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Sample records for incarcerated young men

  1. The Affordable Care Act, Insurance Coverage, and Health Care Utilization of Previously Incarcerated Young Men: 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Tyler N A; Choi, HwaJung; Davis, Matthew M

    2017-05-01

    To estimate health insurance and health care utilization patterns among previously incarcerated men following implementation of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Medicaid expansion and Marketplace plans in 2014. We performed serial cross-sectional analyses using data from the National Survey of Family Growth between 2008 and 2015. Our sample included men aged 18 to 44 years with (n = 3476) and without (n = 8702) a history of incarceration. Uninsurance declined significantly among previously incarcerated men after ACA implementation (-5.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -11.5, -0.4), primarily because of an increase in private insurance (6.8 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.1, 13.3). Previously incarcerated men accounted for a large proportion of the remaining uninsured (38.6%) in 2014 to 2015. Following ACA implementation, previously incarcerated men continued to be significantly less likely to report a regular source of primary care and more likely to report emergency department use than were never-incarcerated peers. Health insurance coverage improved among previously incarcerated men following ACA implementation. However, these men account for a substantial proportion of the remaining uninsured. Previously incarcerated men continue to lack primary care and frequently utilize acute care services.

  2. Recruiting, Retaining and Engaging Men in Social Interventions: Lessons for Implementation Focusing on a Prison-Based Parenting Intervention for Young Incarcerated Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Recruiting, retaining and engaging men in social interventions can be challenging. The focus of this paper is the successful implementation of a parenting programme for incarcerated fathers, delivered in a Young Offender Institution (YOI) in Scotland. Reasons for high levels of recruitment, retention and engagement are explored, with barriers…

  3. Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers.

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    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.

  4. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  5. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the ...

  6. Young men using pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Most everyday users of pornography are heterosexual men. Looking at, and masturbating to, pornography is the routine practice of large numbers of men. And most of the commercial pornographic industry caters to heterosexual men. These men – and their consumption of pornography – are the subject of a growing body of research. This chapter offers an overview of what we can learn about heterosexual boys' and young men's use of pornography, focusing particularly on quantitative studies of the exte...

  7. Correlates of Incarceration Among Young Methamphetamine Users in Chiang Mai, Thailand

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    Thomson, Nicholas; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlates of incarceration among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2005 to 2006. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1189 young methamphetamine users. Participants were surveyed about their recent drug use, sexual behaviors, and incarceration. Biological samples were obtained to test for sexually transmitted and viral infections. Results. Twenty-two percent of participants reported ever having been incarcerated. In multivariate analysis, risk behaviors including frequent public drunkenness, starting to use illicit drugs at an early age, involvement in the drug economy, tattooing, injecting drugs, and unprotected sex were correlated with a history of incarceration. HIV, HCV, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection were also correlated with incarceration. Conclusions. Incarcerated methamphetamine users are engaging in behaviors and being exposed to environments that put them at increased risk of infection and harmful practices. Alternatives to incarceration need to be explored for youths. PMID:18923109

  8. The Role of Masculine Norms and Informal Support on Mental Health in Incarcerated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Gordon, Derrick; Oliveros, Arazais; Perez-Cabello, Arturo; Brabham, Tamika; Lanza, Steve; Dyson, William

    2012-07-01

    Mental health problems, in general, and major depression in particular, are prevalent among incarcerated men. It is estimated that 23% of state inmates report experiencing symptoms of major depression. Despite the high rates of depressive symptoms, there is little understanding about the psychosocial factors that are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms of incarcerated men. One factor relevant to the mental health of incarcerated men is their adherence to traditional masculine norms. We investigated the role of masculine norms and informal support on depressive and anxiety symptoms among 123 incarcerated men. The results revealed that adherence to the masculine norm of emotional control were negatively associated with depressive symptoms while heterosexual presentation and informal support were related to both depressive and anxiety symptoms. High levels of reported informal support moderated the effects of heterosexual presentation on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Public health and clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  10. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based emotional intelligence measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold-standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower emotional intelligence. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of emotional intelligence abilities and that emotional intelligence is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy. PMID:22329657

  11. Discrimination Fully Mediates the Effects of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M

    2018-04-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.

  12. My Brother's Keeper: Nurturing In-School Relationships for Young Men of Color in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Paul; Klevan, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Black and Latino men pay a heavy price for the structural inequities they face, such as higher rates of poverty, incarceration, and unemployment. New York City's Young Men's Initiative, a combination of new programs and policy reforms, seeks to mitigate some of the effects of these inequitable conditions on young men of color. The educational…

  13. The relationship between education and health among incarcerated men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Masters, Ryan K; Boardman, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    This paper contributes to research on the education-health association by extending the scope of inquiry to adult inmates. Not only are inmates excluded from most nationally representative studies of health but they also represent a highly select group in terms of both education and health. As such, our study provides new information about the health of incarcerated populations and it extends the generalizability of the education-health association beyond the non-institutionalized population. We use a prison-level fixed-effects regression model with the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (n = 287 facilities) to evaluate the effects of education on a standardized morbidity scale of 11 lifetime and current health conditions among incarcerated men (n = 10,493) and women (n = 2,797). Education prior to incarceration is negatively associated with lifetime health problems for both women and men and the association is stronger among women. Among inmates who enter prison with less than a GED level of education, attaining a GED in prison is associated with better current health outcomes for men, but not women. The generalization of the education-health association among prisoners further highlights the fundamental nature of education as a health promotive resource. Discussed are the implications for the education-health literature in general and health promotion efforts among incarcerated adults specifically.

