WorldWideScience

Sample records for incarcerated young men

  1. Mindfulness and Rehabilitation: Teaching Yoga and Meditation to Young Men in an Alternative to Incarceration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Carla J

    2017-11-01

    This study used participant/observation and open-ended interviews to understand how male participants (age 18-24 years) benefited from yoga and mindfulness training within an Alternative to Incarceration (ATI) program. Findings suggest that the male participants (age 18-24 years) benefited from the intervention through reductions in stress and improvements in emotion regulation. Several participants noted the importance of the development of an embodied practice for assisting them in managing anger and impulse control. The young men's narratives suggest that mindfulness-based interventions can contribute positively to rehabilitative outcomes within alternative to incarcerations settings, providing complementary benefit to existing ATI programs, especially for clients amenable to mindfulness training. With many jurisdictions expanding rehabilitation-focused interventions for young offenders, service providers should consider the potential positive contributions that mindfulness-based interventions can have for fostering desistance and reducing recidivism among justice system-involved populations.

  2. Postsecondary Educational Engagement among Formerly-Incarcerated Transition-Age Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…

  3. Recruiting, Retaining and Engaging Men in Social Interventions: Lessons for Implementation Focusing on a Prison-Based Parenting Intervention for Young Incarcerated Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Recruiting, retaining and engaging men in social interventions can be challenging. The focus of this paper is the successful implementation of a parenting programme for incarcerated fathers, delivered in a Young Offender Institution (YOI) in Scotland. Reasons for high levels of recruitment, retention and engagement are explored, with barriers…

  4. Personality constellations in incarcerated psychopathic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagov, Pavel S; Patrick, Christopher J; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Powers, Abigail D; Phifer, Justine E; Venables, Noah; Hudak, Marissa; Herres, Daniel J; Lieb, Kate; Leigh, Sophia C Garvin; Cooper, Gabrielle

    2011-10-01

    Advances in the operationalization of psychopathy have led to an increased understanding of the boundaries, structure, and nomological network of this construct, although significant questions remain. The empirical identification of replicable and theoretically meaningful psychopathy subtypes may help to improve the classification and diagnosis of this condition. We conducted a classification study of 91 incarcerated men who met conventional criteria for high levels of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. We expanded on the methodology of previous research on psychopathy subtypes by utilizing a comprehensive personality assessment instrument and a prototype matching approach to classification. The analyses revealed a primary (narcissistic) subtype and a secondary (hostile and dysregulated) subtype that were broadly consistent with the previous literature. External validation analyses, statistical controls, and incremental validity analyses provided substantial support for the primary and secondary subtypes.

  5. Predictors of drug use in prison among incarcerated Black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Tawandra L; Wu, Elwin; Hart, Carl L; Haile, Rahwa; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2012-11-01

    Black men currently comprise a substantial percentage of prisoners in the United States. Drug dependence is common among prison populations, and US prisons are high-risk environments for drug use. Prison drug use exacerbates health problems disproportionately prevalent among Black men and prisoners. The goal of this research was to examine predictors of prison drug use among incarcerated Black men. This study examined drug use within the prison environment in a random sample of 134 Black men incarcerated in maximum-security correctional institution. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used to measure illicit drug use history and the extent to which drug use occurred within the prison environment. Seventy-five percent of the participants reported a history of illicit drug use. Overall, 20% (n 25) of the participants, or 25% of those with a history of drug use, reported using drugs during a time frame consistent with incarceration. Participants with lengthier histories of drug use (OR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) and those who were incarcerated longer (OR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) were more likely to use drugs in prison. Drug use in prison was associated with history of injection drug use and with probation/parole status when arrested. Prisoners are engaging in illicit drug use while incarcerated, suggesting that they could benefit from harm reduction and drug treatment services offered during incarceration. Drug treatment programs that address long-standing addictions and coping mechanisms for lengthy prison stays, specifically, would be especially useful for this population.

  6. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  7. Young men using pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Most everyday users of pornography are heterosexual men. Looking at, and masturbating to, pornography is the routine practice of large numbers of men. And most of the commercial pornographic industry caters to heterosexual men. These men – and their consumption of pornography – are the subject of a growing body of research. This chapter offers an overview of what we can learn about heterosexual boys' and young men's use of pornography, focusing particularly on quantitative studies of the exte...

  8. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based emotional intelligence measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold-standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower emotional intelligence. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of emotional intelligence abilities and that emotional intelligence is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy. PMID:22329657

  9. Going home: formerly incarcerated African American men return to families and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Cheryl L

    2005-11-01

    More than 800,000 African American men are currently incarcerated in prisons or jails in the United States. Most of these men leave prison ill prepared to return to society as workers, or to reintegrate into family settings. Returning from prison is complicated by struggles in the housing and job markets. This article begins with a review of literature exploring drug laws and disproportionate incarceration rates, homelessness, and joblessness. Data from a community-based, qualitative study of African American men following incarceration is presented. A discussion of how incarceration influenced their return to family situations is included that supports the findings by earlier studies on the effects of homelessness and joblessness on individuals and families. The article concludes with recommendations for the development of targeted support systems and offers suggestions for future nursing research with this population.

  10. The "knucklehead" approach and what matters in terms of health for formerly incarcerated Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Perry, Ashley; Bobet, Ilka; Bobet, Santos; Ramos, Hector; Quiñones, Francisco; Lloyd, Kaity

    2012-06-01

    In terms of the examination of the relationship between masculinity and health, there has been limited exploration of how the ways in which formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) construct their masculinities may conflict with public health messages. Using information gained from three years of ethnographic research that was conducted with formerly incarcerated Puerto Rican males in three urban communities in New York City, the authors examine what matters to FILM in terms of their health and well-being and what conflicts exist between public health prevention messages and FILM masculinity. Our results indicate the following: (1) major threats to the health of FILM, such as HIV risk behavior, alcohol and drug use and high caloric intake, are perceived as irrelevant to most of the FILM in the study; (2) young FILM believe that they engage in risky behaviors because of their "knucklehead" mentality and diminish their risks by becoming "street-smart;" and (3) social isolation, loneliness and general risk-taking behavior among FILM are salient issues that have yet to be effectively addressed. Of our sample of 32 FILM, we identified 7 individuals who have transitioned from having a "knucklehead" approach in their lives to possessing a greater sense of awareness of health and social matters. These seven individuals followed either or both of the following pathways: (1) pursuing a college education or (2) becoming community leaders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Joblessness and homelessness as precursors of health problems in formerly incarcerated African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Cheryl L

    2004-01-01

    To explore how joblessness and homelessness influence the health of men leaving prison. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 17 formerly incarcerated African American men. Participants were interviewed for 1-2 hours in a private setting. Data were collected over 3 months in late 2001. Questions were focused on the experiences of participants during incarceration and after release from prison. Discourse analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings related to unemployment included, (a) being incarcerated was associated with decreased types of employment available after release from prison, (b) a history of incarceration altered how participants were able to conduct job searches, and (c) men who did well after release were those who were self-employed. Findings related to homelessness showed that barriers in either systems or relationships interfered with finding homes. If formerly incarcerated African American men are to reenter society in meaningful ways, steady, living-wage employment and a stable living environment are needed for these men to be able to successfully reintegrate into both families and the larger society, and to avoid conditions that are precursors of health problems.

  12. Listening, Writing, Drawing: The Artistic Response of Incarcerated Youth to Young-Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study examining the types of artistic responses and personal interpretations that incarcerated male youths make as they listen and respond to selected pieces of young adult literature. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methodology to gather information about incarcerated youth and their…

  13. Discrimination Fully Mediates the Effects of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M

    2018-04-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.

  14. Experiences of, and attitudes towards, pregnancy and fatherhood amongst incarcerated young male offenders: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie Margaret

    2010-12-01

    Teenage parenthood is problematised in the UK. Attention is increasingly falling on the potential or actual father yet we still know relatively little about young men's experiences and attitudes in this area. This paper focuses on the experiences of, and attitudes towards, pregnancy and fatherhood amongst a sample of men incarcerated in a Scottish Young Offender Institute. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 inmates, aged 16-20, purposively sampled using answers from a questionnaire administered to 67 inmates. Twelve men reported eighteen pregnancies for which they were, definitely or possibly, responsible. All but one of the pregnancies were unplanned. Five of the men were fathers: two were still in a relationship with the mother of their child and were in close contact with her and the child while incarcerated, three, all of whom had separated from their partner before the birth, had had patchy contact with mother and child before and/or during their sentence. All five of the men expressed a strong desire to be 'a good father'. Amongst the interview sample as a whole, most said they did not feel ready to become fathers. The main reason given was being unable to fulfil what they regarded as the key role of financial provider. Most of the men had given little or no thought to the possibility of a sexual partner becoming pregnant. Contraceptive use was high, however, amongst the minority who reported thinking about this possibility. The paper concludes by considering the cultural context of the men's attitudes and the potential for intervention development for incarcerated male young offenders in the areas of Sex and Relationships Education and parenting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between education and health among incarcerated men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Masters, Ryan K; Boardman, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    This paper contributes to research on the education-health association by extending the scope of inquiry to adult inmates. Not only are inmates excluded from most nationally representative studies of health but they also represent a highly select group in terms of both education and health. As such, our study provides new information about the health of incarcerated populations and it extends the generalizability of the education-health association beyond the non-institutionalized population. We use a prison-level fixed-effects regression model with the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (n = 287 facilities) to evaluate the effects of education on a standardized morbidity scale of 11 lifetime and current health conditions among incarcerated men (n = 10,493) and women (n = 2,797). Education prior to incarceration is negatively associated with lifetime health problems for both women and men and the association is stronger among women. Among inmates who enter prison with less than a GED level of education, attaining a GED in prison is associated with better current health outcomes for men, but not women. The generalization of the education-health association among prisoners further highlights the fundamental nature of education as a health promotive resource. Discussed are the implications for the education-health literature in general and health promotion efforts among incarcerated adults specifically.

  16. Drug use history and criminal behavior among 133 incarcerated men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, E M; Pope, H G; Powell, K F; Oliva, P S; Campbell, C

    1997-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between crime and substance abuse in a sample of 133 consecutively evaluated male prisoners. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, we assessed the prevalence of various forms of substance abuse in this population and attempted to judge whether substance abuse played a role in the index crime which has led to the present incarceration. In addition, we assessed whether there was a relationship between the nature of substance dependence and the type of crime committed, whether sexual, violent, or non-violent. Among the 133 prisoners, 95% obtained a diagnosis of dependence on one or more substances. Fifty-eight percent of the inmates reported that they were acutely intoxicated with one or more substances at the time they committed the index crime and an additional 6% were withdrawing from a substance at the time of the crime. There was no significant correlation between the type of substance abuse diagnosis and the type of crime committed. Similarly, there was no significant correlation between the number of individuals who reported they were intoxicated at the time of the offense and the type of crime committed.

  17. How do young black men having sex with only women differ from those also having sex with men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Pasternak, Ryan; Salazar, Laura F; Terrell, Ivy

    2013-11-01

    In the US, young Black men (YBM) disproportionately acquire sexually transmissible infections (STI), including infection with HIV. This secondary analysis compared sexual behaviours of YBM (n = 568) not reporting sex with men with those of YBM who have sex with men (YBMSM). In the present study YBMSM were generally less likely to report engagement in sexual risk behaviours, less likely to report incarceration and more likely to ever be tested for HIV. The findings suggest that elevated rates of HIV and/or STI among YBMSM may be a product of higher prevalence rates in sexual networks.

  18. The Assets and Challenges of Formerly Incarcerated Latino Men's Social Support Networks in Promoting Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Martinez, Omar; Draine, Jeffrey; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Severson, Nicolette; Levine, Ethan; Benjamin, Gregory

    2017-08-04

    After being exposed to high-risk environments in correctional facilities, formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) encounter new risks upon reentering their community of residence including drug use and sexual risk behaviors. Families and close social support networks are critical in potentially mitigating the stressors and risks associated with reentry and reducing the likelihood of recidivism. We conducted a study to examine the material and cognitive assets that familial networks can use to provide support to FILM to engage in health-promoting practices. This analysis is based on linear and logistic regression modeling of cross-sectional data collected through a computer-administered survey with dyads of FILM (ages 18-49, who had been in jail or prison within the past 5 years) and their nominated social network (n = 130 dyads). We found that both male and female social supports (MSS and FSS) have significantly higher levels of structural resources (education and employment) than FILM. Though FSS reported higher self-efficacy on health-promoting practices than FILM, contrary to what we predicted, FILM and FSS/MSS reported similar levels of mental health and behavioral risks. Our results suggest a number of limitations in designing family-based intervention strategies, but they also provided insight into the specificities needed to enhance the social support networks of FILM.

  19. Differential Impact of Types of Social Support in the Mental Health of Formerly Incarcerated Latino Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Perry, Ashley; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The role of social support in the mental health of formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) is an issue overlooked in public health prevention efforts. The objectives of this analysis were to (a) describe the levels of social support perceived and received by FILM; (b) identify the associations, if any, between levels of social support and mental health indicators such as depression and anxiety; and (c) explore the impact of familism and hypermasculinity on the receptivity of social support and the potential role of these factors in mediating associations between social support and mental health indicators. To accomplish the objectives, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with FILM (n = 259), ages 18 to 59, in New York City, and one nominated member of their social network (n = 130 dyads). In this analysis, we examined four dimensions of social support (instrumental, informational, appraisal, and emotional) from two perspectives: provided (as reported by members of the social networks) and perceived (as reported by FILM). The major outcome variables for this analysis were the presence/absence of major anxiety and depressive symptoms. Our logistic regression analyses suggest that perceived emotional support was inversely associated with both anxiety and depression. Our findings suggest that familism mediated the association between perceived emotional support and anxiety/depression. Therefore, we must consider designing network enhancement interventions that focus on both FILM and their social support systems. PMID:24323767

  20. The Cumulative Disadvantages of Socially Toxic Family Environments: A Comparison of Early Life Experiences of Incarcerated Men and University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michalski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the antecedents of criminal behavior through the process of retrospective family and life course histories in which incarcerated male inmates and male university students are compared. The main focus is on early childhood experiences and parental behaviors. The study data derive from intensive, face-to-face interviews with 38 men incarcerated for violent offences and a matched group of 66 men attending university at the same time. The interviews focus on the relative importance of adverse childhood experiences and linkages with adolescence. The interviews demonstrated that nearly four-fifths of the inmates experienced toxic family environments by the time they reached adolescence, as compared with only two of the university students. Qualitative analyses flesh out the major themes, experiences, and “risk factors” that helped shape the trajectories of both groups of men. The socially toxic family environments and sub-optimal parenting practices that most inmates endured produced long-term, adverse effects in reducing their capacities for resilience, forging healthy relationships with their peers, and remaining in school.

  1. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  2. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the problem is! I trimmed my pubic hair and began getting red bumps in my pubic area. How can I prevent them? Is shaving my body OK? I keep getting razor burn in my crotch from it… Can I use a product ... by @YoungMensHealth Young Men’s Health (YMH) is ...

  3. Consequences of Fatherhood for Young Men's Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Taillade, Jaslean J; Hofferth, Sandra; Wight, Vanessa R

    2010-04-01

    This paper examined how the onset and timing of the transition to fatherhood affects the type and quality of young men's relationships with partners and parents. Data are drawn from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Young Adult Survey and included young men (ages 18-31 years old in 2006) who varied on residential status with their children and timing of fatherhood (N = 1,931). Results indicated the effects of fatherhood varied across types of fathers, with residential fathers more likely to be in a committed but less satisfactory relationship regardless of timing of fatherhood. Nonresidential fathers were more likely to have close relationships with their mothers and fathers, but findings varied by timing of fatherhood and gender of parent. Implications of these findings are framed in terms of young men's developmental readiness for multiple demands of first-time fatherhood.

  4. Perceptions of neighborhood social environment and drug dependence among incarcerated women and men: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Jessica D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perception of neighborhood social environment can influence an individual’s susceptibility to drug dependence. However, this has never been examined with a jailed sample, where frequent transitions between local jails and disadvantaged neighborhoods are common. Understanding these associations could aid in the design of targeted programs to decrease drug dependence and recidivism among the incarcerated. Methods For this study, 596 women and men from three Kansas City jails were surveyed over the course of six months in 2010. Drug dependence was assessed with DSM-IV criteria. Independent variables included fear of one’s neighborhood, perceived level of neighborhood violence, and social capital. All data were self-reported and were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Controlling for gender and age, fear of neighborhood violence was associated with increased odds of having drug dependence (OR = 1.27, CI 1.02, 1.58 and a higher level of social capital prior to incarceration was associated with lower odds of drug dependence (OR = 0.65, CI 0.44, 0.96. Mental health problem diagnosis and past year intimate partner violence were significant mediating factors. Gender and race/ethnicity were significant moderating factors between neighborhood disadvantage and drug dependence. Conclusions Our study suggests that drug dependence programs for women and men who cycle between jails and communities require both individual- and community-level interventions. To be most effective, programs at the community-level should focus on helping specific groups navigate their communities, as well as address individual health needs associated with drug dependence.

  5. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michael J; Frank, Heather Guentzel; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Chou, Chih-Ping; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2018-01-01

    African-American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are among those most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States, and those who have histories of incarceration are at further risk of infection. The Men in Life Environments (MILE) HIV prevention intervention was developed to provide culturally appropriate skills-based education and support for African-American MSMW with recent histories of incarceration. The MILE's conceptual framework was informed by three theories: Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior, Critical Thinking and Cultural Affirmation Model, and Empowerment Theory. The theory-based framework posits that improving racial pride is crucial in building self-efficacy and intentions that in turn promote health-protective behaviors. Therefore, our study aimed to assess whether baseline associations between racial pride and condom use self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors among African-American MSMW with histories of incarceration align with our conceptual model. We report data on 212 participants recruited from Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Men's Central Jail and the local community. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two separate models: one with female sexual partners and one with male sexual partners, while stratifying by participant's HIV status. Only among HIV-negative participants was greater racial pride associated with less condomless intercourse with men. In this group, greater self-efficacy and intentions-but not racial pride-predicted less condomless intercourse with women. Our findings suggest that racial pride is an important factor to address in HIV prevention interventions for post-incarcerated African-American MSMW.

  6. Thermal maps of young women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  7. Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Information Seeking in Formerly Incarcerated African-American and Hispanic Men: Implications for Cancer Health Communication and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; Lian, Zi; Brotzman, Laura; Reid, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    African-American and Hispanic men are disproportionately affected by cancer experiencing higher rates of cancer-related morbidity and mortality for many cancers (but not all). These challenges may be magnified for a subpopulation of African-American and Hispanic men who have been incarcerated. A survey assessing demographics, incarceration experience, psychosocial, behavioral, and cancer health information seeking was administered to 230 previously incarcerated men aged 35 years and older. Data analysis was performed to assess the association between fatalism, perceived susceptibility, and health information seeking in this population. This study revealed the following: the majority of the participants (68.7%) held the fatalistic belief: "When I think of cancer, I automatically think of death." Second, the fatalistic belief, "There's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer," is more prevalent among those who perceived a higher risk of developing cancer. Third, older participants (those between 55 and 70 years old) and widowed are less likely to think of death when they think of cancer. In addition, those who use the Internet to look for health or medical information (i.e., engaging in health information seeking) are less likely to agree with the fatalistic belief: "It seems like everything causes cancer." Given the high incidence of certain cancers among African-American and Hispanic men and the vulnerability of those involved in the criminal justice system, our findings highlight the importance of understanding perceived susceptibility to cancer, fatalistic beliefs about cancer, and information seeking in formerly incarcerated men.

  8. Increase in the Length of Incarceration and the Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Men Released from Illinois State Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haeil

    2011-01-01

    The sharp rise in U.S. incarceration rates has heightened long-standing concerns among scholars and policymakers that lengthy incarceration permanently harms the future labor market outcomes of prisoners. If true, then lengthy prison sentences will not only punish criminals for crimes committed, but will also make it far more difficult for…

  9. Psychological distress and intelligence in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.

    2016-01-01

    This study has primarily aimed to investigate first, the prevalence of psychological distress complaints among a population-representative sample of young men, second, whether psychological distress is associated with poorer performance on an intelligence test and third, whether any association...... is a purely linear function. Specifically, we have examined self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, and IQ, among 1869 young men appearing before the Danish Draft Board with a view to assessing suitability for conscription. The assessment included a 25-item questionnaire concerning a broad range...... was 0.15, but the relationship was better described by a model incorporating a negatively accelerating quadratic function and individuals above the 90th percentile on the PHS had a mean IQ of 94. This finding confirms the need to consider any general psychological distress, especially at high levels...

  10. Lifetime trauma victimization and PTSD in relation to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Robyn L; Reddy, Madhavi K; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are similar, but distinct, psychiatric conditions that are common in male and female inmates; a segment of the population with high rates of trauma exposure. It is unclear whether specific types of lifetime trauma are associated with ASPD and psychopathy in incarcerated women and men. Furthermore, the unique roles of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and trauma victimization in antisocial personality disturbance are not well-understood. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study investigated associations between trauma variables (different kinds of traumatic experiences and PTSD) and antisocial personality variables (ASPD and psychopathy) in a sample of incarcerated women and men who participated in a randomized clinical trial for major depressive disorder. In total, 88 incarcerated men and women were assessed for ASPD diagnosis, psychopathy severity, PTSD symptom severity, and history of physical, sexual, and crime-related trauma. Regression analyses predicted ASPD or psychopathy from trauma variables, controlling for gender. Physical trauma was the only form of trauma that was significantly related to psychopathy. Physical trauma and crime-related trauma were associated with ASPD. PTSD symptom severity was not associated with psychopathy or ASPD. There are associations between some kinds of lifetime trauma exposure and current ASPD/psychopathy in the target sample, but these associations do not appear to be mediated through current PTSD symptoms.

  11. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  12. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Severity and Sexually Transmitted Infection and HIV Risk in African American Incarcerated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Hobbs, Marcia M; Wohl, David A; Adimora, Adaora A; Khan, Maria R

    2016-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV rates are disproportionately high among men involved in the criminal justice system. Mental health disorders, including personality disorders, are also elevated among inmates. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be an important risk factor for STI/HIV, yet remains relatively understudied, particularly among inmates. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study of African American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in heterosexual relationships at prison entry (n=189), to assess their STI/HIV risk in the 6 months before incarceration and BPD symptoms focused on emotional lability and relationship dysfunction. We created a continuous BPD symptom severity score and a dichotomous BPD indicator split at the top quartile of the score (BPD-TQ) to examine associations between BPD and STI/HIV outcomes using logistic regression. We also examined associations between individual symptoms and outcomes. After adjustment for sociodemographics and antisocial personality disorder, BPD-TQ was associated with sexual risk behaviors including multiple partnerships (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.36) and sex with nonmonogamous partners (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.51). Prevalence of previous STI (47.5% vs. 29.6%) and prevalent chlamydial infection (6.9% vs. 3.1%) seemed higher in those in BPD-TQ, although the associations were not statistically significant. Associations were similar to those with the continuous score. Borderline personality disorder symptoms most associated with STI/HIV risk were abandonment worry, mood swings, and shifts in opinions. Borderline personality disorder is strongly associated with STI/HIV risk in this sample. Researchers should further evaluate the relationship between STI/HIV and BPD, in addition to mood disorders.

  13. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, phypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI Among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Golin, C E; Friedman, S R; Scheidell, J D; Adimora, A A; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, M M; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, K K; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, K P; Wohl, D A

    2015-08-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months before incarceration, and 9 % tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3 %, gonorrhea: 0.5 %, trichomoniasis: 4.9 %). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio: 3.79, 95 % CI 1.19-12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis.

  15. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Intimate Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, MR; Golin, CE; Friedman, SR; Scheidell, JD; Adimora, AA; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, MM; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, KK; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, KP; Wohl, DA

    2015-01-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N=207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42%), concurrent partnerships (33%), and buying sex (11%) in the six months before incarceration, and 9% tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3%, gonorrhea: 0.5%, trichomoniasis: 4.9%). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.79, 95% CI: 1.19–12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis. PMID:25863467

  16. Innocent inmates: The case of children living with incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...

  17. Talking Violence, Constructing Identity : Young Men in Institutional Care

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kjerstin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how young men constructing identities in talk about their own use of violence. The study is based on a fieldwork at a youth detention home in Sweden. The data consists of individual interviews and video recordings of the treatment programme Aggression Replacement Training (ART). Detailed analyses have been made of conversations between the young men, between the young men and the trainers, and of the narratives generated in the individual interviews. The...

  18. Suicide clusters among young Kenyan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Puffer, Eve S; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-11-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of global mortality. Suicide clusters have recently been identified among peer networks in high-income countries. This study investigates dynamics of suicide clustering within social networks of young Kenya men ( n = 532; 18-34 years). We found a strong, statistically significant association between reported number of friends who previously attempted suicide and present suicide ideation (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (1.42, 2.54); p self-esteem (23% of total effect). Meaning in life further mediated the association between collective self-esteem and suicide ideation. Survivors of peer suicide should be evaluated for suicide risk.

  19. Teenage pregnancy prevention: the role of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Gabriela; Borus, Joshua; Charlton, Brittany M

    2017-08-01

    Although teenage pregnancy is declining in many parts of the world, it remains associated with considerable social, health, and economic outcomes. Pregnancy prevention efforts focus primarily on young women, with minimal attention to young men. This review highlights recent literature pertaining to the role of young men in pregnancy prevention. Young men have varying views on contraception as well as which partner(s) should be responsible for its use. Limited contraception knowledge reduces young men's sexual health communication as well as their contraception use. Healthcare providers play a major role as one of the main sources of sexual health information for young men, but there are gaps in young men's sexual health care so new guidelines have emerged. Recent literature highlights young men's range of views on contraception as well as their low sexual health knowledge and sexual health communication. To address teenage pregnancy and improve young men's overall wellness, healthcare providers should routinely address sexual health. Healthcare providers may use our newly proposed acronym, HIS BESTT, (Hello. Initiate. Sexual health assessment. Both condoms and female dependent methods. Examine genitals. STI screening. Talking to partner(s). Talking to parent(s) or guardians), to incorporate current clinical recommendations.

  20. HIV and Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among Men Who Have Sex with Men, by Age Group, 2008 – 2011—United States and 6 Dependent Areas ... What influence do parents and schools have? School Psychology Review 2008;37:202–216. 14. CDC. CDC- ...

  1. Improving mental health and wellbeing for young men in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Australia these alarming statistics have led to the funding of a range of programmes tackling youth suicide and more recently programmes that are aimed at improving help-seeking behaviours of young men. The programme reported in this paper is one such programme that is working with young men in the building and ...

  2. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…

  3. Consequences of Partner Incarceration for Women's Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Angela

    2017-10-01

    Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).

  4. The effect and expense of redemption reintegration services versus usual reintegration care for young African Canadians discharged from incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, Victor; Renner, Chenowa; Dunn, Jody; Hinnewaah, Priscilla; Morris, Kofi; Hamilton, Akilah; Braithewaite, Star; Hunter, Nigel; Browne, Gina; Browne, Dillon T

    2017-03-01

    African Canadians comprise 2.5% of the population, but represent 9.5% of federal inmates - an increase of 80% since 2003-2004. Recidivism among federal inmates is high (about 40%). This paper outlines the findings, at 9 months after enrolment during 2011-2012, of a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness and cost of Redemption Reintegration Services (RRS), a culturally specific, multi-level intervention for young African Canadian former inmates. Retention at 9 months was 95% of those randomised (n = 115 per group) to RRS (n = 114) or usual reintegration services (n = 105) offered by the municipality. The primary outcomes were recidivism and service costs. Mediating and moderating measures were Personality Strengths, Developmental Assets, Meaning in Life, the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth, the Youth Behaviour Checklist and Neighbourhood Vitality. Compared with the usual care group, the RRS group showed significant improvements in: self-reported Personality Strengths, Developmental Assets, the presence and search for Meaning in Life, social and individual risk factors, behaviour, and life events such as obtaining stable housing and enrolling in school. At 9 months, RRS participants generated significantly lower per person per annum expenditures for law enforcement services, housing services and total direct costs. Among RRS participants, 3.5% reported being re-charged for offences in the previous 9 months compared with 45.7% of the usual care group. The 2010-2011 average annual cost per person for incarceration was $114,364. The 48 individuals in the usual care group and 4 in RRS would generate costs of $5,489,472 and $457,456, respectively - a $5 million difference. We conclude that, at 9 months, RRS is more effective and less expensive than usual reintegration services for young African Canadians. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reproductive parameters in young men living in Rochester, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe semen quality and reproductive hormone concentrations of young men living in Rochester, New York, and to compare these with published data from similar European and Japanese populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University and college campuses in the Rochester.......8% of men had a sperm concentration below 20 × 10(6)/mL and 15 × 10(6)/mL, respectively. Few men had serum hormones falling outside clinically normal ranges. Median sperm concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were comparable to those seen in young men in Denmark, Finland, and Japan. CONCLUSION......(S): Our study provides the first data in 70 years on semen quality and reproductive hormones in young men in the United States with unknown fertility. These data suggest that, overall, reproductive parameters in our study population of young college students from the northeastern United States are similar...

  6. Sex partnerships, health, and social risks of young men leaving jail: analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freudenberg Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young men involved in the criminal justice system face disproportionately high rates of sexual risk behavior, drug, use, and violence. Little is known about how their involvement in sex partnerships might mitigate their unique health and social risks. This study explores whether sex partner experience protects against harmful sexual behaviors, drug problems, violence, and recidivism in 16-18-year-old Black and Latino men leaving a US jail. Methods Data were drawn from the Returning Educated African-American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN study conducted between 2003-2007, which tracked 552 adolescents during their time in a New York City jail and 397 of them one year after their release. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between sex partner experience and sex behavior, drug use, violence, and recidivism. Results This study indicates that young men who have long-term sex partners prior to incarceration are less likely to be inconsistent condom users (OR = 0.50, p ≤ 0.01, have sex while high on drugs/alcohol (OR = 0.14, p ≤ 0.001, use marijuana daily (OR = 0.45, p ≤ 0.001, and carry weapons during illegal activity (OR = 0.58, p ≤ 0.05, especially compared with peers who simultaneously are involved with long-term and casual "short-term" sex partners. However, the positive effects of having a long-term sex partner generally do not apply over time - in this case, one year after being released from jail. Aside from sexual partners, factors such as employment and housing stability predict whether these young men will experience positive or negative outcomes post-incarceration. Conclusions This study highlights the importance and potential benefits of health interventions that engage young Black and Latino men who are involved in the criminal justice system in the US, as well as their sex partners, in health promotion programs. The study also confirms the need for programs that

  7. Early age at childhood parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk across the young adult lifecourse in the US: Heightened vulnerability of black and Hispanic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria R; Scheidell, Joy D; Rosen, David L; Geller, Amanda; Brotman, Laurie M

    2018-02-01

    We measured associations between parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk, assessing differences by race, age at first parental incarceration, and potential mediators of the relationship. We used Waves I (adolescence), III (young adulthood), and IV (adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,884) to measure associations between age of parental incarceration (never; STI in adolescence and adulthood among white, Black, and Hispanic participants and assessed mediation by sexual and physical abuse, mental disorder symptoms, and drug use. By Wave IV, approximately one in six had experienced a parental incarceration; higher prevalence observed among black (26%) and Hispanic (20%) versus white (15%) respondents (p STI/HIV risk outcomes. In multivariable models, parental incarceration at age STI/HIV risk in both adolescence and adulthood, with strongest associations among non-whites. Among black participants, parental incarceration at STI/HIV prevention and treatment. The unintended consequences of incarceration for children should be considered in decarceration discussions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  9. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J

    2014-01-01

    and reproductive hormone levels in young men. METHODS: Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters...

  10. Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markidan, Janina; Cole, John W; Cronin, Carolyn A; Merino, Jose G; Phipps, Michael S; Wozniak, Marcella A; Kittner, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    There is a strong dose-response relationship between smoking and risk of ischemic stroke in young women, but there are few data examining this association in young men. We examined the dose-response relationship between the quantity of cigarettes smoked and the odds of developing an ischemic stroke in men under age 50 years. The Stroke Prevention in Young Men Study is a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in men ages 15 to 49 years. The χ 2 test was used to test categorical comparisons. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio for ischemic stroke occurrence comparing current and former smokers to never smokers. In the first model, we adjusted solely for age. In the second model, we adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, race, education, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. The study population consisted of 615 cases and 530 controls. The odds ratio for the current smoking group compared with never smokers was 1.88. Furthermore, when the current smoking group was stratified by number of cigarettes smoked, there was a dose-response relationship for the odds ratio, ranging from 1.46 for those smoking ischemic stroke among young men. Although complete smoking cessation is the goal, even smoking fewer cigarettes may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in young men. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Incarceration, Identity Formation, and Race in Young Adult Literature: The Case of "Monster" versus "Hole in My Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engles, Tim; Kory, Fern

    2013-01-01

    English teachers can heighten awareness of the factors that influence racial disparities in arrest and incarceration rates by working with literature that dramatizes the differences between white and nonwhite experiences within the US criminal justice system. Tim Engles and Fern Kory demonstrate some methods for doing so by juxtaposing two…

  13. Testing Incapacitation Theory: Youth Crime and Incarceration in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlkopf, Christina; Males, Mike; Macallair, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Under incapacitation theory, higher incarceration rates are expected to correlate with accelerated reductions in crime. California's contemporary incarceration patterns offer an opportunity to analyze the validity of this theory, particularly as it applies to young people. This study focuses on California's juvenile incarceration and crime trends…

  14. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  15. HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…

  16. Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability among young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Barley, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    For human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to have maximum benefit to public health, both men and women should be vaccinated. Although efficacy trials in men are still ongoing, the HPV vaccine will likely be licensed for men in the near future. Little is known about men's interest in HPV vaccination. This study assessed whether informing men about the benefits of male HPV vaccination for their female sexual partner(s) boosted interest in the HPV vaccine beyond informing them about the benefits to men alone. Predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability were also identified. Heterosexual male college students (n = 356) were randomly assigned to receive a self-protection versus a self-protection and partner protection message about HPV and the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. Participants provided demographic and sexual history information, HPV-related awareness and knowledge, health beliefs, and HPV vaccination intentions. : Men reported moderate interest in the HPV vaccine; vaccine acceptability did not differ by experimental condition. A multivariate regression model identified several independent predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability including sexual activity, perceived susceptibility to HPV, perceived benefits of the vaccine, perceived hassle and cost of vaccination, self-efficacy for vaccination, and perceived norms for vaccination. Informing men about the benefits of male HPV vaccination for reducing cervical cancer risk in women did not increase men's interest in the vaccine. Correlates of vaccine acceptability among men were generally consistent with those identified for women. Findings have important implications for future HPV vaccination campaigns targeting young adult men.

  17. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to HPV and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision-making in young Hispanics males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine’s efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men’s HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act upon what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. PMID:24841473

  18. Where Are the Young Men in HIV Prevention Efforts? Comments on HIV Prevention Programs and Research from Young Men Who Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…

  19. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    and related disorders, other psychotic disorders, adjustment, personality, alcohol and substance-use-related disorders were significantly associated with low IQ scores, but this association remained significant for the four non-psychotic disorders only when adjusting for comorbid diagnoses. For most......BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...

  20. Urinary bisphenol A levels in young Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...

  1. The material, moral, and affective worlds of dealing and crime among young men entrenched in an inner city drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on longitudinal interviews with 44 young men from 2008 to 2016, and ethnographic fieldwork with a group of approximately 15 of those young men over the same time period, we argue that for these youth, dealing and crime were not solely about economic survival, or even the accrual of highly meaningful forms of "street capital" in the margins. Rather, as "regimes of living," dealing and crime also opened up new value systems, moral logics, and affects in relation to the tremendous risks, potential rewards, and crushing boredom of life in the margins. These activities were also understood as a way into deeply desired forms of social spatial belonging in the city, which had previously only been imagined. However, across time dealing and crime "embedded" young men in cycles of incarceration, destitution, addictions, and mental health crises that ultimately reinforced their exclusion-from legal employment, but also within the world of crime. The findings of this study underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in order to meaningfully address the harms associated with involvement in dealing and crime among youth in our setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anogenital distance and reproductive parameters in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra, M D; Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between anogenital distance (AGD) measures and semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels in Caucasian young men from southern Spain. Two variants of AGD [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGDAS ) and to the cepha...

  3. Explanations of social class differences in alcoholism among young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood...

  4. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-05-01

    In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice in men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones while adjusting for potential confounders. There was an inverse relation between processed red meat intake and total sperm count. The adjusted relative differences in total sperm counts for men in increasing quartiles of processed meat intake were 0 (ref), -3 (95% confidence interval = -67 to 37), -14 (-82 to 28), and -78 (-202 to -5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P = 0.003). In our population of young men, processed meat intake was associated with lower total sperm count. We cannot distinguish whether this association is because of residual confounding by abstinence time or represents a true biological effect.

  5. Prevalence of Becker Nevus in Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karabacak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Becker nevus (BN, characterized by sharply and irregularly bordered, unilaterally localized, hyperpigmented macules and patches which can go along with hypertrichosis, is a kind of hamartomatous lesion that predominantly affects males 4-6 times more frequently than females. It is usually seen in peripubertal period. There are scarce epidemiological data on BN and the prevalence in our country is also unknown. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of BN among young adult males in Turkey.Materials and Methods: 8207 male candidates from different regions of Turkey who would be selected as a student in a governmental school and were referred to the dermatology outpatient clinic between March 2012 and August 2012, were included in our study. In addition to comprehensive medical examination, candidates were also inspected for the presence of BN, its localization, the asociation with hypertrichosis, and the findings were recorded.Results: The mean age of the candidates was 20.02±1.40 (range: 18-22 years and the mean age at BN onset was 12.2. BN was detected in 68 out of 8207 candidates (two different localizations in one subject. The prevalence of BN was calculated as 0.82%. The distribution of BN localization was as follows: mostly on the pectoral region ( 24.64%, and in decreasing order, on the scapular region (23.18%, shoulder (18.84%, infrascapular region (17.39%, arm (5.80%, abdomen (5.80% and the thigh (4.35%. Hypertrichosis was present on 34 out of 69 BN (49.2% that were found in 68 subjects.Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that BN was mainly localized on the pectoral and scapular regions, the prevalence was 0.82% and, 49,2% of the lesions were hypertrichotic.

  6. Predictors of Stature Concerns among Young Chinese Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingqing

    2017-01-01

    Stature concerns are a prominent source of body dissatisfaction for Chinese teenagers and young adults, yet little is known about the psychological factors that account for it. Therefore, this study examined social cultural model and objectification theory as explanations for stature concerns in a sample of undergraduate men and women from a university in Henan, China. Given height is a salient physical attribute for Chinese adolescents and young adults, we extended past studies on objectification theory by adding separate measures for stature surveillance. Participants (231 men, 473 women) completed a questionnaire assaying measures of sociocultural model features (appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons), objectified body consciousness (body surveillance, body shame, stature surveillance), and stature concerns. In multiple regression models for each gender, appearance pressure from the mass media and stature surveillance were robust predictors of stature concerns for both genders, independent of reported height. Body surveillance predicted stature concerns for women but not men. These findings contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research and may help to account for specific culturally salient appearance concerns within samples of young Chinese women and men.

  7. Predictors of Stature Concerns among Young Chinese Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stature concerns are a prominent source of body dissatisfaction for Chinese teenagers and young adults, yet little is known about the psychological factors that account for it. Therefore, this study examined social cultural model and objectification theory as explanations for stature concerns in a sample of undergraduate men and women from a university in Henan, China. Given height is a salient physical attribute for Chinese adolescents and young adults, we extended past studies on objectification theory by adding separate measures for stature surveillance. Participants (231 men, 473 women completed a questionnaire assaying measures of sociocultural model features (appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, objectified body consciousness (body surveillance, body shame, stature surveillance, and stature concerns. In multiple regression models for each gender, appearance pressure from the mass media and stature surveillance were robust predictors of stature concerns for both genders, independent of reported height. Body surveillance predicted stature concerns for women but not men. These findings contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research and may help to account for specific culturally salient appearance concerns within samples of young Chinese women and men.

  8. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  9. Risky sexual behaviour among young men in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Govinda P.; Hennink, Monique; Hinde, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    We use the Nepal Adolescents and Young Adults (NAYA) Survey of 2000 to analyse the prevalence of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviour among Nepalese males aged 14-22 years. Risky sexual behaviour is considered to be characterised by having multiple partners, or having one non-regular partner with whom a condom was not used, in the 12 months before the survey. About 9 per cent of the sexually active married men aged 14-22 years, and about 20 per cent of sexually active single men in the ...

  10. Contextual Factors and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young, Black Men

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Young Black men (YBM), aged 13 to 24 years, face a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI acquisition among YBM is due to incorrect and inconsistent condom use and is exacerbated by multiple sexual partners. Sexual and reproductive health is influenced by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social determinants that contribute to increased risk for STI acquisition. However, there are key social determinants of sexual health that play a major ...

  11. Pornography, sexual socialization, and satisfaction among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Busko, Vesna; Landripet, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    In spite of a growing presence of pornography in contemporary life, little is known about its potential effects on young people's sexual socialization and sexual satisfaction. In this article, we present a theoretical model of the effects of sexually explicit materials (SEM) mediated by sexual scripting and moderated by the type of SEM used. An on-line survey dataset that included 650 young Croatian men aged 18-25 years was used to explore empirically the model. Descriptive findings pointed to significant differences between mainstream and paraphilic SEM users in frequency of SEM use at the age of 14, current SEM use, frequency of masturbation, sexual boredom, acceptance of sex myths, and sexual compulsiveness. In testing the model, a novel instrument was used, the Sexual Scripts Overlap Scale, designed to measure the influence of SEM on sexual socialization. Structural equation analyses suggested that negative effects of early exposure to SEM on young men's sexual satisfaction, albeit small, could be stronger than positive effects. Both positive and negative effects-the latter being expressed through suppression of intimacy-were observed only among users of paraphilic SEM. No effect of early exposure to SEM was found among the mainstream SEM users. To counterbalance moral panic but also glamorization of pornography, sex education programs should incorporate contents that would increase media literacy and assist young people in critical interpretation of pornographic imagery.

  12. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  13. Science and scepticism: Drug information, young men and counterpublic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Adrian; Fraser, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    It is perhaps no surprise that young people can be sceptical of the drug-related information they receive in school-based health education, health promotion and the media. Significant societal anxiety surrounds young people's drug consumption, so it is tempting to approach this scepticism as a problem to be solved. In this article, we look closely at a group of young Australian men (n = 25), all of whom hold deeply sceptical views about the drug information they received in schools, social marketing campaigns and public speech generally. We do not approach their scepticism as a problem to be solved in itself, however. Instead, we analyse its origins and how it relates to the way knowledge is constructed in drug education, health promotion and media accounts of drug use. To conceptualise this scepticism, we draw on Irwin and Michael's analysis of the changing relationship between science and society, Warner's theorisation of publics and counterpublics, and Race's related notion of 'counterpublic health'. The article organises the data into three key themes: scepticism about the accuracy of the claims made about drug risks and dangers, scepticism about representations of drug users, and scepticism about the motivations behind the health messages and drug policy in general. We then draw these different aspects of scepticism together to argue that the young men can be seen to constitute a health 'counterpublic', and we consider the implications of this approach, arguing for what has been described as a more diplomatic engagement between science and publics.

  14. Suicidality in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Casey T; Rew, Lynn; Banner, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    This systematic literature review addresses risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempts in young men who have sex with men (YMSM). The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsychArticles, and PsychInfo yielded 14 articles. Risk factors included (1) not being enrolled in school, (2) earlier sexual debut, (3) substance use/abuse, (4) homelessness, (5) bullying and victimization, (6) fear of community violence, (7) and parental abuse. Protective factors included (1) positive sexual minority LGBT stereotypes, (2) family acceptance, (3) school and peer support, (4) high self-esteem, and (5) adaptive coping mechanisms.

