China. This paper addressed the management, engineering, procurement and construction challenges of the WEPP. Upon completion of the 3,800 km, 1.016 mm mainline pipeline, construction will begin on other major facilities, such 294 km of lateral line, dual fiber optic conduits with the mainline, 1,100 km of access roads, 23 metering stations, 18 pigging stations, 10 compressor stations, 16 mountain tunnels, 16 aerial crossings, 1 crossing of the Yangtze River, 3 crossings of the Yellow River, a gas control center, and SCADA system. Houston-based Universal Ensco Inc. was awarded a contract to perform a feasibility study as well as a construction supervision contract by PetroChina for the WEPP. Universal also designed a gas turbine drive compressor station at Lunnan and an electric drive compressor station at Zhengzhou. This paper demonstrated that business in China for foreign companies in the pipeline industry is evolving and several changes can be expected as the state planned economy is reformed to a free market economy. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs.

  5. Isotachophoresis system having larger-diameter channels flowing into channels with reduced diameter and with selectable counter-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2018-03-06

    An isotachophoresis system for separating a sample containing particles into discrete packets including a flow channel, the flow channel having a large diameter section and a small diameter section; a negative electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a positive electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a leading carrier fluid in the flow channel; a trailing carrier fluid in the flow channel; and a control for separating the particles in the sample into discrete packets using the leading carrier fluid, the trailing carrier fluid, the large diameter section, and the small diameter section.

  6. Two members of the CERN HPD team present their babies. André Braem (left) holds in his hands a 5-inch glass HPD, while a ceramic HPD for medical applications is shown by Christian Joram. The large detector in the middle is a 10-inch HPD developed for an astrophysics experiment.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Two members of the CERN HPD team present their babies. André Braem (left) holds in his hands a 5-inch glass HPD, while a ceramic HPD for medical applications is shown by Christian Joram. The large detector in the middle is a 10-inch HPD developed for an astrophysics experiment.

  7. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  8. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  9. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  10. Heritability of optic disc diameters: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    , additive genetic factors (i.e. heritability) explained 77% (95% CI: 65-85%) of variation of vertical disc diameters, whereas estimated unshared environmental effect was 23% (95% CI: 15-35%). For vertical cup diameters, heritability accounted for 70% (95% CI: 55-80%) and environmental factors 30% (95% CI...

  11. Diameter of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in healthy Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Wakako

    1989-01-01

    In 300 cases, diameter of thoracic and abdominal aorta in healthy Japanese is measured by computed tomography (CT) and the values are analyzed in relation to the age, sex and the level of the aorta on CT scan. Aorta becomes dilated with age. In female diameter of the aorta is correlated with age, on the other hand, diameter of those is not correlated with age in male. Diameter in male is larger than in female. Aorta tapers off and the ratio of tapering of the thoracic aorta is more prominent than that of the abdominal aorta. Therefore the calculations of the landmarks of tapering of the aorta and the ratio of diameter of the aorta to transverse diameter of the vertebral body at the levels of 10th thoracic and 3rd lumber vertebrae on CT scan are useful for judgement of normal range of diameter of the aorta. Calcifications of the wall of the aorta are seen initially at the age of 5th decade in the abdominal aorta and 6th decade in the thoracic aorta in healthy Japanese. They are noted in almost of the persons after the age of seventy years old. The presence of calcification is not correlated with diameter of the aorta at the same level on CT scan. (author)

  12. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... and stand density) into the base height-diameter models increased the accuracy of prediction for P. tremula. .... parameter estimates compared with those obtained with ... using coefficient of determination for non-linear regression (. 2. R ), ..... stochastic height-diameter model for maritime pine ecoregions in.

  13. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  14. Lysosome Transport as a Function of Lysosome Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Cyphersmith, Austin; Zapata, Jairo A.; Kim, Y. Joseph; Payne, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles responsible for the transport and degradation of intracellular and extracellular cargo. The intracellular motion of lysosomes is both diffusive and active, mediated by motor proteins moving lysosomes along microtubules. We sought to determine how lysosome diameter influences lysosome transport. We used osmotic swelling to double the diameter of lysosomes, creating a population of enlarged lysosomes. This allowed us to directly examine the intracellular transport of the same organelle as a function of diameter. Lysosome transport was measured using live cell fluorescence microscopy and single particle tracking. We find, as expected, the diffusive component of intracellular transport is decreased proportional to the increased lysosome diameter. Active transport of the enlarged lysosomes is not affected by the increased lysosome diameter. PMID:24497985

  15. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve

  16. Performance differences when using 26- and 29-inch-wheel bikes in Swiss National Team cross-country mountain bikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Thomas; Müller, Beat; Maier, Thomas; Wehrlin, Jon Peter

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of bike type - the 26-inch-wheel bike (26" bike) and the 29-inch-wheel bike (29" bike) - on performance in elite mountain bikers. Ten Swiss National Team athletes (seven males, three females) completed six trials with individual start on a simulated cross-country course with 35 min of active recovery between trials (three trials on a 26" bike and three trials on a 29" bike, alternate order, randomised start-bike). The course consisted of two separate sections expected to favour either the 29" bike (section A) or the 26" bike (section B). For each trial performance, power output, cadence and heart rate were recorded and athletes' experiences were documented. Mean overall performance (time: 304 ± 27 s vs. 311 ± 29 s; P < 0.01) and performance in sections A (P < 0.001) and B (P < 0.05) were better when using the 29" bike. No significant differences were observed for power output, cadence or heart rate. Athletes rated the 29" bike as better for performance in general, passing obstacles and traction. The 29" bike supports superior performance for elite mountain bikers, even on sections supposed to favour the 26" bike.

  17. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-04-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve.

  18. High quality single atomic layer deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on single crystalline Rh(111) four-inch wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmi, A.; Bernard, C.; Cun, H.; Roth, S.; Klöckner, M.; Kälin, T.; Osterwalder, J.; Greber, T., E-mail: greber@physik.uzh.ch [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Weinl, M.; Gsell, S.; Schreck, M. [Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    The setup of an apparatus for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and its characterization on four-inch wafers in ultra high vacuum (UHV) environment is reported. It provides well-controlled preparation conditions, such as oxygen and argon plasma assisted cleaning and high temperature annealing. In situ characterization of a wafer is accomplished with target current spectroscopy. A piezo motor driven x-y stage allows measurements with a step size of 1 nm on the complete wafer. To benchmark the system performance, we investigated the growth of single layer h-BN on epitaxial Rh(111) thin films. A thorough analysis of the wafer was performed after cutting in atmosphere by low energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The apparatus is located in a clean room environment and delivers high quality single layers of h-BN and thus grants access to large area UHV processed surfaces, which had been hitherto restricted to expensive, small area single crystal substrates. The facility is versatile enough for customization to other UHV-CVD processes, e.g., graphene on four-inch wafers.

  19. Effects of Diameter on Initial Stiffness of P-Y Curves for Large-Diameter Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    2010-01-01

    is developed for slender piles with diameters up to approximately 2.0 m. Hence, the method is not validated for piles with diameters of 4–6 m. The aim of the paper is to extend the p-y curve method to large-diameter non-slender piles in sand by considering the effects of the pile diameter on the soil-pile...... interaction. Hence, a modified expression for the p-y curves for statically loaded piles in sand is proposed in which the initial slope of the p-y curves depends on the depth below the soil surface, the pile diameter and the internal angle of friction. The evaluation is based on three-dimensional numerical...... analyses by means of the commercial program FLAC3D incorporating a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The numerical model is validated with laboratory tests in a pressure tank at Aalborg University....

  20. Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W

    2014-10-28

    Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (ΔGET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ΔG(ET) and that other factors must be considered.

  1. The Relationship amongst Intervertebral Disc Vertical Diameter, Lateral Foramen Diameter and Nerve Root Impingement in Lumbar Vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof MI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vertical diameter of the foramen is dependent upon the vertical diameter of the corresponding intervertebral disc. A decrease in disc vertical diameter has direct anatomic consequences to the foraminal diameter and area available for the nerve root passing through it. This study is to establish the relationship amongst the intervertebral disc vertical diameter, lateral foramen diameters and nerve root compression in the lumbar vertebra. Materials and Methods: Measurements of the study parameters were performed using sagittal MRI images. The parameters studied were: intervertebral disc vertical diameter (DVD, foraminal vertical diameter (FVD, foraminal transverse diameter (FTD and nerve root diameter (NRD of both sides. The relationship between the measured parameters were then analyzed. Results: A total of 62 MRI images were available for this study. Statistical analysis showed moderate to strong correlation between DVD and FVD at all the lumbar levels except at left L23 and L5S1 and right L3L4 and L4L5. Correlation between DVD and FTD were not significant at all lumbar levels. Regression analysis showed that a decrease of 1mm of DVD was associated with 1.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.3 and 1.3mm reduction of FVD at L1L2, L2L3, L3L4, L4L5 and L5S1 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of DVD was associated with reduction of FVD. However, FVD was relatively wide for the nerve root even with complete loss of DVD. FTD was much narrower than the FVD making it more likely to cause nerve root compression at the exit foramina. These anatomical details should be given consideration in treating patients with lateral canal stenosis.

  2. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-08-06

    Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, called the brain arterial remodeling (BAR) score, was obtained by averaging the measured diameters within each individual. Individuals with a BAR score -2 and 2 SDs had the largest diameters. All vascular events were recorded prospectively after the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Spline curves and incidence rates were used to test our hypothesis. The association of the BAR score with death (P=0.001), vascular death (P=0.02), any vascular event (P=0.05), and myocardial infarction (P=0.10) was U-shaped except for ischemic stroke (P=0.74). Consequently, incidence rates for death, vascular death, myocardial infarction, and any vascular event were higher in individuals with the largest diameters, whereas individuals with the smallest diameters had a higher incidence of death, vascular death, any vascular event, and ischemic stroke compared with individuals with average diameters. The risk of death, vascular death, and any vascular event increased at both extremes of brain arterial diameters. The pathophysiology linking brain arterial remodeling to systemic vascular events needs further research. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Inferring diameters of spheres and cylinders using interstitial water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Mercredi, Morgan E; Buist, Richard; Martin, Melanie

    2018-06-04

    Most early methods to infer axon diameter distributions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used single diffusion encoding sequences such as pulsed gradient spin echo (SE) and are thus sensitive to axons of diameters > 5 μm. We previously simulated oscillating gradient (OG) SE sequences for diffusion spectroscopy to study smaller axons including the majority constituting cortical connections. That study suggested the model of constant extra-axonal diffusion breaks down at OG accessible frequencies. In this study we present data from phantoms to test a time-varying interstitial apparent diffusion coefficient. Diffusion spectra were measured in four samples from water packed around beads of diameters 3, 6 and 10 μm; and 151 μm diameter tubes. Surface-to-volume ratios, and diameters were inferred. The bead pore radii estimates were 0.60±0.08 μm, 0.54±0.06 μm and 1.0±0.1 μm corresponding to bead diameters ranging from 2.9±0.4 μm to 5.3±0.7 μm, 2.6±0.3 μm to 4.8±0.6 μm, and 4.9±0.7 μm to 9±1 μm. The tube surface-to-volume ratio estimate was 0.06±0.02 μm -1 corresponding to a tube diameter of 180±70 μm. Interstitial models with OG inferred 3-10 μm bead diameters from 0.54±0.06 μm to 1.0±0.1 μm pore radii and 151 μm tube diameters from 0.06±0.02 μm -1 surface-to-volume ratios.

  4. Diameter dependent failure current density of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S; Maaz, K; Ali, G; Ensinger, W

    2009-01-01

    Failure current density of single gold nanowires is investigated in this paper. Single wires with diameters ranging from 80 to 720 nm and length 30 μm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density was investigated while keeping the wires embedded in the polymer matrix and ramping up the current until failure occurred. The current density is found to increase with diminishing diameter and the wires with a diameter of 80 nm withstand 1.2 x 10 12 A m -2 before undergoing failure. Possible reasons for these results are discussed in this paper.

  5. Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B

    1995-01-01

    In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... exertion was approximately 15 units after both types of exercise. The dorsalis pedis arterial diameter was 1.50 +/- 0.20 mm (mean and SE) and the radial AD 2.45 +/- 0.12 mm. During both types of contractions the luminal diameters decreased approximately 3.5% within the first 30 s (P

  6. Laser direct writing using submicron-diameter fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Yang, Guoguang; Bai, Jian; Xu, Jianfeng; Hou, Changlun; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.

  7. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast-iron test pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported last quarter.) These tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter

  8. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-11-01

    & Fabricate Large Diameter Live Access System) progressed to completing the detailed design of the entry fitting for 12-inch diameter cast iron pipe in the previous quarter. Field tests with the 4-inch size fitting were completely successful and did not reveal any significant design issues. The primary suggestion from the PSE&G field crew was to produce a version which completely bolts together and does not require a long seam weld. This could be used in low-pressure cast iron mains to reduce installation time. A bolt-on version is now being designed based on this recommendation. Task 8 (System Integration and Laboratory Validation) continued with the development of the robot module inter-connects and of a master LabView-based system display and control software.

  9. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-09-09

    /10.4314/sokjvs.v13i3.4. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West. African dwarf does experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. OO Leigh. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, ...

  10. Porosity Assessment for Different Diameters of Coir Lignocellulosic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Fernanda Santos; Paciornik, Sidnei; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; Tommasini, Flávio James; Candido, Verônica Scarpini

    2017-10-01

    The application of natural lignocellulosic fibers (LCFs) in engineering composites has increased interest in their properties and structural characteristics. In particular, the inherent porosity of an LCF markedly affects its density and the adhesion to polymer matrices. For the first time, both open and closed porosities of a natural LCF, for different diameter ranges, were assessed. Fibers extracted from the mesocarp of the coconut fruit were investigated by nondestructive methods of density measurements and x-ray microtomography (microCT). It was found that, for all diameter ranges, the closed porosity is significantly higher than the open porosity. The total porosity increases with diameter to around 60% for coir fibers with more than 503 μm in diameter. The amount and characteristics of these open and closed porosities were revealed by t test and Weibull statistics as well as by microCT.

  11. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...

  12. Diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Rong; Einarsson, Erik; Murakami, Yoichi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Chiashi, Shohei; Tang, Zikang; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate wide-range diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using a wet chemistry prepared catalyst. In order to ensure compatibility to electronic applications, the current minimum mean diameter of 2 nm for vertically aligned SWNTs is challenged. The mean diameter is decreased to about 1.4 nm by reducing Co catalyst concentrations to 1/100 or by increasing Mo catalyst concentrations by five times. We also propose a novel spectral analysis method that allows one to distinguish absorbance contributions from the upper, middle, and lower parts of a nanotube array. We use this method to quantitatively characterize the slight diameter change observed along the array height. On the basis of further investigation of the array and catalyst particles, we conclude that catalyst aggregation-rather than Ostwald ripening-dominates the growth of metal particles.

  13. Deriving muscle fiber diameter from recorded single fiber potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle. The results confirm the utility of proposed simulation method. Outlying data could be considered as the result of a contribution of other fibers to the potential recorded using an SFEMG electrode. Our graphic tool provides a rapid estimation of muscle fiber diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Axon diameter mapping in crossing fibers with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hui; Dyrby, Tim B; Alexander, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique for a previously unaddressed problem, namely, mapping axon diameter in crossing fiber regions, using diffusion MRI. Direct measurement of tissue microstructure of this kind using diffusion MRI offers a new class of biomarkers that give more specific information about...... tissue than measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging. Most existing techniques for axon diameter mapping assume a single axon orientation in the tissue model, which limits their application to only the most coherently oriented brain white matter, such as the corpus callosum, where the single...... model to enable axon diameter mapping in voxels with crossing fibers. We show in simulation that the technique can provide robust axon diameter estimates in a two-fiber crossing with the crossing angle as small as 45 degrees. Using ex vivo imaging data, we further demonstrate the feasibility...

  15. Characterization of the first double-sided 3D radiation sensors fabricated at FBK on 6-inch silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, D.M.S.; Mendicino, R.; Betta, G.-F. Dalla; Boscardin, M.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Following 3D pixel sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer, Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) fabrication facility has recently been upgraded to process 6-inch wafers. In 2014, a test batch was fabricated to check for possible issues relevant to this upgrade. While maintaining a double-sided fabrication technology, some process modifications have been investigated. We report here on the technology and the design of this batch, and present selected results from the electrical characterization of sensors and test structures. Notably, the breakdown voltage is shown to exceed 200 V before irradiation, much higher than in earlier productions, demonstrating robustness in terms of radiation hardness for forthcoming productions aimed at High Luminosity LHC upgrades

  16. The Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility - A new mission for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In FY04, the 88-Inch Cyclotron began a new operating mode that supports a local research program in nuclear science, R and D in accelerator technology and a test facility for the National Security Space (NSS) community (the US Air Force and NRO). The NSS community (and others on a cost recovery basis) can take advantage of both the light- and heavy-ion capabilities of the cyclotron to simulate the space radiation environment. A significant portion of this work involves the testing of microcircuits for single event effects. The experimental areas within the building that are used for the radiation effects testing are now called the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility. Improvements to the facility to provide increased reliability, quality assurance and new capabilities are underway and will be discussed. These include a 16 A MeV 'cocktail' of beams for heavy ion testing, a neutron beam, more robust dosimetry, and other upgrades

  17. Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI REN ZHONG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a Ni–Cu–Al catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 20–60 nm, while their outer diameter is about 40–80 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the Ni–Cu–Al catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.

  18. The development of 8 inch roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography (8-R2P-NIL) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lai Seng; Mohamed, Khairudin; Ooi, Su Guan

    2017-07-01

    Growth in semiconductor and integrated circuit industry was observed in the past decennium of years for industrial technology which followed Moore's law. The line width of nanostructure to be exposed was influenced by the essential technology of photolithography. Thus, it is crucial to have a low cost and high throughput manufacturing process for nanostructures. Nanoimprint Lithography technique invented by Stephen Y. Chou was considered as major nanolithography process to be used in future integrated circuit and integrated optics. The drawbacks of high imprint pressure, high imprint temperature, air bubbles formation, resist sticking to mold and low throughput of thermal nanoimprint lithography on silicon wafer have yet to be solved. Thus, the objectives of this work is to develop a high throughput, low imprint force, room temperature UV assisted 8 inch roll to plate nanoimprint lithography system capable of imprinting nanostructures on 200 mm silicon wafer using roller imprint with flexible mold. A piece of resist spin coated silicon wafer was placed onto vacuum chuck drives forward by a stepper motor. A quartz roller wrapped with a piece of transparent flexible mold was used as imprint roller. The imprinted nanostructures were cured by 10 W, 365 nm UV LED which situated inside the quartz roller. Heat generated by UV LED was dissipated by micro heat pipe. The flexible mold detaches from imprinted nanostructures in a 'line peeling' pattern and imprint pressure was measured by ultra-thin force sensors. This system has imprinting speed capability ranging from 0.19 mm/s to 5.65 mm/s, equivalent to imprinting capability of 3 to 20 pieces of 8 inch wafers per hour. Speed synchronization between imprint roller and vacuum chuck was achieved by controlling pulse rate supplied to stepper motor which drive the vacuum chuck. The speed different ranging from 2 nm/s to 98 nm/s is achievable. Vacuum chuck height was controlled by stepper motor with displacement of 5 nm/step.

  19. Public issues associated with planning a large diameter pipeline in a multi-use urban corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M. [SENES Consultants Ltd., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The demand for natural gas in a downtown area of Toronto is expected to increase significantly due to the proposed construction of two new generation stations. However, there are few opportunities to locate the pipelines in large urban centers because of the lack of foresight by municipalities and others in preserving corridors for utilities. Enbridge Gas conducted a system planning study to determine the best methods for overcoming public issues that were encountered while planning the route for a NPS 36 inch diameter natural gas pipeline in this urban region. In Ontario, distribution pipelines are regulated by the Ontario Energy Board, whose environmental guidelines for the location, construction and operation of hydrocarbon pipelines require the identification of indirectly affected landowners and detailed analysis of public issues and how they can be resolved. Issues include noise, vibration, dust and traffic. Secondary use of the electric transmission rights-of-way resulted in the identification of several other issues, including aesthetics of the right-of-way and loss of privacy for adjacent residential properties. It was determined that the optimal solution was to parallel a section of existing NPS 30 pipeline running in a north-south right-of-way located east of the Don Valley Parkway. The techniques used to address public issues identified 180 directly affected and 3,200 indirectly affected landowners. The Enbridge study revealed that it is possible to plan a right-of-way through an urban corridor in a manner that is compatible with existing development and that satisfies the general public. 6 figs.

  20. A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazier-Wood Alexis C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS. In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL particle diameters with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, although this has been the focus of less research. We aimed to explore the relationship of VLDL, LDL and HDL diameters to MetS and its features, and by clustering individuals by their diameters of VLDL, LDL and HDL particles, to capture information across all three fractions of lipoprotein into a unified phenotype. Methods We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements on fasting plasma samples from a general population sample of 1,036 adults (mean ± SD, 48.8 ± 16.2 y of age. Using latent class analysis, the sample was grouped by the diameter of their fasting lipoproteins, and mixed effects models tested whether the distribution of MetS components varied across the groups. Results Eight discrete groups were identified. Two groups (N = 251 were enriched with individuals meeting criteria for the MetS, and were characterized by the smallest LDL/HDL diameters. One of those two groups, one was additionally distinguished by large VLDL, and had significantly higher blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and waist circumference (WC; P Conclusions While small LDL diameters remain associated with IR and the MetS, the occurrence of these in conjunction with a shift to overall larger VLDL diameter may identify those with the highest fasting glucose, TG and WC within the MetS. If replicated, the association of this phenotype with more severe IR-features indicated that it may contribute to identifying of those most at risk for incident type II diabetes and cardiometabolic disease.

  1. Failure Diameter of PBX 9502: Simulations with the SURFplus model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-03

    SURFplus is a reactive burn model for high explosives aimed at modelling shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. It utilizes the SURF model for the fast hot-spot reaction plus a slow reaction for the energy released by carbon clustering. A feature of the SURF model is that there is a partially decoupling between burn rate parameters and detonation wave properties. Previously, parameters for PBX 9502 that control shock ini- tiation had been calibrated to Pop plot data (distance-of-run to detonation as a function of shock pressure initiating the detonation). Here burn rate parameters for the high pres- sure regime are adjusted to t the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed just above the failure diameter. Simulated results are shown for an uncon ned rate stick when the 9502 diameter is slightly above and slightly below the failure diameter. Just above the failure diameter, in the rest frame of the detonation wave, the front is sonic at the PBX/air interface. As a consequence, the lead shock in the neighborhood of the interface is supported by the detonation pressure in the interior of the explosive rather than the reaction immediately behind the front. In the interior, the sonic point occurs near the end of the fast hot-spot reaction. Consequently, the slow carbon clustering reaction can not a ect the failure diameter. Below the failure diameter, the radial extent of the detonation front decreases starting from the PBX/air interface. That is, the failure starts at the PBX boundary and propagates inward to the axis of the rate stick.

  2. Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaes, J

    2011-01-01

    The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA

  3. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-04-01

    optimize the design of the robot elements and surface control electronics and software. Task 6 (Design & Build Surface Control and Monitoring System) has been completed with the control and computer display functions being operated through LabView. Task 7 (Design & Fabricate Large Diameter Live Access System) progressed to completing the detailed design of the entry fitting for 12-inch diameter cast iron pipe. The fitting is now being placed into manufacture. Task 8--System Integration and Laboratory Validation continued developing the robot module inter-connects and development of a master LabView-based system display and control software.

  4. On the performance of small diameter gas cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, Marcos Roberto Teixeira

    2002-02-01

    Small diameter cyclones represent a potential alternative for the removal of small diameter particles from gaseous mixtures as well as the environmental control of their emission. In order to establish feasible configurations of a small diameter cyclone applied in the separation of solid particles dispersed in a gas and considering a large quantify of experimental data in literature, neural networks were used to estimate the equipment grade efficiency and pressure drop. In order to evaluate a performance of many small diameters configurations and analysis was carried of parametrical sensibility which determines the most important variables on separation efficiency determination. A set of experimental runs was carried out in a lab-scale mini-cyclone in order to obtain the separation efficiency and pressure drop for different configurations, and evaluate the feasibility of coupling a post-cyclone device to improve the equipment overall performance. The cyclones used presented diameters of 0.03 and 0.05 m and the remaining dimensions varied proportionally about those found in Stairmand high-efficiency cyclones. Experimental separation efficiencies up to 99% were obtained in this work. These results confirm the feasibility of the experimental set-up configuration proposed. (author)

  5. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid eSepehrband

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy, or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI. The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.

  6. The effect of induction motor shaft diameter on motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Gökhan Yetgin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors are used in many areas from the past to the present and in different fields with the development of technology has continued to be used. It is obvious that induction motors as an improvement to the efficiency in terms of energy saving would cause great benefit. In that context, induction motor manufacturers and designers are constantly trying out new methods to improve motor performance and efficiency. In this study, what would be the optimum diameter of the shaft in order to increase the efficiency of the induction motor were investigated. In the study, 5.5 kW, 7.5 kW and 11 kW motors analyzes were also performed. Obtained shaft diameter values were compared with the manufacturer values. In addition, critical points such as the magnetic flux values, weight values and performances of the motors were examined and optimal shaft diameter values for each motor have been determined.