  14. Traumatic brain injury, mental health, substance use, and offending among incarcerated young people.

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    Moore, Elizabeth; Indig, Devon; Haysom, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Despite being at high risk, little is known about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among incarcerated young people. This study aims to describe the prevalence of TBI among incarcerated young people and assess the association with mental health, substance use, and offending behaviors. The 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey was conducted in 9 juvenile detention centers. A total of 361 young people agreed to participate, representing 80% of all incarcerated young people. Young people were asked if they ever had a head injury where they became unconscious or "blacked-out." The survey used the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders for Children to assess for psychiatric disorders, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Severity of Dependence Scale to measure problematic substance use. The sample comprised 88% man, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years. One-third (32%) of young people reported ever experiencing a TBI, and 13% reported multiple TBIs. The majority (92%) of "most serious" TBIs were defined as mild, and the most common cause was an assault (62% woman, 34% man). Young people who reported a history of TBI (compared with those reporting no TBI) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a mental health disorder, psychological distress, a history of bullying, problematic substance use, participation in fights, and offending behaviors. Reporting multiple (>2) TBIs conferred a higher risk of psychological disorders and problematic substance use. Incarcerated young people have high rates of TBI. Enhanced detection of TBI among incarcerated young people will assist clinicians in addressing the associated psychosocial sequelae.

  15. Implementation and effectiveness of integrated trauma and addiction treatment for incarcerated men.

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    Wolff, Nancy; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Frueh, B Christopher; Hoover, Donald R; McHugo, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    A controlled trial of Seeking Safety (SS) and Male-Trauma Recovery Empowerment Model (M-TREM) examined implementation and effectiveness of integrated group therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) on PTSD and mental health symptoms plus self-esteem and efficacy for incarcerated men. The study sample (n=230) was male inmates 18 years or older who were primarily non-white, high school graduates or equivalents, had childhood trauma histories, committed violent crimes, had serious mental illnesses, and resided in a maximum security prison. Incarcerated men, who screened positive for PTSD and SUD, were assigned randomly (n=142) or by preference (n=88) to receive SS or M-TREM, with a waitlist group of (n=93). Manualized interventions were group-administered for 14 weeks. Primary outcomes were PTSD and other mental health symptoms. Secondary outcomes were self-esteem, coping, and self-efficacy. SUD outcomes cannot be measured in a correctional setting. Implementation feasibility was exhibited by the ability to recruit, screen, assign, and retain participants. Effectiveness findings depended on sample, design, and method for analysis. Using a waitlist control group and no follow-up period, we found no aggregate effect of treatment on PTSD symptoms, although, when disaggregated, M-TREM was found to improve PTSD severity and SS improved general mental health symptoms and psychological functioning. Using intent-to-treat and completer analyses, no significant differences were found in the relative performance between SS and M-TREM on primary or secondary outcomes. When longitudinal data were maximized and modeled in ways that reflect the hierarchical nature of the data, we found that SS and M-TREM performed better than no treatment on PTSD severity and secondary outcomes, and that treatment benefits endured. Findings cautiously support implementing either Seeking Safety or M-TREM to treat incarcerated men with co-morbid PTSD

  16. A Validation of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale in Formerly Incarcerated Black and Latino Men.

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    Valera, Pamela; Boyas, Javier F; Bernal, Camila; Chiongbian, Victoria Briones; Chang, Yvonne; Shelton, Rachel C

    2016-05-04

    While there is a growing body of literature on medical mistrust and its relevance to public health, research on formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men and their perception of mistrust toward medical providers and medical institutions remains scant. Very little is known about whether formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men mistrust medical and clinical providers given their previous experiences with the criminal justice system. It is important to determine whether medical mistrust play a key role in the health and health behaviors of released Black and Latino men. The purpose of this study is to validate and assess the psychometric properties of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale for use among formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men in New York City. The findings of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses state that a two-factor structure fit the data best. Two dimensions emerged as important subscales: discrimination and suspicion. The current findings suggest the two-factor Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale is a valid and reliable assessment tool to discern medical mistrust levels among formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. ADHD modulates the course of delinquency: a 15-year follow-up study of young incarcerated man.