  15. Causal attribution and psychobiological response to competition in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Alicia; Costa, Raquel; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Psychoneuroendocrine effects of competition have been widely accepted as a clear example of the relationship between androgens and aggressive/dominant behavior in humans. However, results about the effects of competitive outcomes are quite heterogeneous, suggesting that personal and contextual factors play a moderating role in this relationship. To further explore these dimensions, we aimed to examine (i) the effect of competition and its outcome on the psychobiological response to a laboratory competition in young men, and (ii) the moderating role of some cognitive dimensions such as causal attributions. To do so, we compared the responses of 56 healthy young men faced with two competitive tasks with different instructions. Twenty-eight men carried out a task whose instructions led subjects to think the outcome was due to their personal performance ("merit" task), whereas 28 other men faced a task whose outcome was attributable to luck ("chance" task). In both cases, outcome was manipulated by the experimenter. Salivary steroid hormones (testosterone and cortisol), cardiovascular variables (heart rate and blood pressure), and emotional state (mood and anxiety) were measured at different moments before, during and after both tasks. Our results did not support the "winner-loser effect" because no significant differences were found in the responses of winners and losers. However, significantly higher values on the testosterone and cardiovascular variables, along with slight decreases in positive mood, were associated with the merit-based competition, but not the chance-based condition. In addition, an exploratory factorial analysis grouped the response components into two patterns traditionally related to more active or more passive behaviors. Thus, our results suggest that the perception of contributing to the outcome is relevant in the psychobiological response to competition in men. Overall, our

  16. A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men's Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity.

  17. Anogenital distance and reproductive parameters in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, M D; Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Swan, S H; Torres-Cantero, A M

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between anogenital distance (AGD) measures and semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels in Caucasian young men from southern Spain. Two variants of AGD [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGD(AS)) and to the cephalad insertion of the penis (AGD(AP))] were assessed in 215 university students. Semen parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility and morphology) and serum reproductive hormones (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, inhibin B, testosterone, calculated free testosterone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin) were also determined. Associations between AGD measures and the semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were tested using multiple regression analyses. Overall, median sperm concentration was 44.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) (5th-95th percentiles: 8.9-129 × 10(6 ) ml(-1)), median total sperm count was 121 × 10(6) (18.0-400 × 10(6)), and mean (SD) testosterone level was 21.7 nmol/l (6.9). Mean (SD) AGD(AS) and AGD(AP) measures were 48.3 mm (11.6) and 128 mm (12.0) respectively. In the multivariable analysis, AGD measures were not associated with any semen parameters or any of the reproductive hormone levels, which is in contrast to results of studies of US young men or infertile men. Further research is warranted to confirm these findings. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  19. Tip of the Iceberg: young men who have sex with men, the Internet, and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Herrick, Amy; Mustanski, Brian S; Donenberg, Geri Rachel

    2007-06-01

    We examined the prevalence of Internet use for meeting sexual partners (Internet partners) and HIV risk behaviors associated with this use among young men who have sex with men (aged 16-24 years). A sample of 270 young men who have sex with men completed a computer-assisted survey. We used bivariate chi(2) analyses and hierarchical logistic regression to assess factors associated with Internet-facilitated sexual encounters. Using the Internet to meet sexual partners was common; 48% of our sample had sexual relations with a partner they met online. Of these, only 53% used condoms consistently, and 47% reported having sexual partners older (>4 years) than themselves. Regression analyses showed increased age, White race/ethnicity, history of unprotected anal intercourse, multiple anal intercourse partners, and engaging in sexual activity at a sex club or a bathhouse were associated with meeting sexual partners through the Internet. Only history of unprotected anal intercourse was associated with risky sexual behaviors with Internet partners (Ppartners online also engage in other behaviors that place them at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  20. Fatherhood roles and drug use among young American Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neault, Nicole; Mullany, Britta; Powers, Julia; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Parker, Sean; Walkup, John; Barlow, Allison

    2012-09-01

    High rates of substance abuse among young American Indian (AI) fathers pose multigenerational challenges for AI families and communities. The objective of this study was to describe substance use patterns among young AI fathers and examine the intersection of substance use with men's fatherhood roles and responsibilities. As part of a home-visiting intervention trial for AI teen mothers and their children, in 2010 we conducted a descriptive study of fatherhood and substance use on three southwestern reservations. Substance use and parenting data were collected from n = 87 male partners of adolescent mothers using audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Male partners were on average 22.9 years old, primarily living with their children (93%), unmarried (87%), and unemployed (70%). Lifetime substance use was high: 80% reported alcohol; 78% marijuana; 34% methamphetamines; 31% crack/cocaine; and 16% reported drinking binge in the past 6 months. Substance use was associated with history of alcohol abuse among participants' fathers (but not mothers); participants' poor relationships with their own fathers; unemployment status; and low involvement in child care. Drug and alcohol abuse may be obstructing ideal fatherhood roles among multiple generations of AI males. Targeting drug prevention among young AI men during early fatherhood may provide special opportunity to reduce substance use and improve parenting. Intergenerational approaches may hold special promise.

  1. Young men, mental health, and technology: implications for service design and delivery in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Davenport, Tracey A; Hurley, Patrick J; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2012-11-22

    Young men are particularly vulnerable to suicide, drug, and alcohol problems and yet fail to seek appropriate help. An alternative or adjunct to face-to-face services has emerged with widespread uptake of the Internet and related communication technologies, yet very little evidence exists that examines the capacity of the Internet to engage young men and promote help seeking. To explore young people's attitudes and behaviors in relation to mental health and technology use. The aim was to identify key gender differences to inform the development of online mental health interventions for young men. A cross-sectional online survey of 1038 young people (aged 16 to 24 years) was used. Young men are more likely than young women to play computer games, access online video/music content, and visit online forums. More than half of young men and women reported that they sought help for a problem online, and the majority were satisfied with the help they received. Significant gender differences were identified in relation to how young people would respond to a friend in need, with young men being less likely than young women to confront the issue directly. Online interventions for young men need to be action-oriented, informed by young men's views and everyday technology practices, and leverage the important role that peers play in the help-seeking process.

  2. Young Socialist Men in Mid-Sixties Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2012-01-01

    maturation from child to adult intersected with the formation of a new and distinctive extra-parliamentary culture on the British left that came to full fruition around Britain's anti-war movement, the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign. The formation of this collection of inner lives occurred simultaneously...... in the context of real social and economic shifts in the men's local landscapes as well as the wider international Cold War climate. Drawing upon oral history interviews with former Young Socialist members, this article explores the cultural and social expression of these working-class men, looking...... at subjectivity and gender to understand how their sub-culture provided for childhood structures of feeling and early class identity and to consider what meaning they derived from active socialist involvement....

  3. Explanations of social class differences in alcoholism among young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood...... and adolescence, e.g. risk use of alcohol, was collected among 49,323 men, born 1949-1951, at conscription for compulsory military training 1969/1970. Data on socio-economic group was obtained from the 1975 census and data on alcoholism diagnoses from the national in-patient care register 1976-1983. Several risk...... factors for alcoholism, such as risk use of alcohol, psychiatric diagnosis at conscription, parental divorce, low emotional control and contact with police and child care authorities, seemed to be more common among those who were recruited to blue-collar occupations compared to those who were recruited...

  4. Young men in RJ-settings: An offstage performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Ida Helene

    been understood is that youth are subject to adult conceptions and interpretations of the mediation situation, and that the youth have not yet developed empathy and moral reasoning. In other words the young men are seen as taking a kind of ‘underdog’ position in the RJ-settings. The interpretation...... of the “non-attitude” is changing, when applying Goffman’s notion of people performing a preferred identity, rather than an inherent or fixed self. That means that the words and actions of the participants in the mediation sessions are largely considered to be embedded in the context. In combination...

  5. The social isolation of young men with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, K

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study undertaken to identify perceptions of possible social isolation among individuals who become quadriplegic as young adults. Two focus group sessions were held with 4 male participants in each group. All the young men were between the ages of 19 years and 35 years, and all had been disabled for more than 3 years. The results showed that the participants felt challenged by the environment and their resources but did not experience the feelings associated with social isolation as defined by Goffman (1963). The participants, however, identified important socially isolating stressors based on the human needs described by Maslow (1970) as existing in a hierarchy. The results of the study suggest that people with disabilities need interpersonal techniques that enable them to feel a sense of security and control of their time; rehabilitation nurses are ideally suited to assist clients in developing such techniques.

  6. HIV Education and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raifman, Julia; Beyrer, Chris; Arrington-Sanders, Renata

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have nearly 80 times the lifetime risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) relative to men who have sex with women only (MSW), and young MSM (YMSM) accounted for 95% of estimated HIV diagnoses among adolescents between 13 and 24 years in 2015. We aimed to evaluate HIV education and sexual risk behaviors among YMSM relative to young MSW (YMSW) and to evaluate the relationship between HIV education and YMSM sexual risk behaviors. We used Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data from 13 states that collected information on sex of sexual contacts and on HIV education in 2011 and/or 2013. We assessed HIV education, number of sexual partners ever and in the past three months, and condom use at last sex in logistic regression analyses controlling for age, race/ethnicity, state, and year. YMSM were less likely to report school-based HIV education and more likely to report sexual risk behaviors relative to YMSW. HIV education was associated with reduced sexual risk behaviors among all students and with significant additional reductions in sexual risk behaviors among YMSM. There is a need for HIV education programs to reach YMSM, who are at increased risk of HIV.

  7. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Joshua D; McGue, Matthew K; Iacono, William G

    2015-04-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression than their weaker male counterparts. The traditional interpretation of this phenomenon is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We capitalized on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimated adolescent change in upper-body strength using the slope parameter from a latent growth model. We found that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Fatherhood, marriage and HIV risk among young men in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sanyukta; Higgins, Jenny A; Thummalachetty, Nityanjali; Rasmussen, Mariko; Kelley, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S

    2016-01-01

    Compared to a large body of work on how gender may affect young women's vulnerability to HIV, we know little about how masculine ideals and practices relating to marriage and fertility desires shape young men's HIV risk. Using life-history interview data with 30 HIV-positive and HIV-negative young men aged 15-24 years, this analysis offers an in-depth perspective on young men's transition through adolescence, the desire for fatherhood and experience of sexual partnerships in rural Uganda. Young men consistently reported the desire for fatherhood as a cornerstone of masculinity and transition to adulthood. Ideally young men wanted children within socially sanctioned unions. Yet, most young men were unable to realise their marital intentions. Gendered expectations to be economic providers combined with structural constraints, such as limited access to educational and income-generating opportunities, led some young men to engage in a variety of HIV-risk behaviours. Multiple partnerships and limited condom use were at times an attempt by some young men to attain some part of their aspirations related to fatherhood and marriage. Our findings suggest that young men possess relationship and parenthood aspirations that - in an environment of economic scarcity - may influence HIV-related risk.

  9. Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Fazli Khalaf, Zahra; Low, Wah Yun; Ghorbani, Behzad; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2013-01-01

    Background Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men?s lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men?s health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20?30?years from three ...

  10. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men--five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists--and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Among the ordinary young men the theme 'too much gender equality leads to IPV' emerged, while among the activists the theme 'gender inequality is the root of IPV'. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

  11. Access to health care and religion among young American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.

  12. HIV prevention fatigue and HIV treatment optimism among young men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Birkett, Michelle; Janulis, Patrick; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    HIV prevention fatigue (the sense that prevention messages are tiresome) and being overly optimistic about HIV treatments are hypothesized to increase HIV risk behavior. Little research has examined these constructs and their correlates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), who are at high risk for HIV. YMSM (N = 352; M age = 20; 50% Black) completed measures of prevention fatigue, treatment optimism, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV-related knowledge and attitudes during a longitudinal study. Overall, YMSM reported low levels of HIV prevention fatigue and treatment optimism. Path analysis (n = 307) indicated that greater prevention fatigue and treatment optimism predicted higher rates of condomless sex, but condomless sex did not predict later increases in prevention fatigue or treatment optimism. Results are inconsistent with the hypothesis of high prevention fatigue and treatment optimism among YMSM and point to potential causal relationships among these variables and condomless sex. PMID:28825861

  13. Concordance Between Anal and Oral Human Papillomavirus Infections Among Young Men Who have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinau, Martin; Gorbach, Pamina; Gratzer, Beau; Braxton, Jim; Kerndt, Peter R; Crosby, Richard A; Unger, Elizabeth R; Markowitz, Lauri E; Meites, Elissa

    2017-06-15

    Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections was assessed among 1033 young men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 18-26 years. HPV (any type) was detected in 742 (71.8%) anal specimens and 101 (9.8%) oral specimens. Although HPV was detected in specimens from both anatomical sites in 83 (8.0%) participants, type-specific concordance for at least 1 HPV type was found in only 35 (3.4%) participants. HIV and smoking were associated with higher prevalence at both sites and frequency of concordant types. Coinfections of identical HPV types were rare, suggesting independent infection events and/or different modes of clearance. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. HIV Prevention Fatigue and HIV Treatment Optimism Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Birkett, Michelle; Janulis, Patrick; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-08-01

    HIV prevention fatigue (the sense that prevention messages are tiresome) and being overly optimistic about HIV treatments are hypothesized to increase HIV risk behavior. Little research has examined these constructs and their correlates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), who are at high risk for HIV. YMSM (N = 352; M age = 20; 50% Black) completed measures of prevention fatigue, treatment optimism, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV-related knowledge and attitudes during a longitudinal study. Overall, YMSM reported low levels of HIV prevention fatigue and treatment optimism. Path analysis (n = 307) indicated that greater prevention fatigue and treatment optimism predicted higher rates of condomless sex, but condomless sex did not predict later increases in prevention fatigue or treatment optimism. Results are inconsistent with the hypothesis of high prevention fatigue and treatment optimism among YMSM and point to potential causal relationships among these variables and condomless sex.

  15. Associations of sexually transmitted infections with condom problems among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors such as using an oil-based lubricant have been associated with condom failures such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview technology, and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Nearly all participants made at least 1 error, with high rates of using oil-based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil-based lubricants than white and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have an STI (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.12). Young men who have sex with men report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil-based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV.

  16. Enhancing HIV Prevention Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review of HIV Behavioral Interventions for Young Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Emmanuel, Diona; Durant, Sarah; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent 64.0% of people living with HIV (PLWH) over the age of 13 years. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly affected by HIV/AIDS; the rate of HIV infection for YMSM between the ages of 13 and 24 represents 72.0% of new infections among youth. To understand the current state of the science meant to prevent HIV for YMSM, we reviewed studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for YMSM. Five literature databases were searched, from their inception through October 2015, using key words associated with HIV prevention intervention evaluation studies for YMSM. The review criteria included behavioral HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, articles published in English-language peer-reviewed journals, YMSM between 13 and 24 years of age, and longitudinal repeated measures design. A total of 15 YMSM behavioral HIV prevention intervention studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and reported statistically significant findings. Common outcomes included unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS risk behavior, condom use, HIV testing, safer sex attitude, and HIV prevention communication. Participant age, representation of Black/African American YMSM, application of theoretical and model underpinnings, congruence of assessment measures used, follow-up assessment times, and application of process evaluation were inconsistent across studies. To advance HIV prevention intervention research for YMSM, future studies should be theory-based, identify common constructs, utilize standard measures, include process evaluation, and evaluate sustained change over standard periods of time. HIV prevention interventions should incorporate the needs of the diverse, well-educated, web-connected millennial generation and differentiate between adolescent YMSM (13 to 18 years of age) and young adulthood YMSM (19 to 24 years of age). Because Black/African American YMSM represent more than 50% of new HIV infections, future HIV

  17. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Goicolea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

  18. A Moderated Mediation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Depression, and Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life among Incarcerated Malaysian Men with HIV and Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael; Bazazi, Alexander R; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Although it is well established that HIV-related stigma, depression, and lack of social support are negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLH), no studies to date have examined how these psychosocial factors interact with each other and affect HRQoL among incarcerated PLH. We, therefore, incorporated a moderated mediation model (MMM) to explore whether depression mediates the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL as a function of the underlying level of social support. Incarcerated HIV-infected men with opioid dependence (N = 301) were recruited from the HIV units in Kajang prison in Malaysia. Participants completed surveys assessing demographic characteristics, HIV-related stigma, depression, social support, and HRQoL. Results showed that the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL was mediated via depression (a1:β = 0.1463, p social support and HRQoL was positive (β = 0.4352, p = 0.0433), whereas the interaction between HIV-related stigma and depression was negatively associated with HRQOL (β = -0.0317, p = 0.0133). This indicated that the predicted influence of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL via depression had negative effect on HRQoL for individuals with low social support. The results suggest that social support can buffer the negative impact of depression on HRQoL and highlights the need for future interventions to target these psychosocial factors in order to improve HRQoL among incarcerated PLH.

  19. Vernacular Knowledge and Critical Pedagogy: Conceptualising Sexual Health Education for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Over 30 years after HIV was first recognised in the USA, the epidemic continues to pose a disproportionate threat to vulnerable and marginalised populations. Increasing HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men has spurred debate around the content and approach to HIV prevention interventions directed towards this vulnerable population.…

  20. Communicating with School Nurses about Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health.…

  1. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  2. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  3. Racial/Ethnic Differences in HIV-Related Knowledge among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Their Association with Condom Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and their correlation to condom usage…

  4. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.

  5. Role flexing: how community, religion, and family shape the experiences of young black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Oster, Alexandra M; Viall, Abigail H; Heffelfinger, James D; Mena, Leandro A; Toledo, Carlos A

    2012-12-01

    While the disproportionate impact of HIV on young black men who have sex with men (MSM) is well documented, the reasons for this disparity remain less clear. Through in-depth interviews, we explored the role of familial, religious, and community influence on the experiences of young black MSM and identified strategies that these young men use to negotiate and manage their sexual minority status. Between February and April 2008, 16 interviews were conducted among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young (19- to 24-year-old) black MSM in the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Results suggest that overall, homosexuality remains highly stigmatized by the men's families, religious community, and the African American community. To manage this stigma, many of the participants engaged in a process of "role flexing," in which individuals modified their behavior in order to adapt to a particular situation. The data also provided evidence of internalized homophobia among a number of the participants. The impact of stigma on risk behavior should be more fully explored, and future intervention efforts need to explicitly address and challenge stigma, both among young men themselves and the communities in which they reside. Attention should also be paid to the role masculinity may play as a driver of the HIV epidemic among young black MSM and how this knowledge can be used to inform prevention efforts.

  6. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  7. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  8. Performance and Surveillance in an Era of Austerity: Schooling the Reflexive Generation of Muslim Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen a remarkable shift in the educational representation of British-born Muslim young men. In the media-led reclassification of them, from South Asian to Muslim, they have moved from ideal student to potential jihadist. This article draws upon a three-year ethnographic study with young Muslim men located within the West…

  9. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  10. Patterns of sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections in young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Rice, Cara E; Rosenberger, Joshua G

    2017-11-21

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at an increased risk for sexually transmitted infections. Recent research has documented the importance of understanding the multidimensional nature of sexual risk behavior; however, little is known about how multidimensional patterns of sexual behavior among MSM may be associated with STIs. This study applies latent class analysis to data from a large, HIV- sample of 18-25 year old MSM recruited from social and sexual networking websites (N = 5,965; 76% white, 11% Latino, 5% Black, 4% Asian, 4% other; 74% homosexual, 21% bisexual, 1% heterosexual, 3%, unsure/questioning 1% other) to uncover multidimensional patterns of past-year sexual behaviors, partner factors, and protective behavior and their associations with self-reported STI diagnosis. We selected a model with 8 classes, with nearly half of participants belonging to a class marked by multiple behaviors with more than one partner, and smaller numbers of individuals in classes with a smaller number of behaviors, romantic relationships, and sexual inactivity. Class membership was associated with recent STI diagnosis, with classes marked by no penetrative sex or receptive anal sex with consistent condom use having lower prevalence than those with inconsistent condom use, including those engaging in only insertive anal sex. Findings suggest heterogeneity of behaviors within MSM and that prevention messages may be more effective if they are tailored to individuals' patterns of sexual behavior, as well as demographic and socio-contextual factors.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and Sex Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, Christopher B; Javdani, Shabnam; Greenbaum, Chloe A; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N

    2016-02-01

    Among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) few studies have examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration versus victimization and sexual behaviors. Using data from n = 528 urban YMSM, multinomial logistic regression models were built to examine the distinct relationships between any IPV, victimization, and perpetration with condomless sex in the previous 30 days, controlling for key sociodemographic characteristics. In this sample of YMSM, lifetime experience of any IPV was associated with increased odds of recent condomless oral (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-2.72) and anal receptive sex (AOR= 2.29, 95% CI = 1.22-4.31). IPV victimization was associated with a greater likelihood of condomless receptive anal sex (AOR= 2.12, 95% CI = 1.15-3.93) whereas IPV perpetration was associated with increased odds of condomless receptive (AOR= 2.11, 95% CI = 1.14-3.91) and insertive (AOR= 2.21, 95% CI = 1.06-4.59) anal sex. Among YMSM, reports of both IPV perpetration and victimization were associated with increased odds of recent condomless sex. These findings indicate that the need for IPV prevention and intervention programs for this new generation of YMSM is highly warranted. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social oppression, psychological vulnerability, and unprotected intercourse among young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Kegeles, Susan M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Peterson, John L; Neilands, Torsten B; Johnson, Wayne D; Eke, Agatha N

    2014-12-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are at extraordinarily high risk for HIV infection. Given their dual minority identity, they experience multiple forms of social oppression-racism, homophobia, and poverty. This study tested a model for how these forces contribute to their sexual risk behavior. YBMSM (n = 1,289) from 2 Texas cities completed a 1-time assessment of sexual behaviors and psychosocial variables. Structural equation modeling was used to characterize relationships among variables. Experiences of racism, homophobia, and socioeconomic distress were all associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) either directly or indirectly in a manner largely consistent with Díaz's (1997, 1998) model of the effects of social oppression. Racism, homophobia, and socioeconomic distress were each associated with specific psychological vulnerabilities, which were in turn associated with participation in difficult sexual situations (e.g., in a public setting), and then UAI. The effects of racism were largely mediated by depressive symptoms and participation in difficult sexual situations. Homophobia was mediated by depressive symptoms, social support, and internalized homophobia. The effects of socioeconomic distress were partially mediated by decreased social support and greater participation in difficult sexual situations. Socioeconomic distress also had a significant direct effect on UAI not explained by the proposed mediators. Social oppression contributes to YBMSM's psychological vulnerabilities, participation in difficult sexual situations, and their UAI. Interventions to reduce sexual risk in YBMSM should address socioeconomic disadvantage, homophobia, and racism, as well as the psychological challenges that social oppression creates for them.

  13. Sexting among young men who have sex with men: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Yeagley, Emily; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S

    2014-05-01

    We know little about the prevalence of sexting behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) or its association with their sexual behaviors. To address these gaps, we used data from an online study examining the partner-seeking behaviors of single YMSM (N = 1,502; ages 18-24 years) in the United States. Most participants (87.5%) reported sexting, with 75.7% of the sample reporting having sent and received a sext. Sexting was more frequent among sexually active YMSM, with YMSM who had sent and received a sext being more likely to report insertive anal intercourse, with and without condoms, than those who had not sexted. We found no association between sexting and receptive anal intercourse. Our findings suggest that sexting may vary by YMSM's sexual roles. We discuss our findings with attention to their implications for sexual health promotion. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Father Involvement and Young, Rural African American Men's Engagement in Substance Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the associations of biological father and social father involvement during childhood with African American young men's development and engagement in risk behaviors. With a sample of 505 young men living in the rural South of the United States, a dual mediation model was tested in which retrospective reports of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers were linked to young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through men's relational schemas and future expectations. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that levels of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers predicted young men's relational schemas; only biological fathers' involvement predicted future expectations. In turn, future expectations predicted levels of substance misuse, and negative relational schemas predicted multiple sexual partnerships. Biological fathers' involvement evinced significant indirect associations with young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through both schemas and expectations; social fathers' involvement exhibited an indirect association with multiple sexual partnerships through relational schemas. Findings highlight the unique influences of biological fathers and social fathers on multiple domains of African American young men's psychosocial development that subsequently render young men more or less likely to engage in risk behaviors.

  15. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  16. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  17. Contextual Factors and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young, Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Young Black men (YBM), aged 13 to 24 years, face a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI acquisition among YBM is due to incorrect and inconsistent condom use and is exacerbated by multiple sexual partners. Sexual and reproductive health is influenced by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social determinants that contribute to increased risk for STI acquisition. However, there are key social determinants of sexual health that play a major role in adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors: gender norms, environment, peers, and families as well as a desire to impregnate a woman. Associations between contextual factors (risky environmental context, desire to impregnate a woman, and peer norms supportive of unsafe sex) and sexual risk behaviors were examined among a sample of YBM attending adolescent health clinics. This study used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial ( N = 702). Parental monitoring was also examined as an effect modifier of those associations. Sexual risk behaviors were the frequency of condomless vaginal sex, number of sexual partners within the previous 2 months, and lifetime number of sexual partners. Mean age was 19.7. In the adjusted model, peer norms was the only significant predictor for all sexual risk outcomes ( p < .05). Parental monitoring was an effect modifier for the perceived peer norms and lifetime sexual partners association ( p = .053) where the effect of peer norms on lifetime sexual partners was lower for participants with higher levels of perceived parental monitoring.

  18. HIV-related risky practices among Brazilian young men, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral surveillance surveys have been carried among military conscripts, in Brazil, since 1996. This paper presents the results of the 2007 survey and compares actual findings with those obtained in previous studies carried out in the period 1999-2002. The conscripts were selected with a two stage sampling stratified by geographical region. The study included a self-reported questionnaire and blood collection for HIV and syphilis testing. Data from 35,432 conscripts aged 17-20 years old were analyzed. The findings show a reduction in regular condom use, with fixed and casual partners, mainly among those with poor educational level. The proportion of conscripts that have sex with other men was maintained (3.2%, but the index of risky sexual behavioral showed worsening results in this group. Also, the HIV prevalence rate increased from 9 to 11.3 per 10,000 in 2007, though the increase was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the evidences found in this paper indicate the need of reformulate policy among young adults.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  20. Boys' and young men's perspectives on violence in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of violence for youth in low-income countries includes a range of experiences from witnessing, to experiencing, to participating in violence. Although boys and young men are often the perpetrators of such violence, they may also be its victims. Yet little evidence exists from the voiced experiences of boys themselves on perceptions and interpretations of the violence around them. Given the numerous negative health implications of violence for boys, for the girls and other boys with whom they interact, and for the health of their future partners and families, we conducted an in-depth study in rural and urban Tanzania with adolescent boys on the masculinity norms shaping their transitions through puberty that might be contributing to high-risk behaviours, including engagement in violence. The findings identified underlying societal gendered norms influencing the enactment of violence, and recommendations from the boys on how to diminish the violence around them. Additional research is needed with boys on the social norms and structural factors influencing their engagement in violence.

  1. Achieving the global goals on HIV among young people most at risk in developing countries: young sex workers, injecting drug users and men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Oliver; Boler, Tania; Dick, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    To review evaluations of interventions in developing countries targeting three groups most at risk of becoming infected with HIV: young sex workers, young injecting drug users and young men who have sex with men. A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify programmes in developing countries targeting young people in the three selected groups most at risk from HIV. We also identified programmes directed at young people in developed countries as well as programmes in developing countries that targeted these three population groups but that did not differentiate between young people and adults. Young people 10 to 24 years of age represent a large proportion of the population most at risk of becoming infected with HIV in developing countries. Despite this fact, well documented evaluations of interventions that target these groups are scarce. However, there is evidence of effectiveness for programmes that are facility-based and use outreach to provide information and services to at-risk young people. There is growing evidence from developing countries of successful interventions that target groups most at risk from HIV, and these programmes should be widely implemented provided that they are carefully planned and monitored and have a strong evaluation component. However, there is an urgent need to disaggregate data by age in order to determine how effective these programmes are in reaching young people and to better understand the specific needs of at-risk young people as opposed to older age groups.

  2. Strengths and weaknesses of the Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) Facebook project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C; Allen, Julie Ober; Goodwill, Janelle R; Noel, Blake

    2017-01-01

    The Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) project is a Facebook-based intervention that provides mental health education and social support to young Black men. The YBMen project was created to better understand and address the pressures and needs of young Black men, particularly with regard to issues related to their conceptualization of masculinity and mental health. Black men from a 2-year liberal arts college in the Midwest (United States) enrolled in the YBMen pilot project. The purpose of this study is to report what participants in the YBMen pilot project liked and disliked about the intervention, along with their suggestions for improvement. Qualitative results from the 8 Black men who actively participated in the YBMen Facebook intervention and completed the postintervention interview are reported. A systematic analysis identified 9 subthemes that described participants' reactions to different components and characteristics of the Facebook intervention. Results indicated that opportunities for relationship building and connectivity, coupled with engaging popular culture references used in the intervention encouraged young Black men to actively participate in the YBMen Facebook intervention. The YBMen project has potential to improve the health and well-being of young Black men by providing nontraditional resources that are easily accessible, culturally sensitive, and gender-specific. Implications of the YBMen project as an effective Internet-based program that promotes mental health and increases social support among young Black men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Improving mental health and wellbeing for young men in the building and construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Statistics on causes of death gathered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2010) report that suicide was the leading cause amongst young men in Australia between the ages of 15-24. The figures have been similarly high for over a decade. In Australia these alarming statistics have led to the funding of a range of programmes tackling youth suicide and more recently programmes that are aimed at improving help-seeking behaviours of young men. The programme reported in this paper is one such programme that is working with young men in the building and construction industry who are regarded at even greater risk of poor mental health outcomes. The research that was undertaken uncovered some of the impact of a universal programme on improving the protective factors of young men in this industry. Young men can present themselves in a very positive light as robust and resilient human beings, contrary to much of the research that has been undertaken with a focus on young men in building and construction and living in rural and remote communities. This paper discusses the data and uses the material to consider how resilient young men in this industry can become key informants and informal peer mentors.

  4. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an ... of viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  5. Providing meaningful care: learning from the experiences of suicidal young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Joanne; McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; Cutcliffe, John; Stevenson, Chris; Slater, Paul; McGowan, Iain

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about young suicidal men's preferences for care. Using a broad interpretive approach, we interviewed 36 formerly suicidal young men in a study addressing the development and provision of mental health services. Our analysis yielded three core categories: widening access and bolstering proactive outreach, on becoming a man, and equipping young men for future challenges. Collectively, these categories suggest key features and processes of appropriate service configuration and clinical care: (a) services that reach out proactively serve to encourage young men's initial and ongoing engagement; (b) care delivered over the long term ensures a necessary focus on a meaningful future life; (c) mental health professionals (MHPs) are centrally involved alongside significant others, including those with personal experience of suicide; and (d) the development of a vital interpersonal connection is based on MHPs actively communicating their empathy, open-mindedness, and interest in a young man's unique biography.

  6. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  7. "Hedge Your Bets": Technology's Role in Young Gay Men's Relationship Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Raymond M; Milhausen, Robin R; Lachowsky, Nathan J

    2017-01-01

    Technology is playing an increasingly pervasive role among young gay men in the process of meeting potential romantic or sexual partners. We investigated challenges posed by technology related to young gay men's relationships. Focus groups (n = 9) of young gay men aged 18-24 (n = 43) were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was used to identify two major themes regarding challenges to relationship development and maintenance. Subthemes include unrealistic expectations of relationships, inauthentic self-presentation online, sexual primacy over romance, increased opportunities for infidelity, and jealousy. The implications of this study for sexual education and sexual health promotion are discussed.

  8. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K

    2015-01-01

    -based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...... of sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population...

  9. Public health alternatives to incarceration for drug offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nicholas; Dolan, Kate; Farabee, David

    2017-05-01

    Drug users are vastly overrepresented in prison populations. Once inside they face increased risks of acquiring infections such as HIV, hepatitis and TB, and on release they face an elevated risk of fatal overdose. Relapse and recidivism are the norm following release from prison. The implementation of evidence-based drug treatment programmes in prison is rare, yet drug treatment in prison reduces the transmission of infections, recidivism and fatal overdose on release. Recognising the negative returns associated with incarceration, many jurisdictions have begun to consider alternatives such as depenalisation of the personal use of illicit drugs, provision of treatment and social reintegration of drug offenders, and a shift in focus from supply reduction to demand and harm reduction measures in the community and in prison. Women with drug problems are twice as likely to have been imprisoned for a drug offence as incarcerated men. Similarly, HIV prevalence is higher among female inmates. Serious attention should be paid to implementation of non-custodial sentences for women, particularly during pregnancy and those with young children.

  10. Young Men, Help-Seeking, and Mental Health Services: Exploring Barriers and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise; Long, Maggie; Moorhead, Anne

    2018-01-01

    International research has identified young men as reluctant to seek help for mental health problems. This research explored barriers and solutions to professional help seeking for mental health problems among young men living in the North West of Ireland. A qualitative approach, using two focus groups with six participants each and five face-to-face interviews, was conducted with men aged 18 to 24 years (total N = 17). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven key themes of barriers to professional help seeking were identified: "acceptance from peers," "personal challenges," "cultural and environmental influences," "self-medicating with alcohol," "perspectives around seeking professional help," "fear of homophobic responses," and "traditional masculine ideals." Five key themes of solutions to these barriers included "tailored mental health advertising," "integrating mental health into formal education," "education through semiformal support services," "accessible mental health care," and "making new meaning." Interesting findings on barriers include fear of psychiatric medication, fear of homophobic responses from professionals, the legacy of Catholic attitudes, and the genuine need for care. This study offers an in-depth exploration of how young men experience barriers and uniquely offers solutions identified by participants themselves. Youth work settings were identified as a resource for engaging young men in mental health work. Young men can be encouraged to seek help if services and professionals actively address barriers, combining advertising, services, and education, with particular attention and respect to how and when young men seek help and with whom they want to share their problems.

  11. Testicular microlithiasis in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Pierik, F.H.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Sijstermans, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis by ultrasound in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis. Materials and Methods: During followup for testicular growth patients with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis were also

  12. Young men's health promotion and new information communication technologies: illuminating the issues and research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2010-09-01

    The article examines the use of newer, interactive information and communication technologies (ICTs) in young men's health promotion (HP), drawing on gender theory, HP research and evidence on young men's Internet usage. The focus is on highlighting an agenda for research in terms of emerging issues. New forms of social media ICT (for example 'web 2'-based on-line social networking sites, micro-blogging services, i-phones and podcasts) have the potential to enable young men to engage with health information in new and interesting ways. Given concerns about young men's engagement with health services, innovative ICT formats, particularly using the Internet, have been tried. However, issues persist around surfing 'addiction', quality control and equal access. Approaches to HP using new ICTs offer distributed control over information content and quality and a lay social context for accessing information. Online communities can potentially legitimize young men's participation in discourses around health, and support sustained engagement. The article discusses how this could support young men to re-conceptualize healthy choices in the context of masculine imperatives and responsible citizenship if specific conditions are met (for trusting engagement) and risks addressed (such as commercial disinformation). The skill requirements for young men to engage effectively with new ICTs are explored, focusing on health literacy (HL). It is predicted that social marketing approaches to HP for young men will increasingly include new ICTs, making specific requirements for HL. These approaches may appeal narrowly to hegemonic masculinities or broadly to multiple masculinities, including those historically marginalized. Recommendations are made for future research.

  13. The incretin effect does not differ in trained and untrained, young, healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Dalby, Sina; Hartmann, Bolette

    2014-01-01

    with untrained humans after oral and intravenous glucose administration. Methods: A 3½-h oral glucose tolerance test was performed in eleven trained and ten untrained, young, healthy men. On a separate day, an isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion was performed matching the individual glucose concentrations...... plasma insulin concentrations found in trained compared with untrained, young, healthy men are most likely explained by lower b-cell sensitivity to glucose and enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in the former group....

  14. Physical activity and television watching in relation to semen quality in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskins, Audrey Jane; Mendiola, Jaime; Afeiche, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    ) watching with sperm parameters in a population of young, healthy men. METHODS: Men aged 18-22 years (n=189) from the Rochester Young Men's Study (2009-2010) participated in this analysis. Physical activity (h/week of moderate and vigorous exercise) and TV watching (h/week of TV, video or DVD watching) over...... in the highest quartile of moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥15 h/week) had 73% (95% CI 15% to 160%) higher sperm concentration than men in the lowest quartile (20 h/week) had 44% (95% CI 15 to 63%) lower sperm concentration than men in the lowest quartile (0 h/week). These measures of physical and leisure time...... activities were not significantly associated with sperm motility or morphology. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of healthy men, higher moderate-to-vigorous activity and less TV watching were significantly associated with higher total sperm count and sperm concentration....

  15. Caffeine Intake and Semen Quality in a Population of 2,554 Young Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...

  16. Lifetime anorexia nervosa in young men in the community : Five cases and their co-twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    Objective: To describe patterns, comorbidity, and outcomes from a case series of anorexia nervosa (AN) among young men from the general population and their co-twins. Method: Men (N = 2,122) born between 1975 and 1979 from Finnish twin cohorts were screened for lifetime eating disorders by

  17. Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...

  18. Perceptions of sexual responsibility: do young men and women agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, M K; Ostwald, S K; Rothenberger, J

    1986-01-01

    A nonprobability, convenience sample of 248 subjects of a large midwestern university agreed to participate in this study designed to investigate the perception of responsibility for contraception among late adolescents (over age 17), to determine whether age, gender, or sexual activity influences perceptions of responsibility, and to explore the relationship between perceived contraceptive responsibility and subsequent contraceptive choice among late adolescent males and females. The students were enrolled in an undergraduate public health class during the 1984 spring quarter. After initial data examination, 28 married subjects were eliminated from analysis. Of the final sample size of 220 students, 131 were female and 89 were male. The majority of the students, 57.5%, were between the ages of 20-22; 19% were between the ages of 17-19; and the remaining 23% were older than 22. The students completed a questionnaire anonymously as part of the development of a slide-tape program entitled "Young Men's Sexual Responsibility." Contraceptive responsibility was defined as perceived responsibility for pregnancy control, perceived responsibility to initiate conversation about contraception in a dating relationship, and perceived responsibility for who should pay for contraceptives. 63% of the students indicated that they had engaged in sexual intercourse at least once. Male students were significantly more likely to have had sexual intercourse than female students. Only 7% of the entire sample reported having had intercourse before the age of 15, but this sample consisted primarily of white, middle-class college students who may not represent students in inner-city school districts reported to have had 1st intercourse at earlier ages. 91% of the students perceived contraceptive responsibility as a shared responsibility. Of the small number of students who perceived 1 sex or the other responsible for pregnancy control, most (7%) perceived that it was the woman

  19. Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent and Young Adult Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay and lesbian college organizations and 56 men in homosexual rap groups. Family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with history of…

  20. Semen profiles of young men involved as bicycle taxi cyclists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the semen profiles of bicycle taxi cyclists and healthy controls in Mangochi district, Malawi. Methods Semen samples were collected from young bicycle taxi cyclists after two to three days of sexual abstinence. A control group, comprising young men who were not bicycle taxi ...

  1. Cambodian boys' transitions into young adulthood: exploring the influence of societal and masculinity norms on young men's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Leah; Khorn, Daro; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Sommer, Marni

    2017-07-01

    A growing body of evidence focuses on the experiences of young men in low-income countries, including their health vulnerabilities. Much of this research has been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Limited evidence exists on the norms influencing boys' transitions into young adulthood in Southeast Asia, and in Cambodia in particular. To help fill this gap, we conducted a comparative case study using participatory methods with 16-19-year-old young men in rural and urban Cambodia, and with the adults who intersect in their lives. Findings suggest that in line with their counterparts growing up elsewhere, Cambodian boys welcome becoming young men as a time of newly acquired adult roles and responsibilities, while some may experience growing up as a time of bodily change, burgeoning sexual feelings and limited sources of support and guidance. As a result, some may strive more intensely to conform to the alcohol use and violence modelled by the older men in their environments. Additional research is needed to better understand the vulnerabilities of boys' transition into young adulthood in Cambodia today, and how to prevent or reduce engagement with these more negative practices.

  2. Homelessness and drug abuse among young men who have sex with men in New York city: A preliminary epidemiological trajectory

    OpenAIRE

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N = 569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and sexual risk, we compare and contrast three subgroups: (1) YMSM with no history of homelessness, (2) YMSM with a past history of homelessness but who w...

  3. The Perspectives of Young Men and Their Teenage Partners on Maternity and Health Services during Pregnancy and Early Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicola J.; Church, Stephanie; Hill, Malcolm; Seaman, Pete; Roberts, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses young couples' interactions with maternity and health services paying particular attention to men's perspectives. Findings are based on research conducted in Scotland with men (aged 16-25) and their teenage partners (aged 16-19). Most young men were very involved in their child's life and provided support and care to their…

  4. Subjective Social Standing and Conflict Tactics Among Young Kenyan Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Serag, Hani; Raimer-Goodman, Lauren; Keiser, Philip; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-09-01

    Efforts to reduce intimate partner violence in sub-Saharan Africa generally approach the issue through the lens of women's empowerment. These efforts include foci on women's relative power in the relationship, educational background, and earning potential. The social status of men has largely been ignored, reducing the potential to involve them in efforts to demote intimate partner violence. In this study we consider whether a man's perceived social status predicts conflict tactics, and whether these tactics are mediated by loneliness and collective self-esteem from a community-based sample in semi-rural Kenya (n = 263). We find that men who reported lower perceived social status also reported significantly more frequent violent conflicts with their intimate partners. This association was significantly, and completely, mediated by lower collective self-esteem and higher loneliness. There was no direct association between subjective social status and negotiation-based conflict tactics, although there was an indirect association. Men with higher perceived social status reported higher collective self-esteem, and men with higher collective self-esteem reported more negotiation-based conflict tactics. These findings inform efforts to reduce intimate partner violence by involving men, showing potential to reduce violence by building self-esteem among men-particularly those with lower perceived social status. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  5. Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the accessibility of reproductive health information and contraceptives in a relatively less developed area of rural central India and assessed the risks facing young unmarried men. Methods This cross-sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, aged 17-22 years, in a survey. Information was collected on the men's socioeconomic characteristics; awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of family planning; attitudes toward future contraceptive use; intra-family communication; knowledge about STIs/HIV/AIDS; and access and use of condoms. Content analysis for qualitative information and descriptive analysis for survey data were used to draw conclusions. Results Young unmarried rural Indian men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge is limited, although the majority is familiar with condoms (99%). The young men identified electronic mass media (67%) as the prime source of reproductive health information, yet they lacked detailed knowledge of various contraceptives and felt ignored by health providers, who, they felt, would be capable of providing SRH information through interpersonal communication. Young men are more concerned about avoiding infections and securing sexual pleasure and less concerned about avoiding potential pregnancies. For example, 68% of the young men were aware of condoms and their HIV/AIDS preventive role, but only about two-fifths mentioned condom use to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Although most young men (96%) knew where to access a condom, they felt uncomfortable or embarrassed doing so in their own villages or close by because of socio-cultural norms that prevented them from using contraceptives. Very few respondents (4%) disclosed using condoms themselves, but 59% said they knew someone from their peer group who had used them. Conclusions Young unmarried

  6. Unhealthy environments, unhealthy consequences: Experienced homonegativity and HIV infection risk among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, William L; Gelaude, Deborah J; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Oster, Alexandra M; Spikes, Pilgrim S; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Unfavourable social environments can negatively affect the health of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). We described how experienced homonegativity - negative perceptions and treatment that MSM encounter due to their sexual orientations - can increase HIV vulnerability among young MSM. Participants (n = 44) were young MSM diagnosed with HIV infection during January 2006-June 2009. All participants completed questionnaires that assessed experienced homonegativity and related factors (e.g. internalised homonegativity). We focus this analysis on qualitative interviews in which a subset of participants (n = 28) described factors that they perceived to have placed them at risk for HIV infection. Inductive content analysis identified themes within qualitative interviews, and we determined the prevalence of homonegativity and related factors using questionnaires. In qualitative interviews, participants reported that young MSM commonly experienced homonegativity. They described how homonegativity generated internalised homonegativity, HIV stigma, silence around homosexuality, and forced housing displacement. These factors could promote HIV risk. Homonegative experiences were more common among young Black (vs. non-Black) MSM who completed questionnaires. Results illustrate multiple pathways through which experienced homonegativity may increase HIV vulnerability among young MSM. Interventions that target homonegativity might help to reduce the burden of HIV within this population.