  7. NEOWISE REACTIVATION MISSION YEAR TWO: ASTEROID DIAMETERS AND ALBEDOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: cnugent@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission continues to detect, track, and characterize minor planets. We present diameters and albedos calculated from observations taken during the second year since the spacecraft was reactivated in late 2013. These include 207 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and 8885 other asteroids. Of the NEAs, 84% NEAs did not have previously measured diameters and albedos by the NEOWISE mission. Comparison of sizes and albedos calculated from NEOWISE measurements with those measured by occultations, spacecraft, and radar-derived shapes shows accuracy consistent with previous NEOWISE publications. Diameters and albedos fall within ±∼20% and ±∼40%, 1-sigma, respectively, of those measured by these alternate techniques. NEOWISE continues to preferentially discover near-Earth objects which are large (>100 m), and have low albedos.

  8. Divergent biparietal diameter growth rates in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, M C

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-eight twin pregnancies were monitored by serial ultrasonic cephalometry from 30 or 31 weeks' gestation. The rates of growth of the individual twins as determined by biparietal diameters were similar in 11 cases (39%) and divergent in 17 (61%). When the rates of growth were divergent, the lesser rate was always below the mean for singleton pregnancies, and the incidence of small-for-gestational-age babies was 18 of 34 (53%). It was apparent that the greater the difference in biparietal diameters within the 2 weeks preceding delivery, the higher the risk of a small-for-gestation-age baby being delivered. No comment could be made on the growth rate prior to 28 weeks except that at diagnosis there was little or no difference in biparietal diameters.

  9. Bubble behaviour and mean diameter in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, O.; Shoukri, M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    Bubble behaviour and mean bubble diameter in subcooled upward flow boiling in a vertical annular channel were investigated under low pressure and mass flux conditions. A high speed video system was used to visualize the subcooled flow boiling phenomenon. The high speed photographic results indicated that, contrary to the common understanding, bubbles tend to detach from the heating surface upstream of the net vapour generation point. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the mean bubble diameter along the subcooled flow boiling region. Data on the axial area-averaged void fraction distributions were also obtained using a single beam gamma densitometer. Effects of the liquid subcooling, applied heat flux and mass flux on the mean bubble size were investigated. A correlation for the mean bubble diameter as a function of the local subcooling, heat flux and mass flux was obtained.

  10. On the diameter of dot-critical graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doost Ali Mojdeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph G is \\(k\\-dot-critical (totaly \\(k\\-dot-critical if \\(G\\ is dot-critical (totaly dot-critical and the domination number is \\(k\\. In the paper [T. Burtona, D. P. Sumner, Domination dot-critical graphs, Discrete Math, 306 (2006, 11-18] the following question is posed: What are the best bounds for the diameter of a \\(k\\-dot-critical graph and a totally \\(k\\-dot-critical graph \\(G\\ with no critical vertices for \\(k \\geq 4\\? We find the best bound for the diameter of a \\(k\\-dot-critical graph, where \\(k \\in\\{4,5,6\\}\\ and we give a family of \\(k\\-dot-critical graphs (with no critical vertices with sharp diameter \\(2k-3\\ for even \\(k \\geq 4\\.

  11. Measurements of the diameter of the supernova SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karovska, M.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Speckle interferometric measurements of the angular diameter of SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud, obtained at 664 days after the outburst are presented. Diameters were estimated with milliarcsec precision at 657 nm and 550 nm by fitting model visibility functions to the data corresponding to different intensity distributions for the supernova disk. Measurements made assuming a uniform intensity distribution were compared to the uniform disk measurements obtained from 30 days after the explosion. Diameter measurements obtained near the center of the H-alpha line are consistent with homologous expansion of the supernova shell with a mean velocity of 2850 km/s. The linear least-squares fit to the measurements obtained at other wavelengths from 260 days after the explosion yielded a somewhat lower mean expansion velocity. 8 refs

  12. Diameter sensitive effect in singlewalled carbon nanotubes upon acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit very unique properties. As an electronic system they undergo amphoteric doping effects (n-type and p-type) which can be reversed. These processes affect the optical and vibronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The most common and widely used procedure which changes the properties of the SWCNT is acid treatment applied as a purification procedure. This effect has been widely studied but not fully understood so far. Here, we present a study, in which a diameter sensitive effect has been observed. Therefore, two kinds of SWCNT samples have been studied: (i) produced via chemical vapour deposition with a broad diameter distribution, and (ii) synthesised by the laser ablation technique which is commonly known to result in narrow diameter distribution bulk SWCNT samples. Resonance Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy have been applied for the characterisation of the samples.

  13. Characteristics of two-phase flows in large diameter channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: schlegelj@mst.edu [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Two-phase flows in large diameter channels have a great deal of importance in a wide variety of industrial applications. Nuclear systems, petroleum refineries, and chemical processes make extensive use of larger systems. Flows in such channels have very different properties from flows in smaller channels which are typically used in experimental research. In this paper, the various differences between flows in large and small channels are highlighted using the results of previous experimental and analytical research. This review is followed by a review of recent experiments in and model development for flows in large diameter channels performed by the authors. The topics of these research efforts range from void fraction and interfacial area concentration measurement to flow regime identification and modeling, drift-flux modeling for high void fraction conditions, and evaluation of interfacial area transport models for large diameter channels.

  14. US Intergroup Anal Carcinoma Trial: Tumor Diameter Predicts for Colostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajani, Jaffer A.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Pedersen, John; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Mayer, Robert J.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The US Gastrointestinal Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 anal carcinoma trial showed that cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of colostomy compared with mitomycin-based therapy. Established prognostic variables for patients with anal carcinoma include tumor diameter, clinical nodal status, and sex, but pretreatment variables that would predict the likelihood of colostomy are unknown. Methods A secondary analysis was performed by combining patients in the two treatment arms to evaluate whether new predictive and prognostic variables would emerge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and time to colostomy (TTC) with pretreatment and treatment variables. Results Of 682 patients enrolled, 644 patients were assessable and analyzed. In the multivariate analysis, tumor-related prognosticators for poorer OS included node-positive cancer (P ≤ .0001), large (> 5 cm) tumor diameter (P = .01), and male sex (P = .016). In the treatment-related categories, cisplatin-based therapy was statistically significantly associated with a higher rate of colostomy (P = .03) than was mitomycin-based therapy. In the pretreatment variables category, only large tumor diameter independently predicted for TTC (P = .008). Similarly, the cumulative 5-year colostomy rate was statistically significantly higher for large tumor diameter than for small tumor diameter (Gray's test; P = .0074). Clinical nodal status and sex were not predictive of TTC. Conclusion The combined analysis of the two arms of RTOG 98-11, representing the largest prospective database, reveals that tumor diameter (irrespective of the nodal status) is the only independent pretreatment variable that predicts TTC and 5-year colostomy rate in patients with anal carcinoma. PMID:19139424

  15. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.

  16. Residual stresses and critical diameter in vitreous matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastelaro, Valmor R.; Zanotto, Edgar D.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to test the validity of existing models for: i) the residual internal stresses which arise due to thermal and elastic mismatch in duplex systems, and ii) the critical particle diameter for spontaneous cracking. Partially crystallized 1,07 Na 2 O-2 Ca O-3 Si O 2 - 6% P 2 O 5 glasses were studied. The experimental residual stress was in excellent agreement with the calculated value, however, the critical particle diameter, estimated by an energy balance approach, was more than ten times smaller than the experimental value. This discrepancy indicates that the energy model is not applicable in this case. (author)

  17. NEOWISE REACTIVATION MISSION YEAR ONE: PRELIMINARY ASTEROID DIAMETERS AND ALBEDOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S.; Stevenson, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: cnugent@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 7956 asteroids detected in the first year of the NEOWISE Reactivation mission. Of those, 201 are near-Earth asteroids and 7755 are Main Belt or Mars-crossing asteroids. 17% of these objects have not been previously characterized using the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or “NEOWISE” thermal measurements. Diameters are determined to an accuracy of ∼20% or better. If good-quality H magnitudes are available, albedos can be determined to within ∼40% or better.

  18. Determination of Aerosol Particle Diameter Using Cascade Impactor Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunawas; Ruslanto, P. O

    1998-01-01

    Determination of aerosol particle size distribution has been done using a low pressure Andersen's cascade impactor with 13 stages. The aerosol has been sampled with flow rate of aerosol sampling of 28.3 Ipm. Preliminary study result shows that aerosol in the simulation chamber was spread in monomodal distribution with Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of 4.9 μm. The aerosol measurement in Japan Power Demonstration Reactor has been spread in trimodal distribution with Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter equal to 13.3 μm. The use of mylar as impaction plate instead of aluminum foil gives good result

  19. Chamber service module (CSM1) for MDT

    CERN Document Server

    Binchi, P

    2002-01-01

    CSM-1 is the second and latest version of the high speed electronic unit whose primary task is to multiplex serial data from up to 18 ASD /TDC cards located at the ends of the Monitored Drift Tubes. Each CSM will capture data from all 24 channel TDC (AMT-2 units) of a given chamber and transfer it along a single optic fiber to the MROD, the event builder and readout driver. The core of the board is a Xilinx VirtexII FPGA which will use JTAG protocol (IEEE Std. 1149.1) for logic configuration parameter loading.

  20. Hardware trigger processor for the MDT system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)757787; The ATLAS collaboration; Hazen, Eric; Butler, John; Black, Kevin; Gastler, Daniel Edward; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Taffard, Anyes; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Ishino, Masaya; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a low-latency hardware trigger processor for the Monitored Drift Tube system in the Muon spectrometer. The processor will fit candidate Muon tracks in the drift tubes in real time, improving significantly the momentum resolution provided by the dedicated trigger chambers. We present a novel pure-FPGA implementation of a Legendre transform segment finder, an associative-memory alternative implementation, an ARM (Zynq) processor-based track fitter, and compact ATCA carrier board architecture. The ATCA architecture is designed to allow a modular, staged approach to deployment of the system and exploration of alternative technologies.

  1. First mile, first inch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Morris, C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available that entrenches the monopolistic power base of the local Telco. Innovation is a key driver for change and what is needed is a mindset that empowers communities at the local level to embrace technology and create community owned networks enabling and supporting...

  2. Prediction and error of baldcypress stem volume from stump diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    1998-01-01

    The need to estimate the volume of removals occurs for many reasons, such as in trespass cases, severance tax reports, and post-harvest assessments. A logarithmic model is presented for prediction of baldcypress total stem cubic foot volume using stump diameter as the independent variable. Because the error of prediction is as important as the volume estimate, the...

  3. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically ...

  4. Study of tube diameter effect on the burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, L.L.; Lantsman, F.P.; Dedneva, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of a tube diameter d on boundary steam content Xsub(b) is experimentally investigated during unwashed liquid wall film drying in the disperse-ring flow regime. For this purpose systematical experimental investigations of the burnout of the second kind in tubes with diameters of 4, 6 and 12 mm have been carried out as well as the other data relating to burnout in tubes with diameter from 4 to 40 mm are used. The investigations have been carried out at water and steam pressures of 4.9-13.7 MPa and mass velocities from 750 to 5000 kg/m 2 xs. It is elucidated that increase in the tube diameter results in reducing the ranges of pressures and mass velocities at which Xsub(b) is independent of heat flux. Quantity dependence Xsub(b)=f(d) has been obtained as well. The best agreement with data from different experiments is observed when taking into account the effect of d on Xsub(b) by means of the following relation: Xsub(b) is proportional to dsup(-0.25). In this case divergence, as a rule, does not exceed 10% [ru

  5. Historical perspective on diameter-limit cutting in northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Kelty; Anthony W. D' Amato; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2006-01-01

    The use of diameter-limit cutting and high-grading is currently a concern for long-term sustainability of forests in the Northeastern United States and surrounding areas. This paper reviews historical information about the kinds of harvesting used in this region from 1620 to 1950, to provide a context for current discussions. Throughout this period, most timber...

  6. Variations in eyeball diameters of the healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Inessa; Gottlieb, Paul; Vaiman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to reevaluate the normative data on the eyeball diameters. Methods. In a prospective cohort study, the CT data of consecutive 250 adults with healthy eyes were collected and analyzed, and sagittal, transverse, and axial diameters of both eyeballs were measured. The data obtained from the left eye and from the right eye were compared. The correlation analysis was performed with the following variables: orbit size, gender, age, and ethnic background. Results. We did not find statistically significant differences correlated with gender of the patients and their age. The right eyeball was slightly smaller than the left one but this difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.17). We did not find statistically significant differences of the eyeball sizes among the ethnicities we dealt with. Strong correlation was found between the transverse diameter and the width of the orbit (r = 0.88). Conclusion. The size of a human adult eye is approximately 24.2 mm (transverse) × 23.7 mm (sagittal) × 22.0-24.8 mm (axial) with no significant difference between sexes and age groups. In the transverse diameter, the eyeball size may vary from 21 mm to 27 mm. These data might be useful in ophthalmological, oculoplastic, and neurological practice.

  7. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  8. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  9. Sonographic assessment of the portal vein diameter in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the head in Frankfurts' position and weight measured using a weighing scale. ... 1.41mm and that PV diameter positively correlates with anthropometric variables. ... time consuming and involve risk and discomfort to the .... tolic velocity which gives an accurate and a reliable meth- .... a tertiary care centre in North-East India.

  10. Uncertainty budget for optical coordinate measurements of circle diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis for circle diameter measurements using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) equipped with an optical probe is presented in this paper. A mathematical model for data evaluation and uncertainty assessment was formulated in accordance with Guide to the Expression of Uncertain...

  11. Arterial diameter during central volume depletion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Madsen, P; Matzen, S

    1995-01-01

    The luminal diameter of the radial artery was followed by high frequency ultrasound during 50 degrees head-up tilt-induced central volume depletion in ten healthy subjects of whom six were tilted twice and pretreated with the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide or placebo following a double...

  12. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  13. Bipartite Diametrical Graphs of Diameter 4 and Extreme Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Al-Addasi

    2008-01-01

    in which this upper bound is attained, this graph can be viewed as a generalization of the Rhombic Dodecahedron. Then we show that for any ≥2, the graph (2,2 is the unique (up to isomorphism bipartite diametrical graph of diameter 4 and partite sets of cardinalities 2 and 2, and hence in particular, for =3, the graph (6,8 which is just the Rhombic Dodecahedron is the unique (up to isomorphism bipartite diametrical graph of such a diameter and cardinalities of partite sets. Thus we complete a characterization of -graphs of diameter 4 and cardinality of the smaller partite set not exceeding 6. We prove that the neighborhoods of vertices of the larger partite set of (2,2 form a matroid whose basis graph is the hypercube . We prove that any -graph of diameter 4 is bipartite self complementary, thus in particular (2,2. Finally, we study some additional properties of (2,2 concerning the order of its automorphism group, girth, domination number, and when being Eulerian.

  14. NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Kramer, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-301, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nugent, C.; Cutri, R. M. [California Institute of Technology, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E. L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bauer, J. M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Grav, T.; Sonnett, S., E-mail: Joseph.Masiero@jpl.nasa.gov [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E Fort Lowell Road #106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) reactivation mission has completed its third year of surveying the sky in the thermal infrared for near-Earth asteroids and comets. NEOWISE collects simultaneous observations at 3.4 and 4.6  μ m of solar system objects passing through its field of regard. These data allow for the determination of total thermal emission from bodies in the inner solar system, and thus the sizes of these objects. In this paper, we present thermal model fits of asteroid diameters for 170 NEOs and 6110 Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) detected during the third year of the survey, as well as the associated optical geometric albedos. We compare our results with previous thermal model results from NEOWISE for overlapping sample sets, as well as diameters determined through other independent methods, and find that our diameter measurements for NEOs agree to within 26% (1 σ ) of previously measured values. Diameters for the MBAs are within 17% (1 σ ). This brings the total number of unique near-Earth objects characterized by the NEOWISE survey to 541, surpassing the number observed during the fully cryogenic mission in 2010.

  15. NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Kramer, E.; Nugent, C.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Sonnett, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) reactivation mission has completed its third year of surveying the sky in the thermal infrared for near-Earth asteroids and comets. NEOWISE collects simultaneous observations at 3.4 and 4.6  μ m of solar system objects passing through its field of regard. These data allow for the determination of total thermal emission from bodies in the inner solar system, and thus the sizes of these objects. In this paper, we present thermal model fits of asteroid diameters for 170 NEOs and 6110 Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) detected during the third year of the survey, as well as the associated optical geometric albedos. We compare our results with previous thermal model results from NEOWISE for overlapping sample sets, as well as diameters determined through other independent methods, and find that our diameter measurements for NEOs agree to within 26% (1 σ ) of previously measured values. Diameters for the MBAs are within 17% (1 σ ). This brings the total number of unique near-Earth objects characterized by the NEOWISE survey to 541, surpassing the number observed during the fully cryogenic mission in 2010.

  16. Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, M.; Pickering, J. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal port wine stain treatment requires the selective absorption of light by the ectatic blood vessels. We investigated whether deeper blood vessels can be coagulated, without damaging other cutaneous structures, by varying the laser beam diameter. The penetration of the light was simulated with

  17. Large diameter interseam boreholes: their usage to improve underground environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, A.J. (Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    Development of drilling techniques for larger diameter holes over the last fifteen years has indicated their considerable potential to assist with quickly improving environmental facilities and services to high output coal faces. In Nottinghamshire, as well as in several other regions, mines have utilised interseam boreholes, fully lined, to improve inbye air flows with subsequent reduction of face temperatures, dust and firedamp levels. Some further holes have additionally been adapted quickly to increase firedamp drainage capacities and also to improve service facilities such as compressed air, electrical power and water, and access. A wide range of borehole sizes are employed, ranging from 0.35 m, with integral steel lining, up to a maximum of 2.5 m in diameter, fully concrete lined. The Nottinghamshire Group Sinking and Tunnelling Engineer provides a full range of drilling facilities. The most popular large diameter holes with a potential of 1.8 m in diameter, over 200 m in vertical depth, employs a Robins, type 23R, raise borer which has been in use up and down the country since 1977. A Fosroc CGR10 type, techgrout is applied after boring is completed to provide the essential smooth lining. The application of this lining utilises a special rubber former developed locally, essentially knitting strata cracks, beddings and any local overbreak of the holes. The former or 'sausage' is used in a similar manner to correct and repair boreholes which have been in use for some time. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Pupil Center as a Function of Pupil Diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbegi, Diako; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the gaze estimation error induced by pupil size changes using simulated data. We investigate the influence of pupil diameter changes on estimated gaze point error obtained by two gaze estimation models. Simulation data show that at wider viewing angles and at small eye...

  19. Stem diameter and height of chrysanthemum cv Yoko ono as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... Booij R (1989). Effect of growth regulators on curd diameter of cauliflower. Sci. Hortic. 38: 23-32. Castro PRC (1998). Use of plant growth regulators in fruit production of vegetable crops and ornamental plants. Série produtor Rural, Ed. especial, Piracicaba: ESALQ- Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação.

  20. FACES WITH LARGE DIAMETER ON THE SYMMETRICAL TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIERKSMA, G; TIJSSEN, GA

    This paper deals with the symmetric traveling salesman polytope and contains three main theorems. The first one gives a new characterization of (non)adjacency. Based on this characterization a new upper bound for the diameter of the symmetric traveling salesman polytope (conjectured to be 2 by M.

  1. Numerical analysis of the bubble detachment diameter in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, M I; Sáiz Jabardo, J M; Arce, A; Fariñas, P

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a tri-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model to investigate the fluid flow around bubbles attached to heated walls. Transient solutions of the governing field equations in a domain containing the bubbles and the surrounding liquid have been obtained. The nucleation, growing and detachment processes have been analyzed. Concerning the software, the open source OpenFOAM has been used. Special attention has been given to the bubble detachment diameter. Two mechanisms have been considered as physically related to the detachment: surface tension and buoyancy. As expected, it has been verified that the bubble detachment diameter depends on the contact angle, operating pressure and properties of the fluid. Several fluids have been considered (water, R134a, ammonia and R123), as well as several operating pressures (between 0.1 and 10 bar) and contact angles (between 10 and 80°). It has been concluded that the detachment diameter depends strongly on the contact angle and fluid properties and slightly on the pressure. A correlation for the bubble detachment diameter has been developed based on the obtained numerical results. Data from this expression compare reasonably well with those from other correlations from the literature.

  2. Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Feldpausch; L. Banin; O.L. Phillips; T.R. Baker; S.L. Lewis; C.A. Quesada; K. Affum-Baffoe; E.J.M.M. Arets; N.J. Berry; M. Bird; E.S. Brondizio; P de Camargo; J. Chave; G. Djagbletey; T.F. Domingues; M. Drescher; P.M. Fearnside; M.B. Franca; N.M. Fyllas; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; A. Hladik; N. Higuchi; M.O. Hunter; Y. Iida; K.A. Salim; A.R. Kassim; M. Keller; J. Kemp; D.A. King; J.C. Lovett; B.S. Marimon; B.H. Marimon-Junior; E. Lenza; A.R. Marshall; D.J. Metcalfe; E.T.A. Mitchard; E.F. Moran; B.W. Nelson; R. Nilus; E.M. Nogueira; M. Palace; S. Patiño; K.S.-H. Peh; M.T. Raventos; J.M. Reitsma; G. Saiz; F. Schrodt; B. Sonke; H.E. Taedoumg; S. Tan; L. White; H. Woll; J. Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical...

  3. Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.

  4. Diameter sensors for tree-length harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.P. McDonald; Robert B. Rummer; T.E. Grift

    2003-01-01

    Most cut-to-length (CTL) harvesters provide sensors for measuring diameter of trees as they are cut and processed. Among other uses, this capability provides a data collection tool for marketing of logs in real time. Logs can be sorted and stacked based on up-to-date market information, then transportation systems optimized to route wood to proper destinations at...

  5. Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...

  6. Multi-diameter pigging: factors affecting the design and selection of pigging tools for multi-diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)

  7. The AKARI IRC asteroid flux catalogue: updated diameters and albedos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Müller, T. G.; Usui, F.; Hasegawa, S.

    2018-05-01

    The AKARI IRC all-sky survey provided more than twenty thousand thermal infrared observations of over five thousand asteroids. Diameters and albedos were obtained by fitting an empirically calibrated version of the standard thermal model to these data. After the publication of the flux catalogue in October 2016, our aim here is to present the AKARI IRC all-sky survey data and discuss valuable scientific applications in the field of small body physical properties studies. As an example, we update the catalogue of asteroid diameters and albedos based on AKARI using the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM). We fit the NEATM to derive asteroid diameters and, whenever possible, infrared beaming parameters. We fit groups of observations taken for the same object at different epochs of the survey separately, so we compute more than one diameter for approximately half of the catalogue. We obtained a total of 8097 diameters and albedos for 5170 asteroids, and we fitted the beaming parameter for almost two thousand of them. When it was not possible to fit the beaming parameter, we used a straight line fit to our sample's beaming parameter-versus-phase angle plot to set the default value for each fit individually instead of using a single average value. Our diameters agree with stellar-occultation-based diameters well within the accuracy expected for the model. They also match the previous AKARI-based catalogue at phase angles lower than 50°, but we find a systematic deviation at higher phase angles, at which near-Earth and Mars-crossing asteroids were observed. The AKARI IRC All-sky survey is an essential source of information about asteroids, especially the large ones, since, it provides observations at different observation geometries, rotational coverages and aspect angles. For example, by comparing in more detail a few asteroids for which dimensions were derived from occultations, we discuss how the multiple observations per object may already provide three

  8. In line inspection of multi-diameter and high-pressure pipelines in Brazil using combined technologies: magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginten, Markus; Brockhaus, Stephan; Bouaoua, Nourreddine; Klein, Stefan [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany); Bruening, Franz [ROSEN Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The simultaneous use of the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method and the ultrasonic testing (UT) method on a single in line inspection (ILI) tool has been identified as a versatile and accurate solution for liquid pipelines. The combination of the two methods is complementary to the restrictions of each other. Also, the overall scope of the inspection is enlarged. General wall thinning and largely corroded areas are accurately and reliably scanned with the UT unit, while very detailed information about pitting corrosion is obtained from the MFL measurement. Blind spots of echo loss, as occasionally observed for the UT channels is compensated by the more robust measurement from the MFL sensors. Consequently, this technology has been the method of choice in an in line inspection project of an onshore long distance pipeline in Brazil, facing a variety of corrosion threats. The pipeline consists of several multi-diameter sections of 18/20 inches and 20/22 inches. Furthermore, the high gravity of product in combination with a height profile, an altitude of 1152 m MSL (Mean Sea Level) had to be crossed, leads to a maximum pressure of 220 bar. These boundary conditions had to be considered during the design of the ILI-tool. The paper discusses the experience made so far with the combined technology MFL and UT. The effective use of the inspection tool for the above mentioned pipeline as well as field results from a previous inspection are described. (author)

  9. SpUpNIC (Spectrograph Upgrade: Newly Improved Cassegrain) on the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Carter, Dave; Daniels, Alroy; Evans, Geoff; Fourie, Piet; Gilbank, David; Hendricks, Malcolm; Koorts, Willie; Lategan, Deon; Loubser, Egan; Mouries, Sharon; O'Connor, James E.; O'Donoghue, Darragh E.; Potter, Stephen; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Stoffels, John; Swanevelder, Pieter; Titus, Keegan; van Gend, Carel; Visser, Martin; Worters, Hannah L.