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    Philipp-Wiegmann, Florence; Rösler, Michael; Clasen, Oriana; Zinnow, Toivo; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Retz, Wolfgang

    2018-06-01

    There is growing evidence of an association between ADHD and rule-breaking behaviour and that subjects with ADHD are more likely to be involved in the legal system. However, the research on ADHD as a risk factor not only for delinquency but also for recidivism is scarce and findings are controversial. Therefore, we explored the impact of ADHD on the course of delinquency in a sample of incarcerated young men. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study by investigating the criminal records of 106 former youth prisoners. Criminal recidivism was operationalized through three variables: criminal recidivism; frequency of recidivism; and time to recidivism. The incremental predictive validity of ADHD was analysed using survival analysis and controlled for confounders associated with recidivism. Offenders with ADHD (n = 74) reoffended 2.5 times faster and showed a higher rate of recidivism and further incarcerations compared to non-ADHD offenders (n = 33), even when controlling for general risk factors such as antisocial personality disorder. Median survival rate ranged between 6 and 7 months in the ADHD groups and 25 months in the non-ADHD group. Our results revealed that ADHD has an incremental predictive power on criminal recidivism, even above general risk factors. Moreover, the criminogenic influence of ADHD appeared to be crucial in terms of the interplay of childhood ADHD, irrespectively of the persistence of the symptomatology into later life. Our findings therefore highlight the importance of early intervention and consequently prevention.

  18. Differential Impact of Types of Social Support in the Mental Health of Formerly Incarcerated Latino Men

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    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Perry, Ashley; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The role of social support in the mental health of formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) is an issue overlooked in public health prevention efforts. The objectives of this analysis were to (a) describe the levels of social support perceived and received by FILM; (b) identify the associations, if any, between levels of social support and mental health indicators such as depression and anxiety; and (c) explore the impact of familism and hypermasculinity on the receptivity of social support and the potential role of these factors in mediating associations between social support and mental health indicators. To accomplish the objectives, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with FILM (n = 259), ages 18 to 59, in New York City, and one nominated member of their social network (n = 130 dyads). In this analysis, we examined four dimensions of social support (instrumental, informational, appraisal, and emotional) from two perspectives: provided (as reported by members of the social networks) and perceived (as reported by FILM). The major outcome variables for this analysis were the presence/absence of major anxiety and depressive symptoms. Our logistic regression analyses suggest that perceived emotional support was inversely associated with both anxiety and depression. Our findings suggest that familism mediated the association between perceived emotional support and anxiety/depression. Therefore, we must consider designing network enhancement interventions that focus on both FILM and their social support systems. PMID:24323767

  19. The Experience of Young Children and Their Incarcerated Mothers: A Call for Humanly-Responsive Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Describes the IMCIPE Project (Incarcerated Mothers and Children: Impact of Prison Environments) which investigates the experiences of incarcerated mothers whose children live with them in Mother and Baby Units and incarcerated mothers who are separated from their children; the impact of the prison environment on mother-child relationships; and…

  20. Young Men, Masculinities and Sex Education

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    Limmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…

  1. A comparison of HIV-risk behaviors between young black cisgender men who have sex with men and young black transgender women who have sex with men.

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    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Hill, Brandon; Mena, Leandro

    2018-06-01

    This study compared sexually transmitted infection (STI)-associated risks between young Black cisgender men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and young Black transwomen who have sex with men (YBTWSM). Comparisons pertained to: (1) prevalence of infections; (2) sexual risk; (3) partner-related risks; and (4) socioeconomic marginalization. YBMSM (n = 577) and YBTWSM (n = 32) were recruited from an STI clinic in the USA. Volunteers completed a computer-assisted self-interview and medical records were abstracted for STI/HIV information. Significantly greater prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia ( P < .001) and pharyngeal gonorrhea ( P = .04) occurred among YBTWSM; however, both associations were moderated and only significant for HIV-uninfected volunteers. YBTWSM had more oral sex partners and more frequent engagement in oral sex. The number of new sex partners for anal receptive sex was greater in YBTWSM. YBTWSM were more likely to exchange sex for money/drugs ( P < .001), have sex with men recently in prison ( P < .001), who were "anonymous" ( P = .004), or who were "one night stands" ( P < .001). YBTWSM were more likely to depend on sex partners for money food, etc. ( P < .001), to miss meals due to lack of money ( P = .01), and to report having ever being incarcerated ( P = .009). Compared to cisgender YBMSM, YBTWSM experience multiple risk factors relative to the acquisition/transmission of STIs and HIV.

  2. The Cumulative Disadvantages of Socially Toxic Family Environments: A Comparison of Early Life Experiences of Incarcerated Men and University Students

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    Joseph Michalski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the antecedents of criminal behavior through the process of retrospective family and life course histories in which incarcerated male inmates and male university students are compared. The main focus is on early childhood experiences and parental behaviors. The study data derive from intensive, face-to-face interviews with 38 men incarcerated for violent offences and a matched group of 66 men attending university at the same time. The interviews focus on the relative importance of adverse childhood experiences and linkages with adolescence. The interviews demonstrated that nearly four-fifths of the inmates experienced toxic family environments by the time they reached adolescence, as compared with only two of the university students. Qualitative analyses flesh out the major themes, experiences, and “risk factors” that helped shape the trajectories of both groups of men. The socially toxic family environments and sub-optimal parenting practices that most inmates endured produced long-term, adverse effects in reducing their capacities for resilience, forging healthy relationships with their peers, and remaining in school.