  7. Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M

    2004-07-01

    We examined the 6-month cumulative incidence of anti-gay harassment, discrimination, and violence among young gay/bisexual men and documented their associations with mental health. Gay/bisexual men from 3 cities in the southwestern United States completed self-administered questionnaires. Thirty-seven percent of men reported experiencing anti-gay verbal harassment in the previous 6 months; 11.2% reported discrimination, and 4.8% reported physical violence. Men were more likely to report these experiences if they were younger, were more open in disclosing their sexual orientation to others, and were HIV positive. Reports of mistreatment were associated with lower self-esteem and increased suicidal ideation. Absent policies preventing anti-gay mistreatment, empowerment and community-building programs are needed for young gay/bisexual men to both create safe social settings and help them cope with the psychological effects of these events.

  8. High prevalence of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblin, B A; Torian, L V; Guilin, V; Ren, L; MacKellar, D A; Valleroy, L A

    2000-08-18

    To determine the prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviors among young men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 15-22 years in New York City. An anonymous cross-sectional survey. The 1998 Young Men's Survey in New York City (YMS-NYC), was a multistage probability survey of 541 MSM aged 15-22 years who attend public venues. After identification of venues and their associated high attendance time periods, random samples of venues and time periods were selected on a monthly basis. At each sampling event, potential participants were approached to determine eligibility. Eligible and willing men were interviewed, counselled and had a blood specimen drawn. Between December 1997 and September 1998, 115 sampling events were conducted. Of 612 men enrolled, 541 reported ever having had sex with a male partner. The HIV seroprevalence among the 541 MSM sampled was 12.1%. The HIV seroprevalence was 18.4% among African-Americans, 16.7% among persons of mixed race, 8.8% among Latino individuals and 3.1% among white men. HIV seroprevalence was 5.0% among 15-18 year olds and 16.4% among 19-22 year olds. A total of 65.5% of MSM were susceptible to hepatitis B virus infection (HBV). Almost half (46.1%) of the men reported unprotected anal sex in the previous 6 months and 16.3% reported ever having had an STD. Multiple regression analyses found that being older, of mixed race, black or ever having had an STD was associated with being HIV antibody positive. These data identify a large subgroup of MSM in need of effective HIV and HBV primary and secondary prevention programs.

  9. Estimation of aerobic fitness among young men without exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Minna M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to develop and estimate the validity of non-exercise methods to predict VO2max among young male conscripts entering military service in order to divide them into the different physical training groups.

  10. Incarceration and the tasks of grief: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Chris

    2009-02-01

    This study is a report of a narrative review to explore the challenges facing prisoners and the corrections system in the presence of the death of a significant person to the prisoner. Death of a loved one is an important challenge, amplified for incarcerated men. There are unique aspects of incarceration that prevent prisoners from having access to usual ritual expressions and support structures. A search of the CINAHL, ProQuest Medical, PubMed, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases was conducted for papers published from 1998-2007. The search terms were bereavement and prison nursing. A hand search of material specific to grief and incarceration was also undertaken. A narrative technique involving reading, writing, thinking, interpreting, arguing and justifying was used to synthesize the material and create a convincing and cohesive story. Limited research is available specifically addressing the grief experience of incarcerated individuals or the impact of unresolved grief on recidivism. However, a number of potential challenges to the grieving process in the prison system are identified in the literature, such as the prison culture of toughness and limited options for funeral attendance. Whilst the literature is scant, it is clear that issues of masculinity and culture have a strong impact on the ability of incarcerated men to resolve grief issues. More research is required to understand the impact of this on issues, such as recidivism. In the meantime, prison nurses have an important role to play in supporting prisoners who have lost a loved one during their incarceration.

  11. Urological Survivorship Issues Among Adolescent Boys and Young Men Who Are Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhu, Troy; Ross, Sherry; Coward, R Matthew

    2018-01-27

    Urological survivorship issues encompass an area that may potentially be overlooked after treatment of childhood cancer in adolescent boys and young men. Side effects of cancer therapy may include subsequent development of erectile dysfunction (ED), hypogonadism, and infertility in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to focus on the etiology and prevalence of the range of sexual and gonadal dysfunction in adolescent boys and young men who are cancer survivors, while discussing current recommendations for evaluation and treatment. We performed a literature review of articles evaluating hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction, ED, and infertility in young men cancer survivors. There is compelling evidence that significant survivorship issues are faced by boys entering adulthood after completing cancer therapy. Overall, young men cancer survivors are much more likely to report symptoms of sexual dysfunction than the general population of men. These patients can develop ED due to physiologic and psychological changes that take place with diagnosis of a malignancy and subsequent treatment. Primary hypogonadism can arise due to pelvic radiation or chemotherapy, and central hypogonadism may arise from pituitary insufficiency after brain radiation or surgery. Infertility develops from direct damage to the Sertoli cells and germinal epithelium from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Cancer survivors who are men should therefore be screened for these important urological survivorship issues, although exact surveillance strategies remain unclear. Urological survivorship issues including ED, hypogonadism, and infertility are common among cancer survivors and result in significant morbidity. Due to the medical complexity of cancer survivorship, the population of adolescent and young adult survivors would benefit from a network of multidisciplinary survivorship experts to aid the transition into adulthood. Improved research efforts may help to clarify risk factors and to develop

  12. Young Men, Help-Seeking, and Mental Health Services: Exploring Barriers and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise; Long, Maggie; Moorhead, Anne

    2016-01-01

    International research has identified young men as reluctant to seek help for mental health problems. This research explored barriers and solutions to professional help seeking for mental health problems among young men living in the North West of Ireland. A qualitative approach, using two focus groups with six participants each and five face-to-face interviews, was conducted with men aged 18 to 24 years (total N = 17). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven key themes of barriers to professional help seeking were identified: “acceptance from peers,” “personal challenges,” “cultural and environmental influences,” “self-medicating with alcohol,” “perspectives around seeking professional help,” “fear of homophobic responses,” and “traditional masculine ideals.” Five key themes of solutions to these barriers included “tailored mental health advertising,” “integrating mental health into formal education,” “education through semiformal support services,” “accessible mental health care,” and “making new meaning.” Interesting findings on barriers include fear of psychiatric medication, fear of homophobic responses from professionals, the legacy of Catholic attitudes, and the genuine need for care. This study offers an in-depth exploration of how young men experience barriers and uniquely offers solutions identified by participants themselves. Youth work settings were identified as a resource for engaging young men in mental health work. Young men can be encouraged to seek help if services and professionals actively address barriers, combining advertising, services, and education, with particular attention and respect to how and when young men seek help and with whom they want to share their problems. PMID:27365212

  13. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial.

  14. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  15. Towards Sensorial Approaches to Visual Research with Racially Diverse Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tabi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a collaborative ethnographic research project that highlights the artistic, literary contributions of racially diverse young men. It uses Critical Race Theory to question conventional, Eurocentric educational approaches that historically and currently continue to suppress various socially and culturally learned modes of communication. This article presents two research projects in urban and suburban formal and informal educational institutions to highlight multimodal literary approaches. The first project is an amalgamation of two critical, ethnographic case studies that explores how racially diverse young men express their literacy through rap and spoken word poetry. The second project uses ethnographic methods to observe racially diverse young men’s production of films and photographs in high school, community centers, and art gallery spaces. This study uses visual methods coupled with affect and sensory-laden approaches to collect data and conduct an analysis. The article reflects on conversations surrounding young men, particularly racialized young men, their relationship with literacy, and how these conversations are founded on their failure and deficit language about their literacy repertoires. We believe that such research is closely tied with other social justice themes and modes of inquiry. This article steers away from the ways racialized young men do not use literacy, and focuses instead on the ways that they do use literacy. Their literacy practices are predominantly visual in nature, frequently accompanied by other modes such as words and moving images. Fitting within the scope of the special issue on social justice and visual methods, we argue for a greater acknowledgement and analytical gaze on sensory and affective nuances within visual research. This approach adds texture and volume to interpreting racialized young men’s narratives. Interrogating their visuals and talking through their narratives that have agentive

  16. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity

  17. The Obstacles Facing Young Saudi Men and Women Getting jobs in Small Businesses Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef Saleh Al-Ghamri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses are considered the backbone of the national economy due to their role in creating job opportunities for young men and women who seek private sector employment. However, a series of obstacles face young Saudi male and female citizens in getting jobs in small businesses sector. The present research focuses on studies which discuss the definitions of small businesses and how they are related to the creation of employment opportunities for young men and women, their effect on improving young adults’ economic and social levels by boosting their morale and kindling their entrepreneurial spirit. The research also sets out the proposed mechanisms for the removal of obstacles faced by young small business would-be entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it endeavors to develop solutions, based on hypotheses and primary assumptions, which may contribute to a better understanding of the employment issue of Saudi young men and women. Solutions are set within a comprehensive strategy framework based on the integration and encouragement of young people to initiate small businesses, raise their standard of living, reduce the unemployment phenomenon and its consequences and repercussions which can result in domestic discord and moral degeneration– which may sometimes lead to misanthropy and suicide, as is the case in some societies such as Japan.

  18. Sexual abuse, social stigma and HIV vulnerability among young feminised men in Lahore and Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W; Schunter, Bettina T; Iqbal, Qasim

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of 10 young feminised men in Pakistan. They face high levels of stigma, violence and sexual abuse. The average age of first sex was 11 years old and all reported having been been raped during childhood and early adolescence, often several times. While some mothers and siblings were quietly supportive, young feminised men often end up running away from home, finding support as a member of a hijra dera, a 'pseudo-household' led by an older feminised man or guru, in which they find employment as dancers or sex workers. After their entry into sex work there is little or no opportunity to use condoms. The hijra dera offer an important entry point for improved social support and sexual health programmes, including efforts to ensure young feminised men postpone their sexual debut and/or improve their sexual health, retain access to education, explore alternative forms of employment and improve access to health care.

  19. Does Change in Young Men's Employment Influence Fathering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Goldscheider, Frances

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal and maternal employment changes and changes in the frequency of fathers praising, showing affection, disciplining, and reading to children. Data were drawn from the Young Adult supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Supporting economic theory, fathers were more involved…

  20. Thriving and Adapting: Resilience, Sense of Community, and Syndemics among Young Black Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah J; Miller, Robin Lin

    2016-03-01

    We examined resilience associated with the avoidance of psychosocial health conditions (i.e., syndemics) that increase vulnerability for HIV among young Black gay and bisexual men. We used analytic induction to compare a sample of 23 men who showed no evidence of syndemic conditions to a sample of 23 men who experienced syndemic conditions. The men who avoided syndemics reported supportive relationships with people who helped them to develop a strong sense of identity, provided them with opportunities to give back to their communities, and promoted positive norms about health. In contrast, the men experiencing syndemic conditions described numerous instances of trauma and oppression that infringed upon their desire to form positive relationships. Among these men, experiences of oppression were associated with shame, identity incongruence, social isolation, relational disconnection, mistrust of men, and expectations of further marginalization. We examined participants' experiences through the framework of the psychosocial sense of community. Results of this study provide evidence for using strength-based intervention strategies to prevent syndemic conditions. Findings suggest that to attenuate socio-structural barriers to health and comorbid psychosocial health concerns, interventions must address young men's social isolation and promote positive identity and sense of community. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. Variability in HOMA-IR, Lipoprotein Profile and Selected Hormones in Young Active Men

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Keska; Grazyna Lutoslawska; Anna Czajkowska; Joanna Tkaczyk; Krzysztof Mazurek

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18–23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as...

  2. Profiles of sedentary and non-sedentary young men ? a population-based MOPO study

    OpenAIRE

    Pyky, Riitta; Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Ik?heimo, Tiina M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; M?ntysaari, Matti; J?ms?, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior is associated with poor well-being in youth with adverse trajectories spanning to adulthood. Still, its determinants are poorly known. Our aim was to profile sedentary and non-sedentary young men and to clarify their differences in a population-based setting. Methods A total of 616 men (mean age 17.9, SD 0.6) attending compulsory conscription for military service completed a questionnaire on health, health behavior, socioeconomic situation and media use. They und...

  3. Velocity dependence of eccentric strength in young and old men: the need for speed!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2015-07-01

    Older adults better maintain eccentric strength relative to isometric strength, as indicated by a higher ratio of eccentric:isometric torque as compared with younger adults. The effect of increasing angular velocities (>200°/s) on the age-related maintenance of eccentric strength has not been tested and thus it is unknown whether the eccentric:isometric ratio is velocity dependent in old age. The purpose of this study was to investigate eccentric strength of the ankle dorsiflexors over a large range of lengthening angular velocities in young and older men. Isometric neuromuscular properties were assessed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. Nine young (∼24 years) and 9 older (∼76 years) healthy men performed maximal voluntary eccentric contractions at angular velocities of 15-360°/s. Despite near full voluntary activation (>95%), the older men were ∼30% weaker than the young men for isometric strength (P eccentric:isometric ratio than young men (P eccentric strength increased as velocity increased up to 120°/s (P eccentric strength at 15°/s was ∼20% and ∼40% greater than isometric strength (P eccentric strength was ∼50% and ∼90% greater, respectively (P eccentric:isometric ratio of torque production.

  4. Condom use and hip hop culture: the case of urban young men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Castellanos, Daniel H; Haliburton, Chanel S; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J; Parker, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    We explored how young men's perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture--urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music--and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Differences in young men's perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Popular discourses on young men's health risks often blame youths' cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men's lives and what aspects of youths' culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk.

  5. Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  6. Fitzgerald's New Thought on Youth in All the Sad Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 幸恵

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that F. Scott FitzgeraId had a fixation on youth both in his writing and throughout his life. When he was twenty-nine years old, Fitzgerald wrote a letter to his editor, which said he wanted to die at thirty. In 1926, when he was approaching thirty, Fitzgerald published a collection of short stories titled All the Sad Young Men. It is reasonable to assume that All the Sad Young Men is essential to the study of Fitzgerald's thought on youth. However, it has been disre...

  7. Condom Refusal and Young Black Men: the Influence of Pleasure, Sexual Partners, and Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated pleasure-related, partner-related, and social normative correlates of recent condom refusal in young Black men (YBM). A cross-sectional study of YBM (N = 561) attending clinics treating sexually transmitted diseases in three cities was conducted. Mean age was 19.6 years (SD = 1.87). Nearly one of every two young men (46.8 %) indicated recent refusal to use a condom after a request from their partner. Significant findings included the following: partner-related beliefs “...

  8. Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men-A Review of the Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh Tue; Gabrielson, Andrew T; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2017-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important health concern that can significantly affect a man's psychosocial well-being. ED has traditionally been considered a disease of old age; however, contemporary evidence suggests a growing incidence of ED in men younger than 40 years. The process of achieving an erection is multifaceted; there are many potential mechanisms that can be disrupted. It is critical to identify the specific causes of ED before proceeding with potentially costly and invasive therapeutic options. Advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities offer opportunities to identify and manage young men with ED. To provide an update on the prevalence and risk factors of ED in young men and to provide a framework to guide clinicians in identifying and managing the affected young man. Comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to ED in young men. ED in young men was assessed by outlining the prevalence according to recent epidemiologic studies. The pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, risk factors, and etiologies were reviewed. Large multinational studies have estimated the prevalence of ED in young men to be as high as 30%. Several studies have stratified the etiologies of ED into psychogenic and organic causes. Psychogenic etiologies of ED include depression, anxiety, and partner-related difficulties. These patients tend to experience sudden onset of symptoms, with decreased libido and good quality of spontaneous or self-stimulated erections. Organic etiologies include vasculogenic, endocrinologic, neurogenic, iatrogenic, and structural components. These patients usually experience gradual onset of symptoms and a low to normal libido. Conservative treatments such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors continue to be the mainstay treatment. ED in young men is an increasingly common condition. A careful diagnostic evaluation should focus on the identification of any underlying etiology to ensure appropriate management of patients. Nguyen HMT

  9. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Young Men With Low Versus Normal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein which is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether RBP4 represents a mechanism underlying the associations between low birth weight (LBW), high-fat diet, and insulin resistance. Forty-six young, lean men with low (n...... with peripheral glucose disposal rate or hepatic insulin resistance index. RBP4 levels were not influenced by overfeeding or related to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance provoked by the dietary intervention. In conclusion, plasma RBP4 in young men associates with components of the metabolic syndrome...

  10. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.......We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...

  11. Motivators of HIV Risk-Taking Behavior of Young Gay Latino Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mark A; Dimmitt Champion, Jane

    2008-08-01

    Latinos have been disproportionately affected by HIV, placing young Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased risk within this ethnic community. The study explored the lived experience of growing up as a young Latino MSM and motivators to HIV risk behaviors. Five young Latino MSM ages 18 to 25 years were enrolled in a qualitative, phenomenological study using semistructured interviews followed by a HIV risk-taking behavior survey. A relationship was identified between patterns of belonging and self-acceptance of sexual orientation and motivators of HIV sexual risk-taking behavior. La familia, machismo, hiding, and guilt were themes related to belonging and self-acceptance. The need to belong and be accepted by the family and self-acceptance of sexual orientation are related to the HIV sexual risk-taking behavior of young Latino MSM. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2008; 14(4), 310-316. DOI: 10.1177/1078390308321926.

  12. Inconsistent condom use among young men who have sex with men, male sex workers, and transgenders in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnasiri, Tareerat; Netwong, Taweesak; Visarutratana, Surasing; Varangrat, Anchalee; Li, Andrea; Phanuphak, Praphan; Jommaroeng, Rapeepun; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; van Griensven, Frits

    2010-04-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV infection. We investigated inconsistent condom use among 827 sexually active young MSM (15-24 years), enrolled using venue-day-time sampling in Bangkok, Chiang Mai and Phuket, Thailand. Data was collected using palmtop computer-assisted self-interviewing. Of participants, 33.1% were regular MSM, 37.7% were male sex workers (MSWs) and 29.1% were transgenders (TGs). Of MSM, 46.7%, of MSWs, 34.9% and of TGs, 52.3% reported recent inconsistent condom use. In multivariate analysis, receptive anal intercourse (MSM, MSWs), receptive and insertive anal intercourse, living alone and a history of sexual coercion (MSWs), not carrying a condom when interviewed (MSM, TGs), lower education, worrying about HIV infection and a history of sexually transmitted infections (TGs) were significantly and independently associated with inconsistent condom use. Interventions for young MSM are needed and must consider the distinct risk factors of MSM, MSWs, and TGs.

  13. The impact of childhood gender expression on childhood sexual abuse and psychopathology among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marco A; Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16-20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of vitamin C on copper retention in young men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, R.A.; Omaye, S.T.; Skala, J.H.; Taylor, P.C.; Turnlund, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work suggests that supplemental ascorbic acid (AA) may inhibit intestinal copper absorption by stabilizing the less absorbable cuprous state. The authors studied copper absorption in healthy men (age 19-32) fed a constant diet with different amounts of ascorbic acid supplements. The 6 men were confined to a metabolic unit for the entire 14 week study. The basal diet consisted of a 7 day rotating menu which provided an average of 2.1 mg Cu/d and was adequate in all other nutrients except AA (5 mg/d). The basal diet was supplemented with either zero, 60, or 600 mg of AA daily, added to grape juice and consumed at each meal. All feces were collected. Blood was taken weekly for monitoring AA and copper status. Copper absorption was determined by both balance and 65 Cu stable isotope techniques. As determined by fecal Cu excretion, varying intakes of AA between 0.1 to 10 times the RDA had no significant effect on copper retention. This is consistent with the lack of change in serum ceruloplasmin and serum Cu throughout the study

  15. 'Learning to Wait’: Schooling and the Instability of Adulthood for Young Men in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dungey, Claire Elisabeth; Meinert, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    , such as being able to secure housing, being stable in marriage, having children and responsibilities, and providing steadily for a family. We suggest that schooling in Uganda, which is otherwise celebrated as a means of progress, paradoxically prepares young people to get stuck. The practices of waiting, often...... enforced through discipline, prepare young people to expect that waiting and enduring hardship will pay off in the end. This expectation makes the status of adulthood particularly vulnerable because the jobs and opportunities that young men learn to wait for often do not come into being by waiting....

  16. Population differences in the testosterone levels of young men are associated with prostate cancer disparities in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistro Alvarado, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although there is evidence that greater exposure to testosterone is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, a recent analysis of 18 prospective studies found no relationship between levels of endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer development. However, the reviewed studies were subject to methodological constraints that would obscure any potential relationship between prostate cancer and androgenic hormones. If prostate cancer risk is mediated by lifetime exposure to testosterone, then case-control studies that concentrate on endogenous sex hormones near the ages that prostate cancer is diagnosed would provide limited information on cumulative testosterone exposure across the lifespan. Alternately, early adulthood has been suggested as the most salient period to evaluate the influence of steroid physiology on prostate carcinogenesis. As such, an exhaustive literature search was completed to obtain testosterone values reported for study samples of younger men, along with prostate cancer incidences for the larger populations from which the study populations were sampled. A novel analytical method was developed to standardize, organize, and examine 12 studies reporting testosterone levels for 28 population samples. Study populations were generally apportioned according to ethnicity and geographic residence: Americans of African, Asian, Caucasian, and Hispanic ancestry from several different regions within the United States as well as men from China, Germany, Japan, Kuwait, New Zealand, South Korea, and Sweden. Population differences in the testosterone levels of young men were significantly associated with population disparities in the prostate cancer incidence of older men (Spearman's rho = 0.634, p = 0.002).

  17. Associations Between Internalized Homophobia and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica

    2016-10-01

    To assess internalized homophobia (IH) and its relationship to sexual risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a clinic-based sample of young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Six hundred YBMSM completed a self-interview and provided specimens for testing. A 7-item scale assessed IH, and 19 sexual risk behaviors were assessed. In adjusted models, compared with men with less IH, those with greater IH were more likely to report: any condomless anal receptive sex (P = 0.01) and sex with women (P < 0.001). Alternatively, men with greater IH were less likely to: discuss acquired immune deficiency syndrome prevention with sex partners (P = 0.009), disclose their same sex sexual behavior to providers (P = 0.01), be tested for human immunodeficiency virus in the past 12 months (P = 0.04), report condomless oral sex (P = 0.049), and test RPR positive (P = 0.01). With some exceptions, IH among YBMSM attending STI clinics may influence their sexual risk behaviors; however, STI prevalence was not associated with this construct.

  18. Condom-related problems among a racially diverse sample of young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bois, Steve N; Emerson, Erin; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-10-01

    We described frequencies of condom-related problems in a racially diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and tested these condom-related problems as an explanation for racial disparities in HIV rates among YMSM. Participants were 119 YMSM from a longitudinal study of sexual minority health behaviors. Almost all participants (95.4%) experienced at least one condom error. On average, African American and non-African American YMSM experienced the same number of recent condom-related problems. Therefore, differences in condom-related problems are unlikely to explain racial disparities in HIV rates among YMSM. When serving YMSM, providers should both promote condom use and explain steps to correct condom use.

  19. Risperidone and Risk of Gynecomastia in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Mahyar; Carleton, Bruce; Brophy, James M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of gynecomastia with risperidone in adolescent and young adult males. We created a cohort of males 15-25 years of age from the IMS LifeLink database, and conducted a case-control study within the cohort by identifying all new cases of gynecomastia. For each case, 10 controls were selected and matched to the cases by age, follow-up, and calendar times (cases and controls had the same follow up time and cohort entry date). Rate ratios (RR) for current use of risperidone were computed adjusting for potential confounding variables. First diagnosis of gynecomastia was made based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) for gynecomastia. There were 401,924 males ages 15-25 in the primary cohort. There were 1556 cases of gynecomastia and 15,560 corresponding controls. Current users of risperidone had approximately four times the risk of developing gynecomastia than non-users (RR=3.91, 95% CI=2.01-7.62). When the analysis was stratified to children and adolescents (≤18 years of age) taking risperidone, the risk of gynecomastia was five times higher than for non-users (RR=5.44, 95% CI=1.50-19.74). Risperidone is associated with an increase with the risk of gynecomastia in adolescent and young adult males.

  20. Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

    2006-11-01

    Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes.

  1. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, T K; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    Male reproductive function seems to have deteriorated considerably during the past 4-5 decades. However, studies of the reproductive function in unselected populations have not previously been reported. As the large majority of young men in Denmark are subjected to a compulsory medical examinatio...

  2. What Does It Mean to Be Young for Syrian Men Living as Refugees in Cairo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Suerbaum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Syrian young men who fled to Egypt after the uprising in 2011. Their life was affected by the challenges stemming from displacement, such as their confrontation with new responsibilities, unknown vulnerabilities and emotions, liminality and precarity. They suffered from forced displacement in a gender- and age-specific way.

  3. Muscularity, Mateship and Malevolent Masculinities: Experiences of Young Men with Hearing Disabilities in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Across the analysis of interview fragments from two young men with hearing disabilities who attended secondary schools in Australia, this paper will demonstrate that masculinity in the schoolyard frequently emerges within and as a collective form of violence and malevolence against the disabled body. Yet while certain individuals or groups may…

  4. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MInguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination...

  5. Sexual Uncertainties and Disabled Young Men: Silencing Difference within the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Craig; Carson, Iain

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects upon and connects the findings of two research projects that examined the sexual inequalities experienced by disabled young gay men. Using some of the data for illustrative purposes, we explore the consequences of the dominant heteronormative discursive practices that they experienced within sex education classes. Drawing on…

  6. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  7. Transforming the Educational Experience of Young Men of Color. School Counseling Series. Volume 2: Increase Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy launched a journal series to support and build awareness of the issues and challenges raised by the College Board Advocacy & Policy Center's research report, "The Educational Experience of Young Men of Color" (youngmenofcolor.collegeboard.org.) The intent of the series is to…

  8. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  9. Cohabitation in the Philippines: Attitudes and Behaviors among Young Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindy; Kabamalan, Midea; Ogena, Nimfa

    2007-01-01

    We examine data from a national survey of 15-27 year olds in the Philippines to assess attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation, and we analyze the marital and nonmarital union experiences of 25-27 year olds. We find that attitudes toward cohabitation remain quite conservative among young Filipinos, although men view cohabitation more favorably…

  10. The Salience and Utility of School Sex Education to Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie; Wight, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on young men's views on the school sex education they have received, the influence of this sex education on their intended or actual behaviour, and the extent to which other sources of information complement or supplement school sex education. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and eight group discussions were conducted with male…

  11. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  12. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who had suffered a head injury during childhood or adolescence, in particular focusing upon the effects of age and the severity of the injury. METHODS: By cross linkage of Danish national registers for hospital...... factors may again play a role....

  13. Relative risk of HIV infection among young men and women in a South African township

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacPhail, C

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available as other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and answered a behavioural questionnaire. The age-prevalence of HIV infection differs between men and women with considerably higher rates of increase with age among young women. The age of sexual debut did...

  14. Four days of muscle disuse impairs single fiber contractile function in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3±0.9yrs) and 11 old (67.2±1.0yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single fiber...

  15. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  16. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-10-01

    To study the relationship of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Cross-sectional study. University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Healthy young men with untested fertility (n = 215). A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Semen quality parameters. Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥9.5 h/wk) with men in the bottom quartile (≤3 h/wk) were 4.3% (-30.2%, 38.9%) for total sperm count, 7.2% (-30.6%, 45.1%) for sperm concentration, -2.42% (-6.53%, 1.69%) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (-12.0%, 37.2%) for sperm morphology. In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low cardio/respiratory fitness as an independent predictor of metabolic syndrome in Korean young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Shin-Uk; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2010-03-01

    Little information is available regarding the relationship between cardio/respiratory fitness (CRF) and metabolic risk factors in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic risk factors and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) across CRF levels in young Korean men. In a cross-sectional study, we examined 909 Korean young men (mean age 24.0 +/- 2 years) who were apparently healthy, free of any diagnosed chronic diseases, not taking any medications, and who had completed all the requested measurements. Body composition, resting blood pressures, and fasting blood levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured with our standardized laboratory protocols. CRF was quantified as the maximum volume of minute oxygen uptake measured during a graded treadmill test. Group analyses showed that men with moderate to high CRF levels had more favorable profiles in terms of body composition, resting blood pressures, mean values in fasting lipids, glucose, and insulin as well as the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance than men with a low CRF level. After adjusting for age, smoking, and percent body fat, the low and moderate CRF groups had odds of 4.64 (95% CI 2.00-10.79) and 2.57 (95% CI 1.04-6.34) respectively for having the MS compared to the high CRF group. These findings suggest that low CRF is positively and independently associated with the MS in Korean young men.

  18. Correlates of depressed mood among young stimulant-using homeless gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine; Idemundia, Faith; Reback, Cathy; Shoptaw, Steven; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik

    2012-10-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support; those who reported severe body pain were almost six times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status, and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first studies to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and provide more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services.

  19. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and the Opportunity. Issue Brief: Focus on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kisha; Bryant, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief was prepared for the "Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity" briefing held in June 2014 that was co-sponsored by National Council of La Raza, PolicyLink, the Executive Alliance to Expand Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color, and the Institute for Black Male Achievement. The…

  20. Stronger associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension in young women than in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for prehypertension and hypertension, and there are sex-specific differences in prevalences of obesity and hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether sex influences the relationships of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension. The participants were 28,325 Japanese men and women aged 20-39 years. Obesity was evaluated by BMI (≥ 25 kg/m) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5). Associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension were compared in men and women by using odds ratio (OR) and area under the curve (AUC). ORs for prehypertension and hypertension in participants with vs. participants without high BMI or WHtR were significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00 both in men and women and were significantly higher in women than in men. ORs for prehypertension and hypertension of participants with vs. participants without high BMI were 3.10 (2.84-3.38) (men) vs. 5.54 (4.80-6.40) (women) (P men) vs. 34.58 (26.55-45.04) (women) (P men. The results suggest that the associations of obesity with prehypertension and hypertension are stronger in women than in men.

  1. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY: Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from...... Hologic values. INTRODUCTION: Geographic, ethnic, and socio-economic factors are known to affect bone mineral density (BMD) and peak bone mass significantly. Reference values for male peak bone mass are scarce, and the diagnosis of male osteoporosis often relies on values provided by producers of dual......-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) equipment. METHODS: The aim of the present study was 1) to establish population-based reference values for BMD in young men and 2) to study subgroups based on variables with suspected impact on bone metabolism. We included 783 young Caucasian men aged 20 to 30 years...

  2. Health disparities among common subcultural identities of young gay men: physical, mental, and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Hosking, Warwick

    2014-11-01

    Researchers, policymakers, and health agencies have tended to treat gay men as a relatively homogeneous population, with little attention given to its many subcultural identities. In this study, we focused on young gay men and investigated a range of health-related differences according to common subcultural identities, such as Bear, Cub, and Twink. In a nationwide cross-sectional online survey of 1,034 Australian gay men aged 18-39 years, 44% reported a subcultural identity, the two most common being Cub (9%) and Twink (20%). Logistic and linear regression analyses compared Cub- and Twink-identified men and those without a subcultural identity (Non-identified) on a range of health-related outcomes. After adjusting for differences in age and body mass index (BMI), Twink-identified men had the highest risk profile overall, including significantly higher rates of smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. They were also significantly more likely to report engaging in receptive anal sex. In addition, Cub-identified men were significantly more likely to report being in an ongoing relationship while Non-identified men were significantly less likely to report experiences of discrimination in the past 12 months. Differences on measures of mental health between the three groups were no longer significant after adjusting for age and BMI. In summary, we found numerous health-related differences according to subcultural identity that warrant further investigation by researchers, health agencies, and others concerned with further understanding and addressing health-related challenges of gay men.

  3. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors among Teen and Young Adult Men: A Descriptive Portrait. Research Brief. Publication #2008-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…

  4. HIV in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Review of Epidemiology, Risk, and Protector Factors, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Bois, Steve Nicholas Du; Garcia, Steve C.; Grov, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that young men who have sex with men (YMSM) represent the majority of young people infected with HIV annually in the U.S. Further, they are one of the few risk groups to show an increase in the rate of infections in recent years. In addition to these disparities in prevalence and infection rates, there is an inequity in prevention and intervention research on this population. The purpose of this article is to review the existing YMSM literature on HIV epidemiology, correlates of risk, and intervention research. We conclude that promising future directions for basic research include a focus on multiple clustering health issues, processes that promote resiliency, the role of family influences, and the development of parsimonious models of risk. In terms of intervention research, we suggest that promising future directions include Internet-based intervention delivery, integration of biomedical and behavioral approaches, and interventions that go beyond the individual level to address partnership, structural, community, and network factors. PMID:21409715

  5. Heavy drinking and its correlates in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, A I; Hall, J G; Purtill, J J; Searles, J S; Holahan, J M; McLellan, A T

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the drinking behavior of a sample of 98 college men and the relationship to drinking of a variety of subject variables. The subjects reported drinking an average of nearly eight days a month, about five drinks each time, and were intoxicated more than three times monthly. Nearly half reported having experienced two or more drinking-related adverse consequences within the past year and over a third were intoxicated four or more times monthly. Forty percent of the subjects could be described as problem drinkers. Illicit drug use and the disinhibition factor of the sensation seeking scale were the most consistent correlates of drinking behavior and its adverse consequences, although belonging to a fraternity, consuming alcohol/drugs before age 15, the Macandrew Alcoholism Scale score, and a family member having received alcoholism treatment were also found to be consistently associated with drinking in the subjects. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical health, mental health treatment, childhood behavior problems, adolescent antisocial behavior, and familial alcoholism were by and large not found to be related to drinking behavior. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that five variables accounted for 51% of the total variance in drinking behavior. The significant predictors included a heavy drug use factor, a smoking factor, fraternity membership, drug/alcohol use before age 15, and having a family member who had received alcoholism treatment. Thus, four of the five significant predictor variables were reflective of drug use in the subject or his family. The findings underline the need for further prospective longitudinal research to understand the origins of problem drinking and its relationship to alcoholism.

  6. Comparative data from young men and women on masseter muscle fibres, function and facial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women......, and the tissue examined for myosin ATPase activity. Further, the cross-sectional areas of the different fibre types were measured. In spite of using age-matched healthy men and women with a full complement of teeth, statistically significant sex differences were found among measures related to muscle function...... and some measures of facial morphology. Thus data from men and women should not be pooled uncritically. The greater bite force in men than women corresponded with the greater diameter and cross-sectional area of type II fibres. Further, the males had more anteriorly inclined mandibles and shorter anterior...

  7. A Novel, Self-Guided, Home-Based Intervention to Improve Condom Use among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emetu, Roberta E.; Marshall, Alexandra; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Yarber, William L.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Crosby, Richard A.; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief, novel, theory-driven, self-guided, home-based intervention designed to promote condom use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Participants: Thirty YMSM were recruited from a large public US midwestern university during spring of 2012. Methods: The intervention was tested using a…

  8. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  9. "God Made Me Gay for a Reason": Young Men Who Have Sex with Men's Resiliency in Resolving Internalized Homophobia from Religious Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…

  10. Parents know and parents matter; is it time to develop family-based HIV prevention programs for young men who have sex with men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian; Donenberg, Geri

    2008-08-01

    We examined the potential for a family-based HIV prevention approach for gay and bisexually identified young men who have sex with men (MSM). The majority of our urban, ethnically diverse sample disclosed their sexual orientation to parents, who were generally supportive. Family connectedness significantly decreased the odds of an HIV positive status.

  11. Inequalities in maintenance of health and performance between young adult women and men in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Hagberg, Mats

    2009-04-01

    Because of ageing populations, most high-income countries are facing an imminent scarcity of labour. Maintenance of health and performance in young adults therefore becomes a crucial prerequisite for sustainable societies. One major obstruction to this accomplishment is the striking health inequalities between young women and young men. Previously these inequalities have mainly been studied in a cross-sectional way, focusing on ill-health. In this study, we compared the prevalence of maintained health and performance between young adult women and men and the predictors for this outcome. The cohort consisted of 1266 participants from a homogenous sample of university students in Sweden. A combined assessment of self-rated 'very good' health and un-impaired performance took place at three time points (i.e. maintained health and performance). Potential predictors covered stable conditions in health-related behaviours, conditions at work/school and work-home interference. Young women had less maintained health and performance than young men. No major differences in predictors were found. However, there was a tendency for psychosocial factors to be the most important predictors, especially in women. That young women had less maintained health and performance in a homogenous sample beyond well-known differentiating factors suggests explanations other than observable structural differences between the sexes. This was also indicated by the importance attached to perceived demands, and work-home interference, especially in women. The combination of less scheduled, and more unscheduled, schoolwork (i.e. time-flexibility) negatively affected the maintenance of health and performance in our study population, suggesting a focus for future studies.

  12. Physical activity and television watching in relation to semen quality in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey Jane; Mendiola, Jaime; Afeiche, Myriam; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    Semen quality appears to have declined over the past decades but reasons for this decline are unresolved. The concurrent increase in sedentary behaviour may be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of physical activity and television (TV) watching with sperm parameters in a population of young, healthy men. Men aged 18-22 years (n=189) from the Rochester Young Men's Study (2009-2010) participated in this analysis. Physical activity (h/week of moderate and vigorous exercise) and TV watching (h/week of TV, video or DVD watching) over the past 3 months were assessed via questionnaire. Semen quality was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, morphology and total sperm count. Sperm concentration and total sperm count were directly related to physical activity after multivariable adjustment (p-trend=0.01 and 0.04); men in the highest quartile of moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥15 h/week) had 73% (95% CI 15% to 160%) higher sperm concentration than men in the lowest quartile (watching was inversely associated with sperm concentration and total sperm count in multivariable analyses (p-trend=0.05 and 0.06); men in the highest quartile of TV watching (>20 h/week) had 44% (95% CI 15 to 63%) lower sperm concentration than men in the lowest quartile (0 h/week). These measures of physical and leisure time activities were not significantly associated with sperm motility or morphology. In this population of healthy men, higher moderate-to-vigorous activity and less TV watching were significantly associated with higher total sperm count and sperm concentration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Sanders, Stephanie A; Crosby, Richard A; Ingelhart, Kara N; Janssen, Erick

    2015-10-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18-24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being 'turned on' enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions - particularly among men who experience CAEP.

  14. Attitudes of Young Adult Men Toward Domestic Violence and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.

  15. Internet Use and Sexual Health of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Lyons, Tom; Garcia, Steve C.

    2010-01-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual health disparities due to a lack of support in settings that traditionally promote positive youth development. The Internet may help to fill this void, but little is known about how it is used for sexual health purposes among young MSM. This mixed-methods study reports quantitative results of a large survey of 18–24 year old MSM in an HIV testing clinic (N = 329) as well as qualitative results from interviews. Level of Internet use was high in this sample and the majority of participants reported using the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Black and Latino youth used the Internet less frequently than White youth, and after controlling for age, education, and frequency of Internet use, Black youth were 70% less likely to use the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Qualitative analyses identified themes related to the role of the Internet in finding sexual health information, sexual minority identity development, and sexual risk taking behaviors. Participants reported that the Internet filled an important and unmet need for sexual health education. It allowed for connections to the gay community and support during the coming out process, but also exposure to homophobic messages. There was no evidence of increased risk behaviors with partners met online, but at the same time the potential for the use of the Internet to facilitate safer sex communication was largely untapped. Our findings generally present an optimistic picture about the role of the Internet in the development of sexual health among young MSM. PMID:20182787

  16. When Jobs Move, Do Black and Latino Men Lose? The Effect of Growth in Job Decentralisation on Young Men's Jobless Incidence and Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the U.S. Census of Industries (1982) to examine the growth in metropolitan job decentralization on the incidence and duration of joblessness among young males. Overall, growth in job decentralization negatively affects the employment patterns of young minority men. (SLD)

  17. Regional neuromuscular regulation within human rectus femoris muscle during gait in young and elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Kouzaki, Motoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-01-04

    Recently, we demonstrated region-specific electromyography (EMG) responses along the rectus femoris (RF) muscle during gait in healthy young men (Watanabe et al., 2014b). For the RF muscle, regional EMG response should be tested to characterize neuromuscular control and/or to assess its dysfunction and/or pathology during gait. We aimed to identify spatial distribution of EMG pattern within the RF muscle in elderly during gait. Seven young men (age: 20.4±1.0 years) and 8 elderly men (age: 73.8±5.9 years) walked on treadmill with three different speed: slow (preferred -1km/h), preferred, and fast (preferred +1km/h). The spatial distribution of surface EMG was tested by central locus activation (CLA), which is calculated from 18 surface electrodes along the longitudinal line of the muscle. CLA were not different between the groups for slow and preferred gait speed (p>0.05) during a gait cycle. In fast gait speed, CLA at 80% of a gait cycle (swing phase) for the elderly were significantly located at more distal site than the young group (pelderly and young). This difference in CLA reflected a significantly lower EMG activity at the proximal regions in the elderly group (pelderly manifest characteristic regional EMG responses within the RF muscle for leg swing movement of fast speed gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in young men's sex and contraceptive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Amy H; Vanderberg, Rachel; Sucato, Gina S; Miller, Elizabeth; Akers, Aletha Y; Borrero, Sonya

    2015-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities exist in young men's contraceptive knowledge. This study examines whether the likelihood of receiving sexual health education varies by race/ethnicity. We examined racial/ethnic differences in sex and contraceptive education both in school and from parents with multivariable logistic regression models among 4,104 men aged 15-24 years using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Nearly all respondents (96.6%) reported formal sex education. Fewer reported formal birth control education (66.6%), parental sex discussions (66.8%), and parental discussions specifically about birth control (49.2%). In multivariable analysis, black men were less likely than white men to report receiving formal contraceptive education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], .70; 95% CI, .51-.96). Both black and U.S.-born Hispanic men reported more parental sex discussions than white men (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07-1.94, aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09-1.99, respectively). Nearly all respondents reported having received formal sexual health education. Fewer reported receiving education about birth control either at school or at home. Black men were less likely to report receiving formal contraceptive education. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Variability in HOMA-IR, lipoprotein profile and selected hormones in young active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keska, Anna; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18-23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.

  20. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, Tina Kold; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm......Male reproductive function seems to have deteriorated considerably during the past 4-5 decades. However, studies of the reproductive function in unselected populations have not previously been reported. As the large majority of young men in Denmark are subjected to a compulsory medical examination...... concentration was 41 x 10(6)/ml (mean 57.4 x 10(6)/ml). Men with ejaculation abstinence above 48 h had slightly higher sperm concentrations (median 45 x10(6)/ml, mean 63.2 x 10(6)/ml), but even in this subgroup, 21 and 43% respectively had sperm counts below 20 x 10(6)/ml and 40 x 10(6)/ml. Among men...

  1. Regular endurance exercise in young men increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity through neural alteration of baroreflex arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, Hidehiko; Sugawara, Jun; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yoshizawa, Mutsuko; Yokoi, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    Endurance exercise training increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity that corresponds to alteration in vessel wall compliance of the carotid artery in elderly men. Here, we examined whether regular endurance exercise increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity through neural alteration of the baroreflex arc in young men. We assessed arterial baroreflex sensitivity in eight sedentary men (age 24 +/- 1 yr) and nine men trained in endurance exercise (age 23 +/- 1 yr) during phase IV of the Valsalva maneuver [systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP)-R-R interval relationship]. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity was further analyzed by dividing the mechanical component [SAP-end-systolic carotid lumen diameter relationship (ultrasonography)] and the neural component (end-systolic carotid lumen diameter-R-R interval relationship). Carotid arterial compliance was determined using B-mode ultrasound and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity and its neural component were greater in the exercise-trained group (P baroreflex sensitivity did not differ between groups. These results suggest that regular endurance exercise in young men increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity through changes in the neural component of the baroreflex arc and not through alterations in vessel wall compliance of the carotid artery.