    2016-08-01

    SpUpNIC (Spectrograph Upgrade: Newly Improved Cassegrain) is the extensively upgraded Cassegrain Spectrograph on the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch (1.9-m) telescope. The inverse-Cassegrain collimator mirrors and woefully inefficient Maksutov-Cassegrain camera optics have been replaced, along with the CCD and SDSU controller. All moving mechanisms are now governed by a programmable logic controller, allowing remote configuration of the instrument via an intuitive new graphical user interface. The new collimator produces a larger beam to match the optically faster Folded-Schmidt camera design and nine surface-relief diffraction gratings offer various wavelength ranges and resolutions across the optical domain. The new camera optics (a fused silica Schmidt plate, a slotted fold flat and a spherically figured primary mirror, both Zerodur, and a fused silica field-flattener lens forming the cryostat window) reduce the camera's central obscuration to increase the instrument throughput. The physically larger and more sensitive CCD extends the available wavelength range; weak arc lines are now detectable down to 325 nm and the red end extends beyond one micron. A rear-of-slit viewing camera has streamlined the observing process by enabling accurate target placement on the slit and facilitating telescope focus optimisation. An interactive quick-look data reduction tool further enhances the user-friendliness of SpUpNI

  10. Head-disk interface nanotribology for Tbit/inch2 recording densities: near-contact and contact recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakis, Antonis I.; Polycarpou, Andreas A.

    2010-06-01

    In the effort to achieve Tbit/inch2 recording densities, thermal fly-height control (TFC) nanotechnology was developed to effectively reduce the clearance (which is of the order of a few nanometres) at the head-disk interface (HDI) of hard-disk drives. In this work, we present a model of the HDI that can predict the dynamic flying and nanotribological contacting behaviour, allowing for accurate predictions and characterization of the operating regime as a function of TFC actuation. A geometric model for TFC is presented and an improved definition of contact at the interface is developed in the presence of nanoscale topographical roughness and dynamic microwaviness. A new methodology is proposed for the calculation of the nominal area of contact, which affects both near- and at-contact behaviour, while the stiffening of the air bearing force with TFC actuation is also accounted for. Slider behaviour is analysed by quantifying the approach, jump-to-contact, lubricant and solid contact regimes of operation and identifying the critical and optimum TFC actuations. The feasibility of near-contact, light molecularly thin lubricant contact versus solid contact recording is explored under the effect of the interfacial forces and stresses present at the HDI. The clearance and the state of vibrations are analysed and design guidelines are proposed for improved performance.

  11. Head-disk interface nanotribology for Tbit/inch2 recording densities: near-contact and contact recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakis, Antonis I; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2010-01-01

    In the effort to achieve Tbit/inch 2 recording densities, thermal fly-height control (TFC) nanotechnology was developed to effectively reduce the clearance (which is of the order of a few nanometres) at the head-disk interface (HDI) of hard-disk drives. In this work, we present a model of the HDI that can predict the dynamic flying and nanotribological contacting behaviour, allowing for accurate predictions and characterization of the operating regime as a function of TFC actuation. A geometric model for TFC is presented and an improved definition of contact at the interface is developed in the presence of nanoscale topographical roughness and dynamic microwaviness. A new methodology is proposed for the calculation of the nominal area of contact, which affects both near- and at-contact behaviour, while the stiffening of the air bearing force with TFC actuation is also accounted for. Slider behaviour is analysed by quantifying the approach, jump-to-contact, lubricant and solid contact regimes of operation and identifying the critical and optimum TFC actuations. The feasibility of near-contact, light molecularly thin lubricant contact versus solid contact recording is explored under the effect of the interfacial forces and stresses present at the HDI. The clearance and the state of vibrations are analysed and design guidelines are proposed for improved performance.

  12. Assessment of RELAP/MOD3 using BETHSY 6.2TC 6-inch cold leg side break comparative test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young-Jong; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kim, Dong-Su

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7j assessment on BETHSY 6.2TC. BETHSY 6.2TC test corresponding to a six inch cold leg break LOCA of the Pressurizer Water Reactor(PWR). The primary objective of the test was to provide reference data of two facilities of different scales (BETHSY and LSTF facility). On the other hand, the present calculation aims at analysis of RELAP5/N4OD3 capability on the small break LOCA simulation, The results of calculation have shown that the RELAP5/MOD3 reasonably predicts occurrences as well as trends of the major phenomena such as primary pressure, timing of loop seal clearing, liquid hold up, etc. However, some disagreements also have been found in the predictions of loop seal clearing, collapsed core water level after loop seal clearing, and accumulator injection behaviors. For better understanding of discrepancies in same predictions, several sensitivity calculations have been performed as well. These include the changes of two-phase discharge coefficient at the break junction and some corrections of the interphase drag term. As result, change of a single parameter has not improved the overall predictions and it has been found that the interphase drag model has still large uncertainties

  13. VALUE CHANGE DIAMETERRED BLOOD CELLS ATHLETES IN THE PHYSICAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Yurevna Rubtsova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: to study the nature of distribution of erythrocytes on diameter in the circulating blood of skiers-racers during achievement of a threshold of anaerobic threshold (AТ. Materials and methods: Professional Skiers racers (young men and men, girls and women at the age of 17–37 years (n = 33 are еxamined in the conditions of physical activity on the stationary bicycle. The research is conducted according to the protocol approved by local committee on bioethics in case of Institute of Physiology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Samples of blood were taken from an elbow vein on an empty stomach, then from finger capillaries to, - on a threshold of anaerobic exchange, after execution of loading “to the full” and in 5 min restoration. On the stained blood smears measured diameter of 50 erythrocytes. Results processed statistically with use of an application program package of Windows (Basic, 2011. Results: At stage AT at 36% of athletes defined increase in average diameter of erythrocytes from 7,46 ± 0,06 to 7,68 ± 0,08 µm (р<0,05, without changes at 12% (7,45 ± 0,04 – 7,43 ± 0,05 µm and reduction of the size of cells at 52% from 7,51± 0,04 to 7,35 ± 0,05 µm (р<0,05. In the conditions of a maximum load (men have 337,1 ± 12,4 W and women have 246,7 ± 10,8 W and during the 5-minute recovery diameter of erythrocytes returned to the original value. Conclusion: Thus, the individual nature of change of average diameter of erythrocytes at athletes is shown during achievement of ANSPs and probably corresponds to selective elimination preferentially macro- or microcytes.

  14. Measurement error in CT assessment of appendix diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Appendiceal diameter continues to be cited as an important criterion for diagnosis of appendicitis by computed tomography (CT). To assess sources of error and variability in appendiceal diameter measurements by CT. In this institutional review board-approved review of imaging and medical records, we reviewed CTs performed in children <18 years of age between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2010. Appendiceal diameter was measured in the axial and coronal planes by two reviewers (R1, R2). One year later, 10% of cases were remeasured. For patients who had multiple CTs, serial measurements were made to assess within patient variability. Measurement differences between planes, within and between reviewers, within patients and between CT and pathological measurements were assessed using correlation coefficients and paired t-tests. Six hundred thirty-one CTs performed in 519 patients (mean age: 10.9 ± 4.9 years, 50.8% female) were reviewed. Axial and coronal measurements were strongly correlated (r = 0.92-0.94, P < 0.0001) with coronal plane measurements significantly larger (P < 0.0001). Measurements were strongly correlated between reviewers (r = 0.89-0.9, P < 0.0001) but differed significantly in both planes (axial: +0.2 mm, P=0.003; coronal: +0.1 mm, P=0.007). Repeat measurements were significantly different for one reviewer only in the axial plane (0.3 mm difference, P<0.05). Within patients imaged multiple times, measured appendix diameters differed significantly in the axial plane for both reviewers (R1: 0.5 mm, P = 0.031; R2: 0.7 mm, P = 0.022). Multiple potential sources of measurement error raise concern about the use of rigid diameter cutoffs for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis by CT. (orig.)

  15. Vertebral Artery Diameter and Flow: Nature or Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Fejer, Bence; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Cirelli, Carlo; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Sacconi, Beatrice; Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Farina, Filippo; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Horvath, Tamas; Pucci, Giacomo; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Baracchini, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    In contrast with the carotid arteries, the vertebral arteries (VAs) show considerable variation in length, caliber, and vessel course. This study investigated whether the variation in diameter and flow characteristics of the VAs might be inherited. A total of 172 Italian twins from Padua, Perugia, and Terni (54 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic) recruited from the Italian Twin Registry underwent B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound assessment of their VAs. VA diameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were assessed at the level of a horizontal V2 segment. Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed. Fourteen percent of the sample had VA hypoplasia. Within pair correlation in monozygotic twins was higher than in dizygotics (.552 vs. .229) for VA diameter. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic effect, under the most parsimonious model, accounted for 54.7% (95% CI: 42.2-69.1%) of the variance of VA diameter, and unshared environmental effect for 45.3% (95% CI: 30.9-57.8%). No heritability was found for the PSV of VA, but shared (34.1%; 95% CI: 16.7-53.7%) and unshared (65.9%; 95% CI: 45.9-83.1%) environmental factors determined the variance. EDV of VA is moderately genetically influenced (42.4%; 95% CI: 16.1-64.9%) and also determined by the unshared environment (57.6%; 95% CI: 34.7-83.7%). The diameter of the VAs is moderately genetically determined. Different factors influence the PSV and EDV of VAs, which may highlight the complex hemodynamic background of VA flow and help to understand the vertebral flow anomalies found by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-guo Duan

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  17. Comparison between transcerebellar diameter with biparietal diameter of ultrasound for gestational age measurement in third trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseem, F.; Fatima, N.; Yasmeen, S.; Saleem, S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of correct assessment by transcerebeller diameter (TCD) versus biparietal diameter (BPD) for gestational age measurement at 36 weeks of pregnancy using first day of last menstrual period (LMP) for actual period of gestation. Study Design: Quasi experimental. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur from May to November 2010. Methodology: This study was performed on 228 patients at 36 weeks of pregnancy fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Ultrasound measurements of TCD and BPD was made and compared with LMP. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS version 10. Proportoin of correct diagnosis by each measurement was determined and compared using chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Out of 228 patients, TCD was found to give correct assessment in 209 patients (91.7%; p = 0.001) corresponding to the gestational age by LMP i.e 36 weeks. BPD was found to give correct assessment corresponding to the gestational age by LMP in 176 patients (77.2%). Conclusion: Although both BPD and TCD are accurate biometric parameters at 36 weeks of gestation, transcerebellar diameter is more reliable method of gestational age determination in third trimester of pregnancy than biparietal diameter. TCD can be used as a tool to assist in the assessment of gestational age in third trimester. (author)

  18. Two-phase flow structure in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.R.; Schlegel, J.P.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Local profiles of various quantities measured in large diameter pipe. ► Database for interfacial area in large pipes extended to churn-turbulent flow. ► Flow regime map confirms previous models for flow regime transitions. ► Data will be useful in developing interfacial area transport models for large pipes. - Abstract: Flow in large pipes is important in a wide variety of applications. In the nuclear industry in particular, understanding of flow in large diameter pipes is essential in predicting the behavior of reactor systems. This is especially true of natural circulation Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) designs, where a large-diameter chimney above the core provides the gravity head to drive circulation of the coolant through the reactor. The behavior of such reactors during transients and during normal operation will be predicted using advanced thermal–hydraulics analysis codes utilizing the two-fluid model. Essential to accurate two-fluid model calculations is reliable and accurate computation of the interfacial transfer terms. These interfacial transfer terms can be expressed as the product of one term describing the potential driving the transfer and a second term describing the available surface area for transfer, or interfacial area concentration. Currently, the interfacial area is predicted using flow regime dependent empirical correlations; however the interfacial area concentration is best computed through the use of the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE). To facilitate the development of IATE source and sink term models in large-diameter pipes a fundamental understanding of the structure of the two-phase flow is essential. This understanding is improved through measurement of the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration and gas velocity profiles in pipes with diameters of 0.102 m and 0.152 m under a wide variety of flow conditions. Additionally, flow regime identification has been performed to

  19. Normal cardiac diameters in cine-MRI of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergan, K.; Schuster, A.; Mair, M.; Burger, R.; Toepker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the normal diameters of cardiac cavities in standard cardiac views using cine MRI. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six volunteers were examined (27 male, 29 female) on a 1.5 T MR unit with ECG-triggered single shot free precision (SSFP) cine MR sequences and parallel image acquisition. Standardized echocardiographic planes were used to depict the heart of all volunteers (short axis, 4-chamber view, left and right 2-chamber views). The different diameters of the cardiac cavities were measured using a fixed protocol. Results: For the estimation of ventricular dilatation, the important female/male cross diameters of the left ventricle are 45.2±3.4/51.6±4.6 mm diastolic and 30.5±3.5/33.8±3.6 mm systolic, and of the right ventricle 30.7±3.8/37.1±5.9 mm diastolic and 22.3±3.8/28.1±4.4 mm systolic. For the determination of a left ventricular hypertrophy, relevant septal wall thickness measured in the short axis of the left ventricle of female/male volunteers are 8.0±1.0/9.9±1.2 mm diastolic and 10.9±1.4/13.6±1.9 mm systolic. The measured normal values of male volunteers were generally higher than those of female volunteers. The thickness of the ventricular septum correlated well when measured in the short axis and 4-chamber view. When measured in the 4-chamber view, the longitudinal diameter of the ventricles had a higher value in diastole and a lower value in systole, compared to the 2-chamber views of the right and left cardiac cavities. The atrial longitudinal diameters were higher in the 4-chamber view compared to the 2-chamber views, without any difference in systole or diastole. Conclusion: Diameters of cardiac cavities are easily and quickly measured. Using the tables with the normal values published here, it is simple to estimate an abnormal size of the heart. (orig.)

  20. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  1. Problems of cleaning the large diameter sections of deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patsch, F; Gilicz, B

    1966-01-01

    In drilling deep wells, great importance is being given to the problem of cutting removal from the hole bottom of sections drilled by large diameter bits. The length of borehole sections drilled by 12-1/4-in. and larger bits has been more than doubled in Hungary in the course of the past 4 years. When the drilling fluid jet is struck against the borehole bottom, pressure waves are brought about which take on a crossed flow pattern and result in a retardation of cleaning of the well bottom, particularly in the case of larger bottom surfaces. In large diameter boreholes, the cleaning efficiency is being achieved by full utilization of the pump power and increased pump delivery. Friction losses in drill pipes are being reduced by using 6-in. XH pipes.

  2. Experimentally stabilized superconducting magnet with inner diameter of 700 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetlitskii, I A; Belonogov, A V; Dobrov, V M; Krylov, V L; Lebedev, A V; Lomkatsi, G S; Nilov, A F; Smolyankin, V T

    1974-05-01

    An experimental magnet, SPM-70, with the following characteristics was constructed. The inner diameter of the winding was 730 mm; outer diameter of the winding 1000 mm; height of winding 310 mm; magnetic induction at the center of the magnet 1.45 T; maximum magnetic induction 2.4 T; operation current 820 A; ampere-turns 1.07 x 10/sup 6/; design current density 2560 A/cm/sup 2/; stored energy 500 kJ; superconducting alloy Nb+50% Zr; weight of superconductor 23 kg; weight of copper 210 kg; resistivity of the copper in the strips at T = 4.2 K, B = 2.5 T, 2.6 x 10/sup -8/ ..cap omega.. cm.

  3. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    of the diameter, depth and soil strength, and increase of each these will give an increase in stiffness. • Cyclic response of a lateral loaded pile is depended on the characteristics of the cyclic load. Behaviour of a monopile is a classic soil-structure interaction problem depending on the pile stiffness....... The target is to improve the use of monopiles as preferred support structure beyond the current limit at a water depth of 30 m. Design of foundations for wind turbines has a large focus on the stiffness of the combined structure, turbine-tower-foundation, which has an influence on the environmental loads...... initial response and a higher ultimate capacity. The initial stiffness of the soil-structure interaction measured in the centrifuge tests, equivalent to initial stiffness of p-y curves, shows a dependency of depth and diameter. Control issues in relation to cyclic tests have resulted in tests...

  4. Status of the variable diameter centerbody inlet program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, John D.; Linne, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Variable Diameter Centerbody (VDC) inlet is an ongoing research program at LeRC. The VDC inlet is a mixed compression, axisymmetric inlet that has potential application on the next generation supersonic transport. This inlet was identified as one of the most promising axisymmetric concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft during the SCAR program in the late 1970's. Some of its features include high recovery, low bleed, good angle-of-attack tolerance, and excellent engine airflow matching. These features were demonstrated at LeRC in the past by the design and testing of fixed hardware models. A current test program in the LeRC 10' x 10' Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) will attempt to duplicate these features on model hardware that actually incorporates a flight-like variable diameter centerbody mechanism.

  5. The design and construction of large diameter pre-filter packed recovery wells at the Ninth Avenue Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, S.L.; Maley, T.J.; Bono, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Large diameter groundwater/oil recovery wells were installed in an unconfined sand aquifer at the Ninth Avenue Superfund Site in Gary, Indiana. To assure adequate filter packs, prefilter packed groundwater/oil recovery wells were selected to minimize silting by using appropriate screen slot size and filter pack. A properly sized filter pack was necessary to prevent the formation material from entering the well. During field drilling operations, open-quotes having sandsclose quotes and silting of existing wells were encountered. By using sieve analyses of the native aquifer soil, described by Driscoll (1989), the filter pack and screen slot size were selected. Prefilter packed well screens were selected for this site to assure the presence of a uniform filter pack, thus minimizing siltation in the wells. A prefilter packed well screen consists of a double screen with the interstitial space filled with granular filter pack material designed specifically for site conditions. These wells provide the adequate filter pack without the need to add additional filter pack material outside the well screen. Wells were installed using 12 1/4 inch ID hollow stem augers. This methodology is EPA-approved, expeditious, and inexpensive. Level B personal protective equipment was required during installation. Therefore, the advantages of hollow stem drilling include short drilling time and no circulation fluids. The 14 recovery wells were successfully installed in 14 days using the hollow stem auger drilling technique. Observations during well development revealed little or no silt present in purged groundwater

  6. A versatile Czochralski crystal growth system with automatic diameter control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Metzl, R.; Wang, W. S.; Choi, J.

    1995-07-01

    A versatile Czochralski crystal pulling system with automatic diameter control for the growth of nonlinear optical oxide crystals is discussed. Pure and doped bulk single crystals of bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20) have been successfully grown using this system. The system consists of a regular Czochralski type pulling system with provision for continuous weighing of the growing crystal to provide feedback for power control.

  7. Cost of Czochralski wafers as a function of diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.; Radics, C.; Kachare, A.

    1980-02-01

    The impact of diameter in the range of 10 to 15 cm on the cost of wafers sliced from Czochralski ingots was analyzed. Increasing silicon waste and decreasing ingot cost with increasing ingot size were estimated along with projected costs. Results indicate a small but continuous decrease in sheet cost with increasing ingot size in this size range. Sheet costs including silicon are projected to be $50 to $60/sq m (1980 $) depending upon technique used.

  8. Developing high coercivity in large diameter cobalt nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, A. H.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Zavašnik, J.

    2016-11-01

    Regardless of the synthetic method, developing high magnetic coercivity in ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) with large diameters has been a challenge over the past two decades. Here, we report on the synthesis of highly coercive cobalt NW arrays with diameters of 65 and 80 nm, which are embedded in porous anodic alumina templates with high-aspect-ratio pores. Using a modified electrochemical deposition method enabled us to reach room temperature coercivity and remanent ratio up to 3000 Oe and 0.70, respectively, for highly crystalline as-synthesized hcp cobalt NW arrays with a length of 8 μm. The first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis showed the presence of both soft and hard magnetic phases along the length of the resulting NWs. To develop higher coercive fields, the length of the NWs was then gradually reduced in order from bottom to top, thereby reaching NW sections governed by the hard phase. Consequently, this resulted in record high coercivities of 4200 and 3850 Oe at NW diameters of 65 and 80 nm, respectively. In this case, the FORC diagrams confirmed a significant reduction in interactions between the magnetic phases of the remaining sections of NWs. At this stage, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and dark-field transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated the formation of highly crystalline bamboo-like sections along the [0 0 2] direction during a progressive pulse-controlled electrochemical growth of NW arrays under optimized parameters. Our results both provide new insights into the growth process, crystalline characteristics and magnetic phases along the length of large diameter NW arrays and, furthermore, develop the performance of pure 3d transition magnetic NWs.

  9. Hitungan Diameter Pipa pada Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum sederhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widiyanto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water sector is one of the public services which is connected tightly to poverty decrease. A small community water supply is more suitable if it uses a simple system which does not need sophisticated planning and construction. Nevertheless, hydraulics calculation should be always conducted accurately because it will influence water supply performance. In this case, pipe hydraulics needs more overview because system reliability depends on pipe capacity. This study discusses two methods of pipe diameter calculation at a simple drinking water supply system. For planning assistance, Directorate General Cipta Karya-Public Work Ministry issued Technical Guideline Book for Simple Drinking Water Construction in 2007. One of its chapters discusses about a method to find pipe diameter based on several tables available, but it is not given an explanation about basic theory of the tables so there is a doubt for planners. For the reason, comparison between the use of the tables (Juknis Method and Darcy-Weisbach Formula to calculate pipe diameter will be discussed. Data from 5 villages in Kebumen Regency will be utilized to support analysis. The result of procedure for making comparison shows that there is no significant difference (less than 4% between the result of calculation by Darcy-Weisbach Formula and Juknis Method with accurate interpolation. Both of the methods can be applied with its advantages and disadvantages. It is suggested that Darcy-Weisbach Formula is always implemented to re-check toward pipe diameter which is available in the market and will be used in the system.

  10. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  11. Conditioning a segmented stem profile model for two diameter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Joe P. Mcclure

    1988-01-01

    The stem profile model of Max and Burkhart (1976) is conditioned for dbh and a second upper stem measurement. This model was applied to a loblolly pine data set using diameter outside bark at 5.3m (i.e., height of 17.3 foot Girard form class) as the second upper stem measurement, and then compared to the original, unconditioned model. Variance of residuals was reduced...

  12. Relationships between stem diameter at breast height (DBH), tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    buba

    amount of light that the tree intercepts for photosynthesis. The tree stem size has its ... the amount of solar radiation intercepted by a tree. (Tanka, 2006). .... 7. Stem Diameter. C ro w n le n g th. Figure 2. Graph of the relationship between stem dbh vs. crown crown length. 0.7. 0.6. 0.5. 0.4. 0.3. 15. 14. 13. 12. 11. 10. 9. 8. 7. 6. 5.

  13. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  14. Visual function and retinal vessel diameters during hyperthermia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Bram, Thue; Kappelgaard, Per

    2017-01-01

    .01), a 10.6-mmHg mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure (p vein...... laser ophthalmoscopy was used to measure retinal trunk vessel diameters. Assessment was made at baseline, during hyperthermia and after cooling. RESULTS: The induction of a mean increase in core body temperature of 1.02°C was associated with a 7.15-mmHg mean reduction in systolic blood pressure (p

  15. Continuing data assessment of 16-inch williams pipeline inspected with the recently developed ultrasonic crack detection tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, D.C.; Gao, M.; Elboujdaini, M.; Li, J.

    2003-01-01

    The in-line-Inspection of Williams' Gas West Pipeline in September 2001 was successfully completed using the newly developed 16-inch UltraScan CD tool of GE PII Pipeline Solutions. The particular pipeline section inspected was known to be affected by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The inspection was carried out using the liquid batching technique developed by PII Pipeline Solutions. A special launcher and receiver barrel was designed to enable the handling of a series of three batching pigs in front of and two behind the inspection tool. A manifold of 'kicker lines' was mounted to the barrel to launch the batching pigs and the inspection tool. The main benefits of this new design were minimizing operational downtime, ensuring complete air/natural gas displacement from the launcher, and providing for a smoother launch procedure. Due to the large elevation changes within the pipeline section, a key concern was maintaining pig velocity within 1m/s for adequate data resolution. Rather than rely on a general 'rule of thumb', a transient analysis was performed to define a range of possible batch sizes and better understand the expected pressure gradients while pumping the water slug. Based on actual data collected during this successful run, the transient model will be refined to better handle friction effects between the sealing cups and disks in future batch inspection runs. The pig data was successfully acquired, processed, verified, and excavations performed in 2002. Results from the twenty digs will be presented, as well as a discussion of the on-going fracture mechanics assessments which are being used to develop an overall integrity management plan for the continued, safe operation of the pipeline. To better understand the mechanism for SCC and enhance the integrity management plan, key metallurgical and environment elements are being investigated with advanced analytical tools, including high resolution SEM and EDS. In-situ crack growth monitoring system is

  16. Clinical outcome of narrow diameter implants inserted into allografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Franco

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narrow diameter implants (NDI (i.e. diameter <3.75 mm are a potential solution for specific clinical situations, such as reduced interradicular bone, thin alveolar crest and replacement of teeth with small cervical diameter. NDI have been available in clinical practice since the 1990s, but only few studies have analyzed their clinical outcome and no study have investigated NDI inserted in fresh-frozen bone (FFB grafts. Thus, a retrospective study on a series of NDI placed in homologue FFB was designed to evaluate their clinical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period between December 2003 and December 2006, 36 patients (22 females and 14 males, mean age 53 years with FFB grafts were selected and 94 different NDI were inserted. The mean follow-up was 25 months. To evaluate the effect of several host-, surgery-, and implant-related factors, marginal bone loss (MBL was considered an indicator of success rate (SCR. The Kaplan Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used. RESULTS: Only 5 out of 94 implants were lost (i.e. survival rate - SVR 95.7% and no differences were detected among the studied variables. On the contrary, the Cox regression showed that the graft site (i.e. maxilla reduced MBL. CONCLUSIONS: NDI inserted in FFB have a high SVR and SCR similar to those reported in previous studies on regular and NDI inserted in non-grafted jaws. Homologue FFB is a valuable material in the insertion of NDI.