  3. The Committed Intimate Partnerships of Incarcerated African-American Men: Implications for Sexual HIV Transmission Risk and Prevention Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria R; El-Bassel, Nabila; Golin, Carol E; Scheidell, Joy D; Adimora, Adaora A; Coatsworth, Ashley M; Hu, Hui; Judon-Monk, Selena; Medina, Katie P; Wohl, David A

    2017-10-01

    Incarceration is thought to influence HIV transmission by disrupting partnerships that provide support and protect against sex risk-taking. Current correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs focus on marital partnerships, a minority of inmates' partnerships. Research on the sex partnerships of incarcerated African-American men and the types of partnerships most likely to protect against HIV-related sex risk is limited. Improved understanding can inform expansion of correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs to a greater proportion of protective partnerships and HIV risk reduction programs to partnerships vulnerable to sex risk. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of African-American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in committed heterosexual partnerships at prison entry. Using baseline survey data (N = 189), we conducted latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of participants with distinct relationship profiles and measured associations between relationship characteristics and multiple partnerships of inmates and their partners in the six months before incarceration. LCA indicated a two-class solution, with relationships distinguished by satisfaction/stability (satisfied/stable class: 58.0%; dissatisfied/unstable class: 42.0%); each class had comparable relationship length and levels of marriage and cohabitation. Dissatisfied/unstable relationships were associated with multiple partnerships among participants (AOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.50, 5.72) and partners (AOR 4.95, 95% CI 1.68, 14.58). Satisfaction indicators-versus length, marriage, or cohabitation-were the strongest independent correlates of inmates' and partners' multiple partnerships. Pre-incarceration economic deprivation, mental disorder symptoms, substance use, and violence in relationships were associated with dissatisfaction/instability. Prison-based programs designed to maintain healthy partnerships, strengthen relationship skills, and reduce

  4. Consequences of Fatherhood for Young Men's Relationships.

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    La Taillade, Jaslean J; Hofferth, Sandra; Wight, Vanessa R

    2010-04-01

    This paper examined how the onset and timing of the transition to fatherhood affects the type and quality of young men's relationships with partners and parents. Data are drawn from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Young Adult Survey and included young men (ages 18-31 years old in 2006) who varied on residential status with their children and timing of fatherhood (N = 1,931). Results indicated the effects of fatherhood varied across types of fathers, with residential fathers more likely to be in a committed but less satisfactory relationship regardless of timing of fatherhood. Nonresidential fathers were more likely to have close relationships with their mothers and fathers, but findings varied by timing of fatherhood and gender of parent. Implications of these findings are framed in terms of young men's developmental readiness for multiple demands of first-time fatherhood.

  5. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michael J; Frank, Heather Guentzel; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Chou, Chih-Ping; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2018-01-01

    African-American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are among those most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States, and those who have histories of incarceration are at further risk of infection. The Men in Life Environments (MILE) HIV prevention intervention was developed to provide culturally appropriate skills-based education and support for African-American MSMW with recent histories of incarceration. The MILE's conceptual framework was informed by three theories: Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior, Critical Thinking and Cultural Affirmation Model, and Empowerment Theory. The theory-based framework posits that improving racial pride is crucial in building self-efficacy and intentions that in turn promote health-protective behaviors. Therefore, our study aimed to assess whether baseline associations between racial pride and condom use self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors among African-American MSMW with histories of incarceration align with our conceptual model. We report data on 212 participants recruited from Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Men's Central Jail and the local community. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two separate models: one with female sexual partners and one with male sexual partners, while stratifying by participant's HIV status. Only among HIV-negative participants was greater racial pride associated with less condomless intercourse with men. In this group, greater self-efficacy and intentions-but not racial pride-predicted less condomless intercourse with women. Our findings suggest that racial pride is an important factor to address in HIV prevention interventions for post-incarcerated African-American MSMW.

  6. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, panabolic androgenic steroid use is common in young men who seek treatment for symptomatic hypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PAPILLOMA VIRAL INFECTION AMONG BOYS AND YOUNG MEN PRIMARY PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    M.G. Galitskaya; M.I. Ivardava

    2009-01-01

    Young sexually active men may have anogenital HPV related infection, which can cause the genital penis verruca, penis cancer, perianal and anal cancer. Besides, men's HPV infection may cause an infection and subsequent diseases of cervix of the uterus and other organs among women. The available opportunity to inoculate boys and young men against HPV infection provides for 100% guaranteed protection from severe diseases not only for boys and young men but also for girls and women, who men may ...