  2. Return to Work After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Comparison Between Young Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Rachel P; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Weiwei; Du, Xue; Strait, Kelly M; Bierlein, Maggie; Bucholz, Emily M; Geda, Mary; Fox, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Lichtman, Judith H; Bueno, Héctor; Spertus, John A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-02-01

    Return to work after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important outcome and is particularly relevant to young patients. Women may be at a greater risk for not returning to work given evidence of their worse recovery after AMI than similarly aged men. However, sex differences in return to work after AMI has not been studied extensively in a young population (≤ 55 years). We analyzed data from 1680 patients with AMI aged 18 to 55 years (57% women) participating in the Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) study who were working full time (≥ 35 hours) before the event. Data were obtained by medical record abstraction and patient interviews. We conducted multivariable regression analyses to examine sex differences in return to work at 12 months after AMI, and the association of patient characteristics with return to work. When compared with young men, young women were less likely to return to work (89% versus 85%; 85% versus 89%, P=0.02); however, this sex difference was not significant after adjusting for patient sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and health measures. Being married, engaging in a professional or clerical type of work, having more favorable physical health, and having no previous coronary disease or hypertension were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of return to work at 12 months. Among a young population, women are less likely to return to work after AMI than men. This disadvantage is explained by differences in demographic, occupational, and health characteristics. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Mental health of heroin users with differing injection drug use histories: A non-treatment sample of Mexican American young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Perdue, Tasha; Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2017-12-01

    While the comorbidity of mental health and injecting heroin has been documented, current research is limited by describing the mental health of people who inject drugs without a comparison group and by the lack of research on nontreatment samples in the United States, particularly among Hispanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of injecting history (never, former, occasional, and daily) and multiple outcomes of global and mental health using a sample of U.S.-based Latinos not currently in treatment. Data are from a sample of street-recruited Mexican American young adult men (n=275) in San Antonio, TX. Multiple logistic regression and structural equation modeling were used. Overall 54% of men reported lifetime injecting drug use (20.7% former users, 11.1% occasional users, and 21.9% daily users). We found varying prevalence rates of global and mental health status among different histories of injecting. After covariate adjustment, daily injecting remained strongly associated with all four outcomes: perceived poor health status (AOR=4.39; p≤0.001), psychological distress (AOR=2.78; p≤0.05), depression (AOR=4.37; p≤0.001), and suicidal ideation (OR=4.75; p≤0.001). Acculturation, gang membership, and incarceration history also emerged as important factors. This study provides new information about the relationship between mental health and injecting heroin use. Support the need to consider mental health states among people who inject drugs, and to examine varying histories of injecting with socially and culturally relevant factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of immobilization and aerobic training on proteins related to intramuscular substrate storage and metabolism in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Aging and inactivity lead to skeletal muscle metabolic inflexibility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated how muscle lipid and glycogen stores and major regulatory proteins were affected by short-term immobilization followed......-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity RESULTS: The older men had higher intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) (73 %) and Glycogen (16%) levels compared to the young men, and IMTG tended to increase with immobilization. PLIN2 and 3 protein content increased with immobilization in the older men only. The young men had higher...... GS (74%) protein compared to the older men. Immobilization decreased and training restored HAD activity, GS and SNAP23 protein content in young and older men. CONCLUSION: Evidence of age-related metabolic inflexibility is presented, seen as body fat and IMTG accumulation. The question arises...

  5. Expanding hegemonic masculinity: the use of irony in young men's stories about romantic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, Neill

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the use of irony in young men's stories about romantic and sexual experiences. Because romantic experiences are central in the constitution of a heterosexual self, and because they are increasingly formulated in relation to traditional masculine norms and the simultaneous avowal and disavowal of effeminacy, they reveal an oscillation between complicity and resistance to hegemonic masculine norms. This oscillation is explored in stories about promiscuity, seduction, and vulnerability. Critical discursive analyses reveal how young men discursively pivot between complicity and resistance to traditional masculine norms, how this oscillation functions in the accomplishment of their romantic identities, how a sense of conventional masculinity is reclaimed, and what these processes reveal about the shifting nature of hegemonic masculinity in contemporary culture.

  6. [Regulatory mechanisms of young men heart rate during psychoemotional load accompanied by irritation with different sounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachkebiia, Dzh N; Kvachadze, I D; Tsibadze, A D

    2005-01-01

    The goal of our research was to evaluate regulatory mechanisms of young men heart rate during psychoemotional load on the background of sound irritations of different characteristics. The study was a community trial and performed by single blind method on volunteer young men (age 18-22, n=73). As a method of description of heart rate regulation mechanisms, analysis of heart rate variability was selected. Psychoemotional load was studied by Landolt rings. We observed that only high frequency sound irritation increases mistakes and reaction time during psychoemotional load. We conclude that despite of initial status of organism regulation mechanisms, during high frequency sound irritation, quality of psychoemotional functions worsens. Increasing of sympathetic effect in persons with initial sympathetic domination in vegetative nervous system is observed.

  7. Endocrine and metabolic diurnal rhythms in young adult men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Saltbæk, Pernille N; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    for 24 h, to measure levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG), insulin, C-peptide, leptin, resistin, ghrelin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), incretins (GLP-1 and GIP), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) in 13 young men born SGA and 11 young men born AGA. RESULTS......: Repeated measurements analyses were used to analyze the diurnal variations and differences between groups. The SGA subjects had increased 24-h glucose (P=0.03), glucagon (P=0.03) and resistin (P=0.003) levels with no difference in diurnal rhythms compared with AGA controls. We found significant diurnal...... exhibit elevated 24-h blood glucose, and plasma glucagon and resistin levels with no major differences in diurnal rhythms of these or other key metabolic hormones, substrates or inflammatory markers implicated in the origin of adiposity and T2D....

  8. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    , potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were...... nocturnal RQ compared to controls (0.81 ± 0.01 vs. 0.85 ± 0.01 (mean ± SE), P = 0.01), and hence higher nocturnal fat oxidation (2.55 ± 0.13 vs. 2.09 ± 0.12 kJ/min (mean ± SE), P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Young LBW men do not exhibit reductions in 24-h EE. However, LBW subjects display increased nocturnal fat...

  9. [Is violence mans thing? The naturalization of the violence for young men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Elaine Ferreira; Gomes, Romeu; Rebello, Lúcia Emília Figueiredo de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the young men's senses attributed to the relation masculinity-violence. The methodology of this study was based on a qualitative approach, trying to understand and situate the underlying senses to the speeches of the investigated subjects, involving 19 young men of popular segments of the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJ). The results revealed that, in general, the relation masculinity-violence-youth might be a vulnerability factor. It is ended that to have another glance on that model, it is necessary the adoption of strategies that facilitate other ways to experience to be man, that invest in a perspective of taking care of itself and other, turning the relationships healthier and with less risks.

  10. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle is normal and unrelated to insulin action in young men born with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    in 20 young, lean men with LBW and 26 matched controls. On a separate day, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with excision of muscle biopsies and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed. Muscle gene expression of selected OXPHOS genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR......, as was the expression of OXPHOS genes. CONCLUSIONS: These data support and expand previous findings of abnormal glucose metabolism in young men with LBW. In addition, we found that the young, healthy men with LBW exhibited hepatic insulin resistance. However, the study does not support the hypothesis that muscle...

  11. The need to be Superman: the psychosocial support challenges of young men affected by cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brad; Thompson, Charee M; Knapp, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how gender-specific issues shape the experiences of young adult men with cancer and what they report to be problematic. A qualitative, descriptive approach. Website, focus group in the southwestern United States, and phone interviews throughout the United States. Text from an online forum (N=3,000 posts), focus group of six men, and separate interviews with four men. Data analysis took place over two months through constant comparison of online text as well as a focus group and interview transcripts. Men face challenges being both a receiver and provider of support in relationships with their peers, romantic partners, and children. Cultural expectations to "be strong" drive their support-seeking beliefs and behaviors. Men report conflict between desires to show strength and to be honest that present a barrier to support, as well as contribute to inadequate relationships with male peers and greater difficulty in exchanging support with romantic partners. The authors identified attitudes about and barriers to men's experiences with social support, which healthcare providers, such as nurses, should be sensitive to when developing and providing support.

  12. Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli Khalaf, Zahra; Low, Wah Yun; Ghorbani, Behzad; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2013-11-11

    Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men's lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men's health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20-30 years from three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian). Thematic analysis approach was used to extract data. NVIVO v8 qualitative software was used for data management. From the data collected several concepts emerged that reflected the meanings of masculinity from the participants' view points. These meanings were associated with a combination of traditional and non-traditional norms that generally benefit men who behave according to culturally dominant role expectations. These included: "Having a good body shape", "being respected", "having success with women", "being a family man", and "having financial independence". Socio-cultural factors, such as family environment, religion, public media and popular life style patterns helped to shape and reinforce the meanings of masculinities among university men. This study revealed that the university context provided a particular culture for construction and reinforcement of the meanings of masculinities, which should be considered by the educators to help in development of healthy masculinities.

  13. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Nicola; Buston, Katie; McDaid, Lisa Margaret

    2017-08-17

    Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18-29) in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: 'habitual', 'reactive' and ' ad hoc'. This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and 'community' in shaping young men's approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and 'community' responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with 'transitional moments' such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase rates of HIV testing and testing frequency among young gay and bisexual men should include a

  14. Trajectories of Body Mass Index from Young Adulthood to Middle Age among Canadian Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Wang; Yanqing Yi; Barbara Roebothan; Jennifer Colbourne; Victor Maddalena; Peizhong Peter Wang; Guang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of BMI trajectories is limited for the Canadian population. Using latent class growth modelling, four distinct BMI trajectories of individuals from young adulthood to middle age were identified for both women and men from the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey. The associations between BMI trajectories and the individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics and behavioural factors were also examined. Aboriginal women were found more ...

  15. Predictors of sexual transmission risk behaviors among HIV-positive young men

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, J. A.; Rotheram-Borus, M.-J.; Swendeman, D.; Milburn, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction in the incidence of high-risk sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men is a priority. We examined the roles of proximal substance use and delinquency-related variables, and more distal demographic and psychosocial variables as predictors of serious high-risk sexual behaviors among 248 HIV-positive young males, aged 15–24 years. In a mediated latent variable model, demographics (ethnicity, sexual orientation and poverty) and background psychosocial factors (coping style, peer norms, e...

  16. Eating and drinking habits of young London-based Irish men: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Aidan; Ciclitira, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London about their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using combined thematic and discourse analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for not adopting healthy eating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking. Views about the status of different foods also affected their eating habits: they considered red mea...

  17. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, d...

  18. Racial/Ethnic Difference in HIV-related Knowledge among Young Men who have Sex with Men and their Association with Condom Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and its correlation to condom usage errors. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 344 young men who have sex with men screened from an ongoing longitudinal cohort study. Eligible participants were between the ages of 16 and 20 years, born male, and had previously had at least one sexual encounter with a man and/or identify as gay or bisexual. This analysis is based on cross-sectional data collected at the baseline interview using computer assisted self-interviewing (CASI) software. Chicago, IL, USA. We utilised descriptive and inferential statistics, including ANOVA and Tukey's Post hoc analysis to assess differences in HIV knowledge by level of education and race/ethnicity, and negative binomial regression to determine if HIV knowledge was associated with condom errors while controlling for age, education and race/ethnicity. The study found that Black men who have sex with men scored significantly lower (average score=67%; pknowledge (mean difference=16.1%, pknowledge scores, on average (66.4%, 69.9%, respectively) than participants who had obtained post-high school education (78.1%; mean difference=11.7%, 8.2% respectively, pslevel of education, higher HIV knowledge scores were associated with fewer condom errors (Exp B =.995, CI 0.992-0.999, peducational activities targeting the social realities and unique risk mechanisms of young men who have sex with men.

  19. Sexual safety and sexual security among young Black women who have sex with women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F

    2014-01-01

    To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Secondary qualitative content analysis. We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Effects of Resistance versus Endurance Training on Plasma Lipocalin-2 in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohammadi Domieh, Amin

    2014-06-01

    Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been recognized as an adipocyte-derived acute phase protein that is positively correlated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The effects of resistance and endurance training (RT vs. ET) on plasma lipocalin-2 are still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of RT vs. ET on plasma lipocalin-2 in young men. Twenty nine healthy and sedentary young men (age, 21-29 years) participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to RT group (n=9), ET group (n=10) or control group (n=10). The experimental groups performed either RT or ET, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. The endurance training program included continuous running at an intensity corresponding to 65-80% of maximal heart rate, while resistance training consisted of 2-4 sets of circuit weight training for 8 stations and at an intensity corresponding to 65-80% of 1-RM in each station. No significant changes in the body mass, BMI, body fat percentage and WHR were found after the RT and ET. The results showed that Lcn2 decreased after RT and ET compared with the control group (Presistance determined by HOMA-IR, did not change in the RT and ET compared with the control group. Lcn2 decreases after 8 weeks RT and ET, but this improvement was not accompanied by decreased hs-CRP and insulin resistance in healthy and sedentary young men.

  1. Comparative data from young men and women on masseter muscle fibres, function and facial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    . Dental status and facial morphology were recorded in 13 male students aged 20-26 years. Functional examinations included bite-force measurements and electromyographic recordings of masseter activity. A biopsy was removed from the masseter of each participant during surgical extraction of a wisdom tooth......The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women...... and some measures of facial morphology. Thus data from men and women should not be pooled uncritically. The greater bite force in men than women corresponded with the greater diameter and cross-sectional area of type II fibres. Further, the males had more anteriorly inclined mandibles and shorter anterior...

  2. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...... access to the pill is found to be on non-white students, both among men and women. The paper uses Census Data to compare the changes in career plans to actual changes in labor market outcomes. When looking at the actual career outcomes, early access to the pill affects both men and women - shifting...... their careers towards traditionally male dominated occupations associated with higher wages. Early access to the pill is also associated with significantly higher actual income for men....

  3. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    plans of both men and women, and by separating the effect by level of academic ability, race and family income. The results show that unrestricted access to the pill caused high ability women to move towards occupations with higher wages, higher occupational prestige scores and higher male ratios......The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...... access to the pill is found to be on non-white students, both among men and women. The paper uses Census Data to compare the changes in career plans to actual changes in labor market outcomes. When looking at the actual career outcomes, early access to the pill affects both men and women - shifting...

  4. Prevalence of and associated factors for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young Swiss men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Estévez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF. ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial.

  5. Interpersonal Sensitivity and Sexual Functioning in Young Men with Testicular Cancer: the Moderating Role of Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; McCann, Connor; Savone, Mirko; Saigal, Christopher S; Stanton, Annette L

    2015-12-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity is characterized by the predisposition to perceive and elicit criticism, rejection, and negative social evaluation. It may be linked to poorer physical or functional health outcomes, particularly in the interpersonal context (cancer-related sexual dysfunction). This study tested the association of interpersonal sensitivity with sexual functioning following testicular cancer in young men and whether this association is moderated by coping processes. Men ages 18 to 29 (N = 171; M age = 25.2, SD = 3.32) with a history of testicular cancer were recruited via the California State Cancer Registry and completed questionnaire measures including assessments of interpersonal sensitivity, sexual functioning, and approach and avoidance coping. Regression analysis controlling for education, age, partner status, ethnic status, and time since diagnosis revealed that higher interpersonal sensitivity was significantly related to lower sexual functioning (β = -0.18, p related approach-oriented coping was associated with better sexual functioning (β = 0.19, p interpersonal sensitivity was more strongly associated with lower functioning among men with relatively low use of approach coping. Interpersonal sensitivity may be an important individual difference in vulnerability to sexual dysfunction after testicular cancer. Enhancement of coping skills may be a useful direction for intervention development for interpersonally sensitive young men with cancer.

  6. An HIV Intervention Tailored for Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in the House Ball Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Hotton, Anna L.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Telander, Kyle; Bell, Margo; Footer, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Black young men who have sex with men (BYMSM) are the group most disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States and most in need of efficacious interventions to address community-level factors that increase their vulnerability to HIV. The House Ball Community (HBC) is a distinct social network within the larger BYMSM community that may be particularly vulnerable to social norms and stigma around HIV. This study tailored an evidence-based, community-level popular opinion leader (OL) intervention for use within the HBC. The intervention, called POSSE, was then piloted to evaluate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy. Recruiting opinion leaders from the community and training them to deliver risk reduction messages was found to be feasible and highly acceptable. Community-level surveys (n=406) were completed over 5 waves of data collection. Overall exposure to the intervention increased across waves. Statistically significant (p < .05) declines were observed for multiple sexual partners, condomless anal intercourse with any male partners and with male partners of unknown HIV status. HIV stigma declined as well, but the trend was not statistically significant. PMID:25300319

  7. Motivational Interviewing Targeting Risky Sex in HIV-Positive Young Thai Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongkavilit, Chokechai; Wang, Bo; Naar-King, Sylvie; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Panthong, Apirudee; Koken, Juline A.; Saengcharnchai, Pichai; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to reduce sexual risks among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HMSM) in the U.S. We conducted a randomized trial of Healthy Choices, a 4-session MI intervention, targeting sexual risks among 110 HIV-positive youth ages 16–25 years in Thailand. Risk assessments were conducted at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months post-intervention. This report presents the analysis of 74 HMSM in the study. There were 37 HMSM in the Intervention group and 37 in the control group. The proportions of participants having anal sex and having sex with either HIV-uninfected or unknown partners in past 30 days were significantly lower in Intervention group than in control group at 6 months post-intervention (38% vs. 65%, p = .04; and 27% vs. 62%, p Thai HMSM was associated with sexual risk reduction. Improvements in mental health and HIV stigma were noted in Intervention group. Healthy Choices is a promising behavioral intervention and should be further developed to serve the needs of young HMSM in resource-limited countries. PMID:24668304

  8. Multiple Dimensions of Stigma and Health Related Factors Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Voisin, Dexter R.; Bouris, Alida; Jaffe, Kate; Kuhns, Lisa; Eavou, Rebecca; Schneider, John

    2016-01-01

    This study is among the first to examine the association between multiple domains of HIV-related stigma and health-related correlates including viral load and medication adherence among young Black men who have sex with men (N = 92). Individual logistic regressions were done to examine the hypothesized relationships between HIV-related stigma and various health and psychosocial outcomes. In addition to examining total stigma, we also examined four domains of HIV stigma. Findings revealed the various domains of stigma had differential effects on health-related outcomes. Individuals who reported higher levels of total stigma and personalized stigma were less likely to be virally suppressed (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.91–1.00 and OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.25–1.02, respectively). Concerns about public attitudes toward HIV were positively related to medication adherence (OR 2.18, 95 % CI 1.20–3.94) and psychological distress (OR 5.02, 95 % CI 1.54–16.34). The various domains of HIV stigma differentially affected health and psychosocial outcomes, and our findings suggest that some forms of HIV stigma may significantly affect viral load and medication adherence among this population. Stigma-informed approaches to care and treatment are needed, along with incorporated psychological and social supports. PMID:27233249

  9. Exploring Patterns of Awareness and Use of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Benjamin B; Greene, George J; Phillips, Gregory; Bhatia, Ramona; Madkins, Krystal; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown promise as a safe and effective HIV prevention strategy, but there is limited research on awareness and use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using baseline data from the "Keep It Up! 2.0" randomized control trial, we examined differences in PrEP awareness and use among racially diverse YMSM (N = 759; mean age = 24.2 years). Participants were recruited from study sites in Atlanta, Chicago, and New York City, as well as through national advertising on social media applications. While 67.5 % of participants reported awareness of PrEP, 8.7 % indicated using the medication. Awareness, but not use, varied by demographic variables. PrEP-users had twice as many condomless anal sex partners (ERR = 2.05) and more condomless anal sex acts (ERR = 1.60) than non-users. Future research should aim to improve PrEP awareness and uptake among YMSM and address condom use.

  10. Communicating With School Nurses About Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H; Robin, Leah

    2015-10-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected from Black and Latino YMSM aged 13-19 through web-based questionnaires (N = 415) and interviews (N = 32). School nurses were the staff members youth most often reported willingness to talk to about HIV testing (37.8%), STD testing (37.1%), or condoms (37.3%), but least often reported as safe to talk to about attraction to other guys (11.4%). Interviews revealed youth reluctance to talk with school staff including nurses when uncertain of staff members' perceptions of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people or perceiving staff to lack knowledge of LGBTQ issues, communities, or resources. Nurses may need additional training to effectively reach Black and Latino YMSM. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation).

  12. Genital Responses to Rape Vignettes Among Young Men: The Influence of Mood and Directed Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumière, Martin L; Fairweather, Annabree; Harris, Grant T; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Seto, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Although it is clear that men with a history of sexual assaults against women produce higher relative genital responses to rape vignettes in the laboratory than do men without such a history, it remains unclear what aspects of the vignettes are eliciting these responses, and whether the genital responses are affected by situational factors. The antisocial tendencies hypothesis states that many men are inhibited by cues of violence, suffering, and coercion in rape vignettes, but other men, particularly antisocial and sexually aggressive men, are not so inhibited. In this study, we investigated whether the hypothesized inhibition to rape vignettes among nonoffenders could be affected by manipulation of mood and directed attention. A total of 48 young men were exposed to audio-recorded vignettes describing mutually consenting and nonviolent sexual interactions, mutually consenting and violent sexual interactions, nonconsenting and violent sexual interactions, and nonsexual and nonviolent social interactions (within-subjects). Participants were randomly assigned to a mood manipulation designed to induce a happy, neutral, or sad mood (between-subjects). All were asked to pay attention to either sex words or violent words while listening to the vignettes (within-subjects). As is typically observed, genital responses were lower (inhibited) when vignettes included cues of violence or nonconsent. Both happy and sad mood inductions reduced this inhibition, so that men induced into a happy or sad mood showed greater relative responding to cues of violence or nonconsent compared with men in a neutral mood. The attention manipulation had no significant effect. Results suggest that genital responses to rape cues can be situationally influenced, but not necessarily as predicted by the antisocial tendencies hypothesis.

  13. Fish oil regulates blood fatty acid composition and oxylipin levels in healthy humans: A comparison of young and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyniak, Michael A; Roke, Kaitlin; Gerling, Christopher; Logan, Samantha L; Spriet, Lawrence L; Mutch, David M

    2016-03-01

    Increased consumption of fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with improved cardiometabolic health and inflammatory status; however, age-related responses remain poorly described. In a placebo-controlled study, healthy young and older men consumed five fish oil capsules daily, providing 2.0 g/d EPA and 1.0g/d DHA, for three months. Both young and older men experienced a ∼30% reduction in blood triglycerides with fish oil supplementation. A significant group × time interaction was observed for DHA, with young men experiencing a ∼twofold increase in DHA in serum and RBCs, while older men showed negligible increases. Other fatty acids were differentially regulated between young and older men, most notably osbond acid and several saturates. Small changes were observed in serum oxylipins, with both groups of men responding similarly: 5-HETE was reduced, while PGF2α and 17-HDoHE were increased. Changes in oxylipins occurred independent of changes in whole blood expression of key genes regulating oxylipin production. Our study suggests that both young and older men experience the triglyceride-lowering benefits associated with fish oil supplements, but show differential responses in blood fatty acids. Additionally, fish oil promotes an improved oxylipin profile in both groups of men. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  15. Effects of ankle fatigue on functional reflex activity during gait perturbations in young and elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Gruber, Markus; Förderer, Dominik; Strass, Dieter; Gollhofer, Albert

    2010-05-01

    There is growing evidence that aging and muscle fatigue result in impaired postural reflexes in humans. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of ankle fatigue on functional reflex activity (FRA) during gait perturbations in young and elderly men. Twenty-eight young (27.0+/-3.1 years, n=14) and old (67.2+/-3.7 years, n=14) healthy active men participated in this study. Fatigue of the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors was induced by isokinetic contractions. Pre and post-fatigue, subjects were tested for their ability to compensate for decelerating gait perturbations while walking on a treadmill. Latency, FRA of lower extremity muscles and angular velocity of the ankle joint complex were analysed by means of surface electromyography and goniometry. After the fatigue protocol, no significant main and interaction effects were detected for the parameter latency in m. tibialis anterior (TA). For both groups, a significant pre to post-test decrease in FRA in TA (pvelocity of the ankle joint (p=.007). However, no significant groupxtest interactions were found for the three parameters. Ankle fatigue has an impact on the ability to compensate for gait perturbations in young and elderly adults. However, no significant differences in all analysed parameters were detected between young and elderly subjects. These results may imply that age-related deteriorations in the postural control system do not specifically affect the ability to compensate for gait perturbations under fatigued condition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bone mineral density, T- and Z-scores in young men with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is a term used to classify a group of heterogeneous pediatric rheumatic diseases. Many of these conditions persist through adulthood. Presence of chronic inflammatory disease along with a glucocorticoid treatment is the risk factor of osteoporosis in young adult males. The purpose was to study the bone mineral density (BMD, T- and Z-scores in young adult males with JIA. Materials and methods. The study included 50 patients aged 19–25 years, divided into two groups: I — 25 apparently healthy young males; ІІ — 25 young men from different regions of Ukraine with a history of JIA in childhood, regardless of the presence or absence of active inflammation at the time of the observation. Two-energy X-ray densitometry (Prodigy, GE Lunar, Madison, USA was performed at the D.F. Chebotarev Institute of Ge­rontology, Ukrainian Scientific-Medical Centre for the Problems of Osteoporosis, together with analysis of BMD, T- and Z-scores at different skeletal areas. Results. Young men with JIA and healthy individuals did not differ in age, height, weight and body mass index. Four patients with JIA (16 % had fractures, while in the control group, there were no fractures. Negative impact of the JIA on the BMD was found in group II compared to group I. Lumbar spine BMD in group II was lower (p < 0.01 than in healthy subjects, as well as the Z-score (p < 0.001 in the L1-L4 lumbar spine region. BMD, T- and Z-scores in femoral neck region were lower in group II than in group I (p < 0.001; p < 0.001; p < 0.01, respectively. Significant differences between the two groups were found in total body BMD (p < 0.001, T-score (p < 0.01, Z-score (p < 0.05. Patients with JIA had lower BMD (p < 0.01 and T-score (p < 0.05 of the ultradistal radius. Decrease of BMD up to the level of osteopenia (Z-score < –2 SD was found in 20 % patients at the level of L1-L4 lumbar spine, in 8 % — at femoral neck, in 12 % — at total

  17. A nutrition intervention with a main focus on vegetables and bread consumption among young men in the Norwegian National Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglem, Solveig; Stea, Tonje Holte; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Frølich, Wenche; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Young men are difficult to reach with conventional nutrition information and they have a low intake of vegetables and whole grain cereals. Few intervention studies have focused on improving young men's consumption of vegetables and whole grains. A 5-month intervention focusing on a combination of increased availability of healthy foods and nutritional information was developed to stimulate the intake of vegetables and semi-whole grain bread among a group of young men in the Norwegian military. A total of 376 recruits in the intervention group and 105 recruits in the control group participated in the entire study. The average daily increase in consumption of vegetables was 82 g (pbread 47 g (pbread, when controlling for baseline values, and seasonal variation for vegetables. The recruits in the intervention group received higher scores on the questions concerning nutritional knowledge after the intervention, compared to baseline (pbread, without a reduction in food satisfaction, among young men in the military.

  18. Effects of plyometric exercise session on markers of bone turnover in boys and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Kimberly; Mezil, Yasmeen; Ward, Wendy E; Klentrou, Panagiota; Falk, Bareket

    2015-10-01

    The acute exercise effects on bone markers in adults are unclear, while in children, there are no such data. To investigate the acute response of biochemical markers of bone turnover to a high-impact exercise session consisting of high-mechanical loading in boys and young men. Twelve boys (10.2 ± 0.4 years) and 14 men (22.0 ± 0.8 years) underwent a protocol of plyometric jumping exercises (total 144 jumps). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, 5 min, 1 and 24 h post-exercise, and analyzed for markers of bone formation and resorption: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), amino-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (NTx), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa beta ligand (RANKL). Boys had higher resting bone ALP (111.9 ± 29.2 vs. 30.6 ± 11.2 µg/L, p boys and men (bone ALP: 24.1 vs. 9.9%, respectively; NTx: 23.5 vs. -5%, respectively), although the group-by-time interaction was not statistically significant. OPG increased significantly (p boys and men, as reflected by the increase in bone ALP and OPG. The boys' response appears more pronounced than the men's, suggesting that during growth, cellular bone activities respond with greater magnitude to mechanical stimuli.

  19. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  20. Condom Use Errors and Problems: A Comparative Study of HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Mena, Leandro; Yarber, William L; Graham, Cynthia A; Sanders, Stephanie A; Milhausen, Robin R

    2015-11-01

    To describe self-reported frequencies of selected condom use errors and problems among young (age, 15-29 years) black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and to compare the observed prevalence of these errors/problems by HIV serostatus. Between September 2012 October 2014, electronic interview data were collected from 369 YBMSM attending a federally supported sexually transmitted infection clinic located in the southern United States. Seventeen condom use errors and problems were assessed. χ(2) Tests were used to detect significant differences in the prevalence of these 17 errors and problems between HIV-negative and HIV-positive men. The recall period was the past 90 days. The overall mean (SD) number of errors/problems was 2.98 (2.29). The mean (SD) for HIV-negative men was 2.91 (2.15), and the mean (SD) for HIV-positive men was 3.18 (2.57). These means were not significantly different (t = 1.02, df = 367, P = 0.31). Only 2 significant differences were observed between HIV-negative and HIV-positive men. Breakage (P = 0.002) and slippage (P = 0.005) were about twice as likely among HIV-positive men. Breakage occurred for nearly 30% of the HIV-positive men compared with approximately 15% among HIV-negative men. Slippage occurred for approximately 16% of the HIV-positive men compared with approximately 9% among HIV-negative men. A need exists to help YBMSM acquire the skills needed to avert breakage and slippage issues that could lead to HIV transmission. Beyond these 2 exceptions, condom use errors and problems were ubiquitous in this population regardless of HIV serostatus. Clinic-based intervention is warranted for these young men, including education about correct condom use and provision of free condoms and long-lasting lubricants.

  1. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Results Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PFacebook is a feasible and efficient strategy for the recruitment of men from across Australia for HPV testing. This method could be used for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination. Additional targeting may achieve a sample that is broadly demographically representative of the Australian population. Future research should explore how the

  2. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  3. Communication and interpretation of emotional distress within the friendships of young Irish men prior to suicide: a qualitative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Lorna

    2014-10-16

    The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men\\'s psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men\\'s narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009\\/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants\\' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend\\'s inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk.

  4. THE INDIVIDUAL AND TYPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC AND FEATURES OF THE LATERAL PHENOTYPE AT YOUNG MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Степанович Пуликов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the state of the physical development of the autonomic regulation of the functions and adaptive capacity in relation to the characteristics of the distribution of the lateral phenotype in boys.Methodology: The study on a voluntary basis with the informed consent of 124 apparently healthy young student branch of State Educational Institution of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University V.P. Astafieva in Zheleznogorsk.Anthropometric measurements were carried out by a well-known and accepted techniques that meet modern requirements.Definition of motor and sensory asymmetries person evaluated by the method proposed by N.N. Bragin (1988.Results: In boys, living in the influence of the MCC to the impact of «small and ultra-low doses» of radiation in more than half of the cases, pravolateralny phenotype, regardless of their physical constitution with the highest rate in andromorfnogo type on SDI and voltage adaptation mechanisms, prevalence figures sympathetic tone autonomic regulation. Poor adaptation was observed only in young men with levolateralnym and mixed phenotype. Youth with levolateralnym phenotype were the smallest in size cohort (7,5-12,5%. However, among them there is a tendency to predominance boys and ginekomorfnogo endomorph body types, with poor adaptation, stress adaptation mechanisms and parasympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation. The young men of mixed lateral phenotype was weak distinction constitutional type body, with a predominance of one to ginekomorfnogo and mesomorphic body types on SDI. In the same group, a fairly wide variation between satisfactory and unsatisfactory adaptation and stress coping mechanisms with the same measure of the number of young men from the parasympathetic and sympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation.Practical implications: medicine, psychology, developmental physiology, anthropology, neuroscience.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-14

  5. Effects of immobilization and aerobic training on proteins related to intramuscular substrate storage and metabolism in young and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Prats, Clara; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2016-03-01

    Aging and inactivity lead to skeletal muscle metabolic inflexibility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated how muscle lipid and glycogen stores and major regulatory proteins were affected by short-term immobilization followed by aerobic training in young and older men. 17 young (23 ± 1 years, 24 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 20 ± 2% body fat) and 15 older men (68 ± 1 years; 27 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 29 ± 2% body fat) underwent 2 weeks' one leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks' cycle training. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis just before immobilization (at inclusion), after immobilization, and the after 6 weeks' training. The biopsies were analyzed for muscle substrates; muscle perilipin protein (PLIN), glycogen synthase (GS), synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) protein content, and muscle 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity The older men had higher intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) (73 %) and Glycogen (16%) levels compared to the young men, and IMTG tended to increase with immobilization. PLIN2 and 3 protein content increased with immobilization in the older men only. The young men had higher GS (74%) protein compared to the older men. Immobilization decreased and training restored HAD activity, GS and SNAP23 protein content in young and older men. Evidence of age-related metabolic inflexibility is presented, seen as body fat and IMTG accumulation. The question arises as to whether IMTG accumulation in the older men is caused by or leading to the increase in PLIN2 and 3 protein content. Training decreased body fat and IMTG levels in both young and older men; hence, training should be prioritized to reduce the detrimental effect of aging on metabolism.

  6. Epic Allies: Development of a Gaming App to Improve Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Young HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men

    OpenAIRE

    LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn Elizabeth; McNulty, Tobias; Soni, Karina; Knudtson, Kelly; Lemann, Alex; Nwoko, Nkechinyere; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men (YMSM). For HIV-positive individuals, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for achieving optimal health outcomes and reducing secondary transmission of HIV. However, YMSM often struggle with ART adherence. Novel mobile phone apps that incorporate game-based mechanics and social networking elements represent a promising intervention approach for im...

  7. Sociodemographic Factors Contribute to Mental Health Disparities and Access to Services Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Storholm, Erik David; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Moeller, Robert W.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Bare, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at increased risk for mental health problems including depression, post-traumatic stress (PTSD), and suicidality. The overriding goal of the current investigation was to examine mental health and mental health services in a diverse sample of YMSM. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a cohort study of 598 YMSM, including sociodemographics, mental health, and mental health care. We then tested for bivariate associations, and used multivariable mod...

  8. Sexting: young women's and men's views on its nature and origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2013-06-01

    This study addresses a gap in evidence regarding the nature and origins of the phenomenon of sexting from the perspective of young people. A qualitative methodology was used, involving individual semistructured interviews with 33 young people aged 15-20 years. Participants were sourced via youth health, recreational, and educational settings using purposive snowball sampling. Results were organized using NVivo, and themes were generated. Interviews with 15 males and 18 females exposed a number of themes, including the gendered nature of sexting, which is the focus of this article. Of particular concern is the theme of pressure experienced by both young women and young men to be involved in the behavior. Findings highlight important implications for the design of strategies to prevent the potential harmful consequences of sexting. For prevention approaches to be effective, they must consider the underlying origins of the behavior and the online sociocultural context within which young people live. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Boydell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18–29 in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men’s accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: ‘habitual’, ‘reactive’ and ‘ ad hoc’. Results This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and ‘community’ in shaping young men’s approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and ‘community’ responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with ‘transitional moments’ such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase

  10. Applying an Occupational Classification to a National Representative Sample of Work Histories of Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others

    Holland's occupational classification was used to analyze the work histories of a national representative sample of young men and women age 14-24. This study extended previous tests of the classification in three ways: (1) It was applied for the first time to a national, representative sample of women, (2) For the sample of men, 3-year…

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and the Association with HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…

  12. Measuring prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young sexually active men in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nelli; Mattson, Christine L; Bailey, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Our objectives were to: (1) compare multiple measures of partnership concurrency, including the UNAIDS-recommended definition and (2) describe the prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young Kenyan men. We analyzed 10,907 lifetime partnerships of 1,368 men ages 18-24 years enrolled in a randomized trial of male circumcision to reduce HIV-1 incidence in Kisumu. Partnership concurrency was determined by overlapping dates and examined over varying recall periods and assumptions. The lifetime prevalence of concurrency was 77 %. Sixty-one percent of all partnerships were concurrent and factors associated with concurrency differed by partner type. Point prevalence of concurrency at the time of the interview was consistently the highest and UNAIDS-recommended definition was the most conservative (25 vs. 18 % at baseline, respectively). Estimates of concurrency were influenced by methods for definition and measurement. Regardless of definition, concurrent partnerships are frequent in this population of young, sexually active men in high HIV prevalence Kisumu, Kenya.

  13. Evidence of social network influence on multiple HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs among young Tanzanian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Hill, Lauren M; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Research on network-level influences on HIV risk behaviors among young men in sub-Saharan Africa is severely lacking. One significant gap in the literature that may provide direction for future research with this population is understanding the degree to which various HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs cluster within men's social networks. Such research may help us understand which HIV-related norms and behaviors have the greatest potential to be changed through social influence. Additionally, few network-based studies have described the structure of social networks of young men in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the structure of men's peer networks may motivate future research examining the ways in which network structures shape the spread of information, adoption of norms, and diffusion of behaviors. We contribute to filling these gaps by using social network analysis and multilevel modeling to describe a unique dataset of mostly young men (n = 1249 men and 242 women) nested within 59 urban social networks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the means, ranges, and clustering of men's HIV-related normative beliefs and behaviors. Networks in this urban setting varied substantially in both composition and structure and a large proportion of men engaged in risky behaviors including inconsistent condom use, sexual partner concurrency, and intimate partner violence perpetration. We found significant clustering of normative beliefs and risk behaviors within these men's social networks. Specifically, network membership explained between 5.78 and 7.17% of variance in men's normative beliefs and between 1.93 and 15.79% of variance in risk behaviors. Our results suggest that social networks are important socialization sites for young men and may influence the adoption of norms and behaviors. We conclude by calling for more research on men's social networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and map out several areas of future inquiry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. The Relationship between General and Central Obesity with Anxiety among Iranian Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Rahmani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a common psychological disorder that impacts on the quality of life. In recent decades, anxiety has increased, as well as obesity especially among young people. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between general and central obesity with anxiety among Iranian young men. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 on 246 men who were selected through cluster sampling according to the inclusion criteria. Anthropometric measurements were performed according to the standard procedure. Anxiety was assessed by DASS questionnaires with Cronbach's coefficient 0.78. In the final analysis, confounding factors were controlled and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, 27% of the population had extreme anxiety and 29% had moderate anxiety. In the adjusted model, there was an inverse relationship between anxiety and central obesity (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07-0.85, P-trend < 0.01, as well as total body fat. The odds ratio of anxiety based on body mass index groups was not significant. Conclusions: Overall central obesity and total body fat have an inverse relationship with anxiety. Prospective studies are required to confirm these associations in young populations.

  15. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H.; Watkins, Daphne C.; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM’s sexual behavior. PMID:27570578

  16. Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population.

  17. Spirituality/religiosity, substance use, and HIV testing among young black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Adam W; Storholm, Erik David; Flentje, Annesa; Arnold, Emily A; Pollack, Lance M; Neilands, Torsten B; Rebchook, Gregory M; Peterson, John L; Eke, Agatha; Johnson, Wayne; Kegeles, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    Spirituality and religiosity may serve as both a resource and a barrier to HIV prevention with young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). We examined indices of spirituality/religiosity as correlates of binge drinking, stimulant use, and recent HIV testing in a sample of YBMSM. From 2011-2013, annual venue-based surveys of sexually active YBMSM ages 18-29 were conducted in Dallas and Houston, Texas. Binge drinking and stimulant use were assessed in the past two months. Participants recently tested for HIV (i.e., within the past six months) were compared to those without recent HIV testing (i.e., never tested or tested more than six months ago). Among the 1565 HIV-negative or HIV-unknown YBMSM enrolled, more engagement in spiritual and religious activities was associated with greater odds of reporting stimulant use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.20; 95% CI=1.04-1.40) while higher spiritual coping was associated with lower odds of reporting stimulant use (AOR=0.66; 95% CI=0.56-0.78). Binge drinking was independently associated with 29% lower odds of recent HIV testing (AOR=0.71; 95% CI=0.55-0.92), but lower odds of binge drinking did not mediate the association of engagement in spiritual and religious activities with 27% greater odds of recent HIV testing (AOR=1.27; 95% CI=1.11-1.46). Among YBMSM, culturally tailored approaches addressing spirituality/religiosity could support prevention of stimulant use and increase HIV testing. In particular, expanded efforts are needed to promote HIV testing in binge drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Urban Preparation: Young Black Men Moving from Chicago's South Side to Success in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Chezare A.

    2017-01-01

    Chezare A. Warren chronicles the transition of a cohort of young Black males from Urban Prep Charter Academy for Young Men to their early experiences in higher education. A rich and closely observed account of a mission-driven school and its students, "Urban Preparation" makes a significant contribution to our understanding of how young…

  19. Homelessness as viewed by incarcerated women: participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth Elwood; Hanson, Debra; Hemingway, Christine; Ramsden, Vivian; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Condello, Lara-Lisa; Macaulay, Ann; Janssen, Patti; Hislop, T Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, by incarcerated women who were members of a prison participatory health research team, of a survey tool regarding homelessness and housing, the survey findings and recommendations for policy. A survey was developed by incarcerated women in a minimum/medium security women's prison in Canada. Associations were examined between socio-demographic factors and reports of difficulty finding housing upon release, homelessness contributing to a return to crime, and a desire for relocation to another city upon release. Open-ended questions were examined to look for recurrent themes and to illuminate the survey findings. In total, 83 women completed the survey, a 72 per cent response rate. Of the 71 who were previously incarcerated, 56 per cent stated that homelessness contributed to their return to crime. Finding housing upon release was a problem for 63 per cent and 34 per cent desired relocation to another city upon release. Women indicated that a successful housing plan should incorporate flexible progressive staged housing. The present study focuses only on incarcerated women but could be expanded in future to include men. Incarcerated women used the findings to create a housing proposal for prison leavers and created a resource database of the limited housing resources for women prison leavers. Lack of suitable housing is a major factor leading to recidivism. This study highlights the reality of the cycle of homelessness, poverty, crime for survival, street-life leading to drug use and barriers to health, education and employment that incarcerated women face. Housing is a recognized basic determinant of health. No previous studies have used participatory research to address homelessness in a prison population.

  20. Effects of media violence on health-related outcomes among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Matthews, Karen A

    2006-04-01

    To test the effects of media violence exposure on blood pressure, negative affect, hostile social information processing, uncooperative behavior, and attitudes toward health risk behaviors among young men varying in lifetime violence exposure within the home and community. Experimental laboratory study. University campus situated within an urban environment. One hundred male undergraduates aged 18 to 21 years. Men who had previously reported differing amounts of lifetime home and community violence were randomly assigned to play The Simpsons: Hit and Run (low-violence condition) or Grand Theft Auto III (high-violence condition). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure; negative affect; hostile social information processing; uncooperative behavior; and permissive attitudes toward violence, alcohol use, marijuana use, and sexual activity without condom use. Men randomly assigned to play Grand Theft Auto III exhibited greater increases in diastolic blood pressure from a baseline rest period to game play, greater negative affect, more permissive attitudes toward using alcohol and marijuana, and more uncooperative behavior in comparison with men randomly assigned to play The Simpsons. Only among participants with greater exposure to home and community violence, play of Grand Theft Auto III led to elevated systolic blood pressure in comparison with play of The Simpsons (mean, 13 vs 5 mm Hg). Media violence exposure may play a role in the development of negative attitudes and behaviors related to health. Although youth growing up in violent homes and communities may become more physiologically aroused by media violence exposure, all youth appear to be at risk for potentially negative outcomes.