  17. A tape-controlled remote automatic diameter measurement machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennison, W.; Salmon, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The machine is designed for the automatic measurement of fuel pins after irradiation in the fast reactors and is a modified version of a machine which has been in use for several years. These modifications consist of mechanical improvements and solid state control circuitry but the design criteria are unchanged. Irradiated fuel pins with diameters up to 0.875 in. are measured at fixed axial positions and angular intervals. Axial stepping of either 1 cm or 1 in. with a standard deviation of 5 x 10 -4 in. and angular rotation by multiples of 18 0 with a non-cumulative error of 1 0 can be selected. Data on axial position to 0.1 in. or 0.1 cm and fuel element diameter to 5 x 10 -5 in. are both punched and printed out for computer evaluation. The standard deviation of a single measurement on cylindrical specimens with an eccentricity of up to at least 0.1 in. should be no worse than 1 x 10 -4 in. No operator attention is required after the pin is positioned in the machine and 40 sets of 10 diameter readings at 36 0 intervals can be performed in an hour. Switches can be set between 1 and 99 to terminate an examination when power is switched off with the machine in its rest position. (author)

  18. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    of up-to-date facilities has been: Equipment for controlling centrifuge tests, data acquisition, preparation of test samples and equipment for and making of lateral load tests. The present research has been narrowed to investigate the static and cyclic behaviour of stiff piles with a diameter of 1-3 m...... in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...... with a capacity of 3.6 MW and placed at water depths beyond 25 m. Different foundation solutions have over the years been applied for offshore turbines, but monopiles are currently the most applied foundation type and are typically with a pile diameter of 4-6 m and applied up to a water depth of 25 m...

  19. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales.

  20. Tree height–diameter allometry across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height–diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  1. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed previously. Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in test cast-iron pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to be focused on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported previously.) Several design issues were identified which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter repair

  2. Geometric interpretation of the ratio of overall diameter to rim crest diameter for lunar and terrestrial craters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Wickman, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical linear relationship has been established by Pike (1967) between the overall diameter and the rim crest diameter for rimmed, flat-floored as well as bowl-shaped, lunar and terrestrial craters formed by impact and explosion. A similar relationship for experimentally formed fluidization craters has been established by Siegal (1971). This relationship is examined in terms of the geometry of the crater and the slope angles of loose materials. The parameter varies from 1.40 to 1.65 and is found to be dependent on mean interior flat floor radius, exterior and interior rim slope angles, angle of aperture of the crater cone, and the volume fraction of crater void accounted for in the rim. The range of the observed parameter can be understood in terms of simple crater geometry by realistic values of the five parameters.

  3. Fabricated nano-fiber diameter as liquid concentration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    Nanofiber is characterized by thin, long, and very soft silica. Taper fibers are made using an easy and low cost chemical method. Etching is conducted with a HF solution to remove cladding and then a low molarity HF solution to reduce the fiber core diameter. One approach to on-line monitoring of the etching process uses spectrophotometer with a white light source. In the aforementioned technique, this method aims to determine the diameter of the reduced core and show the evolution of the two different processes from the nanofiber regime to the fixed regime in which the mode was remote from the surrounding evanescent field, intensity can propagate outside the segment fiber when the core diameter is less than 500 nm. Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

  4. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) 22-Inch Low Noise Research Fan Rig Preliminary Design of ADP-Type Fan 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeracki, Robert J. (Technical Monitor); Topol, David A.; Ingram, Clint L.; Larkin, Michael J.; Roche, Charles H.; Thulin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed on the preliminary design of Fan 3 of NASA s 22-inch Fan Low Noise Research project. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses 1992 levels by 6 dB. The work was performed as part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane (FEGV) studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work. The scope of the program changed accordingly to concentrate on two subtasks: (1) Rig data analysis and CFD code validation and (2) Fan and FEGV optimization studies. The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work. The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from 29.5 to 27deg for the range of airflows tested. The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. The ensuing parametric study on FEGV designs showed the potential for 8 to 10 EPNdB noise reduction relative to the baseline.

  5. Forming of Zr-4 alloy guide tube with varied diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Songyan; Tian Zhenye

    1989-10-01

    A new built-up mould method to manufacture Zr-4 alloy guide tubes with varied diameters at the middle of tube is introduced. The guide tube is used in nuclear power plants for guiding the control rods. This method has many advantages such as simple in forming, low cost of manufacturing, no need of special devices and favour of batch processing. The test results show that the accuracy of size, mechanical properties, resistance to corrosion, grain size and hydrogenate orientation of the end-products can meet the technical needs for nuclear reactor operation

  6. Bubble departure diameter in narrow rectangular channel under rolling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, T.; Chen, B.; Yan, X.; Xu, J.; Huang, Y.; Xiao, Z. [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Forced convective subcooled boiling flow experiments were conducted in a vertical upward narrow rectangular channel under rolling motion. A high-speed digital video camera was used to capture the dynamics of the bubble nucleation process. Bubble departure diameters were obtained from the images. A bubble departure model based on force balance analysis was proposed to predict the bubble departure size under rolling condition by considering the additional centrifugal, tangential and Coriolis force. The proposed model agreed well with the experimental data within the averaged relative deviation of 5%. (author)

  7. Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlasek, P; Duris, S; Palencar, R

    2015-01-01

    Temperature measurements are one of the key factors in many industrial applications that directly affect the quality, effectiveness and safety of manufacturing processes. In many industrial applications these temperature measurements are realized by thermocouples. Accuracy of thermocouples directly affects the quality of the final product of manufacturing and their durability determines the safety margins required. One of the significant effects that affect the precision of the thermocouples is short and long term stability of their voltage output. This stability issue occurs in every type of thermocouples and is caused by multiple factors. In general these factors affect the Seebeck coefficient which is a material constant, which determines the level of generated voltage when exposed to a temperature gradient. Changes of this constant result in the change of the thermocouples voltage output thus indicated temperature which can result in production quality issues, safety and health hazards. These alternations can be caused by physical and chemical changes within the thermocouple lead material. Modification of this material constant can be of temporary nature or permanent. This paper concentrates on the permanent, or irreversible changes of the Seebeck coefficient that occur in commonly used swaged MIMS Type N thermocouples. These permanent changes can be seen as systematic change of the EMF of the thermocouple when it is exposed to a high temperature over a period of time. This change of EMF by time is commonly known as the drift of the thermocouple. This work deals with the time instability of thermocouples EMF at temperatures above 1200 °C. Instability of the output voltage was taken into relation with the lead diameter of the tested thermocouples. This paper concentrates in detail on the change of voltage output of thermocouples of different diameters which were tested at high temperatures for the overall period of more than 210 hours. The gather data from this

  8. Piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor with 1.5 mm diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuxiang; Lim, Siak P; Lee, Kwork H; Zhang, Jingdong; Lim, Leong C; Uchino, Kenji

    2003-04-01

    A piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor has been developed using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic/metal composite tube stator that was 1.5 mm in diameter and 7 mm in length. The micromotor was operated in its first bending vibration mode (approximately 70 kHz), producing speeds from hundreds to over 2000 rpm in both rotational directions. The maximum torque-output was 45 microN-m, which is far superior to previous PZT thin film-based micromotors. This micromotor showed good reliability and stability for more than 300 hours of continued operation.

  9. Corrosion and deposit evaluation in large diameter pipes using radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A.

    2012-01-01

    The reliability and safety of industrial equipment in the factories and processing industries are substantially influenced by degradation processes such as corrosion, erosion, deposits and blocking of pipes. These might lead to low production, unpredictable and costly shutdowns due to repair and replacement and sometimes combined environmental pollution and risk of personnel injuries. Only periodic inspection for the integrity of pipes and equipment can reduce the risk in connection with other maintenance activities. The research explored two methods of radiographic inspection techniques, the double wall technique and the tangential radiographic technique using Ir-192 for evaluating deposits and corrosion attacks across the inner and outer walls of steel pipes with diameter greater than 150 mm with or without insulation. The application of both techniques was conducted depending on pipe diameter, wall thickness, radiation source (Ir-92) and film combination. The iridium source was positioned perpendicular with respect to the pipe axis projecting the double wall of the pipe on the plated radiographic film. With the tangential radiographic technique, the source was placed tangential to the pipe wall and because of its large diameter, the source was collimated to prevent backscatter and also to focus the beam at the target area of interest. All measurements were performed on special designed test pieces to simulate corrosion attack and deposits on industrial pipes. Pitting corrosion measurements based on Tangential Radiographic Technique were more sophisticated, and therefore magnification factor and correction were used to establish the estimated pit depth on the film. The insulating material used to conserve the thermodynamic properties of the transported media had relatively negligible attenuation coefficient compared to the concrete deposit. The two explored techniques were successful in evaluating corrosion attack and deposit on the walls of the pipe and the risk

  10. SERS Raman Sensor Based on Diameter-Modulated Sapphire Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoji, Yutaka

    2010-08-09

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been observed using a sapphire fiber coated with gold nano-islands for the first time. The effect was found to be much weaker than what was observed with a similar fiber coated with silver nanoparticles. Diameter-modulated sapphire fibers have been successfully fabricated on a laser heated pedestal growth system. Such fibers have been found to give a modest increase in the collection efficiency of induced emission. However, the slow response of the SERS effect makes it unsuitable for process control applications.

  11. Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlasek, P.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.

    2015-02-01

    Temperature measurements are one of the key factors in many industrial applications that directly affect the quality, effectiveness and safety of manufacturing processes. In many industrial applications these temperature measurements are realized by thermocouples. Accuracy of thermocouples directly affects the quality of the final product of manufacturing and their durability determines the safety margins required. One of the significant effects that affect the precision of the thermocouples is short and long term stability of their voltage output. This stability issue occurs in every type of thermocouples and is caused by multiple factors. In general these factors affect the Seebeck coefficient which is a material constant, which determines the level of generated voltage when exposed to a temperature gradient. Changes of this constant result in the change of the thermocouples voltage output thus indicated temperature which can result in production quality issues, safety and health hazards. These alternations can be caused by physical and chemical changes within the thermocouple lead material. Modification of this material constant can be of temporary nature or permanent. This paper concentrates on the permanent, or irreversible changes of the Seebeck coefficient that occur in commonly used swaged MIMS Type N thermocouples. These permanent changes can be seen as systematic change of the EMF of the thermocouple when it is exposed to a high temperature over a period of time. This change of EMF by time is commonly known as the drift of the thermocouple. This work deals with the time instability of thermocouples EMF at temperatures above 1200 °C. Instability of the output voltage was taken into relation with the lead diameter of the tested thermocouples. This paper concentrates in detail on the change of voltage output of thermocouples of different diameters which were tested at high temperatures for the overall period of more than 210 hours. The gather data from this

  12. 30 GHz monolithic balanced mixers using an ion-implanted FET-compatible 3-inch GaAs wafer process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauhahn, P.; Contolatis, A.; Sokolov, V.; Chao, C.

    1986-01-01

    An all ion-implanted Schottky barrier mixer diode which has a cutoff frequency greater than 1000 GHz has been developed. This new device is planar and FET-compatible and employs a projection lithography 3-inch wafer process. A Ka-band monolithic balanced mixer based on this device has been designed, fabricated and tested. A conversion loss of 8 dB has been measured with a LO drive of 10 dBm at 30 GHz.

  13. 49 CFR 231.24 - Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of rail. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.24 Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of.... Same as specified for “Box and Other House Cars.” (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for “Box and Other...

  14. Tunable engineered skin mechanics via coaxial electrospun fiber core diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani Nicole; Drexler, Jason William; Powell, Heather Megan

    2014-10-01

    Autologous engineered skin (ES) offers promise as a treatment for massive full thickness burns. Unfortunately, ES is orders of magnitude weaker than normal human skin causing it to be difficult to apply surgically and subject to damage by mechanical shear in the early phases of engraftment. In addition, no manufacturing strategy has been developed to tune ES biomechanics to approximate the native biomechanics at different anatomic locations. To enhance and tune ES biomechanics, a coaxial (CoA) electrospun scaffold platform was developed from polycaprolactone (PCL, core) and gelatin (shell). The ability of the coaxial fiber core diameter to control both scaffold and tissue mechanics was investigated along with the ability of the gelatin shell to facilitate cell adhesion and skin development compared to pure gelatin, pure PCL, and a gelatin-PCL blended fiber scaffold. CoA ES exhibited increased cellular adhesion and metabolism versus PCL alone or gelatin-PCL blend and promoted the development of well stratified skin with a dense dermal layer and a differentiated epidermal layer. Biomechanics of the scaffold and ES scaled linearly with core diameter suggesting that this scaffold platform could be utilized to tailor ES mechanics for their intended grafting site and reduce graft damage in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Fabrication of large diameter alumino-silicate K+ sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, D.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Wu, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Alumino-silicate K + sources have been used in HIF experiments for many years. For example the Neutralized Transport Expt. (NTX) and the High Current Transport Expt. (HCX) are now using this type of ion source with diameters of 2.54 cm and 10 cm respectively. These sources have demonstrated ion currents of 80 mA and 700 mA, for typical HIF pulse lengths of 5-10 (micro)s. The corresponding current density is ∼ 10-15 mA/cm 2 , but much higher current density has been observed using smaller size sources. Recently we have improved our fabrication techniques and, therefore, are able to reliably produce large diameter ion sources with high quality emitter surface without defects. This note provides a detailed description of the procedures employed in the fabrication process. The variables in the processing steps affecting surface quality, such as substrate porosity, powder size distribution, coating technique on large area concave surfaces, drying, and heat firing temperature have been investigated

  16. Machining of the nuclear tube sheet with small hole diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    Regarding the tube sheet for the heat exchanger of Qinshan Phase II extension project, its material is 00Cr19Ni10 forgings, the tube sheet thickness is 125 mm, requiring 178-φ10.35 0 +0.05 hole, the tube array shall take the shape of equilateral triangle, the center distance is 15 mm, and the tube hole roughness is Ra 3.2. The guide sleeve shall be adopted for positioning prior to machining of the high precision small hole of the thick tube sheet, and the gun drill and BTA drill shall be adopted for testing, finally BTA drilling with internal chip removal shall be adopted, this method shall overcome the disadvantage factor of BTA drilling and shall be the new approach for drilling. The diameter of BTA drill is φ10.34 mm. The machined hole diameter shall be φ10.375-φ10.355 mm. The ellipticity of the tube hole shall be less than 0.01 mm, the pipe bridge dimension shall be 4.6 mm, conforming to the requirement of the drawing. The paper presents the precautions during machining so as to provide the reference for the similar pipe hole machining in the future. (author)

  17. Diameter Dependence of Planar Defects in InP Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Minghuan; Han, Zhenlian; Yip, SenPo; Shen, Lifan; Han, Ning; Pun, Edwin Y B; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-09-12

    In this work, extensive characterization and complementary theoretical analysis have been carried out on Au-catalyzed InP nanowires in order to understand the planar defect formation as a function of nanowire diameter. From the detailed transmission electron microscopic measurements, the density of stacking faults and twin defects are found to monotonically decrease as the nanowire diameter is decreased to 10 nm, and the chemical analysis clearly indicates the drastic impact of In catalytic supersaturation in Au nanoparticles on the minimized planar defect formation in miniaturized nanowires. Specifically, during the chemical vapor deposition of InP nanowires, a significant amount of planar defects is created when the catalyst seed sizes are increased with the lower degree of In supersaturation as dictated by the Gibbs-Thomson effect, and an insufficient In diffusion (or Au-rich enhancement) would lead to a reduced and non-uniform In precipitation at the NW growing interface. The results presented here provide an insight into the fabrication of "bottom-up" InP NWs with minimized defect concentration which are suitable for various device applications.

  18. Tunable Engineered Skin Mechanics via Coaxial Electrospun Fiber Core Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani Nicole; Drexler, Jason William

    2014-01-01

    Autologous engineered skin (ES) offers promise as a treatment for massive full thickness burns. Unfortunately, ES is orders of magnitude weaker than normal human skin causing it to be difficult to apply surgically and subject to damage by mechanical shear in the early phases of engraftment. In addition, no manufacturing strategy has been developed to tune ES biomechanics to approximate the native biomechanics at different anatomic locations. To enhance and tune ES biomechanics, a coaxial (CoA) electrospun scaffold platform was developed from polycaprolactone (PCL, core) and gelatin (shell). The ability of the coaxial fiber core diameter to control both scaffold and tissue mechanics was investigated along with the ability of the gelatin shell to facilitate cell adhesion and skin development compared to pure gelatin, pure PCL, and a gelatin-PCL blended fiber scaffold. CoA ES exhibited increased cellular adhesion and metabolism versus PCL alone or gelatin-PCL blend and promoted the development of well stratified skin with a dense dermal layer and a differentiated epidermal layer. Biomechanics of the scaffold and ES scaled linearly with core diameter suggesting that this scaffold platform could be utilized to tailor ES mechanics for their intended grafting site and reduce graft damage in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24712409

  19. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  20. Novel Computerized Method for Measurement of Retinal Vessel Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Guedri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several clinical studies reveal the relationship between alterations in the topologies of the human retinal blood vessel, the outcrop and the disease evolution, such as diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, and macular degeneration. Indeed, the detection of these vascular changes always has gaps. In addition, the manual steps are slow, which may be subjected to a bias of the perceiver. However, we can overcome these troubles using computer algorithms that are quicker and more accurate. This paper presents and investigates a novel method for measuring the blood vessel diameter in the retinal image. The proposed method is based on a thresholding segmentation and thinning step, followed by the characteristic point determination step by the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. Thereafter, it uses the active contours to detect vessel contour. Finally, Heron’s Formula is applied to assure the calculation of vessel diameter. The obtained results for six sample images showed that the proposed method generated less errors compared to other techniques, which confirms the high performance of the proposed method.

  1. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  2. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Webster, Thomas J; Alpaslan, Ece

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  3. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Webster, Thomas J [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02917 (United States); Alpaslan, Ece, E-mail: thomas_webster@brown.edu [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-07-22

    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  4. MODELING AND DESIGN OF INNOVATIVE SMALL DIAMETER GRAVITY SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawrot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modern methods of hydraulic design of an innovative small diameter gravity sewerage system. In this system, domestic wastewater is preliminary treated in septic tanks equipped with outlet filters, thus the effluent features are similar to those of clear water. Innovative non-return valves at the outlets eliminate introduction of air to the system and thus the flows can be treated as one-phase ones. Computer codes EPANET 2 and SWMM 5.0 were applied and compared. Two flow schemes typical for the sewerage system were implemented in EPANET 2, and the third - in a slightly modified SWMM 5.0. Simulation results were validated on empirical data obtained on a laboratory physical model, consisting of four tanks of minimum volumes 600 dm3 each, connecting PE pipelines of diameters 25 mm and 36 mm and relevant sanitary fittings. Water inflows, typical for domestic wastewater outflows from single homesteads, were provided by a pump. Water flows were measured using water meters with pulse outputs, and water levels in tanks by pressure transducers. Hydraulic characteristics of filters and non-return valves were provided. Simulation results showed good agreement with the empirical data. Ranges of values of design parameters, needed for successful application of both codes, were established and discussed.

  5. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Alpaslan, Ece; Webster, Thomas J.

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  6. Longitudinal Lorentz force on a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huakang; Fang Wei; Gu Fuxing; Yang Zongyin; Tong Limin; Qiu Min

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the longitudinal Lorentz forces that a propagating continuous-wave light exerts on a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber. Our theoretical results show that, during the propagating process, the guided light exerts no net time-averaged force on the fiber. Via numerical simulation, we find a significant overall pull force of 0.4 pN/mW acting on a 450-nm-diam fiber tip at a wavelength of 980 nm due to the scattering of the end face and a calculated force distribution reveals the feature of a near-field accumulation. Our results may be helpful to the configuration of optomechanical components or devices based on these fibers.

  7. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ˜14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  8. Bed diameter effects and incipient slugging in gas fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    The coalescence and growth of bubble swarms formed at the distributor of a fluidized bed gives rise to lateral as well as vertical distributions of bubble properties. However, existing models employ average bubble properties obtained largely from semi-empirical considerations. In a recent Paper, the author developed a bubble growth model based on a population balance approach. Analytical expressions were derived for the bubble characteristic distributions and averages. However, the model, developed for unconstrained growth, did not take into account the effect of the bed diameter and the possibility of slugging. In this Paper, the model is extended to take these aspects into account. A slugging criterion is also developed which is expected to be valid for the regime where incipient slugging depends on the bed height as well as the region where bed height does not significantly affect minimum slugging conditions

  9. New anastomosis technique for (laparoscopic) instrumental small-diameter anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöb, O; Schmid, R; Schlumpf, R; Klotz, H P; Spiess, M; Largiadèr, F

    1995-04-01

    This study presents a new technique for visceral anastomosis. The principle consists of connecting the two parts to be anastomosed around a reabsorbable stent which is transluminally introduced into small-diameter viscus, where it is fixed. Advancing a larger tube along the axis of the machine, the larger, perforated viscus is inverted and pulled over the stent, and finally a rubber band pops off the machine endoluminally in order to fix the intestinal walls in seroserosal contact onto the stent. To evaluate this "micro" anastomosis, a biliary bypass (choledochojejunostomy and roux-en-y-loop) was performed in ten pigs. Nine of ten animals showed biliary bypass with good runoff in contrast radiography and completely reabsorbed stent after a 3-month follow-up. Weight gain, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase were normal. This technology demonstrates a safe and quick way to perform instrumental "micro" anastomosis without remnant foreign material.

  10. Evaluation of crown mesiodistal diameter of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ravanmehr

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate mesiodistal diameter of permanent teeth and evaluating it's distribution in Iran. In current study, 850 plastery impressions or 16590 teeth were precisely measured by a digital coulis with 0.01 mm accuracy.The obtained measures of the permanent teeth are shown in table 1. Table (4 demonstrates the symmetry of left and right maxillary and mandibular teeth. Obtainedmeasurements in Table 1 were compared with Gran's measures (Table 2 which are shown in Table (3.Bolton analysis was done and results were found close to the BolType text or a website address or translate a document.ton measures. It was concluded that it is better to replace measurements of our society instead of Bolton's. Since we found minor difference with the measures of other researchers, especially for teeth anterior to first molar, using our measures in treatment plans would not bring about any problem.