  8. An Evaluation of Past Special Education Programs and Services Provided to Incarcerated Young Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Trussell, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the past special education programs and services provided to children and youth who later became incarcerated. Participants in this study were inmates from a medium security state correctional facility in the southwest region of the United States. All inmates involved in this study were identified as having a disability and…

  9. Factors Associated with Young Children's Opportunities for Maintaining Family Relationships during Maternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Maes, Elizabeth; Hanneman, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    Children affected by maternal incarceration experience challenges maintaining continuous family relationships because of changes in caregivers, separation from siblings, and limited contact with mothers. In this mixed-method study, we investigated maternal and contextual factors associated with continuity in family relationships of children living…

  10. Incarceration and Household Asset Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.

  11. Lifetime trauma victimization and PTSD in relation to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Robyn L; Reddy, Madhavi K; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are similar, but distinct, psychiatric conditions that are common in male and female inmates; a segment of the population with high rates of trauma exposure. It is unclear whether specific types of lifetime trauma are associated with ASPD and psychopathy in incarcerated women and men. Furthermore, the unique roles of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and trauma victimization in antisocial personality disturbance are not well-understood. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study investigated associations between trauma variables (different kinds of traumatic experiences and PTSD) and antisocial personality variables (ASPD and psychopathy) in a sample of incarcerated women and men who participated in a randomized clinical trial for major depressive disorder. In total, 88 incarcerated men and women were assessed for ASPD diagnosis, psychopathy severity, PTSD symptom severity, and history of physical, sexual, and crime-related trauma. Regression analyses predicted ASPD or psychopathy from trauma variables, controlling for gender. Physical trauma was the only form of trauma that was significantly related to psychopathy. Physical trauma and crime-related trauma were associated with ASPD. PTSD symptom severity was not associated with psychopathy or ASPD. There are associations between some kinds of lifetime trauma exposure and current ASPD/psychopathy in the target sample, but these associations do not appear to be mediated through current PTSD symptoms.

  12. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  13. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Severity and Sexually Transmitted Infection and HIV Risk in African American Incarcerated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Hobbs, Marcia M; Wohl, David A; Adimora, Adaora A; Khan, Maria R

    2016-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV rates are disproportionately high among men involved in the criminal justice system. Mental health disorders, including personality disorders, are also elevated among inmates. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be an important risk factor for STI/HIV, yet remains relatively understudied, particularly among inmates. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study of African American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in heterosexual relationships at prison entry (n=189), to assess their STI/HIV risk in the 6 months before incarceration and BPD symptoms focused on emotional lability and relationship dysfunction. We created a continuous BPD symptom severity score and a dichotomous BPD indicator split at the top quartile of the score (BPD-TQ) to examine associations between BPD and STI/HIV outcomes using logistic regression. We also examined associations between individual symptoms and outcomes. After adjustment for sociodemographics and antisocial personality disorder, BPD-TQ was associated with sexual risk behaviors including multiple partnerships (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.36) and sex with nonmonogamous partners (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.51). Prevalence of previous STI (47.5% vs. 29.6%) and prevalent chlamydial infection (6.9% vs. 3.1%) seemed higher in those in BPD-TQ, although the associations were not statistically significant. Associations were similar to those with the continuous score. Borderline personality disorder symptoms most associated with STI/HIV risk were abandonment worry, mood swings, and shifts in opinions. Borderline personality disorder is strongly associated with STI/HIV risk in this sample. Researchers should further evaluate the relationship between STI/HIV and BPD, in addition to mood disorders.

  14. Talking violence, constructing identities : young men in institutional care

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kjerstin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how young men constructing identities in talk about their own use of violence. The study is based on a fieldwork at a youth detention home in Sweden. The data consists of individual interviews and video recordings of the treatment programme Aggression Replacement Training (ART). Detailed analyses have been made of conversations between the young men, between the young men and the trainers, and of the narratives generated in the individual interviews. The...

  15. Talking Violence, Constructing Identity : Young Men in Institutional Care

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kjerstin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how young men constructing identities in talk about their own use of violence. The study is based on a fieldwork at a youth detention home in Sweden. The data consists of individual interviews and video recordings of the treatment programme Aggression Replacement Training (ART). Detailed analyses have been made of conversations between the young men, between the young men and the trainers, and of the narratives generated in the individual interviews. The...

  16. Innocent inmates: The case of children living with incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...

  17. Suicide clusters among young Kenyan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Puffer, Eve S; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-11-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of global mortality. Suicide clusters have recently been identified among peer networks in high-income countries. This study investigates dynamics of suicide clustering within social networks of young Kenya men ( n = 532; 18-34 years). We found a strong, statistically significant association between reported number of friends who previously attempted suicide and present suicide ideation (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (1.42, 2.54); p self-esteem (23% of total effect). Meaning in life further mediated the association between collective self-esteem and suicide ideation. Survivors of peer suicide should be evaluated for suicide risk.

  18. Teenage pregnancy prevention: the role of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Gabriela; Borus, Joshua; Charlton, Brittany M

    2017-08-01

    Although teenage pregnancy is declining in many parts of the world, it remains associated with considerable social, health, and economic outcomes. Pregnancy prevention efforts focus primarily on young women, with minimal attention to young men. This review highlights recent literature pertaining to the role of young men in pregnancy prevention. Young men have varying views on contraception as well as which partner(s) should be responsible for its use. Limited contraception knowledge reduces young men's sexual health communication as well as their contraception use. Healthcare providers play a major role as one of the main sources of sexual health information for young men, but there are gaps in young men's sexual health care so new guidelines have emerged. Recent literature highlights young men's range of views on contraception as well as their low sexual health knowledge and sexual health communication. To address teenage pregnancy and improve young men's overall wellness, healthcare providers should routinely address sexual health. Healthcare providers may use our newly proposed acronym, HIS BESTT, (Hello. Initiate. Sexual health assessment. Both condoms and female dependent methods. Examine genitals. STI screening. Talking to partner(s). Talking to parent(s) or guardians), to incorporate current clinical recommendations.