  1. Mediators of the Association Between Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Young Adult Men's Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer; Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana

    2018-02-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment has been linked to a wide range of deleterious physical and psychological adult health outcomes. The present study extends past research by examining the effects of childhood emotional maltreatment on young adult men's life satisfaction through its effects on hostility and perceptions of social relationships. Participants were 423 single men who completed two interviews 1 year apart. As hypothesized, the association between self-reported childhood emotional maltreatment and adult life satisfaction was mediated through general hostility, rejection sensitivity in romantic relationships, and perceptions of male friends' social support. These findings suggest that interventions which address distorted perceptions of romantic partners and friends might reduce the negative impact of childhood emotional maltreatment.

  2. Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...... caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and 14 0.5-L bottles....../week) and/or caffeine (>800 mg/day) intake was associated with reduced sperm concentration and total sperm count, although only significant for cola. High-intake cola drinkers had an adjusted sperm concentration and total sperm count of 40 mill/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 32, 51) and 121 mill (95% CI...

  3. Unrequited Love among Young Filipino Gay Men: Subjective Experiences of Unreciprocated Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Julian Manalastas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory study, I investigated lived experiences of unrequited love among young Filipino gay men in order to explore unrequited love beyond its heteronormative forms. Analysis of qualitative accounts from 11 out gay men who participated in focus groups indicated that unrequited love was a highly meaningful subjective experience involving a spectrum of negative affect, uncertainty, and self-esteem lowering. Non-reciprocity was often attributed to a lack of matching on dimensions like availability, sexual orientation, relationship goals, and personality. Non-homophobic social support was important in the reduction of uncertainty and management of distress, in addition to other strategies for coping with rejection and non-formation of the desired love relationship.

  4. Semen quality of young men from the general population in Baltic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenpreiss, Juris; Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute; Hlevicka, Solveiga; Zayakin, Pawel; Matulevicius, Valentinas; Tomas Preiksa, Romualdas; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-06-01

    What are the parameters of semen quality in Baltic men? Combined parameters of sperm concentration, motility and morphology revealed that 11-15% of men had low semen quality, 37-50% intermediate and 38-52% high semen quality. Previous studies have revealed regional differences in semen parameters, and semen quality of Baltic men has been suggested to be better than that of other European men. This was a cross-sectional study of 1165 men aged 16-29 years from Estonia (N = 573), Latvia (N = 278) and Lithuania (N = 314) conducted in 2003-2004. Men from the general population, median age 19.8 years, provided one semen sample each, had blood samples taken, had testis size determined, and provided information on lifestyle. Based on combined data of sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology the cohort was classified into three categories: low, intermediate or high semen quality. Comparisons between groups (including subgroups of Estonian men of Russian versus Estonian ethnicity) were tested, adjusting for ejaculation abstinence and age. The median sperm concentration of the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian populations of Baltic men was 63 mill/ml. Low semen quality was detected in 11-15% of the men, intermediate in 37-50% and high in 38-52%. No crucial differences between national subgroups were detected, except that a higher percentage (9.6%) of the subgroup of Russian Estonians reported having had cryptorchidism compared to the other men (2.5-3.6%, P impact on both sperm concentration and total sperm counts (P 10 years ago. Thus, a recent change in semen quality cannot be excluded. Owing to the study design, it is assumed, but unproven, that the men were representative of the general populations. Some men were very young (16 years), however, this was also the case for other European studies of similar populations. Assessment of sperm motility is associated with inter-observer variation, and no quality control was undertaken for sperm motility assessment to

  5. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.

  6. Generalized equations for estimating DXA percent fat of diverse young women and men: the TIGER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel P; Bray, Molly S; McFarlin, Brian K; Sailors, Mary H; Ellis, Kenneth J; Jackson, Andrew S

    2010-10-01

    Popular generalized equations for estimating percent body fat (BF%) developed with cross-sectional data are biased when applied to racially/ethnically diverse populations. We developed accurate anthropometric models to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry BF% (DXA-BF%) that can be generalized to ethnically diverse young adults in both cross-sectional and longitudinal field settings. This longitudinal study enrolled 705 women and 428 men (aged 17-35 yr) for 30 wk of exercise training (3 d·wk(-1) for 30 min·d(-1) of 65%-85% predicted V˙O2max). The distribution of ethnicity was as follows: 37% non-Hispanic white, 29% Hispanic, and 34% African-American. DXA-BF%, skinfold thicknesses, and body mass index (BMI) were collected at baseline and after 15 and 30 wk. Skinfolds, BMI, and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DXA-BF% in linear mixed model regression analysis. For comparable anthropometric measures (e.g., BMI), DXA-BF% was lower in African-American women and men but higher in Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic white. Addition of BMI to the skinfold model improved the SEE for women (3.6% vs 4.0%), whereas BMI did not improve prediction accuracy of men (SEE = 3.1%). These equations provide accurate predictions of DXA-BF% for diverse young women and men in both cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. To our knowledge, these are the first published body composition equations with generalizability to multiple time points, and the SEE estimates are among the lowest published in the literature.

  7. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H B; Hoeger Bement, M; Madsen, A B

    2017-01-01

    : On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized...... and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. RESULTS: Cuff pressure pain tolerance...

  8. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens J

    2003-01-01

    (HI), 40 mU/m(2) x min], 3-(3)H-glucose, indirect calorimetry, and iv glucose tolerance test. Free fatty acid concentrations were similar during basal steady state but 3.7- to 13-fold higher during clamps. P-glucagon increased and the insulin/glucagon ratio decreased at both LI and HI during...... not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes....

  9. From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L; Kogan, Steven M; Kim, Jihyoung

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one's biological (but not social) father predicted increased father involvement in the next generation, and this association was partially mediated through positive relational schema after controlling for a range of covariates. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that the link between relational schema and father involvement was significantly stronger among fathers of girls than fathers of boys. Findings highlight the unique influence of close, nurturing father-child relationships for downstream father involvement, and the role of relational schemas as a mechanism for intergenerational transmission among young, rural, African American fathers of girls. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  10. "It Was Supposed To Be a Onetime Thing": Experiences of Romantic and Sexual Relationship Typologies Among Young Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Stephen P; Pingel, Emily S; Stephenson, Rob; Bauermeister, José A

    2017-09-05

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at elevated risk for HIV infection, highlighting the need to understand the elements of prevention and risk associated with their relationships. We employed a phenomenological approach to explore how young MSM become involved in different romantic and sexual experiences. We analyzed 28 semi-structured interviews conducted with young MSM living in Michigan. Using a phenomenological approach, we analyzed the data using an inductive coding strategy and thematic analysis. Participants defined their romantic and sexual interactions with a limited set of partner classifications (e.g., dating, hooking up, friends-with-benefits), but recognized how these classifications were shifting, sometimes unexpectedly so (e.g., a date turning into a hook up and vice versa). Young MSM described relationships in transition that at times defied available typologies or hybridized elements of multiple partner types at once. Based on our analyses, we underscore the need to acknowledge the fluctuating and contextual nature of young MSM's romantic and sexual experiences. We discuss the relevance of our findings in terms of the developmental period of young adulthood and the implications our findings have HIV prevention efforts among young MSM.

  11. Metabolism of uniformly labeled13C-eicosapentaenoic acid and13C-arachidonic acid in young and old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Pauline; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Windust, Anthony; Lawrence, Peter; Cunnane, Stephen C; Brenna, J Thomas; Plourde, Mélanie

    2017-08-01

    Background: Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations increase with age. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate EPA and AA metabolism in young and old men by using uniformly labeled carbon-13 ( 13 C) fatty acids. Design: Six young (∼25 y old) and 6 old (∼75 y old) healthy men were recruited. Each participant consumed a single oral dose of 35 mg 13 C-EPA and its metabolism was followed in the course of 14 d in the plasma and 28 d in the breath. After the washout period of ≥28 d, the same participants consumed a single oral dose of 50 mg 13 C-AA and its metabolism was followed for 28 d in plasma and breath. Results: There was a time × age interaction for 13 C-EPA ( P time × age = 0.008), and the shape of the postprandial curves was different between young and old men. The 13 C-EPA plasma half-life was ∼2 d for both young and old men ( P = 0.485). The percentage dose recovered of 13 C-EPA per hour as 13 CO 2 and the cumulative β-oxidation of 13 C-EPA did not differ between young and old men. At 7 d, however, old men had a >2.2-fold higher plasma 13 C-DHA concentration synthesized from 13 C-EPA compared with young men ( P age = 0.03). 13 C-AA metabolism was not different between young and old men. The 13 C-AA plasma half-life was ∼4.4 d in both young and old participants ( P = 0.589). Conclusions: The metabolism of 13 C-AA was not modified by age, whereas 13 C-EPA metabolism was slightly but significantly different in old compared with young men. The higher plasma 13 C-DHA seen in old men may be a result of slower plasma DHA clearance with age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02957188. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial.We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models.The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49, had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01, had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03 and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97. A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97.The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation.

  13. Prospective Study of Rape Perpetration by Young South African Men: Incidence & Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449

  14. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  15. Similar Reference Intervals for Total Testosterone in Healthy Young and Elderly Men. Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, K; Nielsen, Torben Leo

    2013-01-01

    and 600 men aged 60-74 years randomly recruited from the background population. MEASUREMENTS: Sex hormones and SHBG were measured, and reference intervals were determined in healthy individuals in both groups and in elderly men stratified according to whether they were obese or lean (waist...... were higher in young men. Higher levels of androgens were found in healthy elderly men compared to those with a chronic disease or obesity. Androgens were inversely associated with central fat mass (CFM) whereas SHBG was inversely and directly associated with CFM and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM...

  16. Duration of cognitive dysfunction after concussion, and cognitive dysfunction as a risk factor: a population study of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A

    1997-01-01

    : Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1220 young men who had been admitted to hospital for concussion between the ages of 16 and 24 (identified in a national register of admissions) and who had also been cognitively tested by the Danish conscription draft board. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Score on the draft board's cognitive......%) of the eight men who were tested less than seven days after the injury had a dysfunctional score. Among groups of the remaining 692 men who were tested at later time points after injury, the rates were only marginally raised (range 21.4% to 26.5%) above the population level. Among men tested before injury...

  17. Developmental Change in the Effects of Sexual Partner and Relationship Characteristics on Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS, and most new infections occur in serious romantic dyads. Young people experience substantial psychosocial and neurocognitive change between adolescence and emerging adulthood which impacts engagement in risk behaviors. We aimed to examine developmental change in the association between sexual partnership characteristics and condomless anal intercourse (CAI). Data were taken from an analytic sample of 114 young adult MSM from a longitudinal study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth with 4-year follow-up. Rates of CAI were approximately 12 times higher in serious compared to casual partnerships, but this effect diminished in size over time. Partner age differences and violence were associated with more CAI, and these associations strengthened across development. Characteristics of serious relationships (e.g., power dynamics) were also examined. We discuss the need for HIV prevention strategies that address dyadic influences on CAI during this critical developmental period.

  18. Criteria of evaluation of indicators of speed of movements at young men in rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bogush

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop criteria of evaluation of indicators and components of physical quality of speed. Material & Methods: young men, who specialize in rowing, that differ on age and sports qualification, were examined. Sensomotory reactions to sound and light irritants were investigated, and rate, time and speed of one movement, frequency of movements were defined by the developed by us technique of measurement of effect of training action. The process of testing models typical conditions of training and competitive activity and estimates performance of task. Results: criteria of the assessment are developed for young men of different age and sports qualification, who go in for rowing on the basis of the conducted complex researches of indicators of physical quality of speed and elements making it (rate, time and speed of one movement, frequency of movements. The offered technique of researches allows studying force and mobility of nervous processes, functional endurance and psychomotor efficiency of sportsmen. Conclusions: the developed criteria of evaluation of physical quality of speed allow finding specific psychophysiological features of organism of the sportsman, which will give the chance to introduce amendments in the improvement of high-speed abilities and to operate the training process effectively.

  19. Condom refusal and young Black men: the influence of pleasure, sexual partners, and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard

    2014-06-01

    The study investigated pleasure-related, partner-related, and social normative correlates of recent condom refusal in young Black men (YBM). A cross-sectional study of YBM (N = 561) attending clinics treating sexually transmitted diseases in three cities was conducted. Mean age was 19.6 years (SD = 1.87). Nearly one of every two young men (46.8 %) indicated recent refusal to use a condom after a request from their partner. Significant findings included the following: partner-related beliefs "I feel closer to my partner without a condom" (OR = 2.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-3.83) and "condoms make sex hurt for the female partner" (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI = 1.14-2.52), a scale measure of pleasure-related beliefs (OR = 2.58, 95 % CI = 1.73-3.84), and a scale measure of negative social beliefs associated with condom usage (OR = 1.05, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.10). Interventions addressing pleasure-related, partner-related, and social normative beliefs as barriers to condom use are warranted for YBM.

  20. Resilience among gay/bisexual young men in Western Kenya: psychosocial and sexual health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Wade, Ryan M; Onyango, Daniel Peter; Abuor, Pauline A; Bauermeister, Jose A; Odero, Wilson W; Bailey, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    To explore associations between intrapersonal and interpersonal factors and both sexual and psychosocial resilient outcomes among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in Western Kenya. Cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred and eleven GBMSM ages 18-29 were recruited from nine communities in Western Kenya using community-based mobilization strategies. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview survey in English or Duhluo. We estimated four three-step hierarchical linear regression models to examine associations between predictors (intrapersonal and interpersonal factors) and four resilient outcomes (psychological well-being, self-esteem, condom use, HIV testing). Psychosocial well-being model (modeled conversely as depression/anxiety) was significant (F(13,424) = 106.41, P Self-esteem model was significant (F(12,425) = 6.40, P HIV-seropositivity, perceived social support, internalized homonegativity, and LGB difficult process as predictors. Condom use model was significant (F(13,379) = 4.30, P self-esteem, and reactions to trauma as predictors. HIV testing model was significant (F(12,377) = 4.75, P HIV-related resilient outcomes for young GBMSM in Western Kenya. HIV prevention programs for this population should be developed in collaboration with GBMSM and include intervention components that promote resilience.

  1. No influence of lower leg heating on central arterial pulse pressure in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Keisei; Sugawara, Jun; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    Central arterial pulse pressure (PP), a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease, mainly consists of an incident wave generated by left ventricular ejection and a late-arriving reflected wave emanating from the lower body. We have tested the hypothesis that a reduction in leg vascular tone by heat treatment of the lower leg attenuates the central arterial PP. Pressure and wave properties of the peripheral and central arteries were measured in eight young men before and after heat treatment of the lower leg (temperature approx. 43 °C) for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Following the lower leg heat trial, leg (femoral-ankle) pulse wave velocity (PWV) was significantly decreased, but aortic (carotid-femoral) PWV and parameters of wave reflection and carotid arterial PP did not change significantly. No significant changes were observed in these parameters in the control trial. These results suggest that the reduction in leg vascular tone induced by heat treatment of the lower leg may not affect wave reflection and central arterial PP in young men.

  2. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  3. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-11-17

    Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PFacebook is a feasible and efficient strategy for the recruitment of men from across Australia for HPV testing. This method could be used for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination. Additional targeting may achieve a sample that is broadly demographically representative of the Australian population. Future research should explore how the sexual risk behavior characteristics of

  4. Homelessness in a national sample of incarcerated veterans in state and federal prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J; McGuire, James F

    2014-05-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been increasing efforts to reach out to assist incarcerated veterans. While previous studies have shown strong associations between incarceration and homelessness, few studies have examined distinctive characteristics of incarcerated homeless and non-homeless veterans. National administrative data on 30,348 incarcerated veterans served by the Health Care for Re-entry Veterans (HCRV) program were analyzed. Incarcerated veterans were classified into four groups based on their history of past homelessness: not homeless, transiently homeless, episodically homeless, and chronically homeless. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare groups on sociodemographic characteristics, criminal justice status, clinical status, and their interest in using VHA services. Of the sample, 70 % were classified as not homeless, 8 % as transiently homeless, 11 % as episodically homeless, and 11 % as chronically homeless. Thus, 30 % of the sample had a homeless history, which is five times the 6 % rate of past homelessness among adult men in the general population. Compared to non-homeless incarcerated veterans, all three homeless groups reported significantly more mental health problems, more substance abuse, more times arrested in their lifetime, more likely to be incarcerated for a non-violent offense, and were more interested in receiving VHA services after release from prison. Together, these findings suggest re-entry programs, like HCRV, can address relevant mental health-related service needs, especially among formerly homeless veterans and veterans in need of services are receptive to the offer of assistance.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH AND BALANCE IN YOUNG ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McCurdy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help

  6. Dr Google, porn and friend-of-a-friend: where are young men really getting their sexual health information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litras, Amy; Latreille, Sarah; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2015-11-01

    Background Young men are vulnerable when it comes to sexual health. They attend the general practitioner (GP) less often than females and are less likely to be offered testing for sexually transmissible infections. Access to accurate health information and education is a cornerstone of primary prevention, yet we know very little about how, where and why young people obtain information about sexual health. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 male students aged 16-19 years from two Victorian educational institutions for trade skills until data saturation was reached. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The young men were poorly informed about sexual health. Their existing knowledge mainly came from school-based sexual health education, which while valued, was generally poorly recalled and provided only a narrow scope of physiological information. Young men seek sexual health information from various sources including family, the Internet, friends and pornography, with information from the latter three sources perceived as unreliable. GPs were seen as a source of trust-worthy information but were not accessed for this purpose due to embarrassment. Young men preferred the GP to initiate such conversations. A desire for privacy and avoidance of embarrassment heavily influenced young men's preferences and behaviours in relation to sexual health information seeking. The current available sources of sexual health information for young men are failing to meet their needs. Results identify potential improvements to school-based sexual education and online resources, and describe a need for innovative technology-based sources of sexual health education.

  7. "These young chaps think they are just men, too": redistributing masculinity in Kgatleng bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, D N

    2001-07-01

    In the 19th century the BaKgatla polity was a chiefdom with a redistributional economy based on mixed agriculture. Sorghum beer was symbolic not only of the patrilineal core of their descent system and of the ideologies of reciprocity and redistribution, but also of masculinity and patriarchal control. With the establishment of a market economy, an industrial brewery and individual access to income, both beer and the act of drinking have been symbolically reconstructed. The ideology of redistribution was well suited to the support of the BaKgatla gerontocracy via alcohol production and consumption. The limits on production and consumption of beer inherent in the agricultural cycle and the control of young men's access by elders made alcohol an effective symbol of managerial competence from the limited context of household authority to that of the chiefdom as a whole. Today, young men's greater control of cash income has given them access to beer beyond the control of elders. As a result, the contrasting ideology of market exchange and competitive distribution of beer has contributed to the degradation of the power of seniors. After reviewing the historical background, this paper explores those changes. It argues that while the observed infrastructural changes have had a predictable impact on drinking behaviors and the symbolic structure of "seniority/masculinity", constructions of the "masculine community" in BaKgatla bars demonstrate continuity in key areas of mens' identities. If as anthropologists we see obvious discontinuities in behavior and ideology, the BaKgatla build selective bridges to "tradition" which seemingly ground the experience of change in relatively seamless continuity.

  8. Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in Finnish young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Arja; Rinne, Marjo; Vasankari, Tommi; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2010-01-29

    Currently, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the relationship between level of physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in younger adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and musculoskeletal physical fitness level on HRQoL in Finnish young men. In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the physical fitness index, including aerobic endurance and muscle fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), body composition, health, and HRQoL (RAND 36) for 727 men [mean (SD) age 25 (5) years]. Associations between HRQoL and the explanatory parameters were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Of the 727 participants who took part in the study, 45% were in the poor category of the physical fitness, while 37% and 18% were in the satisfactory and good fitness categories, respectively. A higher frequency of LTPA was associated with higher fitness (p fitness. When the HRQoL of the study participants were compared with that of the age- and gender-weighted Finnish general population, both the good and satisfactory fitness groups had higher HRQoL in all areas other than bodily pain. In a regression analysis, higher LTPA was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL, higher physical fitness with two, and lower number of morbidities with all dimensions, while the effect of age was contradictory. Our study of Finnish young men indicates that higher physical fitness and leisure-time physical activity level promotes certain dimensions of HRQoL, while morbidities impair them all. The results highlight the importance of health related physical fitness while promoting HRQoL.

  9. Informing the Development of a Mobile Phone HIV Testing Intervention: Intentions to Use Specific HIV Testing Approaches Among Young Black Transgender Women and Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblin, Beryl A; Nandi, Vijay; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Hoover, Donald R; Wilton, Leo; Usher, DaShawn; Frye, Victoria

    2017-07-07

    Regular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of persons at risk is critical to HIV prevention. Infrequent HIV testing and late diagnosis of HIV infection have been observed among young black men who have sex with men (MSM) and transwomen (transgender women)-two groups overrepresented in the HIV epidemic. The objective of this study was to inform the development of a brief mobile phone intervention to increase HIV testing among young black MSM and transwomen by providing a tailored recommendation of an optimal HIV testing approach. We identified demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, and sociostructural factors associated with intentions to use three specific HIV testing approaches: self-testing, testing at a clinic or other provider, and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). Individuals were eligible for a Web-based survey if they were male at birth; were between the ages of 16 and 29 years; self-identified as black, African American, Caribbean black, African black, or multiethnic black; were not known to be HIV-infected; and reported insertive or receptive anal intercourse with a man or transwoman in the last 12 months. Recruitment occurred via banner advertisements placed on a range of social and sexual networking websites and apps in New York City and nationally, and via events attended by young black MSM and transwomen in New York City. Intention to test by each testing method was analyzed using logistic regression with best subset models and stepwise variable selection. Among 169 participants, intention to use a self-test was positively associated with comfort in testing by a friend or a partner at home (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR, 2.40; 95% CI 1.09-5.30), and stigma or fear as a reason not to test (AOR 8.61; 95% CI 2.50-29.68) and negatively associated with higher social support (AOR 0.48; 95% CI 0.33-0.72) and having health insurance (AOR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.54). Intention to test at a clinic or other provider was positively associated with self

  10. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    001) BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p 0.05) leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p 001) whole-body BMD and 18.2...... men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35) aged 65-80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35) aged 18-30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35) and young (UY, n = 35) men....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  11. Masculine norms about emotionality and social constraints in young and older adult men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabos, Katie; Hoyt, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Beliefs that men should restrict their display of emotions, or restrictive emotionality, might contribute to adjustment to cancer and this might be sensitive to social receptivity to disclosure. The present research examined relationships of restrictive emotionality, social constraints, and psychological distress in young adults with testicular cancer (N = 171; Study 1) and older men with prostate cancer (N = 66; Study 2). Study 1: positive associations were observed for social constraints and restrictive emotionality with depressive symptoms. Social constraints moderated the relationship, such that high restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms in those with high constraints. Study 2: only social constraints (and not restrictive emotionality) was positively associated with depressive symptoms and cancer-related intrusive thoughts. The social constraints × restrictive emotionality interaction approached significance with depressive symptoms, such with high social constraints low restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms compared to those with less constraints. No significant associations were found for intrusive thoughts in either study. Findings demonstrate unique relationships with psychological distress across the lifespan of men with cancer given perception of constraints and adherence to masculine norms about emotionality.

  12. Callous-Unemotional Traits Robustly Predict Future Criminal Offending in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Byrd, Amy L.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of empathy, deficient guilt/remorse, and shallow affect) are a circumscribed facet of the adult psychopathic personality. Although several studies have found that adult psychopathy is a robust predictor of future criminal offending, research exploring the predictive utility of CU traits and future offending are lacking. Moreover, empirical studies examining the predictive utility of psychopathic features often neglect to account for other well-documented risk factors (e.g., prior offending, delinquent peers, marital status), and thus the incremental predictive utility of CU traits remains uncertain. To address these limitations, the current study examined the unique contribution of CU traits in the prediction of future criminal offending in a large ethnically diverse community sample of young adult males (Mean Age = 25.76, SD = .95). Official criminal record information was collected approximately 3.5 years later using multiple sources. Results indicated that after controlling for several other well-established predictors of future offending, men with elevated CU traits had a greater number of arrests and criminal charges and were more likely to be charged with a serious offense and obstruction of justice. CU traits also predicted future theft for Caucasian men, but not African American men. Overall, the results support the notion that CU traits significantly add to the prediction of future offending, even after controlling for several other risk factors. PMID:22731505

  13. Probiotic capsules do not lower plasma lipids in young women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greany, K A; Bonorden, M J L; Hamilton-Reeves, J M; McMullen, M H; Wangen, K E; Phipps, W R; Feirtag, J; Thomas, W; Kurzer, M S

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the effect of probiotic capsules on plasma lipids. A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm trial. Fifty-five normocholesterolemic subjects ages 18-36 (33 premenopausal women and 22 men). Each subject consumed either three probiotic capsules each containing a total of 10(9) colony-forming units Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum and 10-15 mg fructo-oligosaccharide or three placebo capsules daily for 2 months (men) or two menstrual cycles (women). Plasma lipids were measured before and following the intervention (during the early follicular phase for women). Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride were not altered by consumption of probiotic or placebo capsules and were not different between treatment groups following the intervention. These results do not support a beneficial effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DDS-1 and Bifidobacterium longum strain UABL-14 on plasma lipids in normocholesterolemic young women and men. Supported by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station and UAS Laboratories.

  14. Crystal methamphetamine and ecstasy differ in relation to unsafe sex among young gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Arn J; Lampinen, Thomas M; Miller, Mary Lou; Hogg, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    Poly-substance use in gay social ('club') settings is common. Recent studies suggest a link between 'club' drug use and sexual risk behaviours. In this qualitative study, we compare and contrast two 'club' drugs: crystal methamphetamine and ecstasy (MDMA). Life history interviews were conducted with 12 HIV seroconverters and 12 age-matched controls recruited from a prospective cohort study of young gay and bisexual men in Vancouver, British Columbia. Textual data concerning illicit substance use and unsafe sex were analyzed using NUDIST software. Most men related a substantial knowledge of and experience with crystal and ecstasy. Both drugs had attributes that enhanced gay socialization and were used in the same venues. Crystal was used to remain awake and increase energy. Ecstasy was used to induce euphoria and group connectedness. However, unlike ecstasy, crystal was associated with a distinct pattern of sexual arousal that frequently included unprotected (sometimes group) sex, was more likely to be used regularly by HIV-positive men, and was reportedly highly addictive and problematic. Crystal and ecstasy are used in the same social venues but differ markedly in relation to sexual risk behaviour.

  15. [Mortality from assault in young men in Brazil, 2010-2014: an ecological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da; Garcia, Leila Posenato

    2017-11-21

    The aim was to analyze the association between risk of death from assault in young males and socio-demographic characteristics in Brazilian municipalities. In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the 1,651 municipalities of Brazil with more than 20,000 inhabitants. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM) and indicators were obtained from the 2010 Population Census and Human Development Atlas. Mortality rate ratios were estimated by a negative binomial regression model. From 2010 to 2014, a total of 127,137 deaths from assault were reported in young males 15 to 29 years of age. Corrected mortality rate was 133.3/100 thousand inhabitants for the set of municipalities (median 71.5/100 thousand inhabitants). The rate increased with the municipalities' population size. In the adjusted model, higher rates ratios were observed in the more urbanized municipalities (1.95; 95%CI: 1.70-2.23), in intermediate categories of income inequality (1.10; 95%CI: 1.01-1.20) and poverty rate (1.69; 95%CI: 1.51-1.89), with lower proportion of youth attending Secondary School (2.05; 95%CI: 1.83-2.30), with higher proportion of unemployed youth 18 to 24 years of age (1.27; 95%CI: 1.16-1.40), and with more women than men (1.28; 95%CI: 1.05-1.58). Mortality from assault was high in young Brazilian men, especially in larger and more urbanized municipalities and those with a higher proportion of youth looking for work and not attending secondary school. The results show the relevance of social policies for dealing with violence against youth.

  16. Rural-urban differences in mental health, resilience, stigma, and social support among young Australian gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Hosking, Warwick; Rozbroj, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are common among young gay men, particularly in comparison with their heterosexual counterparts. Little is known about the mental health and well-being of those living in rural areas, where access to support and opportunities for connecting with other gay men may be relatively limited. We examined differences in the well-being of young rural and urban Australian gay men, including mental health, resilience, stigma-related challenges, and social support. A national online survey was conducted involving 1,034 Australian gay-identified men aged 18-39 years. All analyses adjusted for sociodemographic differences between the rural and urban samples. On average, rural men had significantly lower self-esteem, lower life satisfaction, lower social support, and were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed, concerned about acceptance from others, and to conceal their sexual orientation compared to urban gay men. While resilience among the rural group was lower, this was no longer significant following sociodemographic adjustment. An examination of psychosocial predictors of psychological distress in the rural sample revealed that lower education and lower tangible support independently predicted greater distress. Young rural Australian gay men appear to be at a considerable disadvantage with regard to mental health and well-being compared with their urban counterparts, and they may need particular attention in mental health prevention and treatment programs. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Incarceration in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Western, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s the U.S. imprisonment rate has increased roughly fivefold. As Christopher Wildeman and Bruce Western explain, the effects of this sea change in the imprisonment rate--commonly called mass imprisonment or the prison boom--have been concentrated among those most likely to form fragile families: poor and minority men with little…

  18. Circadian phase response curves to light in older and young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Katharine M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phase of a circadian rhythm reflects where the peak and the trough occur, for example, the peak and trough of performance within the 24 h. Light exposure can shift this phase. More extensive knowledge of the human circadian phase response to light is needed to guide light treatment for shiftworkers, air travelers, and people with circadian rhythm phase disorders. This study tested the hypotheses that older adults have absent or weaker phase-shift responses to light (3000 lux, and that women's responses might differ from those of men. Methods After preliminary health screening and home actigraphic recording baselines, 50 young adults (ages 18–31 years and 56 older adults (ages 59–75 years remained in light-controlled laboratory surroundings for 4.7 to 5.6 days, while experiencing a 90-min ultra-short sleep-wake cycle. Following at least 30 h in-lab baseline, over the next 51 h, participants were given 3 treatments with 3000 lux white light, each treatment for 3 h, centered at one of 8 clock times. The circadian rhythms of urinary aMT6s (a melatonin metabolite, free cortisol, oral temperature, and wrist activity were assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results Light (3000 lux for 3 h on 3 days induced maximal phase shifts of about 3 h. Phase shifts did not differ significantly in amplitude among older and young groups or among women and men. At home and at baseline, compared to the young, the older adults were significantly phase-advanced in sleep, cortisol, and aMT6s onset, but not advanced in aMT6s acrophase or the temperature rhythm. The inflection from delays to advances was approximately 1.8 h earlier among older compared to young participants in reference to their aMT6s rhythm peaks, and it was earlier in clock time. Conclusion In these experimental conditions, 3000 lux light could shift the phase of circadian rhythms to about the same extent among older and young adults, but the optimal light timing for

  19. A systematic review of literature on psychosocial aspects of gynecomastia in adolescents and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Young, Cara; Harrison, Tracie; Caridi, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Gynecomastia represents a serious psychosocial challenge for many adolescent and young adult males, but short of surgery, little attention has been given to this concern. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a systematic review of the literature about psychosocial correlates, psychosocial interventions, and quality of research evidence about young males with gynecomastia. From an initial 233 published papers, 10 studies were identified and reviewed. Five were descriptive case studies and included no statistical analyses. The other studies were all conducted with small samples. Despite the limited evidence, findings suggest that many young men suffer emotional distress concerning gynecomastia, but this distress has received few interventions beyond surgical removal of the breast tissue. Future studies are needed to address this problem more fully so that more aggressive measures such as frequent assessments of the physical and psychosocial aspects of the condition can be done by healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Attachment Transitions Through the Lived Experiences of Young Black Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Valera, Pamela; Wood, Erica P; Calebs, Benjamin J; Wilson, Patrick A

    2018-03-26

    We conducted a mixed-methods study to identify factors that influence transitions in attachment style between childhood and adulthood among 28 young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM) in the United States. We used a phenomenological approach to data integration, with the major component to the results being garnered from the qualitative interviews. We organized our results by four attachment transition groups: stable secure (secure attachment in childhood and young adulthood), stable insecure (insecure attachment in childhood and young adulthood), secure to insecure (secure in childhood and insecure in adulthood) and insecure to secure (insecure in childhood and secure in adulthood). Within each of the typologies, two major themes emerged: social support and religion. Generally, transitions from secure to insecure attachment were related to experiences of perceived rejection by a parental figure during adolescence that corresponded with sexual orientation disclosure. Transitions from insecure to secure attachment appeared to be related to the absence of an attachment figure early in life, but with the acquisition of an attachment figure during early to late adolescence. The findings from our study suggest a need for attachment-based approaches to social support interventions, as well as for an increased understanding of social and cultural factors that impact attachment changes among practitioners who use attachment-based therapy models for YBGBM.

  1. The Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment, Depression, and Alcohol Use Disorders on Health-Related Quality of Life among Incarcerated, HIV-Infected, Opioid Dependent Malaysian Men: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Weikum, Damian; Copenhaver, Michael; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Prior research has widely recognized neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depression, and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as important negative predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). No studies to date, however, have explored how these neuropsychological factors operate together and affect HRQoL. Incarcerated male PLWH (N = 301) meeting criteria for opioid dependence were recruited from Malaysia's largest prison. Standardized scales for NCI, depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and HRQoL were used to conduct a moderated mediation model to explore the extent to which depression mediated the relationship between NCI, HRQoL, and AUDs using an ordinary least squares regression-based path analytic framework. Results showed that increasing levels of NCI (B = -0.1773, p mediated via depression (B = -0.1230, p moderated mediation effect. The findings disentangle the complex relationship using a moderated mediation model, demonstrating that increasing levels of NCI, which can be reduced with HIV treatment, negatively influenced HRQoL via depression for individuals with AUDs. This highlights the need for future interventions to target these complex interplay between neuropsychological factors in order to improve HRQoL among PLWH, particularly incarcerated PLWH with AUDs.

  2. A Rorschach investigation of defensiveness, self-perception, interpersonal relations, and affective states in incarcerated pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, M R; Wilson, J S; Gacono, C B

    1998-04-01

    Rorschach protocols of 60 incarcerated men who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for Pedophilia were compared to those of 60 incarcerated men with no history of sex offenses (matched for age, education, and race). Comprehensive System Rorschach variables (Exner, 1991) were selected based on both psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral models of pedophilia. Pedophiles' Rorschachs (a) contained significantly more responses and were more likely to reveal signs of (b) anxiety and helplessness, (c) painful introspection, (d) distorted views of others, and (e) primitive dependency needs than the comparison group's Rorschachs. Like other incarcerated men, the pedophiles exhibited disturbances in self-worth (either poor self-esteem or excessive self-focus), tendencies to abuse fantasy and avoid emotionally tinged stimuli, and chronic oppositionality and hostility. Pedophiles possess many core personality features associated with Narcissistic Personality Disorders, but are less well defended against feelings of vulnerability and painful introspection than other incarcerated men. Like Antisocial Personality Disorder patients (Gacono & Meloy, 1994), our pedophiles and nonpedophile offenders showed signs of impaired attachment and, in the context of incarceration, failed narcissism.

  3. Sexual function and depressive symptoms in young men with hypothyroidism receiving levothyroxine/liothyronine combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Marek, Bogdan; Okopień, Bogusław

    2018-01-01

    Both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are often accompanied by sexual dysfunction. Despite improving male sexual functioning, levothyroxine treatment does not always restore all its aspects. The aim of this study was to compare male sexual function-ing and depressive symptoms between men with hypothyroidism receiving levothyroxine/liothyronine combination therapy and men receiving levothyroxine alone. The study population consisted of 21 young levothyroxine-treated men with clinical symptoms of hypothyroid-ism, in whom serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels were within the normal limits. In 11 of these patients, levothyroxine was replaced with levothyroxine/liothyronine combination therapy, while the remaining ones (n = 10) continued levothyroxine treatment. Beyond measuring serum levels of thyrotropin, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and prolactin, before the beginning of the study and six months later, all enrolled patients completed questionnaires evaluating male sexual function (International Index of Erectile Func-tion-15: IIEF-15) and assessing the presence and severity of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition - BDI-II). The study included 10 patients from each group. At baseline, erectile function, intercourse satisfaction, orgasmic function, sexual desire and overall satisfaction, as well as the total BDI-II score did not differ between both groups. With the exception of an improvement in sexual desire, replacing levothyroxine with levothyroxine/liothyronine combination therapy did not affect sexual functioning and depressive symptoms. The obtained results suggest that levothyroxine/liothyronine combination therapy has a relatively mild effect on sexual functioning in levothyroxine-treated men with normal thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels experiencing clinical symptoms of hypo-thyroidism.

  4. Enjoyment, Exploration and Education: Understanding the Consumption of Pornography among Young Men with Non-Exclusive Sexual Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research.

  5. Enjoyment, Exploration and Education: Understanding the Consumption of Pornography among Young Men with Non-Exclusive Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research. PMID:28989197

  6. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  7. Duration of cognitive dysfunction after concussion, and cognitive dysfunction as a risk factor: a population study of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish how long cognitive dysfunction lasts after concussion, and the extent to which it may be a predisposing risk factor for concussion, by examining the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who have sustained concussion. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING......: Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1220 young men who had been admitted to hospital for concussion between the ages of 16 and 24 (identified in a national register of admissions) and who had also been cognitively tested by the Danish conscription draft board. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Score on the draft board's cognitive...... screening test, dichotomised as dysfunctional or non-dysfunctional (20.4% of the general population of Danish men appearing before the draft board had a dysfunctional score). RESULTS: 700 of the 1220 men had been tested after sustaining concussion; 520 had been tested before concussion. Four (50...

  8. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Ferreira do; Uziel, Anna Paula; Hernández, Jimena de Garay

    2018-02-19

    This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive). Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals' training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  9. 'I'd much rather have sexual intimacy as opposed to sex': Young Australian gay men, sex, relationships and monogamy

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, D.; Prestage, G.; Grierson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored how young gay men negotiate opportunities for rethinking sexual and relationship life associated with gay sexual cultures upon coming out. Drawing on qualitative interview data with Australian gay men aged 18–30, this article explores a tension these participants described between a desire for monogamy as the basis to a committed, enduring and mature relationship on one hand, and sexual opportunities associated with ‘the gay scene’ on the other. We analyse these men’...

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life in Young Men with Testicular Cancer: Validation of the Cancer Assessment for Young Adults (CAYA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A.; Cano, Stefan J.; Saigal, Christopher S.; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome instruments are needed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in young adults with cancer. The purpose of this project was to establish a conceptual model and measurement instrument for assessment of HRQOL in young men with testicular cancer. Methods Patient interviews and a literature review were used to develop a conceptual framework of biopsychosocial domains of cancer-related quality of life and an initial pool of questionnaire items. Items were piloted and refined. Revised items were administered to a sample (N=171) of young (ages 18–29) men with testicular cancer and repeated 4 weeks later. Rasch measurement methods guided item reduction and scale construction. Traditional psychometric analyses were also performed to allow for comparison with existing measures. Results The conceptual framework included seven biopsychosocial domains: physical, sexual, intrapersonal, cognitive-emotional, social-relational, educational-vocational-avocational, and spiritual to form independent scales of the resulting questionnaire, the Cancer Assessment for Young Adults–Testicular (CAYA-T). Each scale fulfilled Rasch and traditional psychometric criteria (i.e., person separation index 0.34 to 0.82; Cronbach’s alpha 0.70 to 0.91; and an expected pattern of convergent and discriminant validity correlations). Conclusions The CAYA-T can be used to assess HRQOL across a comprehensive set of domains as identified by young men with cancer. It passes strict psychometric criteria and has potential as a useful research and clinical tool. Implications for Cancer Survivors The CAYA-T has potential research and clinical value for addressing inter-related aspects of HRQOL in young adult men with cancer. The measure may assist with assessing and monitoring HRQOL across a range of domains, and contributing to more comprehensive assessment of biopsychosocial needs of young adults. PMID:23918454

  11. An exploration of religion and spirituality among young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, William L; Okeke, Janice O; Gelaude, Deborah J; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Oster, Alexandra M; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Although religion and spirituality can promote healthy behaviours and mental well-being, negative religious experiences may harm sexual minority men's health. Despite increasing vulnerability to HIV infection among young gay and bisexual men, few studies examine how religion and spirituality might affect them. To this end, we interviewed young gay and bisexual men who were diagnosed with HIV infection during January 2006-June 2009. Questionnaires assessed religious service attendance, disclosure of sexuality within religious communities, and beliefs about homosexuality being sinful. A subset described religious and spiritual experiences in qualitative interviews. We calculated the prevalence of religion- and spirituality-related factors and identified themes within qualitative interviews. Among men completing questionnaires, 66% currently attended religious services, 16% believed they could disclose their sexuality at church, and 37% believed homosexuality was sinful. Participants who completed qualitative interviews commonly discussed religious attendance and negative experiences within religious settings. They often expressed their spirituality through prayer, and some used it to cope with adverse experiences. These data suggest that religion and spirituality are notable factors that shape young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men's social contexts. Programmes and interventions that constructively engage with religious institutions and are sensitive to spiritual beliefs may promote these men's health.

  12. Factors associated with HIV testing among young men who have sex with men in Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh D; Aung, Poe Poe; Paing, Aye Kyawt; Pasricha, Naanki; Agius, Paul A; Tun, Waimar; Bajracharya, Ashish; Luchters, Stanley

    2017-11-01

    In Myanmar, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience high risk of HIV infection. However, access to HIV testing and prevention services remains a challenge among this marginalized population. The objective of this study was to estimate population prevalence and correlates of prior HIV testing among young MSM (YMSM) and informs the development of HIV testing and intervention programmes that respond to the specific needs of this population. Five hundred and eighty-five YMSM aged 18 to 24 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in a cross-sectional survey conducted in six townships of Myanmar. RDS-adjusted population estimates were calculated to estimate prevalence of HIV testing; RDS-weighted logistic regression was used to examine correlates of HIV testing in the past 6 months and in a lifetime. There were 12 participants who reported receiving a HIV-positive test; of those, five were tested in the past 6 months. The RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of lifetime (any prior) HIV testing was 60.6% (95% CI: 53.3% to 66.4%) and of recent (≤ 6 months) HIV testing was 50.1% (95% CI: 44.1% to 55.5%). In multivariable analysis, sexual identity was associated with lifetime but not recent HIV testing. Lifetime and recent HIV testing were associated with having three or more male sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted ORs (aORs) = 2.28, 95% CIs: 1.21 to 4.32 and 2.69, 95% CI: 1.59 to 4.56), having good HIV-related knowledge (aORs = 1.96, 95% CIs: 1.11 to 3.44 and 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.89), reporting high HIV testing self-efficacy (aORs = 13.5, 95% CIs: 6.0 to 30.1 and 9.81, 95% CI: 4.27 to 22.6) and having access to and use of non-HIV health-related services in the past 12 months (aORs = 13.2, 95% CIs: 6.85 to 25.6 and 7.15, 95% CI: 4.08 to 12.5) respectively. HIV testing coverage among YMSM aged 18 to 24 years old in Myanmar is still suboptimal. Integrated HIV testing and prevention services in existing health service

  13. The Lichfield bone study: the skeletal response to exercise in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I; Rawal, Jaikirty S; Kehoe, Anthony; James, Laurence E; Payne, John R; Skipworth, James R; Puthucheary, Zudin A; Drenos, Fotios; Pennell, Dudley J; Loosemore, Mike; World, Michael; Humphries, Steve E; Haddad, Fares S; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2012-02-01

    The skeletal response to short-term exercise training remains poorly described. We thus studied the lower limb skeletal response of 723 Caucasian male army recruits to a 12-wk training regime. Femoral bone volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging, bone ultrastructure by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip. Left hip BMD increased with training (mean ± SD: 0.85 ± 3.24, 2.93 ± 4.85, and 1.89 ± 2.85% for femoral neck, Ward's area, and total hip, respectively; all P exercise training in young men is associated not only with a rise in human femoral BMD, but also in femoral bone volume, the latter largely through a periosteal response.