  11. Decellularized ovine arteries as small-diameter vascular grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, L; Cao, G; Gualerzi, A; Boschetti, F; Loy, F

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its complications still represent the leading cause of death in the developed countries. While autologous blood vessels may be regarded as the best solution for peripheral and coronary bypass, they are unavailable in most patients. Even though tissue engineering techniques are often applied to the development of small-diameter vascular grafts, limiting factors of this approach are represented by the lack of essential extracellular matrix proteins and/or poor biomechanical properties of the scaffolds used. Along these lines, the aim of this study was to develop a decellularization protocol for ovine carotids to be used as suitable small-diameter vascular grafts. Samples were treated either with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or with Trypsin and Triton X-100; a final nuclease digestion was performed for both protocols. Morphological analyses demonstrate complete removal of nuclei and cellular components in treated vessels, also confirmed by significant reduction in wall thickness and DNA content. Essential extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin are well preserved after decellularization. From a mechanical point of view, Trypsin and Triton X-100 treated arteries show elastic modules and compliance comparable to native carotids, whereas the use of SDS makes samples stiffer, with a significant decrease in the compliance mean value and an increase in longitudinal and circumferential Young’s modules. It is demonstrated that the treatment where Trypsin and Triton X-100 are combined guarantees complete decellularization of carotids, with no significant alteration of biomechanical and structural properties, thus preserving a suitable environment for adhesion, proliferation, and migration of cells. (paper)

  12. Slug Flow Analysis in Vertical Large Diameter Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, David

    The existence of slug flow in vertical co-current two-phase flow is studied experimentally and theoretically. The existence of slug flow in vertical direction implies the presence of Taylor bubbles separated by hydraulically sealed liquid slugs. Previous experimental studies such as Ombere-Ayari and Azzopardi (2007) showed the evidence of the non-existence of Taylor bubbles for extensive experimental conditions. Models developed to predict experimental behavior [Kocamustafaogullari et al. (1984), Jayanti and Hewitt. (1990) and Kjoolas et al. (2017)] suggest that Taylor bubbles may disappear at large diameters and high velocities. A 73-ft tall and 101.6-mm internal diameter test facility was used to conduct the experiments allowing holdup and pressure drop measurements at large L/D. Superficial liquid and gas velocities varied from 0.05-m/s to 0.2 m/s and 0.07 m/s to 7.5 m/s, respectively. Test section pressure varied from 38 psia to 84 psia. Gas compressibility effect was greatly reduced at 84 psia. The experimental program allowed to observe the flow patterns for flowing conditions near critical conditions predicted by previous models (air-water, 1016 mm ID, low mixture velocities). Flow patterns were observed in detail using wire-mesh sensor measurements. Slug-flow was observed for a narrow range of experimental conditions at low velocities. Churn-slug and churn-annular flows were observed for most of the experimental data-points. Cap-bubble flow was observed instead of bubbly flow at low vSg. Wire-mesh measurements showed that the liquid has a tendency to remain near to the walls. The standard deviation of radial holdup profile correlates to the flow pattern observed. For churn-slug flow, the profile is convex with a single maximum near the pipe center while it exhibits a concave shape with two symmetric maxima close to the wall for churn-annular flow. The translational velocity was measured by two consecutive wire-mesh sensor crosscorrelation. The results show

  13. Microbes make average 2 nanometer diameter crystalline UO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    It is well known that phylogenetically diverse groups of microorganisms are capable of catalyzing the reduction of highly soluble U(VI) to highly insoluble U(IV), which rapidly precipitates as uraninite (UO2). Because biological uraninite is highly insoluble, microbial uranyl reduction is being intensively studied as the basis for a cost-effective in-situ bioremediation strategy. Previous studies have described UO2 biomineralization products as amorphous or poorly crystalline. The objective of this study is to characterize the nanocrystalline uraninite in detail in order to determine the particle size, crystallinity, and size-related structural characteristics, and to examine the implications of these for reoxidation and transport. In this study, we obtained U-contaminated sediment and water from an inactive U mine and incubated them anaerobically with nutrients to stimulate reductive precipitation of UO2 by indigenous anaerobic bacteria, mainly Gram-positive spore-forming Desulfosporosinus and Clostridium spp. as revealed by RNA-based phylogenetic analysis. Desulfosporosinus sp. was isolated from the sediment and UO2 was precipitated by this isolate from a simple solution that contains only U and electron donors. We characterized UO2 formed in both of the experiments by high resolution-TEM (HRTEM) and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS). The results from HRTEM showed that both the pure and the mixed cultures of microorganisms precipitated around 1.5 - 3 nm crystalline UO2 particles. Some particles as small as around 1 nm could be imaged. Rare particles around 10 nm in diameter were also present. Particles adhere to cells and form colloidal aggregates with low fractal dimension. In some cases, coarsening by oriented attachment on \\{111\\} is evident. Our preliminary results from XAFS for the incubated U-contaminated sample also indicated an average diameter of UO2 of 2 nm. In nanoparticles, the U-U distance obtained by XAFS was 0.373 nm, 0.012 nm

  14. Attached cavitation at a small diameter ultrasonic horn tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Dular, Matevž

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids, for instance, for cell disruption or sonochemical reactions. They are operated typically in the frequency range up to about 50 kHz and have tip diameters from some mm to several cm. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e., below the acoustic driving frequency. Here, we present a systematic study of the cavitation dynamics in water at a 20 kHz horn tip of 3 mm diameter. The system was investigated by high-speed imaging with simultaneous recording of the acoustic emissions. Measurements were performed under variation of acoustic power, air saturation, viscosity, surface tension, and temperature of the liquid. Our findings show that the liquid properties play no significant role in the dynamics of the attached cavitation at the small ultrasonic horn. Also the variation of the experimental geometry, within a certain range, did not change the dynamics. We believe that the main two reasons for the peculiar dynamics of cavitation on a small ultrasonic horn are the higher energy density on a small tip and the inability of the big tip to "wash" away the gaseous bubbles. Calculation of the somewhat adapted Strouhal number revealed that, similar to the hydrodynamic cavitation, values which are relatively low characterize slow cavitation structure dynamics. In cases where the cavitation follows the driving frequency this value lies much higher - probably at Str > 20. In the spirit to distinguish the observed phenomenon with other cavitation dynamics at ultrasonic transducer surfaces, we suggest to term the observed phenomenon of attached cavities partly covering the full horn

  15. Buckling Test Results from the 8-Foot-Diameter Orthogrid-Stiffened Cylinder Test Article TA01. [Test Dates: 19-21 November 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Haynie, Waddy T.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the testing of cylinder test article SBKF-P2-CYLTA01 (referred to herein as TA01) are presented. The testing was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), November 19?21, 2008, in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project.i The test was used to verify the performance of a newly constructed buckling test facility at MSFC and to verify the test article design and analysis approach used by the SBKF project researchers. TA01 is an 8-foot-diameter (96-inches), 78.0-inch long, aluminum-lithium (Al-Li), orthogrid-stiffened cylindrical shell similar to those used in current state-of-the-art launch vehicle structures and was designed to exhibit global buckling when subjected to compression loads. Five different load sequences were applied to TA01 during testing and included four sub-critical load sequences, i.e., loading conditions that did not cause buckling or material failure, and one final load sequence to buckling and collapse. The sub-critical load sequences consisted of either uniform axial compression loading or combined axial compression and bending and the final load sequence subjected TA01 to uniform axial compression. Traditional displacement transducers and strain gages were used to monitor the test article response at nearly 300 locations and an advanced digital image correlation system was used to obtain low-speed and high-speed full-field displacement measurements of the outer surface of the test article. Overall, the test facility and test article performed as designed. In particular, the test facility successfully applied all desired load combinations to the test article and was able to test safely into the postbuckling range of loading, and the test article failed by global buckling. In addition, the test results correlated well with initial pretest predictions.

  16. Modelling of tomato stem diameter growth rate based on physiological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Tan, J.; Lv, T.

    2017-01-01

    The stem diameter is an important parameter describing the growth of tomato plant during vegetative growth stage. A stem diameter growth model was developed to predict the response of plant growth under different conditions. By analyzing the diurnal variations of stem diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), it was found that the stem diameter measured at 3:00 am was the representative value as the daily basis of tomato stem diameter. Based on the responses of growth rate in stem diameter to light and temperature, a linear regression relationship was applied to establish the stem diameter growth rate prediction model for the vegetative growth stage in tomato and which was further validated by experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE) were used to test the correlation between measured and modeled stem diameter variations. Results showed that the model can be used in prediction for stem diameter growth rate at vegetative growth stage in tomato. (author)

  17. First phase of small diameter heater experiments in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, we have undertaken small diameter heater experiments in the G-Tunnel Underground Facility on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These experiments are to evaluate the thermal and hydrothermal behavior which might be encountered if heat producing nuclear waste were disposed of in welded and nonwelded tuffs. The two Phase I experiments discussed have focused on vertical borehole emplacements. In each experiment, temperatures were measured along the surface of the 10.2-cm-dia heater and the 12.7-cm-dia boreholes. For each experiment, measurements were compared with computer model representations. Maximum temperatures reached were: 196 0 C for the welded tuff after 21 days of operations at 800W and 173 0 C for the nonwelded tuff after 35 days of operations at 500W. Computed results indicate that the same heat transfer model (includes conduction and radiation only) can describe the behavior of both tuffs using empirical techniques to describe pore water vaporization. Hydrothermal measurements revealed heat-indiced water migration. Results indicated that small amounts of liquid water migrated into the welded tuff borehole early in the heating period. Once the rock-wall temperatures exceeded 94 0 C, in both tuffs, there was mass transport of water vapor as evidence indicated condensation cooler regions. Borehole pressures remained essentially ambient during the thermal periods

  18. Small-Diameter PTFE Portosystemic Shunts: Portocaval vs Mesocaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Shields

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven patients with failed sclerotherapy received a mesocaval interposition shunt with an externally supported, ringed polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis of either 10 or 12 mm diameter. Thirty-one patients had Child-Pugh gradeA disease and 26 grade B; all had a liver volume of 1000– 2500 ml. Follow-up ranged from 16 months to 6 years 3 months. Three patients (5 per cent died in the postoperative period. There were two postoperative recurrences of variceal haemorrhage and one recurrent bleed in the second year after surgery. The cumulative shunt patency rate was 95 per cent and the incidence of encephalopathy 9 per cent; the latter was successfully managed by protein restriction and/or lactulose therapy. The actuarial survival rate for the whole group at 6 years was 78 per cent, for those with Child-Pugh grade A 88 per cent and for grade B 67 per cent. Small-lumen mesocaval interposition shunting achieves portal decompression, preserves hepatopetal flow, has a low incidence of shunt thrombosis, prevents recurrent variceal bleeding and is not associated with significant postoperative encephalopathy.

  19. Internal Diameter HVAF Spraying for Wear and Corrosion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyphout, C.; Björklund, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electrolytic hard chrome (EHC) methods are still widely utilized in the printing, automotive and off-shore industries. Alternative methods to EHC have been widely developed in the past decade by conventional HVOF processes and more recently HVAF systems, which are processing at higher kinetic energy and more particularly at lower temperature, significantly increasing wear and corrosion resistance properties. A dedicated internal diameter HVAF system is here presented, and coatings characteristics are compared to the one obtained by standard HVAF coatings. Specially R&D designed fixtures with inside bore of 200 mm have been manufactured for this purpose, with a possibility to spray samples at increasing depth up to 400 mm while simulating closed bottom bore spraying. WC-based and Cr3C2-based powder feedstock materials have been deposited onto high-strength steel substrates. Respective coating microstructures, thermally induced stresses and corrosion resistance are discussed for further optimization of coating performances. The fact that the ID-HVAF system is utilized both for spraying and gritblasting procedures is also given a particular interest.

  20. Magnetorheology of submicron diameter iron microwires dispersed in silicone oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R C; Karli, J O; Vavreck, A N; Zimmerman, D T; Ngatu, G T; Wereley, N M

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the magnetorheological (MR) properties of suspensions containing iron microwires with 260 nm diameter and two distinct length distributions of 5.4 ± 5.2 µm and 7.6 ± 5.1 µm suspended in silicone oil (0.45 Pa s). The rheological properties of these fluids were determined using a parallel plate rheometer equipped with a variable strength electromagnet. The shear stress was measured as a function of shear rate for increasing applied magnetic fields. These results were modeled using the Bingham-plastic constitutive model to determine the apparent yield stress and viscosity as a function of increasing volume fraction and length of microwires. At a saturated magnetic flux density, the yield stress using the 5.4 µm microwires was found to be 0.65, 2.23, and 4.76 kPa for the 2, 4, and 6 vol% suspensions, respectively. For the 7.6 µm wires, the yield stress increases to 8.2 kPa for the 6 vol% suspension. Compared with conventional MR fluids employing spherical particles, the degree of settling is markedly decreased in the microwire-based fluids. At 6 vol%, conventional fluids display appreciable settling whereas the microwire-based fluids display no discernable settling. Moreover, the rod-shaped microwires are shown to increase the yield stress of the fluids and enhance the MR performance

  1. Analysis of risk and dose when using thermal protection on non-fissile and fissile-excepted UF{sub 6} 48-inch cylinder packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D.B.; Lowe, L.M. [SENES Consultants Ltd., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada); Elizabeth Darrough, M.; Jones, R.H.

    2004-07-01

    An industry consortium of owners of large (i.e., the 48-inch or 48X and 48Y) cylinders commissioned an independent study to evaluate the safety of using thermal protective covers on the cylinders and the likelihood that the cylinders would experience the regulations' hypothetical thermal accident. The study examined the demonstrable risks of the protective covers, i.e., increased dose to workers and the potential for accidents associated with the extra handling, vs. the theoretical risk of the UF{sub 6} cylinders' encountering the hypothetical fire, to evaluate the appropriateness of using the thermal protective covers.

  2. An off-the-shelf guider for the Palomar 200-inch telescope: interfacing amateur astronomy software with professional telescopes for an easy life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a simple but effective guider for use with the Oxford-SWIFT integral field spectrograph on the Palomar 200-inch telescope. The guider uses mainly off-the-shelf components, including commercial amateur astronomy software to interface with the CCD camera, calculating guiding corrections, and send guide commands to the telescope. The only custom piece of software is an driver to provide an interface between the Palomar telescope control system and the industry standard 'ASCOM' system. Using existing commercial software provided a very cheap guider (guiding, and could easily be adapted to any other professional telescope

  3. Analysis of risk and dose when using thermal protection on non-fissile and fissile-excepted UF6 48-inch cylinder packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.; Lowe, L.M.; Elizabeth Darrough, M.; Jones, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    An industry consortium of owners of large (i.e., the 48-inch or 48X and 48Y) cylinders commissioned an independent study to evaluate the safety of using thermal protective covers on the cylinders and the likelihood that the cylinders would experience the regulations' hypothetical thermal accident. The study examined the demonstrable risks of the protective covers, i.e., increased dose to workers and the potential for accidents associated with the extra handling, vs. the theoretical risk of the UF 6 cylinders' encountering the hypothetical fire, to evaluate the appropriateness of using the thermal protective covers

  4. Diameter Control and Photoluminescence of ZnO Nanorods from Trialkylamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Andelman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel solution method to control the diameter of ZnO nanorods is reported. Small diameter (2-3 nm nanorods were synthesized from trihexylamine, and large diameter (50–80 nm nanorods were synthesized by increasing the alkyl chain length to tridodecylamine. The defect (green emission of the photoluminescence (PL spectra of the nanorods varies with diameter, and can thus be controlled by the diameter control. The small ZnO nanorods have strong green emission, while the large diameter nanorods exhibit a remarkably suppressed green band. We show that this observation supports surface oxygen vacancies as the defect that gives rise to the green emission.

  5. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Spring 2006 - natural color - countywide 12 inch pixel orthophotography - County of Polk, Wisconsin, Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2006. Spring 2006 - natural color - countywide 12 inch pixel orthophotography - County of Polk,...

  6. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, 4 inch aerial photography (color, infrared, and color oblique) in urban areas, 1 foot in national forest, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Los Angeles County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2006. 4 inch aerial photography (color, infrared, and color oblique) in urban areas, 1 foot in...

  7. Comparison of CT-Determined Pulmonary Artery Diameter, Aortic Diameter, and Their Ratio in Healthy and Diverse Clinical Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available The main pulmonary artery diameter (mPA, aortic diameter (Ao, and the mPA/Ao ratio, easily measured using chest computed tomography (CT, provide information that enables the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiopulmonary diseases. Here, we used CT to determine the sex- and age-specific distribution of normal reference values for mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio in an adult Korean population.Data from non-contrast, ECG-gated, coronary-calcium-scoring CT images of 2,547 individuals who visited the Health Screening Center of the Severance Hospital were analyzed. Healthy individuals (n = 813 included those who do not have hypertension, diabetes, asthma, obstructive lung disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, smoking, obesity, and abnormal CT findings. Both mPA and Ao were measured at the level of bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery.The mean mPA and Ao were 25.9 mm and 30.0 mm in healthy participants, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. Medical conditions associated with a larger mPA were male, obesity, smoking history, hypertension, and diabetes. A larger mPA/Ao ratio was associated with female, the obese, non-smoker, normotensive, and normal serum level of lipids, while a smaller mPA/Ao ratio was associated with older age. In healthy individuals, the 90th percentile sex-specific mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio were, 31.3 mm (95% CI 29.9-32.2, 36.8 mm (95% CI 35.7-37.5, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.07 in males, and 29.6 mm (95% CI 29.1-30.2, 34.5 mm (95% CI 34.1-34.9, and 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.06 in females, respectively.In the Korean population, the mean mPA reference values in male and female were 26.5 mm and 25.8 mm, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. These values were influenced by a variety of underlying medical conditions.

  8. Transesophageal echocardiographic strain imaging predicts aortic biomechanics: Beyond diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmott, Alexander; Alzahrani, Haitham; Alreishidan, Mohammed; Therrien, Judith; Leask, Richard L; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2018-03-11

    Clinical guidelines recommend resection of ascending aortic aneurysms at diameters 5.5 cm or greater to prevent rupture or dissection. However, approximately 40% of all ascending aortic dissections occur below this threshold. We propose new transesophageal echocardiography strain-imaging moduli coupled with blood pressure measurements to predict aortic dysfunction below the surgical threshold. A total of 21 patients undergoing aortic resection were recruited to participate in this study. Transesophageal echocardiography imaging of the aortic short-axis and invasive radial blood pressure traces were taken for 3 cardiac cycles. By using EchoPAC (GE Healthcare, Madison, Wis) and postprocessing in MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, Mass), circumferential stretch profiles were generated and combined with the blood pressure traces. From these data, 2 in vivo stiffness moduli were calculated: the Cardiac Cycle Pressure Modulus and Cardiac Cycle Stress Modulus. From the resected aortic ring, testing squares were isolated for ex vivo mechanical analysis and histopathology. Each square underwent equibiaxial tensile testing to generate stress-stretch profiles for each patient. Two ex vivo indices were calculated from these profiles (energy loss and incremental stiffness) for comparison with the Cardiac Cycle Pressure Modulus and Cardiac Cycle Stress Modulus. The echo-derived stiffness moduli demonstrate positive significant covariance with ex vivo tensile biomechanical indices: energy loss (vs Cardiac Cycle Pressure Modulus: R 2  = 0.5873, P biomechanics and histopathology, which demonstrates the added benefit of using simple echocardiography-derived biomechanics to stratify patient populations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Bloch-Wave Engineered Submicron Diameter Micropillars with Quality Factors Exceeding 10,000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofling, S.; Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed....

  10. Bark thickness related to tree diameter in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1969-01-01

    Bark thickness for sugar maple trees in Vermont was found to be related to tree diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). The relationship was positive-as the diameter increased, the bark thickness increased.

  11. Effect of bubble interface parameters on predicted of bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianjun; Xie Tianzhou; Zhou Wenbin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping

    2014-01-01

    The predicted model on the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel is built by analysis of forces acting on the bubble, and effects of bubble interface parameters such as the bubble inclination angle, upstream contact angle, downstream contact angle and bubble contact diameter on predicted bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are analysed by comparing with the visual experimental data. Based on the above results, the bubble interface parameters as the input parameters used to obtain the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel are assured, and the bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are predicted by solving the force equation. The predicted bubble departure diameters are verified by the 58 bubble departure diameters obtained from the vertical and inclined visual experiment, and the predicted results agree with the experimental results. The different forces acting on the bubble are obtained and the effect of thermal parameters in this experiment on bubble departure diameters is analysed. (authors)

  12. Vessel diameter measurements in gadolinium contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRA of peripheral arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, J.J.M.; Geest, van der R.J.; Wasser, M.N.J.M.; Linden, van der E.L.; Walsum, van T.; Assen, van H.C.; Roos, de A.; Vanderschoot, J.; Reiber, J.H.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the possibilities for quantification of vessel diameters of peripheral arteries in gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd CE MRA) were evaluated. Absolute vessel diameter measurements were assessed objectively and semi-automatically in maximum intensity

  13. Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures, S.

    1984-01-01

    The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Comparative Investigation on 0.4 inch SBLOCA Scenario with Single and Dual Train Passive Safety Injection Systems using SMART-ITL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Sik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yun, Eun-Koo; Choi, Nam-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Bang, Yoon-Gon; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Seo, Chan-Jong; Yi, Sung-Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Standard Design Approval (SDA) for SMART was certificated in 2012 at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In December 2015, Saudi Arabia and Korea started conducting a three-year project of Pre-Project Engineering (PPE) to prepare a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and to review the feasibility of constructing SMART reactors in Saudi Arabia. In addition, an Integral Test Loop for the SMART design (SMART-ITL, or FESTA) has been constructed and it finished its commissioning tests in 2012. Consequently, a set of Design Base Accident (DBA) scenarios have been simulated using SMART-ITL. In this paper, a comparative investigation was performed on 0.4 inch SBLOCA scenario with single and dual train passive safety injection systems using SMART-ITL. In this paper, the effect of the train number of PSIS on a SBLOCA scenario is investigated for a break size of 0.4 inch. The single and dual train tests show a similar trend in general but the injected water migrates slightly differently in the RV and is discharged through the break nozzle. The parameters of the RV pressure, RV water level, accumulated break mass, and injection flowrates from the CMT and SIT were compared. Compared with the single train test, the increased injection rates from the two trains of the PSIS during the dual train test raised the RV water level, ensuring the safety of the reactor core.

  15. Determination of pore diameter from rejection measurements with a mixture of oligosaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Gomez, Heriberto; Rogel-Hernandez, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California-Tijuana, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas e Ingenieria, Tijuana, BC (Mexico); Lin, Shui Wai [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion del Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Apdo. Postal 1166, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2005-04-01

    This paper present a method to determine pore diameters and effective transport through membranes using a mixture of oligosaccharides. The results are compared with the Maxwell-Stefan equations. The partition coefficients of the solutes are a function of the pore diameter according to the Ferry equation. Thus, with the pore diameter as the only unknown parameter, rejection is described and the pore diameter is obtained by a Marquardt-Levenberg optimization procedure. (orig.)

  16. A diameter increment model for Red Fir in California and Southern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1992-01-01

    Periodic (10-year) diameter increment of individual red fir trees in Califomia and southern Oregon can be predicted from initial diameter and crown ratio of each tree, site index, percent slope, and aspect of the site. The model actually predicts the natural logarithm ofthe change in squared diameter inside bark between the startand the end of a 10-year growth period....

  17. Mixed-effects height–diameter models for ten conifers in the inland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To demonstrate the utility of mixed-effects height–diameter models when conducting forest inventories, mixedeffects height–diameter models are presented for several commercially and ecologically important conifers in the inland Northwest of the USA. After obtaining height–diameter measurements from a plot/stand of ...

  18. Comprehensive database of diameter-based biomass regressions for North American tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    A database consisting of 2,640 equations compiled from the literature for predicting the biomass of trees and tree components from diameter measurements of species found in North America. Bibliographic information, geographic locations, diameter limits, diameter and biomass units, equation forms, statistical errors, and coefficients are provided for each equation,...

  19. Basic maneuvers for an inspection robot for small diameter gas distribution mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin Christian; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    This video shows the design of a mechanical structure of a miniature pipe inspection robot (MPR) capable of moving trough very small pipes (up to 41 mm inner diameter) as well as a wide range of diameters (63 to 125 mm outer diameter). The requirement to negotiate bends, T-joints and steep

  20. Prognostic significance of maximum primary tumor diameter in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Rui-Liang; Zhao, Hai; Chen, Hai-Yang; Li, Shao-En; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of maximum primary tumor diameter (MPTD) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive, newly-diagnosed NPC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of MPTD. Median follow-up was 66 months (range, 2–82 months). Median MPTD in stage T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 27.9, 37.5, 45.0 and 61.3 mm, respectively. The proportion of T1 patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm was 62.3%; 72% and 62.9% of T2 and T3 patients had a MPTD > 30–50 mm, and 83.5% of T4 patients had a MPTD > 50 mm. For patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, > 30–50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS, DMFS and LRFS rates were 85.2%, 74.2% and 56.3% (P < 0.001); 87%, 80.7% and 62.8% (P < 0.001); 88.7%, 86.4% and 72.5% (P = 0.003); and 98.2%, 93.2% and 86.3% (P = 0.012), respectively. In multivariate analysis, MPTD was a prognostic factor for OS, FFS and DMFS, and the only independent prognostic factor for LRFS. For T3-T4 patients with a MPTD ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS and DMFS rates were 70.4% vs. 58.4% (P = 0.010), 77.5% vs. 65.2% (P = 0.013) and 83.6% vs. 73.6% (P = 0.047), respectively. In patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, 5-year LRFS in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 100%, 100%, 88.9% and 100% (P = 0.172). Our data suggest that MPTD is an independent prognostic factor in NPC, and incorporation of MPTD might lead to a further refinement of T staging

  1. Study of the equivalent diameter concept for heat transfer by forced convection in annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez T, D.