  19. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…

  20. Paternal Incarceration and Father–Child Contact in Fragile Families

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child We...

  1. Consequences of Partner Incarceration for Women's Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Angela

    2017-10-01

    Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).

  2. Young men's vulnerability in constituting hegemonic masculinity in sexual relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Abbey; Drennan, Jonathan; Howlett, Etaoine; Brady, Dympna

    2009-09-01

    This article reports on a qualitative analysis of the accounts of young men on their experiences of heterosexual encounters. Based on data collected in Ireland using 17 focus groups with 124 young men aged between 14 and 19 years (a subsection of a wider study), the manner in which intricate peer group mechanisms acted as surveillance strategies in regulating the young men toward presenting themselves in ways consistent with hegemonic manifestations of masculinity is explored. However, there were also elements of resistance to such a culture in the way in which sexual pleasure for some young men was derived relationally through giving pleasure rather than merely through mechanical, emotionally detached sexual acts that characterize hegemonic masculinity. In emphasizing male vulnerabilities such as uncertainty, fear, and rejection in the realm of sexuality, it is proposed that one must not lose sight of the broader context of male sexual dominance for which, as data indicate, men themselves pay a price.

  3. Sex partnerships, health, and social risks of young men leaving jail: analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freudenberg Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young men involved in the criminal justice system face disproportionately high rates of sexual risk behavior, drug, use, and violence. Little is known about how their involvement in sex partnerships might mitigate their unique health and social risks. This study explores whether sex partner experience protects against harmful sexual behaviors, drug problems, violence, and recidivism in 16-18-year-old Black and Latino men leaving a US jail. Methods Data were drawn from the Returning Educated African-American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN study conducted between 2003-2007, which tracked 552 adolescents during their time in a New York City jail and 397 of them one year after their release. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between sex partner experience and sex behavior, drug use, violence, and recidivism. Results This study indicates that young men who have long-term sex partners prior to incarceration are less likely to be inconsistent condom users (OR = 0.50, p ≤ 0.01, have sex while high on drugs/alcohol (OR = 0.14, p ≤ 0.001, use marijuana daily (OR = 0.45, p ≤ 0.001, and carry weapons during illegal activity (OR = 0.58, p ≤ 0.05, especially compared with peers who simultaneously are involved with long-term and casual "short-term" sex partners. However, the positive effects of having a long-term sex partner generally do not apply over time - in this case, one year after being released from jail. Aside from sexual partners, factors such as employment and housing stability predict whether these young men will experience positive or negative outcomes post-incarceration. Conclusions This study highlights the importance and potential benefits of health interventions that engage young Black and Latino men who are involved in the criminal justice system in the US, as well as their sex partners, in health promotion programs. The study also confirms the need for programs that

  4. 'Not the swab!' Young men's experiences with STI testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoveller, Jean A; Knight, Rod; Johnson, Joy; Oliffe, John L; Goldenberg, Shira

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, STI rates are high and rising, especially amongst young men. Meanwhile, the needs of young men regarding STI testing services are poorly understood, as are the socio-cultural and structural factors that influence young men's sexual health-seeking behaviours. To better understand this phenomenon, we draw on interviews with 45 men (ages 15-25) from British Columbia, Canada. Our research reveals how structural forces (e.g. STI testing procedures) interact with socio-cultural factors (e.g. perceptions of masculinities and feminities) to shape young men's experiences with STI testing. STI testing was characterised as both a potentially sexualised experience (e.g. fears of getting an erection during genital examinations), and as a process where young men experience multiple vulnerabilities associated with exposing the male body in clinical service sites. In response, participants drew on dominant ideals of masculinity to reaffirm their predominately hetero-normative gender identities. Despite growing up in an era where sexual health promotion efforts have been undertaken, participants did not feel they had permission to engage in discussions with other men about sexual health issues. Attending to young men's perspectives on STI testing represents a starting point in reforming our approaches to addressing how socio-cultural and structural factors shape these experiences.

  5. "Inside These Fences Is Our Own Little World": Prison-Based HIV Testing and HIV-Related Stigma Among Incarcerated Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E; Rosen, David L; Farel, Claire E; White, Becky L; Filene, Eliza J; Wohl, David A

    2016-04-01

    Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post- release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons ("HIV miasma"), and the View of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs.