  14. Acute effects of different aerobic exercise duration on pulse wave velocity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuto; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of present study was to determine the acute effects of different aerobic exercise duration on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in healthy young men. One week after measuring peak oxygen uptake to determine the duration of each exercise trial, 11 healthy males (age: 23.4±0.6 years, height: 172.5±2.3 cm, weight: 64.1±2.4 kg) cycled on an ergometer for 15 (15 min-EX), 30 (30 min-EX) and 45 minutes (45 min-EX) at 65% peak oxygen uptake in random order. After supine rest for at least 15 minutes, aortic (carotid-femoral) and leg (femoral-ankle) PWV were measured before and at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after each exercise trial. Compared with before exercise trials, aortic PWV decreased at 30 minutes after 15, 30 and 45 min-EX (Pexercise.

  15. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  16. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  17. Mechanical properties and collagen cross-linking of the patellar tendon in old and young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Hansen, P; Kongsgaard, M

    2009-01-01

    were higher in OM than in YM (73 +/- 13 vs. 11 +/- 2 mmol/mol; P appreciably influence the dimensions or mechanical properties of the human patellar tendon in vivo. Collagen concentration was reduced, whereas both enzymatic......Age-related loss in muscle mass and strength impairs daily life function in the elderly. However, it remains unknown whether tendon properties also deteriorate with age. Cross-linking of collagen molecules provides structural integrity to the tendon fibrils and has been shown to change with age...... in animals but has never been examined in humans in vivo. In this study, we examined the mechanical properties and pyridinoline and pentosidine cross-link and collagen concentrations of the patellar tendon in vivo in old (OM) and young men (YM). Seven OM (67 +/- 3 years, 86 +/- 10 kg) and 10 YM (27 +/- 2...

  18. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8......) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning...... was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10...

  19. Violence Victimization of Young Men in Heterosexual Relationships: Does Alcohol Outlet Density Influence Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Flewelling, Robert L.; Christ, Sharon L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Moracco, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether alcohol outlet density is associated with male physical and sexual victimization by a female partner. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). A total of 3,179 young adult men identified a current heterosexual relationship and had complete intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization data. Almost 16% of this sample reported being the victim of physical only IPV in their relationship over the previous 12 months; an additional 6.4% were victims of sexual only or sexual and physical IPV. Multivariate analyses indicated high alcohol outlet density was associated with greater odds of experiencing physical IPV only (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07). Heavy drinkers experienced increased odds of physical and sexual IPV victimization. Alcohol outlet density should be addressed in prevention efforts. PMID:22978073

  20. Maladaptive social information processing in childhood predicts young men's atypical amygdala reactivity to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-05-01

    Maladaptive social information processing, such as hostile attributional bias and aggressive response generation, is associated with childhood maladjustment. Although social information processing problems are correlated with heightened physiological responses to social threat, few studies have examined their associations with neural threat circuitry, specifically amygdala activation to social threat. A cohort of 310 boys participated in an ongoing longitudinal study and completed questionnaires and laboratory tasks assessing their social and cognitive characteristics the boys were between 10 and 12 years of age. At age 20, 178 of these young men underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a social threat task. At age 22, adult criminal arrest records and self-reports of impulsiveness were obtained. Path models indicated that maladaptive social information-processing at ages 10 and 11 predicted increased left amygdala reactivity to fear faces, an ambiguous threat, at age 20 while accounting for childhood antisocial behavior, empathy, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Exploratory analyses indicated that aggressive response generation - the tendency to respond to threat with reactive aggression - predicted left amygdala reactivity to fear faces and was concurrently associated with empathy, antisocial behavior, and hostile attributional bias, whereas hostile attributional bias correlated with IQ. Although unrelated to social information-processing problems, bilateral amygdala reactivity to anger faces at age 20 was unexpectedly predicted by low IQ at age 11. Amygdala activation did not mediate associations between social information processing and number of criminal arrests, but both impulsiveness at age 22 and arrests were correlated with right amygdala reactivity to anger facial expressions at age 20. Childhood social information processing and IQ predicted young men's amygdala response to threat a decade later, which suggests that childhood social

  1. Etiology of Visual Impairment and Legal Blindness among the Young Men in Southeast Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiray Yildirim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Aim: To identify the etiology of serious visual impairment and legal blindness and to declare the preventive factors among young men who live in the southeast region of Turkey. Material and Method: Between January 2004 and December 2008, records of the patients who admitted to Ophthalmology Department of Diyarbakir Military Hospital were examined respectively. The study includes 2000 young men cases (20 to 30 years whose visual acuity was worse than 0,05 with Snellen chart in at least one eye. Results: Among the patients’eyes of which visual acuity worse than 0,05 with Snellen chart; 11,6 % (232 were bilateral and 43,8 % (876 were only right eye and 44,6 % (892 were only left eye. The distribution of the etiology of the serious visual impairment and blindness was: 1. Trauma 68,4 % (1368, 2. Corneal opacities due to infectious diseases 10 % (200, 3. Congenital cataract 9,4 % (188, 4. Amblyopia due to strabismus and refractive errors 1,2 % (24 ve 5. Genetic eye disorders 10,6 % (212. The classification of the pathologies according to the anatomical segments of the eye was: Anterior segment disorders 53% (1060, posterior segment disorders % 21,2 (424, disintegration of the anatomy of the eye 24,8 % (496 and others 1% (20. Conclusion: It is possible to decrease the rate of prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and blindness both in this region and other parts of our country by creating systematic educational and health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 737-740

  2. Attenuated Heart Rate Recovery Following Exercise Testing in Overweight Young Men with Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Trent A.; Guill, Stephen G.; Zedalis, Donald; Gregg, John M.; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Herbert, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate whether cardiovascular responses to maximal exercise testing and recovery are altered with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in overweight young adult men. Design: Three sedentary subject groups were recruited: Overweight with OSA (OSA), overweight without OSA (No-OSA), and normal weight without OSA (Control). Presence of OSA was screened via portable diagnostic device. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects performed maximal ramping exercise testing (RXT) on a cycle ergometer with 5 minutes of active recovery. Exercise measurements included heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and oxygen consumption (VO2). Recovery HR was converted to a HR difference (HRdiff) calculation (HRpeak − HR each minute recovery), and BP was converted to a recovery ratio for each minute. Setting: The study was carried out on the campus of Virginia Tech, Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Blacksburg, Virginia. Participants: 14 OSA, 16 No-OSA, and 14 Control volunteers. Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: In OSA subjects, HR recovery was significantly attenuated compared to the No-OSA and Control groups throughout recovery (P = 0.009). No differences were noted in the HR or BP response to exercise in any group. The VO2, adjusted for fat-free soft tissue mass, did not differ between groups. Conclusions: We found that OSA elicits alterations in the cardiovascular response post exercise, reflected by an attenuated HR recovery. This may indicate an imbalance in the autonomic regulation of HR. Exercise tests may provide utility in risk stratification for those at risk for OSA. Citation: Hargens TA; Guill SG; Zedalis D; Gregg JM; Nickols-Richardson SM; Herbert WG. Attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise testing in overweight young men with untreated obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(1):104-110. PMID:18220083

  3. Quality of life of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from adolescence to young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Yi-Jing; Chen, Shun-Sheng; Lu, Yen-Mou

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated quality of life (QOL) in adolescent and young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Health-related QOL and global QOL were assessed with the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). Associations between functional status and QOL were assessed. All domains of the SF-36 were below Taiwan norms (effect size: -14.2 to -0.5), especially Physical Function, Role Physical, and Social Function. Three of the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF were below Taiwan norms (effect size: -2.0 to -0.7). The Physical Function of the SF-36 was moderately correlated with functional status (mobility, basic activities of daily living, and arm function). The Social Function of the SF-36 and Social Relationships of the WHOQOL-BREF were also moderately correlated with functional status (impairment, basic activities of daily living, and arm function). The adolescent and young men with DMD had poor health-related and global QOL. Poor QOL was related to both physical condition and social health. We suggest that rehabilitation programs focus on using assistive devices to facilitate arm function and encouraging participation in social activities to improve the QOL of patients with DMD. Implications for rehabilitation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle weakness disease that not only impacts physical health but also leads to poor quality of life in many domains. A valuable rehabilitation goal for patients with DMD is to encourage participation in social activities. Medical care and educational programs should plan a formal transition processes for patients with DMD from pediatric to adult care to maximum their quality of life. Arm function is associated with many domains of global quality of life, so a key element in improving quality of life may be to improve arm function.

  4. Oral Fat Sensitivity Is Associated with Social Support for Stress Coping in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takakuni; Hong, Guang; Tominami, Kanako; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2018-04-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS), the ability to taste fat, is associated with eating habits in humans, including daily fatty food consumption; namely, proper OFS is important for health. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as stress and sleep, may affect fat intake. However, correlations between OFS, stress management, and sleep are largely unknown. Thus, we investigated the associations of OFS with lifestyle factors regarding stress management and daytime sleepiness in healthy young adult men. We measured OFS, sensitivities for three prototypical tastes (sweet, salty, and sour), and BMI in 22 subjects (27.2 ± 6.0 years), who also completed a self-reported questionnaire on health, including lifestyle-related questions. The correlations of taste sensitivities with stress management and daytime sleepiness were analyzed. We thus found that the number of mentors for personal concerns (a question regarding stress management, social support) was positively associated with OFS (P = 0.041), but not the other taste sensitivities. In contrast, other lifestyle factors related to stress management (frequency of relaxation, frequency of eating when irritated or worried, and degree of satisfaction with one's sleep) and daytime sleepiness were not significantly associated with OFS, similar to that observed for other tested taste sensitivities. These results characterize the unique association of OFS with the degree of social support in healthy young men and provide novel insights into the nature of individual OFS differences. Thus, measuring the degree of social support may be helpful for the evaluation of OFS impairment, thereby contributing to the prevention of stress-induced overeating.

  5. The alcohol purchase task in young men from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Murphy, James G; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard; Gaume, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol purchase task (APT), which presents a scenario and asks participants how many drinks they would purchase and consume at different prices, has been used among students and small clinical samples to obtain measures of alcohol demand but not in large, general population samples. We administered the APT to a large sample of young men from the general population (Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors). Participants who reported drinking in the past year (n=4790), reported on past 12 months alcohol use, on DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria and on alcohol related consequences were included. Among the APT's demand parameters, intensity was 8.7 (SD=6.5) indicating that, when drinks are free, participants report a planned consumption of almost 9 drinks. The maximum alcohol expenditure (Omax) was over 35CHF (1CHF=1.1USD) and the demand became elastic (Pmax) at 8.4CHF (SD=5.6). The mean price at which the consumption was suppressed was 15.6CHF (SD=5.4). Exponential equation provided a satisfactory fit to individual responses (mean R(2): 0.8, median: 0.8). Demand intensity was correlated with alcohol use, number of AUD criteria and number of consequences (all r≥0.3, pelasticity parameter was weakly correlated with alcohol use in the expected direction. The APT measures are useful in characterizing demand for alcohol in young men in the general population. Demand may provide a clinically useful index of strength of motivation for alcohol use in general population samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring: a study of 1,925 young men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample...... subject. After control for confounders, men whose mothers had received fertility treatment to conceive them had a 46% lower sperm concentration (95% confidence interval (CI): -63, -20) and a 45% lower total sperm count (95% CI: -64, -16). They had a smaller testis size (-0.9 ml, 95% CI: -2.2, 0.4), fewer...

  7. Early Life Psychosocial Stressors and Housing Instability among Young Sexual Minority Men: the P18 Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Kristen D.; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C.; D���Avanzo, Paul A.; Duncan, Dustin T.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2016-01-01

    Homelessness and housing instability is a significant public health problem among young sexual minority men. While there is a growing body of literature on correlates of homelessness among sexual minority men, there is a lack of literature parsing the different facets of housing instability. The present study examines factors associated with both living and sleeping in unstable housing among n���=���600 sexual minority men (ages 18���19). Multivariate models were constructed to examine the ex...

  8. Partnership agreements less likely among young gay and bisexual men in Australia - data from a national online survey of gay and bisexual men's relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstee, Johann; Philpot, Steven; Grierson, Jeffrey; Bavinton, Benjamin R; Duncan, Duane; Prestage, Garrett

    2017-08-01

    How gay and bisexual men (GBM) establish partnership agreements may be affected by several factors, including age. The ability to communicate with a partner about sexual agreements has important sexual health implications for GBM. To assess differences in partnership agreements among GBM. We surveyed GBM about their partnerships using a national, anonymous online survey in 2013-14. We compared men who had monogamous partnerships with men who had non-monogamous partnerships, according to age and other factors. Regarding the nature of their partnership with their primary regular partner (PRP), younger men were less likely to have an agreement of any sort and were less likely to have discussed it. Younger men were more likely to report having a monogamous partnership, but they were also less likely to report condomless anal intercourse with their PRP. In multivariate analysis of partnership arrangements, having a non-monogamous partnership with their PRP was associated with being older (adjusted odds ratio=1.03; 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.04; Prelationship', younger men were particularly less likely to do so. Due to less communication with partners about sexual agreements, when young GBM engage in sexual risk behaviour they may be at an increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections.

  9. Information Behavior and HIV Testing Intentions Among Young Men at Risk for HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowbrooke, Chrysta C.; Veinot, Tiffany C.; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Health research shows that knowing about health risks may not translate into behavior change. However, such research typically operationalizes health information acquisition with knowledge tests. Information scientists who investigate socially embedded information behaviors could help improve understanding of potential associations between information behavior—as opposed to knowledge—and health behavior formation, thus providing new opportunities to investigate the effects of health information. We examine the associations between information behavior and HIV testing intentions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), a group with high rates of unrecognized HIV infection. We used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict intentions to seek HIV testing in an online sample of 163 YMSM. Multiple regression and recursive path analysis were used to test two models: (a) the basic TPB model and (b) an adapted model that added the direct effects of three information behaviors (information exposure, use of information to make HIV-testing decisions, prior experience obtaining an HIV test) plus self-rated HIV knowledge. As hypothesized, our adapted model improved predictions, explaining more than twice as much variance as the original TPB model. The results suggest that information behaviors may be more important predictors of health behavior intentions than previously acknowledged. PMID:25346934

  10. Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Risk in Young Healthy Men Treated with Injectable Testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the association between testosterone therapy and new myocardial infarction (MI and stroke events in a series of patients treated at Low T Centers across the United States, consisting of mainly young (mean age = 46, otherwise, healthy men. Electronic medical records were queried between the years 2009 and 2014 to identify patients diagnosed with hypogonadism, MI, and stroke, as indicated by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of MI and stroke events was compared to community-based registries. 39,936 patients recruited from 40 Low T Centers across the United States were treated and 19,968 met eligibility criteria for receiving testosterone treatment. The incidence rate ratio (IRR for MI in testosterone- (T- treated versus nontreated patients was 0.14 (C.I. = 0.08 to 0.18, P<0.0001 whereas the IRR for stroke for T-treated versus nontreated patients was 0.11 (C.I. = 0.02 to 0.13, P<0.0001. There was no evidence of worsening preexisting MI or stroke in patients treated with testosterone. The experience in Low T Centers shows that, in an injectable testosterone patient registry, testosterone is generally safe for younger men who do not have significant risk factors. Of patients that developed MI with testosterone, there was no association with testosterone or hematocrit levels.

  11. Reference ranges for serum and salivary testosterone in young men of Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Víctor; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; García de Guadiana, Luis; Sánchez-Pellicer, Pedro; Alfayate, Rocío; Mauri, Montserrat; Sánchez-Payá, José; Picó, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The interassay variability found in the measurement of testosterone (T) levels warrants the need for laboratories to validate their methods to establish trustworthy cut-off points for diagnosis of male hypogonadism. The aims of this study were to validate measurement of total T (TT) at our laboratory in order to obtain reference ranges for TT, calculated free T (CFT), calculated bioavailable T (CBT), and salivary T (ST) in healthy young men from the Mediterranean region, and to evaluate the potential clinical value of ST by establishing its correlation with serum T. An observational, cross-sectional study with sequential sampling. men aged 18-30 years with body mass index (BMI)9.7 nmol/L, CFT>0.22 nmol/L, and/or CBT>4.9 nmol/L make the presence of biochemical hypogonadism unlikely. According to the correlation between serum and ST, the clinical value of ST remains to be established. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Process and impact evaluation of a community gender equality intervention with young men in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudberg, Halima; Contractor, Sana; Das, Abhijit; Kemp, Christopher G; Nevin, Paul E; Phadiyal, Ashima; Lal, Jagdish; Rao, Deepa

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the results of a process and impact evaluation to assess the effects of a project aiming to engage men in changing gender stereotypes and improving health outcomes for women in villages in Rajasthan, India. We conducted seven focus group discussions with participants in the programme and six in-depth interviews with intervention group leaders. We also conducted 137 pre- and 70 post-intervention surveys to assess participant and community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours surrounding gender, violence and sexuality. We used thematic analysis to identify process and impact themes, and hierarchical mixed linear regression for the primary outcome analysis of survey responses. Post-intervention, significant changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding gender, sexuality and violence were made on the individual level by participants, as well as in the community. Moderate behavioural changes were seen in individuals and in the community. Study findings offer a strong model for prevention programmes working with young men to create a community effect in encouraging gender equality in social norms.

  13. Risks and music - patterns among young women and men in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, M C; Sorbring, E; Widén, S E; Erlandsson, S I

    2011-01-01

    Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women's and men's risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender- and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.

  14. Acute Exercise Improves Mood and Motivation in Young Men with ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Kathryn M; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about whether acute exercise affects signs or symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. This experiment sought to determine the effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity leg cycling exercise on measures of attention, hyperactivity, mood, and motivation to complete mental work in adult men reporting elevated ADHD symptoms. A repeated-measures crossover experiment was conducted with 32 adult men (18-33 yr) with symptoms consistent with adult ADHD assessed by the Adult Self-Report Scale V1.1. Measures of attention (continuous performance task and Bakan vigilance task), motivation to perform the mental work (visual analog scale), lower leg physical activity (accelerometry), and mood (Profile of Mood States and Addiction Research Center Inventory amphetamine scale) were measured before and twice after a 20-min seated rest control or exercise condition involving cycling at 65% V˙O2peak. Condition (exercise vs rest) × time (baseline, post 1, and post 2) ANOVA was used to test the hypothesized exercise-induced improvements in all outcomes. Statistically significant condition-time interactions were observed for vigor (P Profile of Mood States depression (P = 0.027), fatigue (P = 0.030), and confusion (P = 0.046) scales. No significant interaction effects were observed for leg hyperactivity, simple reaction time, or vigilance task performance (accuracy, errors, or reaction time). In young men reporting elevated symptoms of ADHD, a 20-min bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise transiently enhances motivation for cognitive tasks, increases feelings of energy, and reduces feelings of confusion, fatigue, and depression, but this has no effect on the behavioral measures of attention or hyperactivity used.

  15. Psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and personality among young men by sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dey, M; Soldati, L; Weiss, M G; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2014-10-01

    Personality and its potential role in mediating risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidality are assessed by sexual orientation, using data collected among young Swiss men (n=5875) recruited while presenting for mandatory military conscription. Mental health outcomes were analyzed by sexual attraction using logistic regression, controlling for five-factor model personality traits and socio-demographics. Homo/bisexual men demonstrated the highest scores for neuroticism-anxiety but the lowest for sociability and sensation seeking, with no differences for aggression-hostility. Among homo/bisexual men, 10.2% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for major depression in the past 2weeks, 10.8% for ADHD in the past 12months, 13.8% for lifetime anti-social personality disorder (ASPD), and 6.0% attempted suicide in the past 12months. Upon adjusting (AOR) for personality traits, their odds ratios (OR) for major depression (OR=4.78, 95% CI 2.81-8.14; AOR=1.46, 95% CI 0.80-2.65) and ADHD (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.31-3.58; AOR=1.00, 95% CI 0.58-1.75) lost statistical significance, and the odds ratio for suicide attempt was halved (OR=5.10, 95% CI 2.57-10.1; AOR=2.42, 95% CI 1.16-5.02). There are noteworthy differences in personality traits by sexual orientation, and much of the increased mental morbidity appears to be accounted for by such underlying differences, with important implications for etiology and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents results for young men’s health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive. Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals’ training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  17. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses.

  18. Goal Navigation, Approach-Oriented Coping, and Adjustment in Young Men with Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Gamarel, Kristi E; Saigal, Christopher S; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-08-01

    Cancer can challenge important life goals for young adult survivors. Poor goal navigation skills might disrupt self-regulation and interfere with coping efforts, particularly approach-oriented attempts. Two studies are presented that investigated relationships among goal navigation processes, approach-oriented coping, and adjustment (i.e., social, emotional, and functional well-being) in separate samples of young adults with testicular cancer. In study 1, in-depth interviews (N = 21) were analyzed using thematic analysis to understand experiences of goal pursuit following cancer. In study 2, 171 men completed measures of goal navigation, coping, and adjustment to cancer. In study 1, three prominent themes emerged: goal clarification, goal engagement and disengagement, and responses to disrupted goals. Regression analyses in study 2 revealed that goal navigation skills were positively associated with emotional (B = .35, p testicular cancer. They likely represent important independent targets for intervention, and goal navigation skills might also buffer the negative consequences of low use of approach-oriented coping.

  19. Goal Navigation, Approach-Oriented Coping, and Adjustment in Young Men with Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Saigal, Christopher S.; Stanton, Annette L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer can challenge important life goals for young adult survivors. Poor goal navigation skills might disrupt self-regulation and interfere with coping efforts, particularly approach-oriented attempts. Two studies are presented that investigated relationships among goal navigation processes, approach-oriented coping, and adjustment (i.e., social, emotional, and functional well-being) in separate samples of young adults with testicular cancer. Methods In Study 1, in-depth interviews (N=21) were analyzed using thematic analysis to understand experiences of goal pursuit following cancer. In Study 2, 171 men completed measures of goal navigation, coping, and adjustment to cancer. Results In Study 1, three prominent themes emerged: goal clarification; goal engagement and disengagement; and responses to disrupted goals. Regression analyses in Study 2 revealed that goal navigation skills were positively associated with emotional (B = .35, ptesticular cancer. They likely represent important independent targets for intervention, and goal navigation skills might also buffer the negative consequences of low use of approach-oriented coping. PMID:26935309

  20. A social-cognitive analysis of how young men become involved in male escorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Grov, Christian; Seal, David W; McCall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a social-cognitive theoretical perspective to assess the interactions of behavioral, cognitive, and situational factors to understand better how young male sex workers (MSWs) entered the sex trade industry. As part of a larger project examining male escorts working for a single agency, MSWs (n = 38) were interviewed about their work and personal lives. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically. As predicted by a social-cognitive perspective, results supported reciprocal influences of behavior and environment, environment and cognition, and behavior and cognition. MSWs developed more self-efficacy around sex work behaviors and more positive outcome expectations with experience; moral conflict and lack of attraction to clients limited MSWs' self-efficacy. Key variables for sex work appeared to be cognitive in nature-mostly represented by a decreased commitment to normative social/sexual values, the specific nature of which may have varied by sexual orientation. Findings support the contention that social-cognitive theory can effectively model entry of young men into sex work. Social-cognitive theory provides a broad umbrella underneath which various explanations for male sex work can be gathered.

  1. Long-term weight changes in obese young adult men and subsequent all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight...... change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years......). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...

  2. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Exercise is known to induce stress-related physiological responses, such as changes in intestinal barrier function. Our aim was to determine the test-retest repeatability of these responses in well-trained individuals. What is the main finding and its importance? Responses to strenuous exercise, as indicated by stress-related markers such as intestinal integrity markers and myokines, showed high test-retest variation. Even in well-trained young men an adapted response is seen after a single repetition after 1 week. This finding has implications for the design of studies aimed at evaluating physiological responses to exercise. Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com), we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven well-trained men (27 ± 4 years old) completed an exercise protocol that consisted of intensive cycling intervals, followed by an overnight fast and an additional 90 min cycling phase at 50% of maximal workload the next morning. The day before (rest), and immediately after the exercise protocol (exercise) a lactulose and rhamnose solution was ingested. Markers of energy metabolism, lactulose-to-rhamnose ratio, several cytokines and potential stress-related markers were measured at rest and during exercise. In addition, untargeted urine metabolite profiles were obtained. The complete procedure (Test) was repeated 1 week later (Retest) to assess repeatability. Metabolic effect parameters with regard to energy metabolism and urine metabolomics were similar for both the Test and Retest period, underlining comparable exercise load. Following exercise, intestinal permeability (1 h plasma lactulose-to-rhamnose ratio) and the serum interleukin-6, interleukin-10, fibroblast growth factor-21 and muscle creatine

  3. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  4. Using motivational interviewing in HIV field outreach with young African American men who have sex with men: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outlaw, Angulique Y; Naar-King, Sylvie; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Green-Jones, Monique; Janisse, Heather; Secord, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    We sought to determine whether field outreach with motivational interviewing, as compared with traditional field outreach, leads to increases in HIV counseling and testing and rates of return for test results among young African American men who have sex with men (MSM). In a randomized, 2-group, repeated-measures design, 96 young African American MSM completed a motivational interviewing-based field outreach session and 92 young African American MSM completed a traditional field outreach session. The percentages of participants agreeing to traditional HIV counseling and testing (an oral swab of the cheek) and returning for test results were the primary outcome measures. More of the participants in the motivational interviewing condition than the control condition received HIV counseling and testing (49% versus 20%; chi(2)(1) = 17.94; P = .000) and returned for test results (98% versus 72%; chi(2)(1) = 10.22; P = .001). The addition of motivational interviewing to field outreach is effective in encouraging high-risk young African American MSM to learn their HIV status. Also, peer outreach workers can be effectively trained to reduce health disparities by providing evidence-based brief counseling approaches targeting high-risk minority populations.

  5. Effects of 2 wk of GH administration on 24-h indirect calorimetry in young, healthy, lean men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Morthorst, Rikke; Larsson, Benny

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo (Plc)-controlled study to determine the effect of 2 wk of growth hormone administration (GH-adm.) on energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation in healthy humans. Sixteen young healthy men were divided into two groups...

  6. Success in These Schools? Visual Counternarratives of Young Men of Color and Urban High Schools They Attend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of published scholarship on urban high schools in the United States focuses on problems of inadequacy, instability, underperformance, and violence. Similarly, across all schooling contexts, most of what has been written about young men of color continually reinforces deficit narratives about their educational possibility.…

  7. Testicular function in young men in long-term remission after treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Geisler, C; Hansen, M M

    1984-01-01

    16 young men in long-term remission after standard treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease were examined for testicular function 48 to 125 months after termination of therapy. The patients had received mantle field irradiation, plus either irradiation of infradiaphragmatic lymph nodes...... to chemotherapy, especially including alkylating agents....

  8. A systematic review of SNAPO (Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity) randomized controlled trials in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee M; Morgan, Philip J; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Young, Myles D; Collins, Clare E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity (SNAPO) interventions in young men exclusively. The secondary aim was to evaluate the recruitment, retention and engagement strategies. A search with no date restrictions was conducted across seven databases. Randomized controlled trials recruiting young men only (aged 18-35 years) into interventions targeting any SNAPO risk factors were included. Ten studies were included (two nutrition, six alcohol use, two targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors). Six studies (two nutrition, three alcohol use and one targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors) demonstrated significant positive short-term intervention effects, but impact was either not assessed beyond the intervention (n=3), had short-term follow-up (≤6 months) (n=2) or not sustained beyond six months (n=1). Overall, a high risk of bias was identified across studies. Only one study undertook a power calculation and recruited the required sample size. Adequate retention was achieved in three studies. Effectiveness of engagement strategies was not reported in any studies. Despite preliminary evidence of short-term effectiveness of SNAPO interventions in young men, few studies characterized by a high risk of bias were identified. High quality SNAPO interventions for young men are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low bone mass in behaviorally HIV-infected young men on antiretroviral therapy: adolescent trials network (ATN) study 021B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak bone mass is achieved in adolescence/early adulthood and is the key determinant of bone mass in adulthood. We evaluated the association of bone mass with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) during this critical period among behaviorally HIV infected young men and seronegative control...

  10. Development and Evaluation of an Internet-Based Program to Improve the Mental Health and Wellbeing of Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Louise A.; McCabe, Kathryn; Davenport, Tracey; Burns, Jane M.; Rahilly, Kitty; Nicholas, Mariesa; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the development of WorkOut, an Internet-based program designed to help young men overcome the barriers towards help-seeking and to build the skills they need to understand and manage their own mental health. Information and communication technologies (ICT) hold great potential to significantly improve mental…

  11. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surg...

  12. Meal patterns and food choices of young African-American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Margaret R; Martine, Tara L; Morton, Tiffany B; Johnson, Lakeisha T; Bell, Nancy M; Aronson, Robert E; Wallace, Debra C

    2011-09-01

    Although young African-American men are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, participation in competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American men. This study explored the activities of young African-American men to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited that included five groups of African-American men aged 15 to 22 years (N=106): high school athletes and nonathletes, college athletes and nonathletes, and nonstudents. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices during the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, nonstudent status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American men that take into consideration how school, athletics, and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Butch tops and femme bottoms? Sexual positioning, sexual decision making, and gender roles among young gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matthew Leslie; Bauermeister, José

    2012-11-01

    Gender and power are theoretical constructs linked to discussions of sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among heterosexual couples. Despite the fact that HIV rates are rising among young men who have sex with men in the United States, work examining the role of gender in sexual decision making of young men who have sex with men remains in its infancy. Through qualitative interviews with 34 young gay men (YGM), the authors seek to contribute to the literature in this area by focusing on the ways that YGM understand and enact sexual positions during anal sex. The authors' results highlight the diversity of YGM's sexual preferences, as well as the high degree of sexual fluidity. Ideas of gender appear to inform part of this process; however, YGM critiqued conventional gender norms and emphasized the centrality of relationships (i.e., casual vs. romantic) in their sexual decision making. The authors discuss the importance of considering gender and interpersonal factors when designing HIV/AIDS prevention messages for YGM.

  14. Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in a population-based study of young adult men in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Mohamad; Wong, Tien Yin; Koh, Colleen L K; Tan, Donald T H

    2005-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of amblyopia in young adult Chinese, Indian, and Malay men in Singapore. A population-based cross-sectional study. Best-corrected visual acuities of all Singaporean men born in the years 1978 to 1983 were measured before enlistment into military service. Those with BCVA of 6/12 or worse were examined by an ophthalmologist for the presence of amblyopia and other causes. Of the 122,596 men examined, there were 428 with amblyopia, an overall prevalence of 0.35%. The prevalence was similar among Chinese (0.34%), Malays (0.37%), and Indians (0.41%, P = .52). Anisometropic amblyopia was the most common type of amblyopia and strabismic amblyopia was more common in Indians. There were little racial differences in the prevalence of meridional or form deprivation amblyopia. The overall prevalence of amblyopia was low and was similar among the three racial groups in young adult Singaporean males.

  15. Altered PI3-kinase/Akt signalling in skeletal muscle of young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.B.; Martin-Gronert, M.S.; Storgaard, H.

    2008-01-01

    regulatory subunit and p110beta catalytic subunit, PKCzeta and GLUT4 in the fasting state. The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signalling pathways is altered in skeletal muscle of young adult men with LBW. METHODS: Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were......BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased future risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that young LBW men have reduced skeletal muscle expression of PI3K p85alpha....../Akt but not the MAPK pathway precedes and may contribute to development of whole-body insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in men with LBW....

  16. Multiplex crack smoking and sexual networks: Associations between network members’ incarceration and HIV risks among high-risk MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Kim, Ju Yeong; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined HIV risks in the multiplex crack-smoking and sexual networks of incarcerated drug-using men who have sex with men (MSM) and their associates. We estimated the associations between the network members’ incarceration, self-reported HIV infection, and trading sex for money. Methods Our analytic sample consisted of 508 crack-smoking or sexual partnerships of 273 high-risk MSM. Network members were specified by (1) crack smoking and sexual behavior or (2) crack smoking only. Results Longer incarceration of the crack-smoking and sexual network members was associated with self-reported HIV infection (AOR = 1.61, p trading sex (AOR = 2.77, p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings of the study call for the development of a system-level HIV intervention among former incarcerated MSM and their associates. PMID:27417286

  17. Premarital sexual experience and preferred sources of reproductive health information among young men in Kumbotso, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Z; Zubairu, I; Abubakar, I S; Isa, S A; Galadanci, H S; Hadiza, S G; Babam Maryam, A; Babam-Maryam, A; Aliyu, M H; Muktar, H A

    2012-01-01

    Despite well known risks associated with unprotected premarital sex, this phenomenon has not been well explored among young men in rural northern Nigeria. We studied the predictors of premarital sex and preferred sources of sexual and reproductive health information among young unmarried men in Kumbotso, northern Nigeria. A cross section of 400 young men were interviewed using structured questionnaires with mostly closed ended questions. Of the 385 respondents, 39 (10.1%) were sexually experienced. Less than half of respondents (48.7%) used a condom at sexual debut, and an equal proportion reported having multiple sex partners. Only 41.0% of sexually experienced respondents reported subsequent consistent condom use Age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.24-5.20 and educational attainment [AOR = 3.57; 95% CI (1.49-9.10)] were significant predictors of sexual experience. The current versus preferred sources of sexual and reproductive health information included friends (51.3% vs. 93.3%), Islamic school teachers (41.0% vs. 72.7%) and school teachers (8.8% vs. 15.1%). Although the prevalence of premarital sex among young men in this community in northern Nigeria as low, those that did engage in such activity were likely to not use condoms and to have multiple partners. Preferred and trusted sources of information included peers and religious leaders. The findings in this study could be used to develop innovative strategies for reaching young men with accurate sexual and reproductive health information.

  18. Measurement of myostatin concentrations in human serum: Circulating concentrations in young and older men and effects of testosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Kishore M; Bhasin, Shalender; Corcoran, Christopher; Collins-Racie, Lisa A; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Forlow, S Bradley; St Ledger, Katie; Burczynski, Michael E; Dorner, Andrew J; Lavallie, Edward R

    2009-04-10

    Methodological problems, including binding of myostatin to plasma proteins and cross-reactivity of assay reagents with other proteins, have confounded myostatin measurements. Here we describe development of an accurate assay for measuring myostatin concentrations in humans. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to distinct regions of myostatin served as capture and detector antibodies in a sandwich ELISA that used acid treatment to dissociate myostatin from binding proteins. Serum from myostatin-deficient Belgian Blue cattle was used as matrix and recombinant human myostatin as standard. The quantitative range was 0.15-37.50 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-assay CVs in low, mid, and high range were 4.1%, 4.7%, and 7.2%, and 3.9%, 1.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. Myostatin protein was undetectable in sera of Belgian Blue cattle and myostatin knockout mice. Recovery in spiked sera approximated 100%. ActRIIB-Fc or anti-myostatin antibody MYO-029 had no effect on myostatin measurements when assayed at pH 2.5. Myostatin levels were higher in young than older men (mean+/-S.E.M. 8.0+/-0.3 ng/mL vs. 7.0+/-0.4 ng/mL, P=0.03). In men treated with graded doses of testosterone, myostatin levels were significantly higher on day 56 than baseline in both young and older men; changes in myostatin levels were significantly correlated with changes in total and free testosterone in young men. Myostatin levels were not significantly associated with lean body mass in either young or older men. Myostatin ELISA has the characteristics of a valid assay: nearly 100% recovery, excellent precision, accuracy, and sufficient sensitivity to enable measurement of myostatin concentrations in men and women.

  19. Multiple joint muscle function with ageing: the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships in young and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sarah J; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Folland, Jonathan P

    2013-05-01

    Whilst extensive research has detailed the loss of muscle strength with ageing for isolated single joint actions, there has been little attention to power production during more functionally relevant multiple joint movements. The extent to which force or velocity are responsible for the loss in power with ageing is also equivocal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of force and velocity to the differences in power with age by comparing the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships in young and older men during a multiple joint leg press movement. Twenty-one older men (66 ± 3 years) and twenty-three young men (24 ± 2 years) completed a series of isometric (maximum and explosive) and dynamic contractions on a leg press dynamometer instrumented to record force and displacement. The force-velocity relationship was lower for the older men as reflected by their 19 % lower maximum isometric strength (p velocity relationship was lower for the older men as shown by reduced maximum power (-28 %, p velocity (-11 %, p velocity were lower in older men, the decrement in force was greater and therefore the major explanation for the attenuation of power during a functionally relevant multiple joint movement.

  20. Gender differences in associations of sexual and romantic stimuli: do young men really prefer sex over romance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2012-08-01

    Theory and research emphasize differences in men's and women's sexual and romantic attitudes, concluding that men have stronger preferences for sexual than romantic stimuli as compared to women. However, most of the research on gender differences have relied on self-reports, which are plagued by problems of social desirability bias. The current study assessed young men's and women's implicit attitudes toward sexual and romantic stimuli to test whether, in fact, men have a stronger preference for sexual over romantic stimuli compared to women. We also assessed associations between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as sex role ideology and personality. College students (68 men and 114 women) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assessed strengths of associations of sexual and romantic stimuli to both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Results revealed that both men and women more strongly associated romantic images to the pleasant condition than they associated the sexual images to the pleasant condition. However, as predicted, women had a stronger preference toward romantic versus sexual stimuli compared to men. Our study challenges a common assumption that men prefer sexual over romantic stimuli. The findings indicate that measures of implicit attitudes may tap preferences that are not apparent in studies relying on self-reported (explicit) attitudes.

  1. Generational changes in the meanings of sex, sexual identity and stigma among Latino young and adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18-60. This study asks how the bisexual identity and experience of stigma is different for Latino men along the generational spectrum and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men aged 18-25, whose open bisexual identity correlated positively with kinship/peer support and flexible gender and sexual roles, and men aged 26-60, who refused or were reluctant to identify as bisexual despite the fact that they were sexually active with both men and women. This group as a whole had less kinship and peer support, were more likely to identify with traditional gender roles and were less sexually versatile. Finally, a third group reflected Latino men across the generational divide who were less concerned with same-sex stigma, but who nevertheless felt the bisexual label to be confining, illegitimate or otherwise negative.

  2. Men, multiple sexual partners, and young adults' sexual relationships: understanding the role of gender in the study of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Hoffman, Susie; Harrison, Abigail; Dolezal, Curtis

    2006-07-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections has become a primary health concern worldwide. Gender roles for heterosexual interactions appear to sanction men's sexual risk-taking, especially the pursuit of multiple sexual partners. Using measures developed in this study, the current study assessed the associations between men's and women's relationship attitudes and experiences and their sexual risk encounters. Participants were 104 men and 103 women (18-24 years) from a large, urban college located in a high HIV risk neighborhood of New York City. All completed a survey assessing HIV risk and the battery of relationship measures assessing traditional sexual roles, sexual conflicts, significance of sex, relationship investment, need for relationship, and unwanted sex. For men, greater sexual conflict in their primary relationships was associated with more sexual partners and fewer unprotected vaginal intercourse encounters with a primary partner and across sex partners overall. In addition, men's endorsement of more traditional sexual roles and lower relationship investment were associated with higher numbers of sexual partners. Among women, compliance with men to engage in unwanted sex was associated with higher levels of participation in unprotected sex. For both men and women, greater significance given to sex in a relationship was associated with fewer extradyadic partners. This study demonstrates the utility of measures of relationship attitudes and experiences to characterize sexual risk, especially among men. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for prevention program targeting young urban adults.

  3. Generational Changes in the Meanings of Sex, Sexual Identity and Stigma among Latino Young and Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18–60. This study asks how is the bisexual identity and experience of stigma different for Latino men along the generational spectrum, and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men aged 18–25, whose open bisexual identity correlated positively with kinship/peer support and flexible gender and sexual roles; and men aged 26–60, who refused or were reluctant to identify as bisexual despite the fact that they were sexually active with both men and women. This group as a whole had less kinship and peer support, were more likely to identify with traditional gender roles and were less sexually versatile. Finally, a third group reflected Latino men across the generational divide who were less concerned with same-sex stigma, but who nevertheless felt the bisexual label to be confining, illegitimate, or otherwise negative. PMID:23651224

  4. Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: evidences from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (psex-seeking were more likely to engage in casual sex (psex-seeking is operationalised in research is differentially associated with sexual risk. Against this backdrop, the utility of these operational definitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Association between Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Chinese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, X; Song, Zh; Zhao, Ch; Jiang, Y

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Chinese population and assess the association between HOMA-IR and different components of MetS in young Chinese men. Overall 5576 young Chinese subjects (age range [19-44 yr], 3636 men) were enrolled in, who visited our Health Care Center for a related health checkup from March to December 2008. The international diabetes federation (IDF) definition for MetS was used. The SPSS statistical package, version 11.5 was used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence of MetS was 21.81% in young men and 5.62% in young women. According to suffering from different numbers of MetS components, the male subjects were divided into four groups. Numbers of MetS components were more and HOMA-IR values were significantly higher. In this male population, the quartile of HOMA-IR was higher, values of triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FBG), systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and waist circumference (WC) were all significantly higher, as well as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) value was significantly lower (P= 0.000). In Spearman's correlation analysis, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with TG, FBG, SBP, DBP and WC, and negatively correlated with HDL-C (r= 0.460, 0.464, 0.362, 0.346, 0.586, -0.357, respectively, all P value= 0.000). The prevalence of MetS in these young Chinese men was obviously high. Insulin resistance played an important role in occurrence and development of MetS. Waist circumference was the best correlation with HOMA-IR among all components of MetS.

  6. Experience of physical violence and mental health among young men and women: a population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridh, Maria; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-01-11

    In Sweden mental ill-health has increased among the young, especially among young women. Our aim was to investigate the association between experience of physical violence during the past year and self rated psychological health among young men and women. The study population consisted of men (n = 2,624) and women (n = 3,569) aged 18-34 years who participated in the 2008 public health survey study in Skåne. The survey was a cross-sectional stratified random sample postal questionnaire study with a 54.1% participation rate. Associations were investigated by logistic regression models. The prevalence of poor psychological health was 18.9% among men and 27.7% among women. One in ten men and one in twenty women had experienced physical violence during the past year. Most men were violated in public places, while women were most often violated at home. Women who had experienced violence during the past year showed more than doubled odds of poor psychological health, odds ratio (OR): 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00, 3.53). Such an association could not be seen in men OR: 1.12 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.47). Adjustment for covariates (i.e. age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, economic stress, alcohol risk consumption, emotional support, instrumental support and generalized trust in other people) did not change the association found among women. Violated women, but not men, showed nearly doubled odds of poor psychological health after multiple adjustments. There was also a gender difference regarding location of violence. Awareness of gender differences regarding context and mental impact of violence may assist public health workers in reducing the consequences of violence and to design preventive strategies.