    1994-01-01

    This work describes a comparative analysis between experimental values of heat transfer coefficients in fully developed turbulent flow for a concentric annular channel, and those calculated with the empirical correlations obtained for tubes by Dittus-Boelter, Sieder and Tate, a modified Colburn equation, and that proposed by Gnielinski which applies the analogy between friction and heat transfer. The coefficients were calculated by means of two different equivalent diameters: 1) The hydraulic equivalent diameter; and 2) The heated equivalent diameter. It was concluded that the hydraulic equivalent diameter gives much better results than the heated equivalent diameter. (Author)

  2. Can ratio of the biggest tumor diameter to total tumor diameter be a new parameter in the differential diagnosis of agressive and favorable multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Abbas Ali; Özdemir, Didem; Çuhacı, Neslihan; Başer, Hüsniye; Dirikoç, Ahmet; Aydın, Cevdet; Yazgan, Aylin Kılıç; Ersoy, Reyhan; Çakır, Bekir

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of a new parameter -ratio of the biggest tumor diameter to total tumor diameter- for the differentiation of agressive and favorable papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC). The diameter of the biggest tumor focus was taken as the primary tumor diameter. Total tumor diameter was calculated as the sum of the maximal diameter of each lesion. Ratio of primary tumor diameter to total tumor diameter was defined as tumor diameter ratio (TDR). Positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of TDR to predict capsular invasion, extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) were determined. Mean TDR was significantly lower in multifocal PTMC patients with capsular invasion, ETE, lymphovascular invasion and LNM compared to patients without these features. The sensitivities of TDR for the detection of LNM, ETE and capsular invasion were 100%, 100% and 94.2%, respectively. Specificity of TDR was 86.2% for LNM, 88% for ETE and 94.7% for capsular invasion. Best cut off values of TDR that can predict capsular invasion, ETE and LNM in multifocal PTMC were 0.62, 0.57 and 0.56, respectively. Multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with capsular invasion, ETE and LNM had significantly lower mean TDR when compared to ones without these features. Decreased TDR was associated with capsular invasion, ETE and LNM in patients with multifocal PTMC and PTC. This new parameter might be particularly helpful for the detection of aggressive behavior in multifocal PTMCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR 44 Inch Lead-Boron (LB44) Bucket Environment (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-CL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the 44 inch Lead-Boron (LB44) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  4. Description and operating performance of a parallel-rail electric-arc system with helium driver gas for the Langley 6-inch expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A parallel-rail arc-discharge system to heat and pressurize the initial helium driver gas of the Langley 6-inch expansion tube is described. This system was designed for a 2.44-m-long driver vessel rated at 138 MPa, with a distance between rails of 20.3 cm. Electric energy was obtained from a capacitor storage system rated at 12,000 V with a maximum energy of 5 MJ. Tests were performed over a range of energy from 1.74 MJ to the maximum value. The operating experience and system performance are discussed, along with results from a limited number of expansion-tube tests with air and carbon dioxide as test gases.

  5. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Central Cavity Free-Field Environment with the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-FF-CC-32-cl).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naranjo, Gerald E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lippert, Lance L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document presents the facilit y - recommended characteri zation o f the neutron, prompt gamma - ray, and delayed gamma - ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor ( ACRR ) for the cen tral cavity free - field environment with the 32 - inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environmen t is ACRR - FF - CC - 32 - cl. The neutron, prompt gamma - ray , and delayed gamma - ray energy spectra , uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma - ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the cavity . Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples . Acknowledgements The authors wish to th ank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work . Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.

  6. Evaluation of pulmonary nodules and lung cancer with one-inch crystal gamma coincidence positron emission tomography/CT versus dedicated positron emission tomography/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodie, K.; Lau, E.; Hicks, R. J.; Cherk, M. H.; Turlakow, A.; Skinner, S.; Kelly, M. J.; Kalff, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dedicated positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanners using BGO and related detectors (d-PET) have become standard imaging instruments in many malignancies. Hybrid gamma camera systems using Nal detectors in coincidence mode (g-PET) have been compared to d-PET but reported usefulness has been variable when gamma cameras with half-inch to three-fourth-inch thick crystals have been used without CT. Our aim was to compare g-PET with a 1-in.-thick crystal and inbuilt CT for lesion localization and attenuation correction (g-PET/CT) and d-PET/CT in patients presenting with potential and confirmed lung malignancies. One hour after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), patients underwent BGO d-PET/CT from jaw to proximal thigh. This was followed by one to two bed position g-PET/CT 194 + 27 min after FDG. Each study pair was independently analysed with concurrent CT. d-PET/CT was interpreted by a radiologist experienced in both PET and CT, and g-PET/CT by consensus reading of an experienced PET physician and an experienced CT radiologist, A TNM score was assigned and studies were then unblinded and compared. Fifty-seven patients underwent 58 scan pairs over 2 years. Eighty-nine percent concordance was shown between g-PET/CT and d-PET/CT for the assessment of I intrapulmonary lesions, with 100% concordance for intrapulmonary lesions I >10 mm (36 of 36). Eighty-eight per cent (51 of 58) concordance was shown between g-PET/CTand d-PET/CTforTNM staging. Coincidence imaging usingan optimized dual-head 1-in.-thick crystal gamma camera with inbuilt CT compares reasonably well with dedicated PET/CT for evaluation of indeterminate pulmonary lesions and staging of pulmonary malignancies and may be of some] value when d-PET/CT is not readily available.

  7. An experimental investigation of forced convection burnout in high pressure water. Part IV, Large diameter tubes at about 1600 p.s.i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1966-11-01

    The report presents 727 burnout results for tubes with uniform and non-uniform axial heat flux profiles. Most of the data are at 1600 p.s.i, although there are a limited number at 1250 and 1800 p.s.i. Tube diameters ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 inches. A new correlation for uniform flax data at these pressures is presented, having R.M.S. errors between 4 and 6%. A table of constant terms for this new uniform flux correlation is given, together with Macbeth's values for pressures of 560, 1000 and 2000 p.s.i. Experimental and predicted burnout powers for non-uniform axial heat fluxes are compared and the existing methods of prediction are found to be in error by up to 20%. A new method for predicting burnout with non-uniform axial heat flux is developed which correlates all published data to an R.M.S. error of 6.7%. (author)

  8. Geological-geotechnical studies for siting the Superconducting Super Collider in Illinois: results of drilling large-diameter holes in 1986. Environmental geology notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiden, R.C.; Hasek, M.J.; Gendron, C.R.; Curry, B.B.; Graese, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) has completed an extensive four-year exploration of the area near Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) at Batavia, 30 miles west of Chicago. The comprehensive investigation was conducted to locate the most suitable site for construction and operation of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) - a 20-trillion electron volt (TeV) subatomic particle accelerator. Underlying the proposed site in northeastern Illinois, between 250 and 600 feet deep, are the Galena and Platteville dolomites - strong, stable, nearly impermeable bedrock. To confirm that these bedrock units are suitable for construction of the SSC, ISGS geologists designed a four-year study including test drilling, rock sampling and analysis, geophysical logging, hydrogeologic studies, and seismic exploration. Initially, the study covered parts of six counties. Subsequent research focused on successively smaller areas until the final stage of test drilling in spring 1986 concentrated on a proposed corridor for the SSC tunnel. From 1984 to 1986, thirty 3-inch-diameter test holes were drilled and more than 2 miles of bedrock core was recovered for stratigraphic description and geotechnical analysis

  9. Calibration of the Diameter Distribution Derived from the Area-based Approach with Individual Tree-based Diameter Estimates Using the Airborne Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hou, Z.; Maltamo, M.; Tokola, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diameter distributions of trees are important indicators of current forest stand structure and future dynamics. A new method was proposed in the study to combine the diameter distributions derived from the area-based approach (ABA) and the diameter distribution derived from the individual tree detection (ITD) in order to obtain more accurate forest stand attributes. Since dominant trees can be reliably detected and measured by the Lidar data via the ITD, the focus of the study is to retrieve the suppressed trees (trees that were missed by the ITD) from the ABA. Replacement and histogram matching were respectively employed at the plot level to retrieve the suppressed trees. Cut point was detected from the ITD-derived diameter distribution for each sample plot to distinguish dominant trees from the suppressed trees. The results showed that calibrated diameter distributions were more accurate in terms of error index and the entire growing stock estimates. Compared with the best performer between the ABA and the ITD, calibrated diameter distributions decreased the relative RMSE of the estimated entire growing stock, saw log and pulpwood fractions by 2.81%, 3.05% and 7.73% points respectively. Calibration improved the estimation of pulpwood fraction significantly, resulting in a negligible bias of the estimated entire growing stock.

  10. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  11. On-line ultrasonic inside-diameter control system for Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Fujii, N.; Komatsu, M.; Kubota, H.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic inside-diameter (ID) control system was used during the final etching process for producing Zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tubes. This results in establishing automatic inside-diameter control during etching with an automatic etching system. In this system, the inside-diameter at the center point in the length of each tube is continuously measured with the ultrasonic inside-diameter measuring equipment during the etching process and the etching is automatically stopped by a signal from the control equipment when the inside-diameter reaches the target value. This made the final etching process economical and suitable for large-scale production, having an equal or better level at the inside-diameter of tubes etched with this system than those made by a process controlled by an air-micrometer

  12. Diameter Tuning of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Diffusion Plasma CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have realized a diameter tuning of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs by adjusting process gas pressures with plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Detailed photoluminescence measurements reveal that the diameter distribution of SWNTs clearly shifts to a large-diameter region with an increase in the pressure during plasma CVD, which is also confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Based on the systematical investigation, it is found that the main diameter of SWNTs is determined by the pressure during the heating in an atmosphere of hydrogen and the diameter distribution is narrowed by adjusting the pressure during the plasma generation. Our results could contribute to an application of SWNTs to high-performance thin-film transistors, which requires the diameter-controlled semiconductor-rich SWNTs.

  13. Diameter Tuning of β-Ga2O3 Nanowires Using Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, R

    2017-12-01

    Diameter tuning of [Formula: see text]-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires using chemical vapor deposition technique have been investigated under various experimental conditions. Diameter of root grown [Formula: see text]-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires having monoclinic crystal structure is tuned by varying separation distance between metal source and substrate. Effect of gas flow rate and mixer ratio on the morphology and diameter of nanowires has been studied. Nanowire diameter depends on growth temperature, and it is independent of catalyst nanoparticle size at higher growth temperature (850-900 °C) as compared to lower growth temperature (800 °C). These nanowires show changes in structural strain value with change in diameter. Band-gap of nanowires increases with decrease in the diameter.

  14. Room temperature synthesis and optical properties of small diameter (5 nm) ZnO nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple wet-chemical synthesis of ∼5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays at room temperature (20 °C) and normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and their optical properties. They were single crystalline in nature, and grew in the [001] direction. These small diameter ZnO nanorod arrays can also be synthesized at 0 °C. Control experiments were also conducted. On the basis of the results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of the small diameter ZnO structures. The optical properties of the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized using this method were probed by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A clear blue-shift, relative to the absorption band from 50 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays, was attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small nanocrystal size in the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorods.

  15. Helium Adsorption on Carbon Nanotube Bundles with Different Diameters:. Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation to study helium adsorption capacity of carbon nanotube bundles with different diameters. Homogeneous carbon nanotube bundles of (8,8), (9,9), (10,10), (11,11), and (12,12) single walled carbon nanotubes have been considered. The results indicate that the exohedral adsorption coverage does not depend on the diameter of carbon nanotubes, while the endohedral adsorption coverage is increased by increasing the diameter.

  16. Positron annihilation characteristics in multi-wall carbon nanotubes with different average diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuyen, L A; Khiem, D D; Phuc, P T; Kajcsos, Zs; Lázár, K; Tap, T D

    2013-01-01

    Positron lifetime spectroscopy was used to study multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The measurements were performed in vacuum on the samples having different average diameters. The positron lifetime values depend on the nanotube diameter. The results also show an influence of the nanotube diameter on the positron annihilation intensity on the nanotube surface. The change in the annihilation probability is described and interpreted by the modified diffusion model introducing the positron escape rate from the nanotubes to their external surface.

  17. Effects of Specimen Diameters on the Distribution of Corrosion Fatigue Cracks

    OpenAIRE

    石原, 外美; 塩澤, 和章; 宮尾, 嘉寿

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of corrosion fatigue cracks observed on the un-notched round specimen surface differs with specimen diameter, especially in the low stress amplitude region. At a constant fatigue life ratio, many long cracks are initiated on the larger specimen, 12 mm (diameter), in comparison with the smaller specimen, 6 mm (diameter). On the other hand, in the high stress amplitude region of corrosion fatigue and fatigue in laboratory air, the distribution of cracks during the fatigue proce...

  18. Investigation of the ramp testing behaviour of fuel pins with different diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Herren, M.; Wigger, B.

    1979-09-01

    The aim of these experiments was the investigation of the influence of different fuel pin diameter on the ramp testing behaviour. Fuel elements with diameter between 10,75 and 15,6 mm and different cladding thickness had been ramptested in the HBWR (Halden Boiling Water Reactor) after preirradiated in the same facility. Fuel pins with the smallest diameter of 10,75 mm failed. This was indicated by fission gas release measurement. Metallographic examination showed these failure were caused by hydride blisters. A systematic influence of fuel pin diameter and cladding thickness on the ramptesting behaviour was not observed. (orig.) [de

  19. Estimation of the fustal diameter on the central knotty cylinder in oak basal logs, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Corvalán Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the diameter of the central knotted cylinder both alive and dead, a total of 60 trees belonging to the upper quartile of diametric classes in unmanaged renewal of N. obliqua from the Maule foothills were sampled. It is assumed that these are determined by the lowest living and dead branch present in tree height, respectively. We analyzed the relationships between the diameter of the central knotty cylinder, and the diameters at the lower end of logs 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 m above the stump, the normal diameter and the insertion height of the first branch. From the analysis it is deduced that: i the diameter of the live and dead central knotted cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter of the tree, ii that the diameter at the smaller end of the logs increases as it does and decreases as increases in height above the ground and iii that the fustal diameter on the dead central knotty cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter and the insertion height of the lowest dead branch of the tree, allowing to determine the zone of occlusion of the knots of the tree.

  20. Method for varying the diameter of a beam of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.

    1977-01-01

    In the bombardment of targets with beams of charged particles, a method is described for varying and controlling the diameter of such beams by passing the beam through an envelope of conductive material. The envelope is spaced from and coaxial with the beam. A selected dc potential is applied to the envelope, and the beam diameter is controlled by changing this applied potential in a direction away from ground potential to increase the beam diameter or by changing the potential in a direction toward ground potential to decrease said beam diameter

  1. Spontaneous and controlled-diameter synthesis of single-walled and few-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shuhei; Lojindarat, Supanat; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we explored the spontaneous and controlled-diameter growth of carbon nanotubes. We evaluated the effects of catalyst density, reduction time, and a number of catalyst coating on the substrate (for multi-walled carbon nanotubes) on the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the number of layers in few-walled carbon nanotubes. Increasing the catalyst density and reduction time increased the diameters of the carbon nanotubes, with the average diameter increasing from 1.05 nm to 1.86 nm for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Finally, we succeeded in synthesizing a significant double-walled carbon nanotube population of 24%.

  2. Controlled growth of well-aligned carbon nanotubes with large diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianbao; Liu, Yunqi; Zhu, Daoben

    2001-06-01

    Well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with large diameters (25-200 nm) were synthesized by pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine. The outer diameter up to 218.5 nm and the length of the well-aligned CNTs can be systematically controlled by varying the growth time. A tube-in-tube nano-structure with large and small diameters of 176 and 16.7 nm, respectively, was found. The grain sizes of the iron catalyst play an important role in controlling the CNT diameters. These results are of great importance to design new aligned CNT-based electron field emitters in the potential application of panel displays.

  3. Jumper connector analysis: 2-inch by 2-inch connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjilal, S.K.; Ulbricht, L.E.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Jumper connectors are used for remotely connecting pipe lines containing transfer fluids ranging from hazardous chemicals to other nonhazardous liquids. The jumper connector assembly comprises hooks, hookpins, a block, a nozzle, an operating screw, and a nut. The hooks are tightened against the nozzle flanges by the operating screw, and a nut. The hooks are tightened against the nozzle flanges by the operating screw that is tightened with a remotely connected torque wrench. Stress analysis for the jumper connector assembly (used extensively on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington) is performed by using hand calculation and finite-element techniques to determine the stress levels resulting from operating and seismic loads on components of the assembly. The analysis addresses loading conditions such as prestress, seismic, operating, thermal, and leakage. The preload torque-generated forces at which each component reaches its stress limits are presented in a tabulated format. Allowable operating loads for the jumper assembly are provided to prevent leakage of the assembly during operating cycles

  4. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chukwu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  5. Equations for predicting diameter, height, crown width, and leaf area of San Joaquin Valley street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Although the modeling of energy-use reduction, air pollution uptake, rainfall interception, and microclimate modification associated with urban trees depends on data relating diameter at breast height (dbh) , crown height, crown diameter, and leaf area to tree age or dbh, scant information is available for common municipal tree species . I n this study , tree height ,...

  6. Effect of particle diameter of porous media on flow and heat transfer in a mixing tee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongwei; Lu, Tao; Wang, Kuisheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Three particle diameter cases of 28 mm, 14 mm and 7 mm were simulated by LES. ► With the diameter decreasing, mixing scale tends to decrease in the mixing tee. ► With the diameter decreasing, thermal mixing is weakened. ► With the diameter decreasing, the thermal stratification is obvious. ► When the particle diameter ratio is 4:2:1, pressure drop ratio is 1:2:4. -- Abstract: Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate flow and heat transfer in a mixing tee filled with periodic sintered copper spheres. Three particle diameter cases of 28 mm, 14 mm and 7 mm with the array of 4 × 4, 8 × 8 and 16 × 16 at the same porosity of 0.3 have been calculated using large-eddy simulations and the Smagorinsky–Lilly sub-grid scale model. With the particle diameter decreasing, the mixture scale of hot and cold fluid tends to decrease in the mixing tee; the pressure drop of fluid flow through porous media increases. When the particle diameter ratios are 4:2:1 and the specific surface ratios are 1:2:4, the pressure drop ratios are 1:2:4; the thermal mixing in porous media is weakened because the temperature fluctuation decreases and the stratification of hot and cold fluids is observed.

  7. 78 FR 56864 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-929] Small Diameter Graphite... (Department) determines that imports from the People's Republic of China (PRC) of graphite electrodes... Act of 1930, as amended (the Act).\\1\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Small Diameter Graphite...

  8. Comparison of Fixed Diameter-Limit and Selection Cutting in Northern Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; Paul E. Sendak; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Diameter-limit cutting is a common type of harvest in which all merchantable trees above specific size thresholds are removed. Despite a long history of application, controlled experiments of these harvests are rare and the cumulative effects of repeated diameter-limit cuts are largely unknown. The Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine is the location of a long-term...

  9. 78 FR 60897 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Diameter Line Pipe From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on certain welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would likely to lead to continuation or... Line Pipe from Japan: Investigation No. 731-TA-919 (Second Review). By order of the Commission. Issued...

  10. Effect of diameter and chirality on the structure and electronic properties of BC2N nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan, Mojdeh; Jalili, Seifollah; Schofield, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BC 2 N nanotubes with different diameters and four chirality types are studied. • Two lowest-diameter zigzag BC 2 N tubes are metallic and others are semiconducting. • Band gap of zigzag tubes is more sensitive to diameter compared to armchair tubes. • Even–odd oscillation is observed for the band gap of one kind of zigzag tubes. • The energy and band gap for large-diameter tubes converge to BC 2 N sheet values. - Abstract: Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate a series of BC 2 N nanotubes with a wide range of diameters. Two types of zigzag and two types of armchair nanotubes are studied to survey the effect of diameter and chirality on energetics and electronic properties of nanotubes. Two nanotubes are found to be metallic and others show semiconducting behavior. The diameter is shown to have a greater impact on the band gap of zigzag nanotubes than those of armchair tubes. (n, 0) zigzag nanotubes show an even–odd band gap oscillation, which can be explained by the electron density distribution of the lowest unoccupied crystalline orbital. The stability of the nanotubes is also assessed using strain energies and it is shown that the strain energy does not depend on nanotube type and chirality. In the limit of large diameters, the geometry and band gap of all nanotubes converge to BC 2 N sheet data

  11. A computational algorithm addressing how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Cai; Shuoxin Zhang; Melvin T. Tyree

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this method paper was to examine a computational algorithm that may reveal how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter within any given stem or species. The computational method requires the assumption that vessels remain approximately constant in diameter over their entire length. When this method is applied to three species or hybrids in the...

  12. Evaluating growth assumptions using diameter or radial increments in natural even-aged longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; Ralph S. Meldahl; Jyoti N. Rayamajhi; John S. Kush

    2010-01-01

    When using increment cores to predict future growth, one often assumes future growth is identical to past growth for individual trees. Once this assumption is accepted, a decision has to be made between which growth estimate should be used, constant diameter growth or constant basal area growth. Often, the assumption of constant diameter growth is used due to the ease...

  13. Economic feasibility of products from inland West small-diameter timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelter Henry; Rong Wang; Peter Ince

    1996-01-01

    A large part of the forests located in the Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. West (inland West) is characterized by densely packed, small-diameter stands. The purpose of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of using small-diameter material from this resource to manufacture various wood products: oriented strandboard (OSB), stud lumber, random-length...

  14. Computing Diameter in the Streaming and Sliding-Window Models (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Kannan, Sampath; Zhang, Jian

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the diameter problem in the streaming and sliding-window models. We show that, for a stream of n points or a sliding window of size n, any exact algorithm for diameter requires Omega(n) bits of space...

  15. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is

  16. Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Koutstaal, B.P.

    2000-01-01

    Root length and diameter distribution are important characteristics to be considered when describing and comparing root systems. Root length and root-diameter distribution may be obtained in two ways: by microscopical measurements, which are laborious, or by computerised analysis, which is fast but

  17. Twentieth-century decline of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J.A.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Franklin, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of forest change in western North America often focus on increased densities of small-diameter trees rather than on changes in the large tree component. Large trees generally have lower rates of mortality than small trees and are more resilient to climate change, but these assumptions have rarely been examined in long-term studies. We combined data from 655 historical (1932-1936) and 210 modern (1988-1999) vegetation plots to examine changes in density of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park (3027 km2). We tested the assumption of stability for large-diameter trees, as both individual species and communities of large-diameter trees. Between the 1930s and 1990s, large-diameter tree density in Yosemite declined 24%. Although the decrease was apparent in all forest types, declines were greatest in subalpine and upper montane forests (57.0% of park area), and least in lower montane forests (15.3% of park area). Large-diameter tree densities of 11 species declined while only 3 species increased. Four general patterns emerged: (1) Pinus albicaulis, Quercus chrysolepis, and Quercus kelloggii had increases in density of large-diameter trees occur throughout their ranges; (2) Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, and Pinus ponderosa, had disproportionately larger decreases in large-diameter tree densities in lower-elevation portions of their ranges; (3) Abies concolor and Pinus contorta, had approximately uniform decreases in large-diameter trees throughout their elevational ranges; and (4) Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga mertensiana displayed little or no change in large-diameter tree densities. In Pinus ponderosa-Calocedrus decurrens forests, modern large-diameter tree densities were equivalent whether or not plots had burned since 1936. However, in unburned plots, the large-diameter trees were predominantly A. concolor, C. decurrens, and Q. chrysolepis, whereas P. ponderosa

  18. Novel strategy for diameter-selective separation and functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, R M; Afzali, A; Freitag, M; Mitzi, D B; Chen, Zh

    2008-02-01

    The problem of separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by diameter and/or chirality is one of the greatest impediments toward the widespread application of these promising materials in nanoelectronics. In this paper, we describe a novel physical-chemical method for diameter-selective CNT separation that is both simple and effective and that allows up-scaling to large volumes at modest cost. Separation is based on size-selective noncovalent matching of an appropriate anchor molecule to the wall of the CNT, enabling suspension of the CNTs in solvents in which they would otherwise not be soluble. We demonstrate size-selective separation in the 1-2 nm diameter range using easily synthesized oligo-acene adducts as a diameter-selective molecular anchor. CNT field effect transistors fabricated from diameter-selected CNTs show markedly improved electrical properties as compared to nonselected CNTs.

  19. Determining frustum depth of 304 stainless steel plates with various diameters and thicknesses by incremental forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Sa' id [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khazaali, Hossain [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays incremental forming is more popular because of its flexibility and cost saving. However, no engineering data is available for manufacturers for forming simple shapes like a frustum by incremental forming, and either expensive experimental tests or finite element analysis (FEA) should be employed to determine the depth of a frustum considering: thickness, material, cone diameter, wall angle, feed rate, tool diameter, etc. In this study, finite element technique, confirmed by experimental study, was employed for developing applicable curves for determining the depth of frustums made from 304 stainless steel (SS304) sheet with various cone angles, thicknesses from 0.3 to 1 mm and major diameters from 50 to 200 mm using incremental forming. Using these curves, the frustum angle and its depth knowing its thickness and major diameter can be predicted. The effects of feed rate, vertical pitch and tool diameter on frustum depth and surface quality were also addressed in this study.