  6. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  7. More Young Black Men Choosing Not to Go to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1987-01-01

    More and more young Black males are choosing to enlist in the military, attend vocational and technical schools, or take jobs instead of going to college. Many yield to peer pressure and stop studying; further, role models do not exist for young Black men. (MLW)

  8. Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markidan, Janina; Cole, John W; Cronin, Carolyn A; Merino, Jose G; Phipps, Michael S; Wozniak, Marcella A; Kittner, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    There is a strong dose-response relationship between smoking and risk of ischemic stroke in young women, but there are few data examining this association in young men. We examined the dose-response relationship between the quantity of cigarettes smoked and the odds of developing an ischemic stroke in men under age 50 years. The Stroke Prevention in Young Men Study is a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in men ages 15 to 49 years. The χ 2 test was used to test categorical comparisons. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio for ischemic stroke occurrence comparing current and former smokers to never smokers. In the first model, we adjusted solely for age. In the second model, we adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, race, education, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. The study population consisted of 615 cases and 530 controls. The odds ratio for the current smoking group compared with never smokers was 1.88. Furthermore, when the current smoking group was stratified by number of cigarettes smoked, there was a dose-response relationship for the odds ratio, ranging from 1.46 for those smoking strong dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily and ischemic stroke among young men. Although complete smoking cessation is the goal, even smoking fewer cigarettes may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in young men. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Paternal Incarceration and Father-Child Contact in Fragile Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father-child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father-child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated-between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release.

  11. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  12. HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…

  13. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  14. "Man points": masculine capital and young men's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard O; McDonnell, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Health behaviors are important resources for the development and display of masculine identity. The aim of this mixed-method study was to examine how "masculine capital" is accrued via traditionally masculine behaviors and used to permit nonmasculine behavior. An online survey assessing personal importance of gender identity, gender role stereotypes, and beliefs about the gender of various health behaviors was completed by 731 university students. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 of these men and women. Quantitative data showed significant positive associations between perceived masculinity and engagement in a greater number of traditionally masculine health behaviors. Such patterns were clearest among young men and women who endorsed gender role stereotypes and gave greater importance to their own gender identity. Qualitative data supported the quantitative data: participants with more traditional gender role beliefs had more strict beliefs about the masculinity of various health behaviors. When asked about their own experiences, many men described having engaged in traditionally masculine health-related behaviors so as to accrue masculine capital or use it to permit nonmasculine (or feminine) behavior. The novel use of a gender-relations approach in this mixed-method study of young men and women expanded on earlier smaller scale studies of men and masculine capital. The findings add to understanding of the concept of "masculine capital" and suggest how it may aid efforts to better understand and improve young men's health. Young men's concerns about masculinity could be harnessed to encourage healthy "masculine" behavior. However, such approaches may not be effective for men who eschew traditional definitions of masculinity. Furthermore, failure to question socially constructed definitions of gender may reinforce stereotypes that restrict men's and women's opportunities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. HIV coping self-efficacy: a key to understanding stigma and HIV test acceptance among incarcerated men in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kerrigan, Deanna; Figueroa, J Peter; Reese, Richard; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    Although prisons have been noted as important venues for HIV testing, few studies have explored the factors within this context that may influence HIV test acceptance. Moreover, there is a dearth of research related to HIV and incarcerated populations in middle and low-income countries, where both the burden of HIV and the number of people incarcerated is higher compared to high-income countries. This study explores the relationship between HIV coping self-efficacy, HIV-related stigma, and HIV test acceptance in the largest prisons in Jamaica. A random sample of inmates (n=298) recruited from an HIV testing demonstration project were asked to complete a cross-sectional quantitative survey. Participants who reported high HIV coping self-efficacy (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.86: 95% confidence interval CI 1.24-2.78, p-value=0.003), some perceived risk of HIV (AOR 2.51: 95% (CI) 1.57-4.01, p-value=0.000), and low HIV testing stigma (AOR 1.71: 95% CI 1.05-2.79, p-value=0.032) were more likely to test for HIV. Correlates of HIV coping self-efficacy included external and internal HIV stigma (AOR 1.28: 95% CI 1.25-1.32, p-value=0.000 and AOR 1.76: 95% CI 1.34-2.30, p-value=0.000, respectively), social support (AOR 2.09: 95% CI 1.19-3.68, p-value=0.010), and HIV knowledge (AOR 2.33: 95% CI 1.04-5.22, p-value=0.040). Policy and programs should focus on the interrelationships of these constructs to increase participation in HIV testing in prison.

  16. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...

  17. The prevalence of anal human papillomavirus among young HIV negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Huachun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.

  18. Masculine ideology, norms, and HIV prevention among young Black men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M.; Applewhite, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included. PMID:25525415

  19. Young Men, Time and Boredom in the Republic of Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Martin Demant

    in the regional capital of Batumi do not feel that they are part of the progression these changes create. Instead, they feel marginalized both by space and time—passed over and without prospects. This distinctive case study provides empirical evidence for a deeper understanding of contemporary societal......In the midst of societal optimism, how do young men cope with the loss of a vibrant future? Young Men, Time, and Boredom in the Republic of Georgia provides a vivid exploration of the tension between subjective and societal time and the ways these tensions create experiences of marginality among...... developments and their effects on individual experiences....

  20. Masculine ideology, norms, and HIV prevention among young Black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Applewhite, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included.