  7. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of african american males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K

    2012-01-01

    Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  8. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of African American males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K Mukku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  9. General Erectile Functioning among Young, Heterosexual Men Who Do and Do Not Report Condom-Associated Erection Problems (CAEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Hill, Brandon J; Janssen, Erick; Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Yarber, William L

    2015-09-01

    Condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) are an underestimated factor related to inconsistent or incomplete male condom use. The underlying mechanisms of CAEP are not understood, and whether men who report these difficulties are also likely to experience erectile problems in situations when condoms are not used has not been studied. The aim of the study was to investigate, in a sample of condom-using young, heterosexual men (aged 18-24 years), whether men who report CAEP are more likely to (i) have erection problems when not using condoms and (ii) meet criteria for erectile dysfunction. A total of 479 men recruited online completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and answered questions about erection problems experienced when using and not using condoms during the last 90 days. Demographic, sexual experience, and health status variables were investigated as correlates. Self-reported frequency of erection loss during condom application or during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) in the past 90 days and IIEF-5 scores. Of the men, 38.4% were classified in the no CAEP group, 13.8% as having CAEP during condom application, 15.7% as having CAEP during PVI, and 32.2% as having CAEP during both condom application and PVI. Men reporting any form of CAEP were significantly more likely than men reporting no CAEP to also report erection difficulties during sexual activity when not using condoms. Men who reported CAEP during PVI only or during both application and PVI scored significantly lower on the IIEF-5 than men without CAEP. The findings suggest that men who report CAEP are also more likely to experience more generalized erection difficulties. Clinicians should assess whether men using condoms experience CAEP and where appropriate, refer for psychosexual therapy or provide condom skills education. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Bowel Perforation complicating an incarcerated inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sigal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 51-year-old male presents complaining of increasing right groin pain and an enlarging bulge. Symptoms started as a “bubble” 6 weeks prior to presentation. One week prior to presentation, thinking the bulge was an abscess, the patient attempted to “pop” the bulge with a sewing needle, the needle became lodged in the site and he attempted retrieval with a second sewing needle, which also became lodged. No purulent material was obtained. The patient denied any nausea, vomiting or constipation as well as any fevers or urinary symptoms. His abdomen was soft, non-tender, non-distended with active bowel sounds. The groin exam demonstrated an incarcerated right inguinal hernia and cellulitis of the right hemiscrotum with associated induration and tenderness. Significant findings: The AP and lateral pelvis x-rays revealed two sewing needles, 60 mm in length, within the soft tissue over the anterior right lower hemipelvis. In addition, the AP view showed emphysema involving the right hemiscrotum (arrow, concerning for perforated bowel. Discussion: Groin hernias have a lifetime risk of 27% for men and 3% for women and the incidence increases with age.1 Groin hernias can be either direct or indirect, and inguinal or femoral. The distinction is made during surgery. Femoral hernias make up only 5% of groin hernias but are more common in women.1 Concerning complications include incarceration, in which a hernia cannot be reduced, and strangulation in which vascular compromise occurs.1 Incarcerated hernias often present with a painful, tender mass and are difficult to distinguish from strangulation. Patients with strangulation may present with fevers and peritonitis. The overlying skin may also be red.2 The percentage of patients presenting with strangulation varies by region. Western developed countries report only 1%-3% of patients presenting as surgical emergencies whereas in Africa the percentage can be as high as 26

  11. Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Nilsson, E; Chapman, C D; Cedernaes, J; Vogel, H; Dickson, S L; Broman, J-E; Schiöth, H B; Benedict, C

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans. A total of 16 healthy normal-weight men participated in 2 conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30 h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning after regular sleep and TSD, circulating concentrations of ghrelin and glucose were measured. In addition, participants hunger level was assessed by means of visual analogue scales, both before and after a caloric preload. Finally, following the preload, participants rated both intensity and pleasantness of six orally presented yogurt probes with varying sucrose concentrations (2-29 %). Feelings of hunger were significantly more intense under both fasted and sated conditions when subjects were sleep-deprived. In contrast, the change in hunger induced by the preload was similar between the sleep and TSD conditions. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were significantly higher under conditions of TSD, whereas plasma glucose did not differ between the conditions. No effects were found either on sweet taste intensity or on pleasantness after TSD. One night of TSD increases morning plasma concentrations of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin in healthy young men. In contrast, sweet taste perception was not affected by nocturnal wakefulness. This suggests that an altered sweet taste perception is an unlikely mechanism by which TSD enhances food intake.

  12. Project Gel a Randomized Rectal Microbicide Safety and Acceptability Study in Young Men and Transgender Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McGowan

    Full Text Available The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women (TGW at risk of HIV infection.MSM and TGW aged 18-30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel. This was followed by the final phase of the study (Stage 2 in which a subset of participants from Stage 1B were enrolled into a Phase 1 rectal safety and acceptability evaluation of tenofovir (TFV 1% gel.248 participants were enrolled into Stage 1A. Participants' average age was 23.3 years. The most common sexually transmitted infection (STIs at baseline were Herpes simplex (HSV-2 (16.1% by serology and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT (10.1% by NAAT. 134 participants were enrolled into Stage 1B. During the 12 week period of follow-up 2 HIV, 5 rectal CT, and 5 rectal Neisseria gonorrhea infections were detected. The majority of adverse events (AEs were infections (N = 56 or gastrointestinal (N = 46 and were mild (69.6% or moderate (28.0%. Of the participants who completed Stage 1B, 24 were enrolled into Stage 2 and randomized (1:1 to receive TFV or placebo gel. All participants completed Stage 2. The majority of AEs were gastrointestinal (N = 10 and of mild (87.2% or moderate (10.3% severity.In this study we were able to enroll a sexually active population of young MSM and TGW who were willing to use rectal microbicides. TFV gel was safe and acceptable and should be further developed as an alternative HIV prevention intervention for this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01283360.

  13. All the young men gone: losing men in the gentrification of Australian nursing circa 1860-1899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J

    1996-12-01

    Men played an important role in nursing in colonial Australia. However the number of men undertaking nursing duties declined dramatically in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reasons for this are explored in relation to ramifications of the introduction of the Nightingale pattern of nurse training in Australia, which occurred within the Victorian ethos of gentility and decorum. In this context, nursing came to be seen as a calling that was natural and appropriate for women. The controlled, decorous ambience of nursing, its subservient relationship to medicine and the attractiveness to employers of female pay rates are all associated with the decline in male participation over this period.

  14. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress.

  15. PERSONIFICATION OF WAY OF LIFE TYPES OF YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN – GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tigranovna Dzhaneryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study aimed at research of the characteristics of personification as the substantive characteristic of each type of the way of life ideals (matrimonial, bohemian, health, career, community, social, social-protection, gnostic of young men and women – graduates of the university.Research methods: survey (questionnaire for study the way of life ideal, a content analysis of the open questions of the questionnaire, expert evaluation categories, methods of nonparametric statistics.Results. The article presents ideas about the way of life ideals, discloses its components and characteristics. In the article designated types of way of life ideals: matrimonial, bohemian, health, career, community, social-protection, gnostic. Established the features of personification of each type of boys and girl’s ideals (who are graduates of the university. The results show that all kinds of way of life ideals are personified; that there are attractive to young people personality traits of real people (or groups whose way of life influences on the construction of their own ideals of life. It is shown that the differentiation of male and female personification of ideals occurs on different parameters: for the ideals of «matrimonial life» and «career life» appears only in the parameter singularity / community; for the ideal of «social life» – in the parameters singularity / community, the psychological portrait, similarities; for the ideal of «health life» – in the parameters singularity / community, the psychological portrait, a means of implementing, similarities.Application of the results: psychological services in high schools and personnel services in different companies.

  16. Complexity of heartbeat interval series in young healthy trained and untrained men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platisa, Mirjana M; Nestorovic, Zorica; Gal, Vera; Mazic, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    The origin of heart rate variability (HRV) is largely in parasympathetic activity. The direct influence of sympathetic activity and other control mechanisms, especially at an increased HR, is not well understood. The objectives of the study were to investigate the influence of increasing HR on the properties of heartbeat interval (RR) series in young healthy subjects. ECG was recorded in 9 trained and 11 untrained young men during supine rest, standing, incremental running exercise and relaxation. During exercise, a breath-to-breath gas exchange was monitored. The RR time series analysis included the spectral analysis, detrended fluctuations analysis method and sample entropy (SampEn) calculation. During exercise, spectral powers were reduced dramatically in both groups. The dependence of short-term scaling exponent (α 1 ) on the RR included a characteristic maximum, while SampEn for the same value of the RR had a minimum. The value of HR corresponding to the maximum of α 1 and minimum of SampEn (IHR) corresponded to the intrinsic HR obtained by an autonomic blockade. In trained subjects, the curves α 1 versus RR and SampEn versus RR were moved toward larger RR, compared with control. For HR values higher than IHR, α 1 decreased and SampEn increased. These results reveal that the complexity of the heart rhythm above intrinsic HR decreases with an increase in HR. We suggest that at the highest HR intrinsic heart control is reflected in the heart rhythm. We point out the possibility of developing a new non-invasive method for the determination of intrinsic HR from the curve α 1 versus RR

  17. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neychev, V K; Mitev, V I

    2005-10-03

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on androgen metabolism in young males. Twenty-one healthy young 20-36 years old men with body weight ranging from 60 to 125 kg were randomly separated into three groups-two experimental (each n=7) and a control (placebo) one (n=7). The experimental groups were named TT1 and TT2 and the subjects were assigned to consume 20 and 10 mg/kg body weight per day of Tribulus terrestris extract, respectively, separated into three daily intakes for 4 weeks. Testosterone, androstenedione and luteinizing hormone levels in the serum were measured 24 h before supplementation (clear probe), and at 24, 72, 240, 408 and 576 h from the beginning of the supplementation. There was no significant difference between Tribulus terrestris supplemented groups and controls in the serum testosterone (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 15.75+/-1.75 nmol/l); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 16.32+/-1.57 nmol/l); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 17.74+/-1.09 nmol/l) (p>0.05)), androstenedione (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 1.927+/-0.126 ng/ml); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 2.026+/-0.256 ng/ml); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 1.952+/-0.236 ng/ml) (p>0.05)) or luteinizing hormone (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 4.662+/-0.274U/l); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 4.103+/-0.869U/l); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 4.170+/-0.406U/l) (p>0.05)) levels. All results were within the normal range. The findings in the current study anticipate that Tribulus terrestris steroid saponins possess neither direct nor indirect androgen-increasing properties. The study will be extended in the clarifying the probable mode of action of Tribulus terrestris steroid saponins.

  18. "I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood": Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention.

  19. “I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood”: Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Malebranche, David J.; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental–family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention. PMID:24832150

  20. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Transactional Sex with Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Metro Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks.

  1. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  2. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  3. Evaluation of sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele using the International Index of Erectile Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamé, Xavier; Moscovici, Jacques; Gamé, Laurence; Sarramon, Jean-Pierre; Rischmann, Pascal; Malavaud, Bernard

    2006-03-01

    To assess sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele. Between November 2003 and February 2004, a cross-sectional study was performed in 55 men older than 18 years of age who had been regularly followed up for myelomeningocele since childhood, between 1961 and 1985, in the Pediatric Internal Surgery Department. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was mailed to each man. The response rate was 72.7%. Of the 40 men who replied, 16 (40%) had had sexual intercourse at least once during the previous month. These were the older men (age 31.9 +/- 5.7 years versus 27.7 +/- 5.5 years, P = 0.027). The IIEF scores for the whole group were erectile function 11.61 +/- 9.44, orgasmic function 3.53 +/- 3.86, sexual desire 6.94 +/- 2.4, intercourse satisfaction 3.7 +/- 4.81, and overall satisfaction 4.7 +/- 3.34. According to the classification of Cappelleri, of the 16 men who had had sexual intercourse during the previous month, 4 had no erectile dysfunction, 3 had mild, 4 mild to moderate, and 5 severe dysfunction. Erectile function was statistically related to the ability to maintain erections (mean IIEF score 4 and 5 for men with no erectile dysfunction versus a mean IIEF score of 4 and 5 for men with erectile dysfunction: 4.75 +/- 0.5 versus 2.00 +/- 1.32, P = 0.011 for IIEF score of 4 and 4.50 +/- 1.5 versus 3 +/- 2, P = 0.040 for IIEF score of 5). Young adult men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele begin sexual activity late. Moreover, 75% have erectile dysfunction that is related to difficulty in maintaining erections.

  4. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  5. Roles and challenges of outreach workers in HIV clinical and support programs serving young racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Julia; Coombs, Elizabeth; Cobbs, Will O; Green-Jones, Monique; Phillips, Gregory; Wohl, Amy Rock; Smith, Justin C; Ramos, Albert Daniel; Fields, Sheldon D

    2011-08-01

    The federal government has established rapid identification, linkage, and engagement in medical care of HIV-positive individuals as a high priority. Outreach workers and other linkage coordinators are identified as key personnel in implementing this policy. Young racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) have relatively high and growing rates of HIV infection and would benefit from the services of outreach workers. In this article, we describe the characteristics of outreach workers employed by eight demonstration sites participating in the federal Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) Young MSM of Color Initiative, the linkage and retention models used by the sites, and the number of outreach/ linkage contacts and individuals referred to HIV care. We summarize rates of retention of outreach workers in employment, factors associated with worker turnover, and costs associated with their replacement. We also summarize the experiences of demonstration sites in employing and retaining outreach workers and improving their performance. The insights of outreach workers are reported regarding the challenges they experienced while conducting outreach. Recommendations from demonstration site project managers and outreach workers are offered to improve workplace performance and job retention. Outreach and retention strategies, as well as lessons learned in employing outreach workers, are useful to programs serving young racial/ethnic minority MSM and other HIV-positive groups.

  6. Autophagy is induced by resistance exercise in young men but unfolded protein response is induced regardless of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentilä, Jaakko; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A; Hulmi, Juha J

    2018-04-02

    Autophagy and unfolded protein response (UPR) appear to be important for skeletal muscle homeostasis and may be altered by exercise. Our aim was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise and training on indicators of UPR and autophagy in healthy untrained young men (n = 12, 27 ± 4 years) and older men (n = 8, 61 ± 6 years) as well as in resistance-trained individuals (n = 15, 25 ± 5 years). Indicators of autophagy and UPR were investigated from the muscle biopsies after a single resistance exercise bout and after 21 weeks of resistance training. Lipidated LC3II as an indicator of autophagosome content increased at 48 hours post resistance exercise (P resistance-training period (P resistance exercise in untrained young and older men (P resistance-training period regardless of age. UPR was unchanged within the first few hours after the resistance exercise bout regardless of the training status. Changes in autophagy and UPR ER indicators did not correlate with a resistance-training-induced increase in muscle strength and size. Autophagosome content is increased by resistance training in young previously untrained men, but this response may be blunted by aging. However, unfolded protein response is induced by an unaccustomed resistance exercise bout in a delayed manner regardless of age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Young Men as Predictors of Body Composition Changes During Military Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagnäs, Maria P; Jokelainen, Jari; Cederberg-Tamminen, Henna; Niemelä, Solja; Mikkola, Ilona; Härkönen, Pirjo; Rajala, Ulla; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the influences of alcohol consumption frequency and binge drinking on changes in the body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness of healthy young men during military service. A population-based study of men performing their military service in the Sodankylä Jaeger Brigade, Finland in 2005. Body composition, fitness and lifestyle habits were evaluated at baseline and 6-12 months follow-up. Alcohol consumption frequency and binge drinking were categorized as: 'not at all', 'at least once a month' and 'at least once a week'. Data were available for 983 participants. Mean (SD) age was 19.2 (1.0) years. At baseline, participants who reported binge drinking at least once a week (29.8%) had the most unfavourable body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness compared with the group with no binge drinking. Significant (P composition, lifestyle habits and fitness among young men. Frequent binge drinkers may obtain the greatest benefit of military-service-based exercise intervention, as reflected in the improvements in body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness. Frequent binge drinking is associated with poorer body composition, lifestyle habits and fitness among young men. The greatest benefit of military service comprehending exercise intervention was observed among those with binge drinking once a week at the baseline, with favourable changes in lifestyle factors, body composition and fitness. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Function and Quality of Life in Young Men With Spina Bifida: Could It Be Neglected Aspects in Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Ji, Yoonhye; Han, Sang Won

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the sexual function of young men with spina bifida and the impact of the disorder on the quality of life (QOL). To assess sexual function and QOL by using self-administered questionnaires (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF] and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey) for young men with spina bifida. We collected data from 47 young men with spina bifida between June 2013 and October 2013 at the spina bifida clinic of Severance Children's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Of the 47 men who completed the IIEF, 24 (51.1%) had sexual intercourse at least once during the previous month, and the patients' sexual activity status had a significant association with their sexual function; however, the status of their sexual activity did not show any differentiation with their QOL scores. Concerning overall satisfaction in sexual activity, about 87% reported more than mild dysfunction; however, 67% and 50% had normal erectile function and orgasmic function, respectively. In 10 patients (41.7%) among them, the frequency of ejaculation problems ranged from "sometimes" to "most of the time" during sexual activity. The correlation between sexual function and QOL had a statistically significant association with the weak correlation (r = 0.496, P = .014). Sexual function should be evaluated routinely in patients with spina bifida because such patients experience sexual dysfunction, although sexual function did not directly show a significant correlation with the QOL in this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Gamified physical activation of young men--a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Riikka; Pyky, Riitta; Jämsä, Timo; Mäntysaari, Matti; Koskimäki, Heli; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Huotari, Maija-Leena; Röning, Juha; Heikkinen, Hannu I; Korpelainen, Raija

    2013-01-14

    Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640) or a control group (n = 640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men can provide a translational model for community

  10. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahola Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500 will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640 or a control group (n = 640 during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference, body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service

  11. HPV Unvaccinated Status and HPV Sexual Risk Behaviour are Common among Canadian Young Adult Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Melanie; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, William A

    2017-12-21

    The current research focuses on sexual risk behaviour among young adult Canadians who have not been vaccinated against HPV. Six hundred and forty-six Canadian university undergraduates completed a self-administered survey assessing HPV vaccination status and sexual risk behaviour. Five hundred and thirty-seven participants (154 men and 383 women aged 17-23) who met eligibility criteria were analyzed. 48.5% (n = 185) of female and 89.6% (n = 138) of male participants had not been vaccinated against HPV. In the unvaccinated cohort, 51.4% (n = 95) of women were coitally experienced, 49.2% (n = 91) reported experience with oral sex, and 6.5% (n = 12) reported experience with receptive anal intercourse. 55.1% (n = 76) of men were coitally experienced, 22.5% (n = 31) of men reported receptive oral sex, and 2.9% (n = 4) of men reported receptive anal intercourse. Using validated sexual risk behaviour cut-offs, we determined that in the female unvaccinated population, the proportion at significantly increased risk for genital warts, cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer was 11.0%, 30.0%, 6.5%, and 49.2% respectively. In the male unvaccinated population, the proportion at significantly elevated risk for genital warts and anal cancer was 27.2% and 2.9% respectively. Unvaccinated young Canadian women and men commonly engaged in sexual risk behaviours for HPV infection, engaged in sexual risk behaviours at a similar level as their vaccinated counterparts, and a substantial number were at elevated risk of HPV related morbidities at a young age. Findings contribute to an evidence-based case for redoubling efforts to encourage HPV vaccination among unvaccinated young Canadians who are at risk of HPV infection. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J; Williams, P L; Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Swan, S H; Chavarro, J E

    2014-07-01

    Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009-2010. Men aged 18-22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. Supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment), 'Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproductive Health' (DEER) grant 212844. Grant P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16 and T32HD060454 from the National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare.

  13. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  14. Motivation for HPV Vaccination Among Young Adult Men: Validation of TTM Decisional Balance and Self-Efficacy Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Anne C; Amoyal, Nicole R; Paiva, Andrea L; Prochaska, James O

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, 36% of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers occur among men. HPV vaccination can substantially reduce the risk of HPV infection; however, the vast majority of men are unvaccinated. This study developed and validated transtheoretical model-based measures for HPV vaccination in young adult men. Cross-sectional measurement development. Online survey of young adult men. Three hundred twenty-nine mostly college-attending men, ages 18 to 26. Stage of change, decisional balance (pros/cons), and self-efficacy. The sample was randomly split into halves for exploratory principal components analysis (PCA), followed by confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to test measurement models. Multivariate analyses examined relationships between scales. For decisional balance, PCA revealed two uncorrelated five-item factors (pros α = .78; cons α = .83). For the self-efficacy scale, PCA revealed a single-factor solution (α = .83). CFA confirmed that the two-factor uncorrelated model for decisional balance and a single-factor model for self-efficacy. Follow-up analyses of variance supported the theoretically predicted relationships between stage of change, pros, and self-efficacy. This study resulted in reliable and valid measures of pros and self-efficacy for HPV vaccination that can be used in future clinical research.

  15. C-reactive protein and cardiac vagal activity following resistance exercise training in young African-American and white men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Vieira, Victoria J; Iwamoto, Gary A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-04-01

    African Americans have a greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes compared with white Americans, and both autonomic dysregulation and inflammation have been implicated in the etiology of these disease states. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiac autonomic and systemic inflammatory response to resistance training in young African-American and white men. Linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear (sample entropy) heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and postexercise heart rate recovery were used to assess cardiac vagal modulation. C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count were used as inflammatory markers. Twenty two white and 19 African-American men completed 6 wk of resistance training followed by 4 wk of exercise detraining (Post 2). Sample entropy, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and heart rate recovery were increased in white and African-American men following resistance training (P training, with reductions being maintained following detraining (P training improves cardiac autonomic function and reduces inflammation in African-American men, and these adaptations remained after the cessation of training. Resistance training may be an important lifestyle modification for improving cardiac autonomic health and reducing inflammation in young African-American men.

  16. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  17. Psychological well-being among religious and spiritual-identified young gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S; Bauermeister, José A

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit ( N = 351 ages 18-29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM's psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations.

  18. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN YOUNG MEN FROM MAPUTO CITY, MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eugénio Tchamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.

  19. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p mucilage-containing meals. These findings suggest that flaxseed DF may suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-09-20

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p stress and could have implications for intervention in acute stress effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders.

  1. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  2. Anatomical differences in the psoas muscles in young black and white men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, P; Magnusson, S P; Sorensen, H; Simonsen, E B

    1999-02-01

    The anatomy of the psoas major muscle (PMA) in young black and white men was studied during routine autopsies. The forensic autopsies included 44 fresh male cadavers (21 black, 23 white) with an age span of 14 to 25 y. The range for weight was 66-76 kg and for height 169-182 cm. The PMA was initially measured in its entire length before measuring the diameter and circumference at each segmental level (L1-S1). At each segmental level, the calculated anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) was more than 3 times greater in the black group compared with the white (P psoas minor muscle (PMI) was absent in 91% of the black subjects, but only in 13% of the white subjects. These data show that the PMA is markedly larger in black than white subjects. The marked race specific difference in the size of the PMA may have implications for hip flexor strength, spine function and race specific incidence in low back pathology, and warrants further investigation.

  3. Psychological well-being among religious and spiritual-identified young gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799

  4. Mechanism of action of whole milk and its components on glycemic control in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Kubant, Ruslan; Akhavan, Tina; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-11-01

    Milk reduces post-meal glycemia when consumed either before or within an ad libitum meal. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of each of the macronutrient components and their combination with whole milk on postprandial glycemia, glucoregulatory and gastrointestinal hormones and gastric emptying in healthy young men. In a randomized, crossover study, 12 males consumed beverages (500 ml) of whole milk (3.25% M.F.) (control), a simulated milk beverage based on milk macronutrients, complete milk protein (16 g), lactose (24 g) or milk fat (16 g). Whole and simulated milk was similar in lowering postprandial glycemia and slowing gastric emptying while increasing insulin, C-peptide, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but simulated milk resulted in higher (41%) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and lower (43%) ghrelin areas under the curve (AUC) than whole milk (P=.01 and P=.04, respectively). Whole and simulated milk lowered glucose (P=.0005) more than predicted by the sum of AUCs for their components. Adjusted for energy content, milks produced lower glucose and hormone responses than predicted from the sum of their components. The effect of protein/kcal on the AUCs was higher than fat/kcal for insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion rate, GLP-1, CCK and paracetamol (Pmilk lowers postprandial glycemia by both insulin and insulin-independent mechanisms arising from interactions among its macronutrient components and energy content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Behavior and Reciprocity of Organ Donation Attitudes in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterli, D C M; Lava, S A G; Essig, S; Milosevic, G; Cajöri, G; Uehlinger, D E; Moor, M B

    2015-01-01

    Lack of donor organs remains a major obstacle in organ transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate (1) the association between engaging in high-risk recreational activities and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) the degree of reciprocity between organ acceptance and donation willingness in young men. A 17-item, close-ended survey was offered to male conscripts ages 18 to 26 years in all Swiss military conscription centers. Predictors of organ donation attitudes were assessed in bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Reciprocity of the intentions to accept and to donate organs was assessed by means of donor card status. In 1559 responses analyzed, neither motorcycling nor practicing extreme sports reached significant association with donor card holder status. Family communication about organ donation, student, or academic profession and living in a Latin linguistic region were predictors of positive organ donation attitudes, whereas residence in a German-speaking region and practicing any religion predicted reluctance. Significantly more respondents were willing to accept than to donate organs, especially among those without family communication concerning organ donation. For the first time, it was shown that high-risk recreational activities do not influence organ donation attitudes. Second, a considerable discrepancy in organ donation reciprocity was identified. We propose that increasing this reciprocity could eventually increase organ donation rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Kevin A; John, Casey S; Lawrence, Marcus M; Battista, Rebecca A; Shanely, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2) whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years) performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest) at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. PMID:24520199

  7. Young Blood Rejuvenates Old Bodies: A Call for Reflection when Moving from Mice to Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2018-01-01

    Connecting the circulatory system of old and young mice (parabiosis) is documented to have rejuvenating effects on cells, tissues, organs, and functions. A wide range of benefits are envisioned. Blood-based rejuvenation can come to totally change population health and aging. The first blood rejuvenation studies on humans with Alzheimer's disease have started. It puts blood at the center of therapy and revitalizes the historical line of humoral pathology from Hippocrates and Harvey, creating a new type of 'bloodletting.' However, moving from mice to men requires careful consideration. Parabiosis actualizes well-known ethical challenges, such as just distribution of health care, avoiding disparities, and providing equal access to health care resources, as well as issues of human enhancement. However, it also poses new problems. Using internal substances in some persons as means to rejuvenate others calls for ethical reflection. New type of 'blood bonds' may result from the continuous demand for specific types of blood. Even if rejuvenating substances from blood may be artificially and cheaply produced and justly distributed, problems arise: survival may have to be balanced against reproduction, as reproductive age increases. Eternal youth and endless bliss have always been vital human dreams. Although parabiosis may bring us closer to the fountain of youth than ever, it is still too early to provide full-fledged assessments of its implications or to foresee how it will change health, aging, medicine, and society. However, in order to bring our reflective abilities on par with our technical skills, we need to start reflection now.

  8. Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Josh R; Piazza, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size.

  9. A diminished aortic-cardiac reflex during hypotension in aerobically fit young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Crandall, C. G.; Potts, J. T.; Williamson, J. W.; Foresman, B. H.; Raven, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    We compared the aortic-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in eight average fit (AF: VO2max = 44.7 +/- 1.3 ml.kg-1 x min-1) and seven high fit (HF: VO2max = 64.1 +/- 1.7 ml.min-1 x kg-1) healthy young men during hypotension elicited by steady state sodium nitroprusside (SN) infusion. During SN mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similarly decreased in AF (-12.6 +/- 1.0 mm Hg) and HF (-12.1 +/- 1.1 mm Hg). However, the increases in heart rate (HR) were less (P 0.05) was applied to counteract the decreased carotid sinus transmural pressure during SN, thereby isolating the aortic baroreceptors, the increased HR remained less (P baroreflex sensitivity (i.e., the gain difference between the stage SN and SN + NS) was not different between AF (0.7 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1) and HF (0.6 +/- 0.1 bpm.mm Hg-1). These data indicated that the aortic-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during hypotension was significantly diminished with endurance exercise training.

  10. Persistent Sexual Dysfunction and Suicidal Ideation in Young Men Treated with Low-Dose Finasteride: A Pharmacovigilance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayad K; Heran, Balraj S; Etminan, Mahyar

    2015-07-01

    Finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, is marketed in a low dose (1 mg) as a popular therapy for androgenic alopecia in young men. As case reports and small surveys have suggested a link between persistent sexual dysfunction (SD) and suicidal ideation (SI) with low-dose finasteride, the aim of this study was to detect signals of SD and SI secondary to low-dose finasteride use in young men. Retrospective pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis. United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Low-dose finasteride-related adverse event reports for men aged 18-45 years that were submitted to the FAERS between 1998 and 2013 were retrieved. Multi-item Gamma Poisson Shrinker disproportionality analysis was applied to calculate the empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an association metric between low-dose finasteride and the events of interest. Signals were defined as associations with thresholds of a CI lower limit of 2.0 or greater. Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms denoting to SD and SI were identified to reflect the outcome of interest. In total, of 4910 reports, 577 persistent SD and 39 SI adverse event reports (11.8% and 7.9%, respectively) were identified for young men using low-dose finasteride; 34 (87.2%) of the 39 men with SI also experienced SD. The majority of these events were serious (e.g., contributed to the patient's death, hospitalization, or disability). Low-dose finasteride was associated with more than expected reporting of SD in young men compared with reporting of these events with all other drugs within the database (EBGM 28.0, 95% CI 26.1-30.0). Disproportional reporting in SI events was noted, although it did not reach signal threshold (EBGM 1.72; 95% CI 1.31-2.23). Among serious SD events, 43% led to disability; 28% required medical intervention, including hospitalization; and 5% were life-threatening. Six fatal SD

  11. The health profile of incarcerated male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C B; Tambor, E; Riley, A W; Ensminger, M E; Starfield, B

    2000-01-01

    To identify the health needs of adolescent males incarcerated in a juvenile justice facility and to compare their health profiles with those of male adolescents in the community. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of incarcerated (N = 202) and school (N = 379) samples of male youths. Questionnaires were self-administered and completed before admission health screens (incarcerated youth) or in classrooms (school sample). Health status was assessed by the Child Health and Illness Profile, Adolescent Edition, using scale and item means and by categorizing each youth's pattern of health into 1 of 13 mutually exclusive health profile types. Compared with school counterparts, incarcerated male youths had significantly worse health status as demonstrated by poorer health and functioning scores in perceived well being, self-esteem, physical discomfort, acute, chronic, and psychosocial disorders, family involvement, physical activity, interpersonal problem-solving, risk behaviors, and academic performance. Three profile types-High Risks, High Risks/Low Resilience, and Worst Health-accounted for patterns of health for 69.8% of incarcerated youth versus 37.3% of an age-matched school sample. Just 6.4% of incarcerated males were in the Excellent/Good Health profile types, which contrasted with 34.2% of the age-matched school sample. The health profiles of incarcerated male youths were worse than those of male youths in school. Our results indicate that rehabilitation programs will need to address incarcerated youth's basic health needs as well as modifying their risk and antisocial behaviors.

  12. Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of any substance. Being sexually active and substance use before incarceration significantly (P<0.05) predicted current use of illicit substances while high self esteem and being the first born was protective. Since substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse ...

  13. Development of a Multisystemic Parent Management Training Intervention for Incarcerated Parents, Their Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2008-01-01

    The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. Because prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce…

  14. Association between childhood physical abuse, unprotected receptive anal intercourse and HIV infection among young men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arn J Schilder

    Full Text Available The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population.We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders.Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5% reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6% reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8% participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.65-14.48, after controlling for potential confounders.Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.

  15. “Let Me Help You Help Me”: Church-based HIV Prevention for Young Black Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Terrinieka W.; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189

  16. Associations between sexual sensation seeking and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among young men who have sex with men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengting; Xiao, Chenchang; Cao, Yue; Yu, Bin; Li, Shiyue; Yan, Hong

    2017-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have become high risk groups for HIV infection in China. Recent researches suggest that sexual sensation seeking is significantly associated with AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, but the relationship is not clear in the field of YMSM in China. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sexual sensation seeking and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among YMSM in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to November 2013. 403 YMSM were recruited and 373 of them completed the questionnaire. Regression analyses indicated that YMSM with high sexual sensation seeking score are more likely to have low awareness of knowledge and negative attitude about condom use, as well as more risky sexual behaviors.

  17. Urinary concentrations of benzophenone-type ultra violet light filters and reproductive parameters in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoamnei, Evdochia; Mendiola, Jaime; Moñino-García, Miriam; Vela-Soria, Fernando; Iribarne-Durán, Luz M; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2018-02-09

    Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) light filters are chemicals frequently added to personal care products, insect repellents, sunscreens, and beverage and food packaging to diminish the harmful effects of UV sunlight on human skin or foodstuffs. BP-type UV filters have shown negative effects on male reproduction function in in vitro and animal models, but human epidemiologic studies are limited. The goal of this study was to examine associations between urinary concentrations of BP-type UV filters and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. This is a cross-sectional study with 215 young university students (18-23 years old) recruited between 2010 and 2011 in Southern Spain (Murcia Region). All men provided a urine, blood and semen sample on a single day. Urinary concentrations of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1); 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (BP-2); 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3); 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-8) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4OH-BP) were measured by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Semen quality was evaluated by measuring volume, sperm counts, motility and morphology. Serum samples were analyzed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), inhibin B and estradiol (E2). Associations between urinary concentrations of BP-type UV filters and semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels were examined using linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Ninety-seven percent of the men had detectable urinary concentrations of at least one of the five BP-type UV filters quantified. After adjustment for important covariates (body mass index, smoking status and time of blood sample collection), there was a significant positive association between urinary BP-1 and BP-3 concentrations and serum FSH levels (β = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.009; 0

  18. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 performance in trained young men. Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg(-1) · min(-1); means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg(-1) body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P = 0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44 ± 0.01 vs 7.32 ± 0.01 and 33.7 ± 3.2 vs 27.3 ± 0.6 mmol · l(-1), respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 mmol · l(-1) at baseline and increased to 11.3 ± 1.4 and 9.4 ± 0.8 mmol · l(-1) at exhaustion in SBC and CON, respectively, being higher (P = 0.03) in SBC. Additionally, peak blood lactate was higher (P = 0.02) in SBC than in CON (11.7 ± 1.2 vs 10.2 ± 0.7 mmol · l(-1)). Blood glucose, plasma K(+) and Na(+) were not different between trials. Peak heart rate reached at exhaustion was 197 ± 3 and 195 ± 3 bpm in SBC and CON, respectively, with no difference between conditions. RPE was 7% lower (P = 0.003) in SBC than in CON after 440 m, but similar at exhaustion (19.3 ± 0.2 and 19.5 ± 0.2). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior

  19. Recruiting Young Gay and Bisexual Men for a Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intervention Through Social Media: The Effects of Advertisement Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Bauermeister, Jose A; Shoben, Abigail B; Paskett, Electra D; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2017-06-02

    Web-based approaches, specifically social media sites, represent a promising approach for recruiting young gay and bisexual men for research studies. Little is known, however, about how the performance of social media advertisements (ads) used to recruit this population is affected by ad content (ie, image and text). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different images and text included in social media ads used to recruit young gay and bisexual men for the pilot test of a Web-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intervention. In July and September 2016, we used paid Facebook advertisements to recruit men who were aged 18-25 years, self-identified as gay or bisexual, US resident, and had not received HPV vaccine. A 4x2x2 factorial experiment varied ad image (a single young adult male, a young adult male couple, a group of young adult men, or a young adult male talking to a doctor), content focus (text mentioning HPV or HPV vaccine), and disease framing (text mentioning cancer or a sexually transmitted disease [STD]). Poisson regression determined whether these experimental factors affected ad performance. The recruitment campaign reached a total of 35,646 users who viewed ads for 36,395 times. This resulted in an overall unique click-through rate of 2.01% (717/35,646) and an overall conversion rate of 0.66% (241/36,395). Reach was higher for ads that included an image of a couple (incidence rate ratio, IRR=4.91, 95% CI 2.68-8.97, PFacebook ads are a convenient and cost-efficient strategy for reaching and recruiting young gay and bisexual men for a Web-based HPV vaccination intervention. To help optimize ad performance among this population, researchers should consider the importance of the text and image included in the social media recruitment ads. ©Paul L Reiter, Mira L Katz, Jose A Bauermeister, Abigail B Shoben, Electra D Paskett, Annie-Laurie McRee. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http

  20. Demographic, Mental Health, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking Status Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: The P18 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avanzo, Paul A; Halkitis, Perry N; Yu, Kalvin; Kapadia, Farzana

    2016-10-01

    Young sexual minority men smoke at higher rates relative to heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of smoking in a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) who might differ from more general and age-diverse samples of sexual minority individuals and, thus, inform tailored approaches to addressing tobacco use within this population. Data on smoking status were examined in relation to demographics, mental health, substance use behavior, and psychosocial factors. Using multinomial logistic regression, factors were identified that differentiate current and former smokers from never smokers. In bivariate analysis, smoking status was related to demographic, mental health, substance use, and psychosocial factors. Most significantly, smoking status was associated with school enrollment status, current alcohol and marijuana use, and symptoms of depression. Multivariate modeling revealed that, compared to being a never smoker, the odds of current or former smoking were highest among those currently using either alcohol or marijuana. The odds of both current and former smoking were also higher among those reporting greater levels of gay community affinity. Finally, the odds of being a former smoker were higher for those reporting internalized antihomosexual prejudice. This study identifies several factors related to smoking status in a diverse sample of young sexual minority males. These findings should encourage investigations of smoking disparities among younger MSM to look beyond common smoking risk factors in an attempt to understand etiologies that may be unique to this group. Such findings may indicate multiple points of potential intervention aimed at decreasing cigarette smoking within this vulnerable population.

  1. What Are Men Afraid Of: The Whys and Hows of Helping Men Become Active Caretakers of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.

    Participants in the Dad's Day at the Center for Young Children program meet on Saturday mornings for a series of 12 sessions which combine play and discussion group activities. The first hour of each session is structured so that fathers and their 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children can spend time together experiencing new toys, foods, arts, and games…

  2. Intervention to Match Young Black Men and Transwomen Who Have Sex With Men or Transwomen to HIV Testing Options (All About Me): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblin, Beryl; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Wilton, Leo; Usher, DaShawn; Nandi, Vijay; Hoover, Donald R; Frye, Victoria

    2017-12-19

    HIV testing is a critical component of HIV prevention and care. Interventions to increase HIV testing rates among young black men who have sex with men (MSM) and black transgender women (transwomen) are needed. Personalized recommendations for an individual's optimal HIV testing approach may increase testing. This randomized trial tests the hypothesis that a personalized recommendation of an optimal HIV testing approach will increase HIV testing more than standard HIV testing information. A randomized trial among 236 young black men and transwomen who have sex with men or transwomen is being conducted. Participants complete a computerized baseline assessment and are randomized to electronically receive a personalized HIV testing recommendation or standard HIV testing information. Follow-up surveys are conducted online at 3 and 6 months after baseline. The All About Me randomized trial was launched in June 2016. Enrollment is completed and 3-month retention is 92.4% (218/236) and has exceeded study target goals. The All About Me intervention is an innovative approach to increase HIV testing by providing a personalized recommendation of a person's optimal HIV testing approach. If successful, optimizing this intervention for mobile devices will widen access to large numbers of individuals. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02834572; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02834572 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6vLJWOS1B). ©Beryl Koblin, Sabina Hirshfield, Mary Ann Chiasson, Leo Wilton, DaShawn Usher, Vijay Nandi, Donald R Hoover, Victoria Frye. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 19.12.2017.

  3. Young men's attitudes and behaviour in relation to mental health and technology: implications for the development of online mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Hurley, Patrick J; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-04-20

    This mixed-methods study was designed to explore young Australian men's attitudes and behaviour in relation to mental health and technology use to inform the development of online mental health services for young men. National online survey of 486 males (aged 16 to 24) and 17 focus groups involving 118 males (aged 16 to 24). Young men are heavy users of technology, particularly when it comes to entertainment and connecting with friends, but they are also using technology for finding information and support. The focus group data suggested that young men would be less likely to seek professional help for themselves, citing a preference for self-help and action-oriented strategies instead. Most survey participants reported that they have sought help for a problem online and were satisfied with the help they received. Focus group participants identified potential strategies for how technology could be used to overcome the barriers to help-seeking for young men. The key challenge for online mental health services is to design interventions specifically for young men that are action-based, focus on shifting behaviour and stigma, and are not simply about increasing mental health knowledge. Furthermore, such interventions should be user-driven, informed by young men's views and everyday technology practices, and leverage the influence of peers.

  4. Endothelial glycocalyx integrity is preserved in young, healthy men during a single bout of strenuous physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Chlopicki, S; Bartosz, G; Zakrzewska, A; Balcerczyk, A; Smoleński, R T; Zoladz, J A

    2016-06-20

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise affect glycocalyx integrity and endothelial function. Twenty one young, untrained healthy men performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise - until exhaustion. Markers of glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1, heparan sulfate and hyaluronic acid), endothelial status (nitric oxide and prostacyclin metabolites - nitrate, nitrite, 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha)), oxidative stress (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine) and antioxidant capacity (uric acid, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity) as well as markers of inflammation (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1) were analyzed in venous blood samples taken at rest and at the end of exercise. The applied strenuous exercise caused a 5-fold increase in plasma lactate and hypoxanthine concentrations (pexercise is well accommodated by endothelium in young, healthy men as it neither results in evident glycocalyx disruption nor in the impairment of nitric oxide and prostacyclin production.

  5. Only minor additional metabolic health benefits of high as opposed to moderate dose physical exercise in young, moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M H; Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, P L

    2014-01-01

    % in HIGH (P benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important......OBJECTIVE: The dose-response effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity, metabolic risk, and quality of life were examined. METHODS: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary (VO₂max: 35 ± 5 ml/kg/min), moderately overweight (BMI: 27.9 ± 1.8), young (age: 29 ± 6 years) men were randomized to sedentary...... living (sedentary control group; n = 18), moderate (moderate dose training group [MOD]: 300 kcal/day, n = 21), or high (high dose training group [HIGH]: 600 kcal/day, n = 22) dose physical exercise for 11 weeks. RESULTS: The return rate for post-intervention testing was 82-94% across groups. Weekly...

  6. Temporal Response of Angiogenesis and Hypertrophy to Resistance Training in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Snijders, Tim; VAN Kranenburg, Janneau; VAN Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2018-01-01

    Although endurance exercise training promotes angiogenesis and improves metabolic health, the effect of resistance training on this process is less well defined. We hypothesized that capillarization would increase proportionally, and concurrently, with muscle fiber hypertrophy in response to resistance training in young men. In this double-blind, randomized control trial, 36 men (22 ± 1 yr) were randomized to placebo or protein supplementation, and participated in 12 wk of resistance training. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected before and after 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk of training. Immunohistochemistry assessed fiber type-specific size and capillarization. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assessed proteins involved in the molecular regulation of angiogenesis. Resistance training effectively increased Type I (15% ± 4%; P < 0.01) and Type II fiber cross-sectional area (28% ± 5%; P < 0.0001), an effect that tended to be further enhanced with protein supplementation in Type II fibers (P = 0.078). Capillary-to-fiber ratio significantly increased in Type I (P = 0.001) and II (P = 0.015) fibers after 12 wk of resistance exercise training and was evident after only 2 wk. Capillary-to-fiber perimeter exchange index increased in the Type I fibers only (P = 0.054) after 12 wk of training. Training resulted in a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. A (P = 0.008), while vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (P = 0.016), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (P = 0.016), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (P = 0.01) increased in both groups. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α protein content was higher in the protein group (main group effect, P = 0.02), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase content demonstrated a divergent relationship (time-group interaction, P = 0.049). This study presents novel evidence that microvascular adaptations and the molecular pathways involved are elevated after 2 wk of a 12-wk resistance training

  7. “A safe way to explore”: Reframing risk on the Internet amidst young gay men's search for identity

    OpenAIRE

    Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Leslie-Santana, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Internet use provides a vital opportunity for sexual minority youth to learn about sexual desires and pursue partnerships otherwise publically stigmatized. Researchers, however, have portrayed the Internet as an inherently risky venue for HIV/STI transmission among young gay men (YGM). We therefore investigated how YGM use the Internet during adolescence and emerging adulthood. In the course of 34 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a sample of self-identified YGM, 18-24 years of age, w...