  20. Eustachian tube diameter: Is it associated with chronic otitis media development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltura, Ceki; Can, Tuba Selçuk; Yilmaz, Behice Kaniye; Dinç, Mehmet Emre; Develioğlu, Ömer Necati; Külekçi, Mehmet

    To evaluate the effect of ET diameter on Chronic Otitis Media (COM) pathogenesis. Retrospective. Patients with unilateral COM disease are included in the study. The connection between fibrocartilaginous and osseous segments of the Eustachian Tube (ET) on axial Computed Tomography (CT) images was defined and the diameter of this segment is measured. The measurements were carried out bilaterally and statistically compared. 154 (76 (49%) male, 78 (51%) female patients were diagnosed with unilateral COM and included in the study. The mean diameter of ET was 1947mm (Std. deviation±0.5247) for healthy ears and 1788mm (Std. deviation±0.5306) for diseased ears. The statistical analysis showed a significantly narrow ET diameter in diseased ear side (p<0.01). The dysfunction or anatomical anomalies of ET are correlated with COM. Measuring of the bony diameter of ET during routine Temporal CT examination is recommended for our colleagues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation for prediction of growing and detaching bubble contact diameter on a heating wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Huang Yanping

    2011-01-01

    Phenomenal and theoretical analysis on the evolution of bubble contact diameter during bubble growing is presented in this paper, and it was found that the bubble contact diameter is dependent on the bubble growth rate and bubble radius strongly. By analyzing the regarding experimental data published in the literature, the relation between dimensionless bubble contact diameter, and dimensionless bubble growth time is obtained, based on this relation, a correlation relative to dimensionless bubble growth rate and dimensionless bubble radius are proposed for prediction of bubble contact diameter. With proper values of coefficients, a w and n w , this correlation can well predict the bubble contact diameter data published in the literature, with an error within ±20%. (authors)

  2. The experimental study of bacterial leaching at condition of different ore's diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhui; Li Lin; Liu Yajie

    2006-01-01

    This papper compared the effect of leaching rate of uranium and the adaptability of bacteria with the condition of different ore's diameter (2-5 mm, 5-10 mm), which use the way of inleakage-leaching. The experiment use the way that firstly acid leaching, and then 2 bacterial leaching. As a reasult that the total leaching-rate of minute diameter ore are always high than the big diameter one. But for the quantum of consumed acid its just a opposition. During bacterial leaching the adaptability of bacteria in big diameter ore are high than in the minute one. So this experiment may offer a bases for a latter industry experiment which use big diameter ore's bacterial leaching. (authors)

  3. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  4. Tracheid diameter is the key trait determining the extent of freezing-induced embolism in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittermann, Jarmila; Sperry, John

    2003-09-01

    We tested the hypotheses that freezing-induced embolism is related to conduit diameter, and that conifers and angiosperms with conduits of equivalent diameter will exhibit similar losses of hydraulic conductivity in response to freezing. We surveyed the freeze-thaw response of conifers with a broad range of tracheid diameters by subjecting wood segments (root, stem and trunk wood) to a freeze-thaw cycle at -0.5 MPa in a centrifuge. Embolism increased as mean tracheid diameter exceeded 30 microm. Tracheids with a critical diameter greater than 43 microm were calculated to embolize in response to freezing and thawing at a xylem pressure of -0.5 MPa. To confirm that freezing-induced embolism is a function of conduit air content, we air-saturated stems of Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (mean conduit diameter 13.7 +/- 0.7 microm) by pressurizing them 1 to 60 times above atmospheric pressure, prior to freezing and thawing. The air saturation method simulated the effect of increased tracheid size because the degree of super-saturation is proportional to a tracheid volume holding an equivalent amount of dissolved air at ambient pressure. Embolism increased when the dissolved air content was equivalent to a mean tracheid diameter of 30 microm at ambient air pressure. Our centrifuge and air-saturation data show that conifers are as vulnerable to freeze-thaw embolism as angiosperms with equal conduit diameter. We suggest that the hydraulic conductivity of conifer wood is maximized by increasing tracheid diameters in locations where freezing is rare. Conversely, the narrowing of tracheid diameters protects against freezing-induced embolism in cold climates.

  5. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  6. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigit, A.R.H. [University of Sarawak, Faculty of Engineering, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Shrimpton, John S. [University of Southampton, Energy Technology Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/d{proportional_to}200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested. (orig.)

  7. Impact of vent pipe diameter on characteristics of waste degradation in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobin; Liu, Dan; Chen, Weiming; Ye, Zhicheng; Liu, Hong; Li, Qibin

    2017-10-01

    The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation. Waste degradation in landfills can be promoted slightly when the vent pipe diameter increases from 25 to 50 mm. It could be promoted significantly when the vent pipe diameter was increased to 75 mm. The vent pipe diameter is important in waste degradation in the middle layer of landfills. The dissolved organic matter in the waste is composed mainly of long-wave humus (humin), short-wave humus (fulvic acid) and tryptophan. The humification levels of the waste that was located at the center of vent pipes with 25-, 50- and 75-mm diameters were 2.2682, 4.0520 and 7.6419 Raman units, respectively. The appropriate vent pipe diameter for semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with an 800-mm diameter was 75 mm. The effect of different vent pipe diameters on the degree of waste stabilization is reflected by two main components. Component 1 is related mainly to the content of fulvic acid, biologically degradable material and organic matter. Component 2 is related mainly to the content of tryptophan and humin from the higher vascular plants.

  8. Retinal vessel diameter and estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in arterial hypertension: the Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Diya; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive retinal microvascular abnormalities include an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio. Because central retinal vein pressure depends on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), we examined whether the retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio and other retinal hypertensive signs are associated with CSFP. Participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (n = 1,574 subjects) underwent measurement of the temporal inferior and superior retinal artery and vein diameter. CSFP was calculated as 0.44 × body mass index (kg/m(2)) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) - 0.18 × age (years) - 1.91. Larger retinal vein diameters and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratios were significantly associated with higher estimated CSFP (P = 0.001) in multivariable analysis. In contrast, temporal inferior retinal arterial diameter was marginally associated (P = 0.03) with estimated CSFP, and temporal superior artery diameter was not significantly associated (P = 0.10) with estimated CSFP; other microvascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous crossing signs, were also not significantly associated with estimated CSFP. In a reverse manner, higher estimated CSFP as a dependent variable in the multivariable analysis was associated with wider retinal veins and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratio. In the same model, estimated CSFP was not significantly correlated with retinal artery diameters or other retinal microvascular abnormalities. Correspondingly, arterial hypertension was associated with retinal microvascular abnormalities such as arteriovenous crossing signs (P = 0.003), thinner temporal retinal arteries (P arterial hypertension, an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio depends on elevated CSFP, which is correlated with blood pressure. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Blockage and flow studies of a generalized test apparatus including various wing configurations in the Langley 7-inch Mach 7 Pilot Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, C. W.

    1982-03-01

    A 1/12th scale model of the Curved Surface Test Apparatus (CSTA), which will be used to study aerothermal loads and evaluate Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) on a fuselage-type configuration in the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Structures Tunnel (8 ft HTST), was tested in the Langley 7-Inch Mach 7 Pilot Tunnel. The purpose of the tests was to study the overall flow characteristics and define an envelope for testing the CSTA in the 8 ft HTST. Wings were tested on the scaled CSTA model to select a wing configuration with the most favorable characteristics for conducting TPS evaluations for curved and intersecting surfaces. The results indicate that the CSTA and selected wing configuration can be tested at angles of attack up to 15.5 and 10.5 degrees, respectively. The base pressure for both models was at the expected low level for most test conditions. Results generally indicate that the CSTA and wing configuration will provide a useful test bed for aerothermal pads and thermal structural concept evaluation over a broad range of flow conditions in the 8 ft HTST.

  10. Effect of DS Concentration on the PRO Performance Using a 5-Inch Scale Cellulose Triacetate-Based Hollow Fiber Membrane Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yasukawa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO performance of a 5-inch scale cellulose triacetate (CTA-based hollow fiber (HF membrane module was evaluated under a wide range of operating conditions (0.0–6.0 MPa of applied pressure, 0.5–2.0 L/min feed solution (FS inlet flow rate, 1.0–6.0 L/min DS inlet flow rate and 0.1–0.9 M draw solution (DS concentration by using a PRO/reverse osmosis (RO hybrid system. The subsequent RO system for DS regeneration enabled the evaluation of the steady-stated module performance. In the case of pilot-scale module operation, since the DS dilution and the feed solution (FS up-concentration had occurred and was not negligible, unlike the lab-scale experiment, PRO performance strongly depended on operating conditions such as inlet flow rates of both the DS and FS concentration. To compare the module performance with different configurations, we proposed a converted parameter in which a difference of the packing density between the spiral wound (SW and the HF module was fairly considered. In the case of HF configuration, because of high packing density, volumetric-based performance was higher than that of SW module, that is, the required number of the module would be less than that of SW module in a full-scale PRO plant.

  11. A compact, higher order, high temperature superconductor microstrip bandpass filter on a two-inch lanthanum aluminate substrate for personal communication service applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Srikanta; Stevens, Chris; Edwards, David

    2005-01-01

    A practical design methodology for a compact parallel-coupled microstrip bandpass filter structure with steep attenuation is introduced using a computer-aided full wave electromagnetic simulation based on the method of moments. The structure consists of an array of fully aligned half-wavelength spiral meander line resonators. Aimed at application in the front-end receiver of digital cellular communication service, a 12-pole high temperature superconductor filter with 2.27% fractional bandwidth at 883.0 MHz was designed. The filter is fabricated using thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) thin films on a two-inch lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO 3 ) wafer. The S-parameter measurements show a good agreement with the simulated results. At 70 K, the 12-pole filter shows less than 0.4 dB insertion loss, 0.3 dB passband ripple, better than 12 dB return loss. The out of band rejection at 3 MHz below the passband edges is more than 60.0 dB. In order to estimate the power handling capability of the filter, the third-order intermodulation distortion was measured. A sensitivity analysis for the observed frequency shift in the filter is reported. Also from this analysis an approach for using the same design in 0.5% FBW applications is discussed

  12. Fracture toughness of 6.4 mm (0.25 inch) Arc-Cast molybdenum and molybdenum-TZM plate at room temperature and 300 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, J.A. jr.; Lipetzky, P.; Mueller, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The fracture toughness of 6.4 mm (0.25 inch) low carbon arc-cast (LCAC) molybdenum and arc-cast molybdenum-TZM alloy plate were measured at room temperature and 300 o C using compact tension specimens. The effect of crack plane orientation (longitudinal vs. transverse) and annealing practice (stress-relieved vs. recrystallized) were evaluated. Depending upon the test temperature either a standard K IC or a J-integral analysis was used to obtain the toughness value. At room temperature, regardless of alloy, orientation, or microstructure, fracture toughness values between 15 and 22 MPa m 1/2 (14 and 20 ksi in 1/2 ) were measured. These K IC values were consistent with measurements by other authors. Increasing temperature improves the toughness, due to the fact that one takes advantage of the ductile-brittle transition behavior of molybdenum. At 300 o C, the fracture toughness of recrystallized LCAC and arc-cast TZM molybdenum were also similar at approximately 64 MPa m 1/2 (58 ksi in 1/2 ). In the stress-relieved condition, however, the toughness of arc-cast TZM (91 MPa m 1/2 / 83 ksi in 1/2 ) was higher than that of the LCAC molybdenum (74 MPa m 1/2 / 67 ksi in 1/2 ). (author)

  13. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Cadmium-Polyethylene (CdPoly) Bucket Located in the Central Cavity on the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naranjo, Gerald E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kaiser, Krista Irene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, James F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lippert, Lance L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clovis, Ralph D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Lonnie E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Quirk, Thomas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the cadmium-polyethylene (CdPoly) bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-CdPoly-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra, uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work. Also thanks to Drew Tonigan for helping field the activation experiments in ACRR, David Samuel for helping to finalize the drawings and get the parts fabricated, and Elliot Pelfrey for preparing the active dosimetry plots.

  14. Some mechanical properties of small specimens cut from 1.79-inch-thick southern pine dried for 6 hours at 300°F or for 5 days at 180°F- A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch; W.L. Wellford

    1978-01-01

    Small specimens cut from 1.79-inch-thick southern pine dried from green condition for 6 hours at a dry-bulb temperature of 300 F suffered no diminution in the mechanical properties determined, when compared to matched wood dried for 5 days at 180 F.

  15. Comparison of urethral diameters for calculating the urethral dose after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Hayashi, Shinya; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nakano, Masahiro; Kubota, Yasuaki; Maeda, Sunaho; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Deguchi, Takashi; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    No studies have yet evaluated the effects of a dosimetric analysis for different urethral volumes. We therefore evaluated the effects of a dosimetric analysis to determine the different urethral volumes. This study was based on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) combined findings in 30 patients who had undergone prostate brachytherapy. Postimplant CT/MRI scans were performed 30 days after the implant. The urethra was contoured based on its diameter (8, 6, 4, 2, and 0 mm). The total urethral volume-in cubic centimeters [UrV150/200 (cc)] and percent (UrV150%/200%), of the urethra receiving 150% or 200% of the prescribed dose-and the doses (UrD90/30/5) in Grays to 90%, 30%, and 5% of the urethral volume were measured based on the urethral diameters. The UrV150 (cc) and UrD30 were statistically different between the of 8-, 6-, 4-, 2-, and 0-mm diameters, whereas the UrD5 was statistically different only between the 8-, 6-, and 4-mm diameters. Especially for UrD5, there was an approximately 40-Gy difference between the mean values for the 8- and 0-mm diameters. We recommend that the urethra should be contoured as a 4- to 6-mm diameter circle or one side of a triangle of 5-7 mm. By standardizing the urethral diameter, the urethral dose will be less affected by the total urethral volume. (author)

  16. Toward Small-Diameter Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized from Captured Carbon Dioxide: Critical Role of Catalyst Coarsening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Carter, Rachel; Li, Mengya; Pint, Cary L

    2018-05-23

    Small-diameter carbon nanotubes (CNTs) often require increased sophistication and control in synthesis processes, but exhibit improved physical properties and greater economic value over their larger-diameter counterparts. Here, we study mechanisms controlling the electrochemical synthesis of CNTs from the capture and conversion of ambient CO 2 in molten salts and leverage this understanding to achieve the smallest-diameter CNTs ever reported in the literature from sustainable electrochemical synthesis routes, including some few-walled CNTs. Here, Fe catalyst layers are deposited at different thicknesses onto stainless steel to produce cathodes, and atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 is performed on Ni to produce a corrosion-resistant anode. Our findings indicate a correlation between the CNT diameter and Fe metal layer thickness following electrochemical catalyst reduction at the cathode-molten salt interface. Further, catalyst coarsening during long duration synthesis experiments leads to a 2× increase in average diameters from 3 to 60 min durations, with CNTs produced after 3 min exhibiting a tight diameter distribution centered near ∼10 nm. Energy consumption analysis for the conversion of CO 2 into CNTs demonstrates energy input costs much lower than the value of CNTs-a concept that strictly requires and motivates small-diameter CNTs-and is more favorable compared to other costly CO 2 conversion techniques that produce lower-value materials and products.

  17. DETEKSI DIAMETER TUMOR PADA KULIT MENGGUNAKAN SEGMENTASI CITRA BERDASARKAN KARAKTERISTIK ABCDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuwanjie Septian

    2016-09-01

    ABSTRAK Kanker kulit merupakan pertumbuhan sel kulit abnormal yang tidak dapat dikendalikan dan pada stadium lanjut dapat mengakibatkan kematian. Menemukan penyakit ini sedini mungkin merupakan salah satu cara untuk menghindari kecacatan maupun kemungkinan terburuk. Karena letaknya dipermukaan kulit, akan mudah bagi siapa saja untuk mengenali sendiri kanker kulit. Deteksi dini kanker kulit dalam bidang dermatologi, dapat dideteksi berdasarkan karakteristik Asymmetrical Shape, Border, Color, Diameter, Evolution (ABCDE. Dalam penelitian ini, deteksi dini difokuskan pada identifikasi diameter pada 30 citra nevus. Metode penelitian berupa pengolahan citra nevus dengan melakukan konversi citra menjadi citra HSI lalu diubah menjadi citra biner, selanjutnya dilakukan tahap segmentasi menggunakan filter median, proses rekonstruksi morfologi dan pada tahap akhir dilakukan deteksi tepi dengan menggunakan operator sobel. Proses deteksi tepi akan mempermudah menghitung nilai luas diameter nevus. Hasil penelitian deteksi dini kanker kulit terhadap 30 citra nevus, diperoleh hasil bahwa metode pengolahan citra yang diusulkan dapat mendeteksi diameter nevus dan berhasil mengidentifikasi citra tersebut sebagai 26 citra memiliki luas diameter nevus yang diidentifikasi sebagai tumor jinak dan 4 citra nevus yang memiliki diameter > 6 mm dan dinyatakan sebagai tumor melanoma. Kata Kunci: Nevus, Melanoma, Segmentasi, Deteksi Diameter

  18. The effect of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature on spray characteristics in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhaodah Andsaler, Adiba; Khalid, Amir; Sharifhatul Adila Abdullah, Nor; Sapit, Azwan; Jaat, Norrizam

    2017-04-01

    Mixture formation of the ignition process is a key element in the diesel combustion as it influences the combustion process and exhaust emission. Aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature to the formation of spray. This study investigated diesel formation spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) behaviour in the chamber are determined by means of transient simulation, Eulerian of two phases is used for implementation of mixing fuel and air. The detail behaviour of spray droplet diameter, spray penetration and spray breakup length was visualised using the ANSYS 16.1. This simulation was done in different nozzle diameter 0.12 mm and 0.2 mm performed at the ambient temperature 500 K and 700 K with different injection pressure 40 MPa, 70 MPa and 140 MPa. Results show that high pressure influence droplet diameter become smaller and the penetration length longer with the high injection pressure apply. Smaller nozzle diameter gives a shorter length of the breakup. It is necessary for nozzle diameter and ambient temperature condition to improve the formation of spray. High injection pressure is most effective in improvement of formation spray under higher ambient temperature and smaller nozzle diameter.

  19. Hair root diameter measurement as an indicator of protein deficiency in nonhospitalized alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregar, R R; Gordon, M; Whitney, E N

    1978-02-01

    Protein status of alcoholics admitted to a detoxification center was investigated with a view to adapting a hair root test for use in screening for protein deficiency. Hair root volume and hair root diameter had previously been shown to correlate well with hair root protein and to be sensitive indicators of protein deficiency. Hair root volumes in this study correlated well with mean maximum hair root diameters (n = 35, r = 0.9), which were simpler to measure, so diameter measurements were used. Mean maximum hair root diameters (range 0.02 to 0.19 mm) correlated with plasma RNase concentrations (range 6000 to 14,000 units/ml; n = 17, r = -0.7). Mean hair diameters of 84 alcoholics averaged 0.0864 +/- 0.0366 mm; those of 25 nonalcoholics were significantly greater: 0.100 +/- 0.0254 mm (P less than 0.05). Frequency of occurrence of hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less was significantly higher in 71 alcoholics (29.5%) than in 23 nonalcoholics (8.6%) matched by age. Mean hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less therefore can be used to signify protein deficiency where more expensive or technically demanding tests are not feasible. Protein deficiency occurs extensively in non hospitalized alcoholics. This method enables staff to single out those clients most likely to be in need of nutritional counseling and therapy.

  20. The evaluation of the right inferior phrenic artery diameter in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Kaan; Balci, Yuksel; Tok, Sermin; Ucbilek, Enver; Kara, Engin; Kaya, Omer

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between right inferior phrenic artery diameter and portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. CT examinations of 38 patients with chronic liver disease (patient group) and 40 patients without any liver disease (control group) were evaluated. The right inferior phrenic artery diameter of the patient and control group were measured. CT findings of portal hypertension, which were accepted as ascites, collaterals, splenomegaly and portal vein diameter greater than 13 mm, were determined and scored in the patient group. Patients obtained scores between one and four with respect to portal hypertension findings, and the scores were compared with phrenic artery diameters. Child-Pugh and MELD scores of the patients were also calculated. The mean diameter of the right inferior phrenic artery in the patient group was larger than that in the control group (p phrenic artery diameter of the patients with score 1 was significantly different from those with score 2 (p = 0.028), score 3 (p = 0.001) and score 4 (p = 0.005). We found a linear and moderate relationship between phrenic artery diameter values and Child-Pugh scores (p = 0.012, r = 0.405). Dilatation of the right inferior phrenic artery in cirrhotic patients may be a nonspecific sign of developing portal hypertension.

  1. Influence of the implant-abutment connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyon-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jeong; Jeon, Young-Chan; Chang, Brian Myung; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the implant-abutment connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability. Regular and wide-diameter implant systems with three different joint connection designs: an external butt joint, a one-stage internal cone, and a two-stage internal cone were divided into seven groups (n=5, in each group). The initial removal torque values of the abutment screw were measured with a digital torque gauge. The postload removal torque values were measured after 100,000 cycles of a 150 N and a 10 Hz cyclic load had been applied. Subsequently, the rates of the initial and postload removal torque losses were calculated to evaluate the effect of the joint connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability. Each group was compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test as post-hoc test (α=0.05). THE POSTLOAD REMOVAL TORQUE VALUE WAS HIGH IN THE FOLLOWING ORDER WITH REGARD TO MAGNITUDE: two-stage internal cone, one-stage internal cone, and external butt joint systems. In the regular-diameter group, the external butt joint and one-stage internal cone systems showed lower postload removal torque loss rates than the two-stage internal cone system. In the wide-diameter group, the external butt joint system showed a lower loss rate than the one-stage internal cone and two-stage internal cone systems. In the two-stage internal cone system, the wide-diameter group showed a significantly lower loss rate than the regular-diameter group (P<.05). The results of this study showed that the external butt joint was more advantageous than the internal cone in terms of the postload removal torque loss. For the difference in the implant diameter, a wide diameter was more advantageous in terms of the torque loss rate.

  2. Influence of the implant-abutment connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyon-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jeong; Jeon, Young-Chan; Chang, Brian Myung

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the implant-abutment connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS Regular and wide-diameter implant systems with three different joint connection designs: an external butt joint, a one-stage internal cone, and a two-stage internal cone were divided into seven groups (n=5, in each group). The initial removal torque values of the abutment screw were measured with a digital torque gauge. The postload removal torque values were measured after 100,000 cycles of a 150 N and a 10 Hz cyclic load had been applied. Subsequently, the rates of the initial and postload removal torque losses were calculated to evaluate the effect of the joint connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability. Each group was compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test as post-hoc test (α=0.05). RESULTS The postload removal torque value was high in the following order with regard to magnitude: two-stage internal cone, one-stage internal cone, and external butt joint systems. In the regular-diameter group, the external butt joint and one-stage internal cone systems showed lower postload removal torque loss rates than the two-stage internal cone system. In the wide-diameter group, the external butt joint system showed a lower loss rate than the one-stage internal cone and two-stage internal cone systems. In the two-stage internal cone system, the wide-diameter group showed a significantly lower loss rate than the regular-diameter group (P<.05). CONCLUSION The results of this study showed that the external butt joint was more advantageous than the internal cone in terms of the postload removal torque loss. For the difference in the implant diameter, a wide diameter was more advantageous in terms of the torque loss rate. PMID:24843398

  3. Usefulness of left ventricular wall thickness-to-diameter ratio in thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, B.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular wall thickness to the cavity dimension, as seen on thallium-201 images, was used in this study to predict left ventricular ejection fraction and volume. We obtained rest thallium-201 images in 50 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. The thickness of a normal-appearing segment of the left ventricular wall and the transverse diameter of the cavity were measured in the left anterior oblique projection. The left ventricular ejection fraction and volume in these patients were determined by radionuclide ventriculography. There was a good correlation between thickness-to-diameter ratio and ejection fraction and end-systolic volume. In 18 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70, the ejection fraction was lower than in the 16 patients with thickness-to-diameter ratio greater than or equal to 1.0. Similarly, in patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70, the end-diastolic and end-systolic volume were higher than in the remaining patients with higher thickness-to-diameter ratios. All 18 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70 had ejection fractions less than 40%; 14 of 15 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio greater than or equal to 1.0 had an ejection fraction greater than 40%. The remaining 16 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio of 0.7-0.99 had intermediate ejection fractions and volumes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Assessment of lymph node tumour from CT scans: how good is diameter and visual assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pratik; Rehani, M.M.; Anand, Vikram; Raina, Vinod; Rao, Keshava

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation response of tumours requires quantification of tumour mass in terms of volume or maximum diameter. In normal practice changes in maximum diameter of tumour are assessed visually on follow-up CT films. This may lead to erroneous results. Twenty one patients of testicular cancer in stage II A to II D with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy were scanned by CT for 3 to 5 times during the course of treatment. Tumour size was assessed in terms of diameter as per practice followed routinely. A very important observation was that actual measurement of diameter instead of visual assessment resulted in change of stage of cancer in 42.8% (9 out of 21) cases. Moreover, in 6 out of these 21 cases (28%) there occurred a change in stage from II C to II D which assumes significance due to change in treatment protocol from BEP (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum) to BOP-VIP (Bleomycin, Vincristin, Cisplatinum , VP-16, Ifosfamide, Cisplatinum). Tumour volume estimated on the basis of visual method differed considerably from the calculated one. In 16 out of 21 scans, the difference was between 6.4% to 42.9%. The acceptable difference of 5% was seen only in 4 out of 21 cases indicating the importance of volume measurement. The method of volume estimation was validated and found to be within ± 5% of actual volume. The correlation between diameter and volume shows that tumours with similar range of diameter have 20% to 100% more volume. Many times increase in diameter was found associated with actually reduced tumour volume, difference being as much as 515%. This has not been documented earlier in clinical situations. Thus, the study underscores the role of measuring the diameter of tumour for staging and highlights the need for actual volume estimation rather than depending on maximum transverse diameter alone in follow-up studies. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Production of a large diameter ECR plasma with low electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Mayuko; Hishikawa, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    A large diameter plasma over 300 mm in diameter is produced by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges using a cylindrical vacuum chamber of 400 mm in inner diameter. It is found that the plasma uniformity is improved by adding the nitrogen gas to pure Ar plasma. The electron temperature is decreased by adding the nitrogen gas. It is considered that the electron energy is absorbed in the vibrational energy of nitrogen molecules and the electron temperature decreases. Therefore, the adjunction of the nitrogen gas is considered to be effective for producing uniform and low electron temperature plasma

  6. The measurement of the radioactive aerosol diameter by position sensitive detectors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Kanamori, Masashi; Seki, Akio.