  8. Effects of upright and recumbent cycling on executive function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation in young, healthy, men

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, J.; Lambrick, D.; Kaufmann, S.; Stoner, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: \\ud \\ud The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effects of posture (upright vs recumbent) during moderate-intensity cycle exercise on executive function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation in young healthy adults.\\ud \\ud METHODS: \\ud \\ud Seventeen physically active men (24.6 ± 4.3 years) completed 2 30-minute submaximal exercise tests (conditions: upright and recumbent cycle ergometry). Executive function was assessed using the "color" and "word" Stroop task, preexercise (...

  9. Measures of Attitudes Toward and Communication about Condom Use: Their Relationships With Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Yarber, William L; Sanders, Stephanie A; Milhausen, Robin R; Mena, Leandro

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and test measures of psychosocial mediators that could be used in intervention studies seeking to promote safer sex behavior among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). A total of 400 YBMSM, ages 18 to 29 years, were recruited from a clinic for sexually transmitted infection in the southern United States. All men had engaged in penile-anal sex with a man as a "top" in the past 6 months. The men completed an audio-computer-assisted self-interview and provided specimens used for nucleic acid amplification testing to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Four measures were constructed and tested for criterion validity (Safer Sex Communication, Condom Turn-Offs, Condom Pleasure Scale, and a single item assessing frequency of condom use discussions before sexual arousal). With the exception of Safer Sex Communication, all of the measures showed criterion validity for both unprotected anal insertive and unprotected anal receptive sex. With the exception of the Condom Turn-Offs, the 3 other measures were supported by criterion validity for oral sex. Both the Condom Turn-Offs and Condom Pleasure Scale were significantly related to whether or not the men reported multiple partners as a top, but only the Condom Pleasure Scale was associated with reports of multiple partners as a "bottom." Only the Condom Turn-Offs Scale was positively associated with having been diagnosed with either Chlamydia or gonorrhea. Findings provide 3 brief scales and a single item that can be used in intervention studies targeting YBMSM. Perceptions about condoms being a turnoff and about condoms enhancing pleasure showed strong association with sexual risk behaviors.

  10. Being both and acting 'man': exploring patterns of masculinisation among young same-sex-attracted men in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-five same-sex-attracted rural young Thai men were interviewed three times to investigate how their sexual subjectivity changed over an 18-month period after they completed high school and moved into a new life-phase. Many young men grew up with strong gender-based understandings of homosexuality, in which a masculine (top) partner is seen as complementing a feminine (bottom) partner. The discursive division between the masculine and feminine domains became increasingly blurred in the actual practice of dating, forcing the young men to develop new understandings of homosexuality and same-sex relations. The shift from a rural to urban environment, the use of the Internet and the experience of falling in love played important roles in this experimentation with new, increasingly masculine presentations of the self, also influenced by a modern urban masculine aesthetic. The paper concludes that the encounter between 'traditional' gender-based homosexuality and new ideas, in which masculine object-choice is important in defining sexual identity leads to a variety of fluid ideas and expressions. This process created confusion among some, and opportunities for exploration of new ways of defining sexual subjectivities among others.

  11. Do early unemployment and health status among young men and women affect their chances of later employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Janlert, U

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the risk of future unemployment among young people who had experienced early unemployment, and to examine whether this risk was influenced by their health status. A total of 1,083 pupils in the final year of compulsory schooling were included in the cohort. The non-participation rate was 2%. At the time of a five-year follow-up, of those who were unemployed during the first two-year period, 71% of the men and 49% of the women were unemployed, had recent experience of unemployment, or were outside the labour market. The relative risk of being unemployed was 2.39 for men (95% CI 1.85-3.10) and 1.76 for women (95% CI 1.25-2.48) among those who had experienced early unemployment compared with those who had been in Youth Opportunities Programmes (YOP) or in work. Young women in YOP had the same risk of later unemployment as those who had experienced early unemployment, while young men in YOP did not have increased risk. Health status and health behaviour had only a minor influence on the risk of unemployment.

  12. The correlation of resistance exercise-induced myostatin with insulin resistance and plasma cytokines in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the correlation of resistance exercise (RE)-induced myostatin (MSTN) with insulin resistance and plasma cytokines in healthy young men. Twenty-four healthy men were randomly divided into RE (n = 12) and control (n = 12) group. After a session of familiarization, one repetition maximum (1-RM) was calculated. Circuit RE program involved 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 55 % of 1-RM. Blood samples were collected before and 24 h after the exercise. Paired t test, independent t test, and Pearson's correlation were used for analyzing data. A significant decrease in plasma level of MSTN, glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and a significant increase in plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) were found in RE group 24 h post-exercise versus pre-exercise (p healthy young men. In other word, the beneficial effect of acute RE may be reflected by changes in MSTN in healthy young individuals.

  13. Smoking is associated with impaired bone mass development in young adult men: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudäng, Robert; Darelid, Anna; Nilsson, Martin; Nilsson, Staffan; Mellström, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    It has previously been shown that smoking is associated with reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk, but no longitudinal studies have been published investigating altered smoking behavior at the time of bone mass acquisition. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone density and geometry according to alterations in smoking behavior in a 5-year, longitudinal, population-based study of 833 young men, age 18 to 20 years (baseline). Furthermore, we aimed to examine the cross-sectional, associations between current smoking and parameters of trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), in young men aged 23 to 25 years (5-year follow-up). Men who had started to smoke since baseline had considerably smaller increases in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the total body (mean ± SD, 0.020 ± 0.047 mg/cm(2) versus 0.043 ± 0.040 mg/cm(2) , p young adulthood have poorer development of their aBMD at clinically important sites such as the spine and hip than nonsmokers, possibly due to augmented loss of trabecular density and impaired growth of cortical cross-sectional area. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Methamphetamine use among newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men in North Carolina, United States, from 2000 to 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Hurt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a new arrival to the Southeastern United States (US. Incidence of HIV is also increasing regionally, but data are limited regarding any association between this trend and MA use. We examined behavioral data from North Carolina (NC residents newly diagnosed with HIV, collected by the Department of Health between 2000-2005.Among 1,460 newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men, an increasing trend was seen from 2000-2005 in MA use (p = 0.01, total n = 20. In bivariate analyses, users of MA had significantly greater odds of reporting other substance use, including alcohol, powder or crack cocaine, marijuana, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy". They were also more likely to have reported sexual activity while traveling outside NC; sex with anonymous partners; and previous HIV testing. In a predictive model, MA use had a negative association with nonwhite race, and strong positive associations with powder cocaine, "ecstasy," or intravenous drug use and being a university student.Similar to trends seen in more urban parts of the US, MA use among newly diagnosed, HIV-positive young men is increasing in NC. These data are among the first to demonstrate this relationship in a region with a burgeoning epidemic of MA use. Opportunities exist for MA-related HIV risk-reduction interventions whenever young men intersect the healthcare system.

  15. Physical Fitness in Young Men between 1975 and 2015 with a Focus on the Years 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santtila, Matti; Pihlainen, Kai; Koski, Harri; Vasankari, Tommi; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in physical fitness and anthropometry of young men entering the military service in Finland during the years 1975-2015. The study included the fitness test results of 627,142 healthy young male conscripts (age 19.1 ± 0.4 yr). Data included results of aerobic capacity, muscle fitness tests, and anthropometric characteristics. The results show that the increase in mean body mass of young men has slowed down during the last 10 yr. However, the total increase in body mass was 6.8 kg (8.8%, P ≤ 0.001) between 1993 and 2015. The mean distance achieved in the 12-min running test decreased by 337 m (12.2%, P ≤ 0.001) between the peak in 1980 and 2015. The relative number of conscripts who ran less than 2200 m increased from 3.6% to 25.9% (P ≤ 0.001) between 1980 and 2015, and the proportion who ran more than 3000 m decreased from 25.1% to 6.5% (P ≤ 0.001). The relative number of conscripts who achieved an excellent or good muscle fitness index decreased from 66.8% to 40.1% (P ≤ 0.001) between 1992 and 2000, and remained unchanged between 2000 and 2010. However, the proportion who achieved a poor muscle fitness index increased from 8.1% to 31.4% (P ≤ 0.001) between 1992 and 2010. The present study shows that the increase in mean body mass of young male conscripts has slowed down during the last 10 yr. However, their aerobic capacity has still decreased during recent decades. In addition, the proportion of conscripts with poor muscle fitness has increased. From the national defense and health perspective, more initiatives are needed to encourage young men to increase their level of daily physical activity to be fit and ready for operations.

  16. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male...... out at the University of Rochester during 2009-2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Men aged 18-22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze...... the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1...

  17. Cognitive ability in young adulthood and risk of dementia in a cohort of Danish men, brothers, and twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Christensen, Gunhild T.; Garde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We examined the association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and dementia in Danish men, brothers, and male twins. METHODS: In total, 666,986 men born between 1939 and 1959 were identified for dementia diagnosis in national registries from 1969 to 2016. The association...... between cognitive ability from draft board examination and dementia was examined using Cox regression. RESULTS: During a 44-year follow-up, 6416 (0.96%) men developed dementia, 1760 (0.26%) and 970 (0.15%) of which were classified as Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, respectively. Low cognitive ability...... was associated with increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR]per SD decrease 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.30-1.35]) with the strongest associations for vascular dementia (HRper SD decrease 1.47 [95% CI = 1.31-1.56]) and a weaker for Alzheimer's disease (HRper SD decrease 1.07 [95% CI = 1...

  18. Unpacking the racial disparity in HIV rates: the effect of race on risky sexual behavior among Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the large disparity in HIV prevalence rates between young Black and White Americans, including young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Research focusing on individual behaviors has proven insufficient to explain the disproportionately high rate of HIV among Black YMSM. The purpose of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of the pronounced racial disparity in HIV by evaluating whether YMSM are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors as a function of their partner's race. Participants included 117 YMSM from a longitudinal study evaluating lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth (ages 16-20 at baseline), who reported characteristics and risk behaviors of up to 9 sexual partners over an 18-month period. Results indicated that participants were less likely to have unprotected sex with Black partners, and this finding was not driven by a response bias (i.e., Black YMSM did not appear to be minimizing their reports of unprotected sex). Furthermore, there was support for the hypothesis that participants' sexual networks were partially determined by their race insofar as sexual partnerships were much more likely to be intra-racial (as opposed to interracial). It is possible that dyad- and sexual network-level factors may be needed to understand racial disparities in HIV among YMSM.

  19. The acute effect of commercially available pulse powders on postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G Harvey; Liu, Yudan; Smith, Christopher E; Liu, Ting Ting; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L

    2014-12-28

    Whole pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils) elicit low postprandial blood glucose (BG) responses in adults; however, their consumption in North America is low. One potential strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses is the utilisation of commercial pulse powders in food products; however, it is unclear whether they retain the biological benefits observed with whole pulses. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of commercially prepared pulse powders on BG response before and after a subsequent meal in healthy young men. Overall, three randomised, within-subject experiments were conducted. In each experiment, participants received whole, puréed and powdered pulses (navy beans in Expt 1; lentils in Expt 2; chickpeas in Expt 3) and whole-wheat flour as the control. All treatments were controlled for available carbohydrate content. A fixed-energy pizza meal (50·2 kJ/kg body weight) was provided at 120 min. BG concentration was measured before (0-120 min) and after (140-200 min) the pizza meal. BG concentration peaked at 30 min in all experiments, and pulse forms did not predict their effect on BG response. Compared with the whole-wheat flour control, navy bean treatments lowered peak BG concentrations (Expt 1, P< 0.05), but not the mean BG concentration over 120 min. The mean BG concentration was lower for all lentil (Expt 2, P= 0.008) and chickpea (Expt 3, P= 0.002) treatments over 120 min. Processing pulses to powdered form does not eliminate the benefits of whole pulses on BG response, lending support to the use of pulse powders as value-added food ingredients to moderate postprandial glycaemic response.

  20. Diurnal variation of vascular diameter and reactivity in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F.D. Bau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The higher incidence of cardiovascular events in the morning is accompanied by an increased vascular tone. However, there are few published studies designed to evaluate the diurnal variation of vascular and endothelial parameters in healthy subjects. In the present investigation, we evaluated the diurnal variation in brachial artery diameter (BAD, flow-mediated dilation (FMD and endothelium-independent dilation (NFMD in a homogeneous sample of healthy non-smoker young men. Fifty subjects aged 20.8 ± 0.3 years (range: 18 to 25 years were investigated by brachial artery ultrasound. Exclusion criteria were female gender and evidence of clinically significant health problems, including obesity. Volunteers were asked to rest and avoid fat meals as well as alcoholic beverages 48 h before and until completion of the evaluations. BAD, FMD and NFMD were measured at 7 am, 5 pm, and 10 pm and tested by repeated measures ANOVA. BAD was smaller at 7 am (mean ± SEM, 3.8 ± 0.1 mm in comparison with 5 pm (3.9 ± 0.1 and 10 pm (4.0 ± 0.1 mm; P < 0.001. FMD values did not change significantly during the day, while NFMD increased more at 7 am (18.5 ± 1.1%, when compared to 15.5 ± 0.9% at 10 pm and 15.5 ± 0.9% at 5 pm (P = 0.04. The physiological state of vasoconstriction after awakening, with preserved capability to dilate in the morning, should be considered to be part of the healthy cardiovascular adaptation before considering later life risk factors and endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Acute effect of stretching one leg on regional arterial stiffness in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-06-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that a single bout of stretching exercises acutely reduced arterial stiffness. We hypothesized that this acute vascular response is due to regional mechanical stimulation of the peripheral arteries. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of a single bout of passive one leg stretching on arterial stiffness, comparing the stretched and the non-stretched leg in the same subject. Twenty-five healthy young men (20.9 ± 0.3 years, 172.5 ± 1.4 cm, 64.1 ± 1.2 kg) volunteered for the study. Subjects underwent a passive calf stretching on one leg (six repetitions of 30-s static stretch with a 10-s recovery). Pulse wave velocity (PWV, an index of arterial stiffness), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured before and immediately, 15, and 30 min after the stretching. Femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV) in the stretched leg was significantly decreased from baseline (835.0 ± 15.9 cm/s) to immediately (802.9 ± 16.8 cm/s, P leg was not significantly altered at any time. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) also showed similar responses with faPWV, but this response was not significant. Additionally, the passive stretching did not alter carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV). These results suggest that mechanical stimulation to peripheral arteries as induced by static passive stretch may modulate arterial wall properties directly, rather than resulting in a systemic effect.

  2. Effects of cognac on coronary flow reserve and plasma antioxidant status in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehtimäki Terho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cardioprotective effects of certain alcoholic beverages are partly related to their polyphenol content, which may improve the vasodilatory reactivity of arteries. Effect of cognac on coronary circulation, however, remains unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled cross-over study was to determine whether moderate doses of cognac improve coronary reactivity as assessed with cold pressor testing (CPT and coronary flow reserve (CFR measument. Methods Study group consisted of 23 subjects. Coronary flow velocity and epicardial diameter was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography at rest, during CPT and adenosine infusion-derived CFR measurements before drinking, after a moderate (1.2 ± 0.1 dl and an escalating high dose (total amount 2.4 ± 0.3 dl of cognac. To explore the bioavailability of antioxidants, the antioxidant contents of cognac was measured and the absorption from the digestive tract was verified by plasma antioxidant capacity determination. Results Serum alcohol levels increased to 1.2 ± 0.2‰ and plasma antioxidant capacity from 301 ± 43.9 μmol/l to 320 ± 25.0 μmol/l by 7.6 ± 11.8%, (p = 0.01 after high doses of cognac. There was no significant change in flow velocity during CPT after cognac ingestion compared to control day. CFR was 4.4 ± 0.8, 4.1 ± 0.9 (p = NS, and 4.5 ± 1.2 (p = NS before drinking and after moderate and high doses on cognac day, and 4.5 ± 1.4, and 4.0 ± 1.2 (p = NS on control day. Conclusion Cognac increased plasma antioxidant capacity, but it had no effect on coronary circulation in healthy young men. Trial Registration NCT00330213

  3. Effects of cognac on coronary flow reserve and plasma antioxidant status in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Saraste, Antti; Toikka, Jyri O; Saraste, Markku; Raitakari, Olli T; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hartiala, Jaakko J; Viikari, Jorma; Koskenvuo, Juha W

    2008-06-03

    The cardioprotective effects of certain alcoholic beverages are partly related to their polyphenol content, which may improve the vasodilatory reactivity of arteries. Effect of cognac on coronary circulation, however, remains unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled cross-over study was to determine whether moderate doses of cognac improve coronary reactivity as assessed with cold pressor testing (CPT) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) measurement. Study group consisted of 23 subjects. Coronary flow velocity and epicardial diameter was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography at rest, during CPT and adenosine infusion-derived CFR measurements before drinking, after a moderate (1.2 +/- 0.1 dl) and an escalating high dose (total amount 2.4 +/- 0.3 dl) of cognac. To explore the bioavailability of antioxidants, the antioxidant contents of cognac was measured and the absorption from the digestive tract was verified by plasma antioxidant capacity determination. Serum alcohol levels increased to 1.2 +/- 0.2 per thousand and plasma antioxidant capacity from 301 +/- 43.9 micromol/l to 320 +/- 25.0 micromol/l by 7.6 +/- 11.8%, (p = 0.01) after high doses of cognac. There was no significant change in flow velocity during CPT after cognac ingestion compared to control day. CFR was 4.4 +/- 0.8, 4.1 +/- 0.9 (p = NS), and 4.5 +/- 1.2 (p = NS) before drinking and after moderate and high doses on cognac day, and 4.5 +/- 1.4, and 4.0 +/- 1.2 (p = NS) on control day. Cognac increased plasma antioxidant capacity, but it had no effect on coronary circulation in healthy young men. NCT00330213.

  4. Peer pressure and alcohol use in young men: a mediation analysis of drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Henchoz, Yves; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-07-01

    Peer pressure (PP) has been shown to play a major role in the development and continuation of alcohol use and misuse. To date, almost all the studies investigating the association of PP with alcohol use only considered the PP for misconduct but largely ignored other aspects of PP, such as pressure for peer involvement and peer conformity. Moreover, it is not clear whether the association of PP with alcohol use is direct or mediated by other factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of different aspects of peer pressure (PP) with drinking volume (DV) and risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), and to explore whether these associations were mediated by drinking motives (DM). A representative sample of 5521 young Swiss men, aged around 20 years old, completed a questionnaire assessing their usual weekly DV, the frequency of RSOD, DM (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, and conformity motives), and 3 aspects of PP (i.e. misconduct, peer involvement, and peer conformity). Associations between PP and alcohol outcomes (DV and RSOD) as well as the mediation of DM were tested using structural equation models. Peer pressure to misconduct was associated with more alcohol use, whereas peer involvement and peer conformity were associated with less alcohol use. Associations of drinking outcomes with PP to misconduct and peer involvement were partially mediated by enhancement and coping motives, while the association with peer conformity was partially mediated by enhancement and conformity motives. Results suggest that PP to misconduct constitutes a risk factor, while peer conformity and peer involvement reflect protective factors with regard to alcohol use. Moreover, results from the mediation analyses suggest that part of the association of PP with alcohol use came indirectly through DM: PP was associated with DM, which in turn were associated with alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived Stress After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison Between Young and Middle-Aged Women Versus Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly M; Edmondson, Donald E; Davidson, Karina W; Beltrame, John F; Bueno, Héctor; Lin, Haiqun; Dreyer, Rachel P; Brush, John E; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; DʼOnofrio, Gail; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how psychological stress changes over time in young and middle-aged patients after experiencing an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and whether these changes differ between men and women. We analyzed data obtained from 2358 women and 1151 men aged 18 to 55 years hospitalized for AMI. Psychological stress was measured using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) at initial hospitalization and at 1 month and 12 months after AMI. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine changes in PSS-14 scores over time and sex differences in these changes, while adjusting for patient characteristics and accounting for correlation among repeated observations within patients. Overall, patients' perceived stress decreased over time, especially during the first month after AMI. Women had higher levels of perceived stress than men throughout the 12-month period (difference in PSS-14 score = 3.63, 95% confidence interval = 3.08 to 4.18, p stress changed over time. Adjustment for patient characteristics did not alter the overall pattern of sex difference in changes of perceived stress over time other than attenuating the magnitude of sex difference in PSS-14 score (difference between women and men = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.32 to 2.16, p stress was similar in patients with versus without post-AMI angina, even though patients with angina experienced less improvement in PSS-14 score than those without angina. In young and middle-aged patients with AMI, women reported higher levels of perceived stress than men throughout the first 12 months of recovery. However, women and men had a similar pattern in how perceived stress changed over time.

  6. The effect of resistance training on quadriceps muscle volume and some growth factors in elderly and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negaresh, R; Ranjbar, R; Habibi, A; Mokhtarzade, M; Fokin, A; Gharibvand, M M

    2017-01-01

    Aging process is associated with loss of muscle mass, strength and growth factors dysfunction. Resistance training is one of the effective methods to overcome a decline in muscle mass, strength and also can modulate the level of myostatin, follistatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 week resistance training on different anabolic factors which influence muscle hypertrophy in elderly and young men. Fifteen elderly and sixteen young men volunteered and participated in a periodized 3-day per week progressive resistance training program for a total of 8 weeks. Daily calorie intake, muscle volume, cross-sectional area (by computed tomography) and myostatin, follistatin, IGF-1, growth hormone (GH) and testosterone were calculated before and after the training protocol. At the end of the training period, the strength in the elderly group increased significantly compared to the young group (p0,05). Quadriceps muscle volume and cross-sectional area increased more in the younger group (pchange was not different in either groups (p>0,05). Follistatin and testosterone increased in both groups (pResistance training improved hypertrophy and lead to anabolic conditions in elder and young subjects, but in different ways. In this regard, GH-IGF-1 axis and growth factors profile at the baseline had an important role in different age-related hypertrophy.

  7. Sexual practices of young educated men: implications for further research and health education in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheel, Hafsa; Mahmood, Muhammad Afzal; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz

    2013-03-01

    Considering the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other associated health problems among young people globally, it is important to identify sexual practices that could potentially compromise health. This study explored the sexual practices of young men in Riyadh city, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and methodology A cross-sectional study among young, male students was conducted using a pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated. Among 225 study participants, 31% had engaged in premarital sexual activity at least once and 61% viewed pornographic movies/materials. Only 51% knew that condom use could prevent STIs, 20% were not aware that HIV could be transmitted through both homosexual and heterosexual contacts. Premarital sexual activity was associated with the use of illegal drugs (OR: 2.51), viewing of pornographic movies (OR: 6.79) and traveling alone abroad (OR: 3.10). and recommendations Our study was the first to report the existence of premarital sexual practices among young educated men in KSA. There is a need to identify in detail the risks and the knowledge gaps, and base sexual health awareness among youth on such knowledge in order to prevent the spread of STIs and HIV.

  8. Intimacy, monogamy, and condom problems drive unprotected sex among young men in serious relationships with other men: a mixed methods dyadic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George J; Andrews, Rebecca; Kuper, Laura; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study aimed to examine partner and relationship characteristics associated with HIV risk among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). A sub-sample of YMSM (18-25 years) who were involved in serious relationships with other men were recruited from two on-going longitudinal studies, Project Q2 and Crew450 (N = 20 couples). The mean age of the dyadic sample was 22.5 years (SD = 5.33, range 18-46 years) and participants were racially and ethnically diverse, with the largest percentage of the sample identifying as African American (47.5 %), followed by Hispanic (20 %). Participants completed individual self-report measures using computer-assisted self-interview technology and engaged in couples-based interviews. Mixed methods analyses indicated three global reasons for unprotected sex among YMSM in serious relationships: (1) the desire to achieve emotional intimacy; (2) the perception of being in a monogamous relationship; and (3) the difficulties associated with accessing and/or using condoms. Couples' decision-making processes, including decisions made "in the heat of the moment," have implications for HIV prevention interventions.

  9. Sociodemographic Factors Contribute to Mental Health Disparities and Access to Services Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storholm, Erik David; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Halkitis, Perry N; Moeller, Robert W; Eddy, Jessica A; Bare, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at increased risk for mental health problems including depression, post-traumatic stress (PTSD), and suicidality. The overriding goal of the current investigation was to examine mental health and mental health services in a diverse sample of YMSM. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a cohort study of 598 YMSM, including sociodemographics, mental health, and mental health care. We then tested for bivariate associations, and used multivariable modeling to predict depression, PTSD, suicidality and mental health care utilization. Lower socioeconomic status, unstable housing, and school non-enrollment predicted depression and PTSD scores, while unstable housing and school non-enrollment predicted recent suicide attempt(s). These recent suicide attempt(s) also predicted current utilization of counseling or treatment, any history of psychiatric hospitalization, and any history of psychiatric diagnosis. Black and API men were less likely to have ever accessed mental health counseling or treatment. There were significant class-based differences with regard to mental health outcomes, but not mental health services. Further, recent crises (i.e., suicide attempt, hospitalization) were strong predictors of accessing mental health services. Improving the mental health of YMSM requires addressing the underlying structural factors that influence mental health outcomes and service access.

  10. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Ricky and Lucy: gender stereotyping among young Black men who have sex with men in the US Deep South and the implications for HIV risk in a severely affected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Kay, Emma Sophia; Klinger, Ian; Mutchler, Matt G

    2018-03-01

    HIV disproportionately affects young Black men who have sex with men in the USA, with especially high rates in the Deep South. In this Alabama study, we interviewed 24 pairs of young Black men who have sex with men aged 19-24 and their close friends (n = 48) about sexual scripts, dating men and condom use. Three main themes emerged from the study: the power dynamics of 'top' and 'bottom' sexual positions for condom use; gender stereotyping in the iconic style of the 'I Love Lucy' show of the 1950s; and the sexual dominance of 'trade' men. Gender stereotyping was attributed to the cultural mores of Black families in the South, to the preferences of 'trade' men who exerted sexual and financial control and to internalised stigma relating to being Black, gay and marginalised. The findings suggest that HIV prevention education for young Black men who have sex with men is misguided if gendered power dynamics are ignored, and that funded access to self-protective strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis could reduce HIV risk for this severely affected population.

  12. Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Brien, Natasha; Jones, Nicolette; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Levermore, Kandasi; Marshall, Annecka; Nyblade, Laura; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-04

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica have the highest HIV prevalence in the Caribbean. There is little information about HIV among transgender women in Jamaica, who are also overrepresented in the Caribbean epidemic. HIV-related stigma is a barrier to HIV testing among Jamaica's general population, yet little is known of MSM and transgender women's HIV testing experiences in Jamaica. We explored perceived barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young MSM and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica. We implemented a community-based research project in collaboration with HIV and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) agencies in Kingston. We held two focus groups, one with young (aged 18-30 years) transgender women (n = 8) and one with young MSM (n = 10). We conducted 53 in-depth individual semi-structured interviews focused on HIV testing experiences with young MSM (n = 20), transgender women (n = 20), and community-based key informants (n = 13). We conducted thematic analysis to identify, analyze, and report themes. Participant narratives revealed social-ecological barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included healthcare provider mistreatment, confidentiality breaches, and HIV-related stigma: these spanned interpersonal, community and structural levels. Healthcare provider discrimination and judgment in HIV testing provision presented barriers to accessing HIV services (e.g. treatment), and resulted in participants hiding their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Confidentiality concerns included: clinic physical arrangements that segregated HIV testing from other health services, fear that healthcare providers would publicly disclose their status, and concerns at LGBT-friendly clinics that peers would discover they were getting tested. HIV-related stigma contributed to fear of testing HIV-positive; this intersected with the stigma of HIV as a "gay" disease. Participants also anticipated healthcare provider

  13. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Frye

    Full Text Available Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC. In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29.We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach.We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc. and beliefs about the "fit" between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC.These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and transgender women. Addressing

  14. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Wilton, Leo; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Lucy, Debbie; Usher, DaShawn; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl

    2018-01-01

    Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29. We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach. We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc.) and beliefs about the "fit" between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC. These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues) is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and transgender women. Addressing perceptions of

  15. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Lucy, Debbie; Usher, DaShawn; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl

    2018-01-01

    Background Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29. Methods We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach. Results We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc.) and beliefs about the “fit” between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC. Conclusions These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues) is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and

  16. Epic Allies, a Gamified Mobile Phone App to Improve Engagement in Care, Antiretroviral Uptake, and Adherence Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men and Young Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E; Platt, Alyssa; Soni, Karina; Egger, Joseph R; Nwoko, Nkechinyere; McNulty, Tobias; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2018-04-05

    In the United States, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women who have sex with men (YTWSM) bear a disproportionate burden of prevalent and incident HIV infections. Once diagnosed, many YMSM and YTWSM struggle to engage in HIV care, adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and achieve viral suppression. Computer-based interventions, including those focused on behavior change, are recognized as effective tools for engaging youth. The purpose of the study described in this protocol is to evaluate the efficacy of Epic Allies, a theory-based mobile phone app that utilizes game mechanics and social networking features to improve engagement in HIV care, ART uptake, ART adherence, and viral suppression among HIV-positive YMSM and YTWSM. The study also qualitatively assesses intervention acceptability, perceived impact, and sustainability. This is a two-group, active-control randomized controlled trial of the Epic Allies app. YMSM and YTWSM aged 16 to 24 inclusive, with detectable HIV viral load are randomized 1:1 within strata of new to care (newly entered HIV medical care ≤12 months of baseline visit) or ART-nonadherent (first entered HIV medical care >12 months before baseline visit) to intervention or control conditions. The intervention condition addresses ART adherence barriers through medication reminders and adherence monitoring, tracking of select adherence-related behaviors (eg, alcohol and marijuana use), an interactive dashboard that displays the participant's adherence-related behaviors and provides tailored feedback, encouragement messages from other users, daily HIV/ART educational articles, and gamification features (eg, mini-games, points, badges) to increase motivation for behavior change and app engagement. The control condition features weekly phone-based notifications to encourage participants to view educational information in the control app. Follow-up assessments are administered at 13, 26, and 39 weeks for each arm. The

  17. Evidence-based recommendations to improve reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Andrea; Ti, Angeline; Schear, Sarah; Comfort, Megan

    2017-09-11

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe standards for evidence-based reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women. Design/methodology/approach The literature on reproductive healthcare in the US criminal justice system and recommendations from professional organizations were reviewed and critical areas of concern were identified. Within these areas, studies and expert opinion were synthesized and policy recommendations were formulated through an iterative process of group discussion and document revision. This brief specifically addresses women's incarceration in the USA, but the recommendations are grounded in a human rights framework with global relevance. Findings Women who are incarcerated have health needs that are distinct from those of men, and there is a clear need for gender-responsive reproductive healthcare within the criminal justice system. This brief identifies five core domains of reproductive healthcare: routine screening, menstruation-related concerns, prenatal and postpartum care, contraception and abortion, and sexually transmitted infections. The recommendations emphasize the continuity between the criminal justice system and the community, as well as the dignity and self-determination of incarcerated women. Originality/value This brief provides a unique synthesis of the available evidence with concrete recommendations for improving the reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women.

  18. The development of a parenting program for incarcerated mothers in Australia: a review of prison-based parenting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.

  19. Exercise during growth and young adulthood is independently associated with cortical bone size and strength in old Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Sundh, Daniel; Ohlsson, Claes; Karlsson, Magnus; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between exercise during youth and increased areal bone mineral density at old age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if exercise during growth was independently associated with greater cortical bone size and whole bone strength in weight-bearing bone in old men. The tibia and radius were measured using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) (XCT-2000; Stratec) at the diaphysis and high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) (XtremeCT; Scanco) at the metaphysis to obtain cortical bone geometry and finite element-derived bone strength in distal tibia and radius, in 597 men, 79.9 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD) years old. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about previous and current physical activity. In order to determine whether level of exercise during growth and young adulthood or level of current physical activity were independently associated with bone parameters in both tibia and radius, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) analyses were used. Adjusting for covariates and current physical activity, we found that men in the group with the highest level of exercise early in life (regular exercise at a competitive level) had higher tibial cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; 6.3%, p strength (failure load: 7.5%, p exercise during growth and young adulthood. Subjects in the group with the highest level of current physical activity had smaller tibial endosteal circumference (EC; 3.6%, p = 0.012) at the diaphysis than subjects with a lower current physical activity, when adjusting for covariates and level of exercise during growth and young adulthood. These findings indicate that exercise during growth can increase the cortical bone size via periosteal expansion, whereas exercise at old age may decrease endosteal bone loss in weight-bearing bone in old men. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Do Nonclinical Community-Based Youth-Serving Professionals Talk With Young Men About Sexual and Reproductive Health and Intend to Refer Them for Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Arik V; Gibbs, Susannah E; Howard, Shalynn R; Pilgrim, Nanlesta A; Jennings, Jacky M; Sanders, Renata; Page, Kathleen R; Loosier, Penny S; Dittus, Patricia J

    2017-07-01

    Young men (ages 15-24) may benefit from community-based connections to care since many have sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs and low care use. This study describes nonclinical community-based youth-serving professionals' (YSPs) SRH knowledge, confidence, past behaviors, and future intentions to talk with young men about SRH and refer them to care, and examines factors associated with care referral intentions. YSPs ( n = 158) from 22 settings in one mid-Atlantic city answered questions about the study's goal, their demographics and work environment from August 2014 to December 2015. Poisson regression assessed factors associated with YSPs' care referral intentions. On average, YSPs answered 58% of knowledge questions correctly, knew 5 of 8 SRH care dimensions of where to refer young men, and perceived being somewhat/very confident talking with young men about SRH (63%) and referring them to care (77%). During the past month, the majority (63%) talked with young men about SRH but only one-third made care referrals; the majority (66%) were somewhat/very likely to refer them to care in the next 3 months. Adjusted models indicated YSPs were more likely to refer young men if they had a very supportive work environment to talk about SRH (adjusted RR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.15, 1.98]), greater confidence in SRH care referral (1.28 [1.00, 1.62]), and greater SRH care referrals in the past month (1.16 [1.02, 1.33]). Nonclinical community-based YSPs have poor-to-moderate knowledge about young men's SRH care, and less than one-third reported referrals in the past month. Findings have implications for educating YSPs about young men's SRH care.

  1. “Triply cursed”: Racism, homophobia, and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence, and disclosure among young Black gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Emily A.; Rebchook, Gregory M.; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted upon by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and nine service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and non-disclosure of a p...

  2. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  3. A social ecology of rectal microbicide acceptability among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2013-08-01

    With HIV-incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok among the highest in the world, a topical rectal microbicide would be a tremendous asset to prevention. Nevertheless, ubiquitous gaps between clinical trial efficacy and real-world effectiveness of existing HIV preventive interventions highlight the need to address multi-level factors that may impact on rectal microbicide implementation. We explored the social ecology of rectal microbicide acceptability among MSM and transgender women in Chiang Mai and Pattaya, Thailand. We used a qualitative approach guided by a social ecological model. Five focus groups were conducted in Thai using a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim in Thai and translated into English. We conducted thematic analysis using line-by-line and axial coding and a constant comparative method. Transcripts and codes were uploaded into a customized database programmed in Microsoft Access. We then used content analysis to calculate theme frequencies by group, and Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test to compare themes by sexual orientation/gender expression and age. Participant's (n=37) mean age was 24.8 years (SD=4.2). The majority (70.3%) self-identified as gay, 24.3% transgender women. Product-level themes (side effects, formulation, efficacy, scent, etc.) accounted for 42%, individual (increased sexual risk, packaging/portability, timing/duration of protection) 29%, interpersonal (trust/communication, power/negotiation, stealth) 8% and social-structural (cost, access, community influence, stigma) 21% of total codes, with significant differences by sexual orientation/gender identity. The intersections of multi-level influences included product formulation and timing of use preferences contingent on interpersonal communication and partner type, in the context of constraints posed by stigma, venues for access and cost. The intersecting influence of multi-level factors on

  4. [Oral health in young adults in Germany--a comparison between women and men of the German army].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebolz, Dirk; Schwerdtfeger, Bernd; Brunner, Edgar; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare oral health in young German women and men. We paired female and male soldiers of the German armed force (Bundeswehr) on the basis of age, school qualification and origin. All participants underwent a clinical examination. Oral health was assessed using the decayed, missing and filled surfaces index (DMF-S), an oral hygiene index (QHI), and a periodontal index (CPITN). In addition, we collected data on the subjects' smoking habits. The study included 90 women (mean age: 21.7 years) and 90 men (mean age: 21.4 years). The mean DMF-S was 20.7 +/- 13.7 for women and 21.0 +/- 19.8 for men (p>0.05). In the female group, dental restorations were present in 71% of the teeth affected by caries. In the male group, restorations were present in 61.2% (p=0.04). The female group showed a less marked polarisation of caries than the male group (p=0.03). Oral hygiene (QHI) was poor in the entire study population. Women (QHI: 2.16 +/- 0.6), however, exhibited significantly better oral hygiene than men (QHI: 2.53 +/- 0.5) (p= 0.01). Deeper probing depths (CPITN scores of 3 and 4) were less frequently seen in females than in males (p= 0.04). In both groups more than half of the participants were smokers (56.7%) since at least four years with more than ten cigarettes per day. Smoking had a significant influence on periodontal health (p=0.02). Men showed poorer oral health than women. The study emphasizes that the proportion of young adults requiring curative dental treatment remains high in Germany. It also underlines the need for intensive preventive care including cessation of smoking.

  5. Drugs, Sex, and Condoms: Identification and Interpretation of Race-Specific Cultural Messages Influencing Black Gay and Bisexual Young Men Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Tyler, April Timmons; Bruce, Douglas; Graham, Louis; Wade, Ryan M

    2016-12-01

    Black gay and bisexual young men carry a disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States. This study explored Black gay and bisexual young men living with HIV's identification and interpretation of race-specific cultural messages regarding substance use, sexual activity, and condom use. A total of 36 Black gay and bisexual young men living with HIV (ages 16-24, mean = 20.6 years) from four geographically diverse regions of the United States participated in qualitative in-depth interviews. Results from this study elucidate the ways in which these young men interpret various forms of race-specific cultural messages and experiences regarding substance use, sexual activity, and condom use. Participants discussed cultural messages and experiences promoting and discouraging condoms and substance use. Regarding sexual activity, only messages and experiences promoting sex were reported. Across all three categories, messages and experiences promoting risk were predominant. Data further revealed that socially transmitted cultural messages received by young men emanated from multiple sources, such as family, peers, sexual partners, community/neighborhood, and the broader society. Race-specific cultural messages and experiences should be addressed in interventions for this population, and programs should assist young men in developing a critical consciousness regarding these messages and experiences in order to promote health and well-being. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  6. Sexual interaction or a solitary action: young Swedish men's ideal images of sexual situations in relationships and in one-night stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmerstig, Eva; Wijma, Barbro; Sandell, Kerstin; Berterö, Carina

    2014-10-01

    It seems that traditional gender norms influence young women's and men's sexuality differently. However, little attention has been paid to ideal images of sexual situations. This study identifies young heterosexual men's ideal images of sexual situations and their expectations of themselves in sexual situations. The present study employs a qualitative design. Twelve Swedish men (aged 16-20) participated in individual in-depth qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Our study revealed that the young men's conceptions of normal sexual situations were divided into two parts: sexual situations in relationships, and sexual situations in one-night stands. Their ideal image, "a balanced state of emotional and physical pleasure", was influenced by the presence/absence of intimacy, the partner's response, and their own performance. The greatest opportunities to experience intimacy and the partner's response were found during sexual situations in relationships. In one-night stands, the men wanted to make a good impression by performing well, and behaved according to masculine stereotypes. Stereotyped masculinity norms regulate young heterosexual men's sexuality, particularly in one-night stands. Sexual health promotion should emphasize the presence of these masculinity norms, which probably involve costs in relation to young men's sexual wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Definition of osteoporosis by bone density criteria in men: effect of using female instead of male young reference data depends on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental incarceration and child mortality in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-03-01

    We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent.

  9. Testimony on Drug Treatment Alternatives to Incarceration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iguchi, Martin

    2000-01-01

    ... treatment within the criminal justice system. Players in that policy game focused, as we are doing today, on the need to provide criminal offenders with drug abuse treatment as an alternative to incarceration...

  10. Estimation of energy and nutritional intake of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Keeping to a balanced diet plays a key role in maximizing the body's efficiency so that sports training becomes more effective. Previous studies have shown that an athletes' diet is often not properly balanced, and can thus negatively affect sporting performance. To assess the energy and nutrient intake in young men practicing aerobic sport and compare them with those recommended. Subjects were 25 male athletes, aged 19-25 years, practicing aerobic sports who were students at two Warsaw Universities; The Military University of Technology and University of Physical Education. The average body mass was 80.6 +/- 9.6 kg and average height was 187.0 +/- 7.6 cm, (BMI thus being 23.01 +/- 1.70 kg/m2). Dietary assessment was based on three-day dietary recalls consisting of two weekdays and one day of the weekend. The energy and macro/ micro-nutrient intake were evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package and compared to recommendations and standards. Supplements were absent from the athletes' diets. The energy value of diets were too low in most instances; average %-age deficiency was 30.22 +/- 13.76%. Total protein intake, (mean 1.41 +/- 0.36 g per kg body weight) was inadequate in 40% of cases, whilst all showed appropriate intakes of animal protein. Most subjects' carbohydrate intake (84%) was deficient; median 3.28 g/kg body weight. Fibre intake, (median 17.17 g) was also insufficient in 76% cases. Total fat intake, (33.9% +/- 5.7 energy) was too high in 32% of cases. The %-age dietary energy obtained from saturated fatty acids was 12.18% +/- 2.53 and 5.72% +/- 1.43 from polyunsaturated fatty acids, where most subjects' diet (64%) was, as well, high in cholesterol. Furthermore, significant deficiencies were observed in the following: Vitamin A (44% of group below EAR), vitamin C (80% below EAR), vitamin D (92% below EAR), foliate (84% below EAR), calcium (52% below EAR) and magnesium (60% below EAR). Vitamin E intake was however higher than the AI level

  11. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, H B; Hoeger Bement, M; Madsen, A B; Fridriksson, J; Dasa, M; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-01-01

    Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. Cuff pressure pain tolerance was significantly increased after exercise compared with baseline and rest (p exercise. No significant correlation between exercise-induced changes in HPT and cPPT was found. Test-retest reliability before and after the rest condition was better for cPPT and CPTT (intraclass correlation > 0.77) compared with HPT (intraclass correlation = 0.54). The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain-coping strategy. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the heat and pressure pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise

  12. Diabetes in young adult men: social and health-related correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Koelmeyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a global public health issue. It is associated with significant disability, morbidity and mortality risks and substantial healthcare costs. Of great concern is the fact that its prevalence is rising, particularly amongst the young, while epidemiological data regarding the incidence, prevalence and complications of early-onset type 2 diabetes is noted to be sparse. Methods We used data from the baseline wave of Ten to Men, a national cohort study of Australian males, to investigate the social and health-related correlates of Australian males aged 18–49 years reporting being diagnosed with diabetes. Results The estimated prevalence of a self-reported diabetes diagnosis amongst Australian males aged 18–49 years was 2.95 % (95 % CI: 2.54–3.43 %. Within this age group, approximately 75 % of those diagnosed with diabetes are expected to be living with a known diagnosis of type 2 diabetes; the remainder are expected to be living with type 1 diabetes. Of the 20 social and health-related factors considered, we found evidence to support the association of eighteen factors after adjusting for age and body mass index. The strongest correlates of reporting a diabetes diagnosis, associated with a ≥2-fold increase in the odds of reporting diabetes were being aged 35–49 years, being unemployed, being obese, seeing a doctor for a check-up more frequently, reporting comorbid high blood pressure or physical or mental health comorbidities and worse self-rated and physical health status. Conclusion Australian males aged 18–49 years who are living with a known diagnosis of diabetes are more likely to be socio-economically disadvantaged and suffer substantially worse health status than Australian males aged 18–49 years living without a diabetes diagnosis. Based on the associations detected in this study, older, single males living in regional areas who are socioeconomically d