    1981-10-01

    The measurement of the diameter of radioactive aerosol, in particular plutonium aerosol, is very important for the internal dose estimation. Determination of the diameter of radioactive aerosol is performed by using the position sensitive detectors. Position sensitive semiconductor detectors and Scintillation detectors with IIT tube are used as the position sensitive detector. The filter paper with the radioactive aerosols is contacted to the PSD which is connected to the data processor so that the diameter of the aerosol is calculated from the measured radioactivity. (author)

  7. Gradient and alternating diameter nanopore templates by focused ion beam guided anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Lu, Kathy; Tian Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    Ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanopores with uniform pore diameters have been fabricated by self-organized anodization of aluminum. However, gradient or alternating diameter nanopore arrays with designed interpore distances have not been possible. In this study, focused ion beam lithography is used to fabricate hexagonally arranged concaves with different diameters in designed arrangements on aluminum surfaces. The patterns are then used to guide the further growth of alumina nanopores in the subsequent oxalic acid anodization. Gradient and alternating nanopore arrangements have been attained by FIB patterning guided oxalic acid anodization. The fundamental understanding of the process is discussed.

  8. Stress-induced phase sensitivity of small diameter polarization maintaining solid-core photonic crystal fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Zhang, Chunxi; Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    Small diameter (cladding and coating diameter of 100 and 135 μm) polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibres (SDPM-PCFs) possess many unique properties and are extremely suitable for applications in fibre optic gyroscopes. In this study, we have investigated and measured the stress characteristics of an SDPM-PCF using the finite-element method and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, respectively. Our results reveal a radial and axial sensitivity of 0.315 ppm/N/m and 25.2 ppm per 1 × 105 N/m2, respectively, for the SDPM-PCF. These values are 40% smaller than the corresponding parameters of conventional small diameter (cladding and coating diameter of 80 and 135 μm) panda fibres.

  9. Simulation on Effect of Preform Diameter in Injection Stretch Blow Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z. Q.; Rosli, Nurrina; Oktaviandri, Muchamad

    2018-03-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is the most common material of resin for manufacturing plastic bottle by injection stretch blow molding due to its excellent properties. As various issues of health and environmental hazards due to the PET use have risen, PET bottle manufacture may be improved by minimizing the wall thickness to reduce the PET use. One of the critical qualifications of the manufacturing process which lead to the wall thickness distribution is the initial preform diameter. In this project, we used the ANSYS Polyflow with aim to evaluate the wall thickness distribution of PET bottle for different diameter of initial preform. As a result, only 4 mm preform diameter presented wall thickness below than 1 mm. On the other hand, at least 6 mm preform diameter can permit the wall thickness 1.3 mm i.e. at the shoulder area.

  10. Synthesis of uniform carbon at silica nanocables and luminescent silica nanotubes with well controlled inner diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haisheng; Yu Shuhong; Ren Lei; Yang Yipeng; Zhang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Uniform carbon at silica nanocables and silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters can be synthesized in an easy way by a sacrificial templating method. This was performed using carbon nanofibres as hard templates that were synthesized previously by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters were synthesized from carbon at silica core-shell nanostructures by removal of the core carbon component. The inner diameters of the as-prepared silica nanotubes can be well controlled from several nanometres to hundreds of nanometres by adjusting the diameters of the carbon nanofibres. The silica nanotubes synthesized by this method display strong photoluminescence in ultraviolet at room temperature. Such uniform silica nanotubes might find potential applications in many fields such as encapsulation, catalysis, chemical/biological separation, and sensing

  11. Phospholipid electrospun nanofibers: effect of solvents and co-axial processing on morphology and fiber diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Qvortrup, Klaus; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-01-01

    Asolectin phospholipid nano-microfibers were prepared using electrospinning processing. The asolectin fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the fiber morphology was found to be strongly dependent on the phospholipid concentration and the solvents used. The solvents studied were...... chloroform : dimethylformamide (CHCl3 : DMF, 3 : 2 v/v), isooctane, cyclohexane and limonene, producing phospholipid fibers with average diameters in the range of 2.57 +/- 0.59 mu m, similar to 3-8 mu m, similar to 4-5 mu m and 14.3 +/- 2.7 mu m, respectively. The diameter of asolectin electrospun fibers...... solvent and the inner needle contains the asolectin solution in CHCl3: DMF, a substantial reduction in the average fiber diameter was observed. In particular, the average diameter of the fibers when DMF (a solvent with a high dielectric constant) was used as a sheath solvent was reduced by a factor...

  12. Strong diameter-dependence of nanowire emission coupled to waveguide modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, Dick van, E-mail: a.d.v.dam@tue.nl; Haverkort, Jos E. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Abujetas, Diego R.; Sánchez-Gil, José A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Serrano, 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bakkers, Erik P. A. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Gómez Rivas, Jaime, E-mail: j.gomezrivas@differ.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research DIFFER, P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-03-21

    The emission from nanowires can couple to waveguide modes supported by the nanowire geometry, thus governing the far-field angular pattern. To investigate the geometry-induced coupling of the emission to waveguide modes, we acquire Fourier microscopy images of the photoluminescence of nanowires with diameters ranging from 143 to 208 nm. From the investigated diameter range, we conclude that a few nanometers difference in diameter can abruptly change the coupling of the emission to a specific mode. Moreover, we observe a diameter-dependent width of the Gaussian-shaped angular pattern in the far-field emission. This dependence is understood in terms of interference of the guided modes, which emit at the end facets of the nanowire. Our results are important for the design of quantum emitters, solid state lighting, and photovoltaic devices based on nanowires.

  13. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km...

  14. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km northwest...

  15. Estimates of Radiation Dose Rates Near Large Diameter Sludge Containers in T Plant

    CERN Document Server

    Himes, D A

    2002-01-01

    Dose rates in T Plant canyon during the handling and storage of large diameter storage containers of K Basin sludge were estimated. A number of different geometries were considered from which most operational situations of interest can be constructed.

  16. Measurement and modeling of diameter distributions of particulate matter in terrestrial solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis F.; Michalzik, Beate; Bischoff, Sebastian; NäThe, Kerstin; Legates, David R.; Gruselle, Marie-Cecile; Richter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in biogeosciences, affecting biosphere-atmosphere interactions and ecosystem health. This is the first known study to quantify and model PM diameter distributions of bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and organic layer (Oa) solution. Solutions were collected from a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest during leafed and leafless periods. Following scanning electron microscopy and image analysis, PM distributions were quantified and then modeled with the Box-Cox transformation. Based on an analysis of 43,278 individual particulates, median PM diameter of all solutions was around 3.0 µm. All PM diameter frequency distributions were skewed significantly to the right. Optimal power transformations of PM diameter distributions were between -1.00 and -1.56. The utility of this model reconstruction would be that large samples having a similar probability density function can be developed for similar forests. Further work on the shape and chemical composition of particulates is warranted.

  17. Pupil Diameter Does Not Correlate with Fixation Duration - or Does It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt; Carl, Michael; Elming, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A number of pupillometric studies have suggested that dynamic differences in pupil diameter correlate with dierent levels of cognitive intensity or excitement. Other studies have suggested a similar correlation between fixation duration and cognitive effort. Since both methodologies for hypothesi...

  18. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper

    2014-01-01

    skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after...... blood perfusion recording and grouped according to needle type, skin blood perfusion response relates to needle diameter. The response was significantly higher after insertions with 28G and hooked 32G needles than with 30G (P ..., but there was a trend of an increased response with increasing needle diameter. Skin blood perfusion response to pen needle insertions rank according to needle diameter, and the tissue response caused by hooked 32G needles corresponds to that of 28G needles. The relation between needle diameter and trauma when...

  19. Decreasing diameter fluctuation of polymer optical fiber with optimized drawing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Onur; Wojcik, Grzegorz; Mergo, Pawel

    2018-05-01

    The diameter fluctuations of poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer optical fibers, during drawing processes, have been comprehensively studied. In this study, several drawing parameters were selected for investigation; such as drawing tensions, preform diameters, preform feeding speeds, and argon flows. Varied drawing tensions were used to draw fibers, while other parameters were maintained at constant. At a later stage in the process, micro-structured polymer optical fibers were drawn under optimized drawing conditions. Fiber diameter deviations were reduced to 2.2%, when a 0.2 N drawing tension was employed during the drawing process. Higher drawing tensions led to higher diameter fluctuations. The Young’s modulus of fibers drawn with different tensions was also measured. Our results showed that fiber elasticity increased as drawing tensions decreased. The inhomogeneity of fibers was also determined by comparing the deviation of Young’s modulus.

  20. Biomechanics and load resistance of small-diameter and mini dental implants: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Istabrak; Bourauel, Christoph; Mundt, Torsten; Stark, Helmut; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the application of small-diameter and mini dental implants to support removable and fixed prosthesis has dramatically increased. However, the success of these implants under functional biting forces and the reaction of the bone around them need to be analyzed. This review was aimed to present studies that deal with the fatigue life of small-diameter and mini dental implants under normal biting force, and their survival rate. The numerical and experimental studies concluded that an increase in the risk of bone damage or implant failure may be assumed in critical clinical situations and implants with <3 mm diameter have a risk of fracture in clinical practice. The survival rate of the small-diameter and mini dental implants over 5 years was 98.3-99.4%.

  1. Is there a relationship between the diameter of the inferior vena cava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-12

    Apr 12, 2015 ... Key words: Central venous pressures, critically ill patients, inferior vena cava. Date of Acceptance: ... Regardless of the cause of the patient's status, the blood/ .... AUC=Area under ROC curve, IAP=Anteroposterior diameter of.

  2. Automatic diameter control system applied to the laser heated pedestal growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeta M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We described an automatic diameter control system (ADC, for the laser heated pedestal growth technique, that reduces the diameter fluctuations in oxide fibers grown from unreacted and non-sinterized pedestals, to less than 2% of the average fiber diameter, and diminishes the average diameter fluctuation, over the entire length of the fiber, to less than 1%. The ADC apparatus is based on an artificial vision system that controls the pulling speed and the height of the molten zone within a precision of 30 mum. We also show that this system can be used for periodic in situ axial doping the fiber. Pure and Cr3+ doped LaAlO3 and pure LiNbO3 were usedas model materials.

  3. Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T., E-mail: Thomas.Richter6@tu-dresden.de; Eckert, K., E-mail: Kerstin.Eckert@tu-dresden.de; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.

  4. Correlation of Mechanical Properties with Diameter and Cooling Rate of 1080 Wire-Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, A.; Poirier, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    More than 540 heats of 1080 wire-rod were statistically analyzed by regression analyses to see whether tensile strength and percent reduction in area (%RA) relate to wire-rod diameter and composition. As diameter increases from 5.6 to 12.7 mm, the trend in %RA shows a decrease with negligible effect on the trend of the tensile strength. It was found that the estimated cooling rate at 700 °C during controlled cooling is responsible for the "diameter effect." The effect of composition on %RA is minor when contrasted to the "diameter effect." In particular, the effect of the concentrations of the residual elements on %RA within the compositional range studied is negligible.

  5. Induction Chemotherapy and Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (CHART) for Patients With Locally Advanced Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The MRC INCH Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, Matthew; Nankivell, Matthew; Lyn, Ethan; Falk, Stephen; Pugh, Cheryl; Navani, Neal; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that both CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy) and induction chemotherapy offer a survival advantage over conventional radical radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). This multicenter randomized controlled trial (INCH) was set up to assess the value of giving induction chemotherapy before CHART. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable, Stage I-III NSCLC were randomized to induction chemotherapy (ICT) (three cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by CHART) or CHART alone. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized (23 in each treatment arm) from 9 UK centers. As a result of poor accrual, the trial was closed in December 2007. Twenty-eight patients were male, 28 had squamous cell histology, 34 were Stage IIIA or IIIB, and all baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Seventeen (74%) of the 23 ICT patients completed the three cycles of chemotherapy. All 42 (22 CHART + 20 ICT) patients who received CHART completed the prescribed treatment. Median survival was 17 months in the CHART arm and 25 months in the ICT arm (hazard ratio of 0.60 [95% CI 0.31-1.16], p = 0.127). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly fatigue, dysphagia, breathlessness, and anorexia) were reported for 13 (57%) CHART and 13 (65%) ICT patients. Conclusions: This small randomized trial indicates that ICT followed by CHART is feasible and well tolerated. Despite closing early because of poor accrual, and so failing to show clear evidence of a survival benefit for the additional chemotherapy, the results suggest that CHART, and ICT before CHART, remain important options for the treatment of inoperable NSCLC and deserve further study.

  6. Interfacial area concentration in gas–liquid bubbly to churn flow regimes in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A systematic method to predict interfacial area concentration (IAC) is presented. • A correlation for group 1 bubble void fraction is proposed. • Correlations of IAC and bubble diameter are developed for group 1 bubbles. • Correlations of IAC and bubble diameter are developed for group 2 bubbles. • The newly-developed two-group IAC model compares well with collected databases. - Abstract: This study performed a survey on existing correlations for interfacial area concentration (IAC) prediction and collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes. Although some of these existing correlations were developed by partly using the IAC databases taken in the low-void-fraction two-phase flows in large diameter pipes, no correlation can satisfactorily predict the IAC in the two-phase flows changing from bubbly, cap bubbly to churn flow in the collected database of large diameter pipes. So this study presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for the bubbly-to-churn flows in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group 1: spherical or distorted bubble, group 2: cap bubble). A correlation was developed to predict the group 1 void fraction by using the void fraction for all bubble. The group 1 bubble IAC and bubble diameter were modeled by using the key parameters such as group 1 void fraction and bubble Reynolds number based on the analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. The correlations of IAC and bubble diameter for group 2 cap bubbles were developed by taking into account the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles and the comparison between a newly-derived drift velocity correlation for large diameter pipes and the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes. The predictions from the newly

  7. Ecological Importance of Large-Diameter Trees in a Temperate Mixed-Conifer Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, James A.; Larson, Andrew J.; Swanson, Mark E.; Freund, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. Although both scaling theory and competition theory make predictions about the relative composition and spatial patterns of large-diameter trees compared to smaller diameter trees, these predictions are rarely tested. We established a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all trees ≥1 cm dbh, all snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m2. We sampled downed woody debris, litter, and duff with line intercept transects. Aboveground live biomass of the 23 woody species was 507.9 Mg/ha, of which 503.8 Mg/ha was trees (SD = 114.3 Mg/ha) and 4.1 Mg/ha was shrubs. Aboveground live and dead biomass was 652.0 Mg/ha. Large-diameter trees comprised 1.4% of individuals but 49.4% of biomass, with biomass dominated by Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana (93.0% of tree biomass). The large-diameter component dominated the biomass of snags (59.5%) and contributed significantly to that of woody debris (36.6%). Traditional scaling theory was not a good model for either the relationship between tree radii and tree abundance or tree biomass. Spatial patterning of large-diameter trees of the three most abundant species differed from that of small-diameter conspecifics. For A. concolor and P. lambertiana, as well as all trees pooled, large-diameter and small-diameter trees were spatially segregated through inter-tree distances trees and spatial relationships between large-diameter and small-diameter trees. Long-term observations may reveal regulation of forest biomass and spatial structure by fire, wind, pathogens, and insects in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Sustaining ecosystem functions such as carbon storage or provision of specialist species habitat will likely require different management strategies when the functions are performed primarily by a few large trees as opposed to many smaller trees. PMID:22567132

  8. A combination of permanent magnet and magnetic coil for a large diameter ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin; Kubota, Yusuke; Miyahara, Akira.

    1980-02-01

    A large diameter ion source for fast neutral beam injection is designed under a magnetic field (we call ''Uramoto Field'') composed of a circular ferrite permanent magnet and a usual coreless magnetic coil. As the magnetic filed is reduced abruptly in a discharge anode, an ion source with a uniform ion current density over a large diameter is produced easily without a ''button'' of ORNL duoPIGatron type ion source (a floating electrode to diffuse an axial plasma flow radially). (author)

  9. The influence of upper airways diameter on the intensity of obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by at least 5 ten-second-long episodes of apnea or hypopnea, per hour of sleep. This disease may lead to severe, life-threatening complications. Therefore, risk analysis and its influence on disease intensity is crucial for proper implementation of preventive treatments. Objective. To determine the relation between the intensity of OSA expressed in Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, and the anterior-posterior diameter of upper airways at the levels of soft palate and tongue base. Material and Method. Medical records of 41 patients with sleep apnea (AHI>4 diagnosed through polysomnographic examination obstructive were used for the study. The data consisted of: age and gender, polysomnographic examination results (AHI, lateral cephalogram with cephalomertic analysis, together with measurements of the upper and lower pharyngeal depth according to McNamara. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s r correlation coefficient test (Statistica 8.0 software package. Results. Analysis of the influence of upper airways diameter on the intensity of OSA showed that the value of upper Airways diameter at the tongue base level had no statistically significant impact on the value of AHI (p=0.795. However, a statistically significant impact of the value of upper airways diameter on the AHI value (p=0.008 at the soft palate level was observed. Patients with OSA have narrowed upper airways diameter. The value of AHI increases with the decrease of upper diameter and is not dependent on a lower diameter value. Patients with a decreased upper airways diameter should be informed about potential breathing disorders during sleep.

  10. Measurement of the aortic diameter in the asymptomatic Korean population: Assessment with multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hwan; Lee, Whal; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Dae Jin; Park, Eun Ah; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung

    2013-01-01

    To determine normal reference values for aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults. Three hundred adults without signs or symptoms of cardiovascular diseases were enrolled in this study. Aortic diameters were measured at nine predetermined levels on CT images. Aortic diameter measurements were adjusted for body surface area. Analysis of data was performed with regard to age, sex, weight, height and hypertension. Aortic diameters were 2.99 ± 0.57 cm at the ascending aorta, 2.54 ± 0.35 cm at the transverse aortic arch, 2.36 ± 0.35 cm at the proximal descending thoracic aorta (DTA), 2.23 ± 0.37 cm at the mid DTA, 2.17 ± 0.38 cm at the distal DTA, 2.16 ± 0.37 cm at the thoracoabdominal junction, 2.10, 00B1, 0.35 cm at the level of the celiac axis, 1.94, 00B1, 0.36 cm at the suprarenal aorta, 1.58 ± 0.24 cm at the aortic bifurcation. Men had slightly larger diameters than women (p < 0.05). All diameters increased with age and hypertension, with statistical significance (p < 0.01). And all aortic diameters increased with height (p < 0.05) except at the level of the aortic arch (p = 0.056), and increased with weight (p < 0.05) except at the level of the suprarenal aorta (p = 0.067). Male sex, higher weight and height, age and hypertension are associated with larger aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults.

  11. Spontaneous high frequency diameter oscillations of larger retinal arterioles are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Toke; Jeppesen, Peter; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by morphological changes in the retina secondary to disturbances in retinal blood flow. Vasomotion is a mechanism for regulating blood flow by spontaneous oscillations in the diameter of retinal resistance arterioles, and has been shown to be disturbed outside...... the eye in diabetic patients. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to characterize spontaneous oscillations in the diameter of retinal arterioles in normal persons and in persons with different severity of diabetic retinopathy....

  12. SAGITTAL DIAMETER OF FORAMEN MAGNUM IN NORMAL POPULATION: AN MRI STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Lower position of cerebellar tonsils was frequently noticed in Western studies. In some of the studies, sagittal diameter of foramen magnum was found to be larger in cases of Chiari malformation. However, there are no Indian studies for comparison. Our study was proposed to determine the standard values for sagittal diameter of foramen magnum in various age groups and both sexes. This gives a guideline for further studies in pathological conditions like Craniovertebral Junctional ...

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a 60cm Diameter Bladeless Fan

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Hamidreza bozorgasareh

    2016-01-01

    Bladeless fan is a novel type of fan with an unusual geometry and unique characteristics. This type of fan has been recently developed for domestic applications in sizes typically up to 30cm diameter. In the present study, a Bladeless fan with a diameter of 60cm was designed and constructed, in order to investigate feasibility of its usage in various industries with large dimensions. Firstly, flow field passed through this fan was studied by 3D modeling. Aerodynamic and aeroacoust...

  14. Height-Diameter Equations for 12 Upland Species in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Stephen R. Shifley

    2007-01-01

    We calibrated a model predicting total tree height as a function of tree diameter for nine tree species common to the Missouri Ozarks. Model coefficients were derived from nearly 10,000 observed trees. The calibrated model did a good job predicting the mean height-diameter trend for each species (pseudo-R2 values ranged from 0.56 to 0.88), but...

  15. The design of cermet fuel phase fraction and fuel particle diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Sheng.

    1986-01-01

    UO 2 -Zr-2 is an ideal cermet fuel. As an exemplification with this fuel, this paper emphatically elucidates the irradiation theory of cermet fuel and its application in the design of cermet fuel phase fraction and of fuel particle diameter. From the point of view of the irradiation theory and the consideration for sandwich rolling, the suitable volume fraction of UO 2 phase of 25% and diameter of UO 2 particle of 100 +- 15 μm are selected

  16. Development of technique for estimating primary cooling system break diameter in predicting nuclear emergency event sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatebe, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    If an emergency event occurs in a nuclear power plant, appropriate action is selected and taken in accordance with the plant status, which changes from time to time, in order to prevent escalation and mitigate the event consequences. It is thus important to predict the event sequence and identify the plant behavior resulting from the action taken. In predicting the event sequence during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), it is necessary to estimate break diameter. The conventional method for this estimation is time-consuming, since it involves multiple sensitivity analyses to determine the break diameter that is consistent with the plant behavior. To speed up the process of predicting the nuclear emergency event sequence, a new break diameter estimation technique that is applicable to pressurized water reactors was developed in this study. This technique enables the estimation of break diameter using the plant data sent from the safety parameter display system (SPDS), with focus on the depressurization rate in the reactor cooling system (RCS) during LOCA. The results of LOCA analysis, performed by varying the break diameter using the MAAP4 and RELAP5/MOD3.2 codes, confirmed that the RCS depressurization rate could be expressed by the log linear function of break diameter, except in the case of a small leak, in which RCS depressurization is affected by the coolant charging system and the high-pressure injection system. A correlation equation for break diameter estimation was developed from this function and tested for accuracy. Testing verified that the correlation equation could estimate break diameter accurately within an error of approximately 16%, even if the leak increases gradually, changing the plant status. (author)

  17. Film behaviour of vertical gas-liquid flow in a large diameter pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Zangana, Mohammed Haseeb Sedeeq

    2011-01-01

    Gas-liquid flow commonly occurs in oil and gas production and processing system. Large diameter vertical pipes can reduce pressure drops and so minimize operating costs. However, there is a need for research on two-phase flow in large diameter pipes to provide confidence to designers of equipments such as deep water risers. In this study a number of experimental campaigns were carried out to measure pressure drop, liquid film thickness and wall shear in 127mm vertical pipe. Total pressur...

  18. Experimental investigation on motive nozzle throat diameter for an ejector expansion refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilir Sag, Nagihan; Ersoy, H. Kursad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of nozzle throat diameter and its location on performance were investigated. • The nozzle has an optimum throat diameter under the experiment condition. • The maximum performance has been achieved by using optimum nozzle throat diameter. • The variation of nozzle throat diameter with condenser water inlet temperature was examined. • Motive nozzle has no optimum position in the ejector refrigeration system. - Abstract: In this study, ejector was used to reduce throttling losses in a vapour compression refrigeration system. Effects on system performance of throat diameter and position of motive nozzle of ejector were investigated experimentally. An ejector was designed based on the established mathematical model and manufactured. The experiments were carried out by using different primary nozzle throat diameters. The experiments were further conducted by changing condenser water inlet temperature, which is one of the external parameters. The experimental results of the ejector system and those of the classic system were compared under same external operating conditions and for the same cooling capacity. In order to obtain same external operating conditions in both systems, the inlet conditions of the brine supplied to the evaporator and inlet water conditions (flow rate and temperature) to the condenser were kept constant. Maximum performance was obtained when the primary nozzle throat diameter was 2.3 mm within the areas considered in this study. When compared, it was experimentally determined that the ejector system that uses the optimum motive nozzle throat diameter exhibits higher COP than the classic system by 5–13%. Furthermore, it was found that the variation of coefficient of performance based on position of motive nozzle in two-phase ejector expander refrigeration cycle is lower than 1%.

  19. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, P Joseph; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-12-01

    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical diameters of stars measured with the Mt. Wilson Mark III interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Gaume, R.; Hutter, D.J.; Bowers, P.F.; Colavita, M.M.; Shao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Reliable stellar angular diameters can now be determined using the Mark III Optical Interferometer located on Mt. Wilson, California. The Mark III is a Michelson Interferometer capable of measuring the interferometric fringe visibility for stars using interferometer baselines varying from 3 to 31.5 meters in length. Angular diameters measured with the Mark III Optical Interferometer are presented for 12 stars at wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm. 10 refs