  1. “Inside These Fences is Our Own Little World”: Prison-Based HIV Testing and HIV-Related Stigma Among Incarcerated Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Rosen, David L.; Farel, Claire E.; White, Becky L.; Filene, Eliza J.; Wohl, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post-release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons (“HIV miasma”), and the view of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs. PMID:27459162

  2. The material, moral, and affective worlds of dealing and crime among young men entrenched in an inner city drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on longitudinal interviews with 44 young men from 2008 to 2016, and ethnographic fieldwork with a group of approximately 15 of those young men over the same time period, we argue that for these youth, dealing and crime were not solely about economic survival, or even the accrual of highly meaningful forms of "street capital" in the margins. Rather, as "regimes of living," dealing and crime also opened up new value systems, moral logics, and affects in relation to the tremendous risks, potential rewards, and crushing boredom of life in the margins. These activities were also understood as a way into deeply desired forms of social spatial belonging in the city, which had previously only been imagined. However, across time dealing and crime "embedded" young men in cycles of incarceration, destitution, addictions, and mental health crises that ultimately reinforced their exclusion-from legal employment, but also within the world of crime. The findings of this study underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in order to meaningfully address the harms associated with involvement in dealing and crime among youth in our setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Young men in RJ-settings: An offstage performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Ida Helene

    Empirical, qualitative studies in Danish and Norwegian RJ-sessions show, that young men (offenders and victims) are characterised by passive acquiescence, by not expressing opinions, by getting out of their ‘turn to talk’ as quickly as possible and by silence. The way this type of ‘non-acting’ has...

  4. Paternal Incarceration and Father–Child Contact in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father–child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father–child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated—between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release. PMID:24839304

  5. Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and Child Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children’s development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers’ basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors among children whose fathers are incarcerated, and some evidence of increased attention problems. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration, but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation. PMID:22203452

  6. Young Socialist Men in Mid-Sixties Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the political, social and psychological experiences of a group of young working-class men who in the early-to-mid 1960s became active members in branches of the Labour Party Young Socialists. Concentrated in London's East End, these branches had become increasingly open...... to the politics of International Socialism, a tiny libertarian Trotskyist group that provided these young men with a political education and a social circle, and propelled them into a bourgeoning activist network. Activism in their groups occurred at a crucial moment of personal and political transition – social...... at subjectivity and gender to understand how their sub-culture provided for childhood structures of feeling and early class identity and to consider what meaning they derived from active socialist involvement....

  7. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J

    2014-01-01

    interval = -67 to 37), -14 (-82 to 28), and -78 (-202 to -5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P = 0......BACKGROUND: In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice in men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters...... and reproductive hormone levels in young men. METHODS: Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters...

  8. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  9. Mandando bocas: Woo and Sex among Sampadjudu Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I deal with a Cape Verdean phenomenon: the mandar bocas (“to send mouths”. Specifically, I analyse the action of “mandar bocas” made by men in the town of Mindelo. At a first glance, this phenomenon could be quickly classified as “homophobic” slurs. I argue, however, that this is not the only possible interpretation of the phenomenon as “mandar bocas” is often a phase of a homoerotic courtship between young men in Cabo Verde, though permeated by masculinist signs.

  10. Risky sexual behaviour among young men in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Govinda P.; Hennink, Monique; Hinde, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    We use the Nepal Adolescents and Young Adults (NAYA) Survey of 2000 to analyse the prevalence of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviour among Nepalese males aged 14-22 years. Risky sexual behaviour is considered to be characterised by having multiple partners, or having one non-regular partner with whom a condom was not used, in the 12 months before the survey. About 9 per cent of the sexually active married men aged 14-22 years, and about 20 per cent of sexually active single men in the ...

  11. Reproductive parameters in young men living in Rochester, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe semen quality and reproductive hormone concentrations of young men living in Rochester, New York, and to compare these with published data from similar European and Japanese populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University and college campuses in the Rochester......, New York, area. PATIENT(S): Unselected young college students (n = 222). INTERVENTION(S): A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a brief questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels. RESULT(S): Subjects were aged 18-22 years...

  12. Explanations of social class differences in alcoholism among young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood and adolesce......The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood...... factors for alcoholism, such as risk use of alcohol, psychiatric diagnosis at conscription, parental divorce, low emotional control and contact with police and child care authorities, seemed to be more common among those who were recruited to blue-collar occupations compared to those who were recruited...

  13. Baby Elmo Leads Dads Back to the Nursery: How a Relationship-Based Intervention for Incarcerated Fathers Enhances Father and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeda, Benjamin; Smith, Kelly; Perkins, Emily; Simmons, Sydney; Cowan, Philip; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Although children's contact with involved, committed, nonresidential fathers can improve social, emotional, cognitive, and academic outcomes, fathers have largely been absent from parenting interventions that overlook men's role as a critical parenting partner. This article details research showing that young incarcerated fathers' attitudes…

  14. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  15. Science and scepticism: Drug information, young men and counterpublic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Adrian; Fraser, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    It is perhaps no surprise that young people can be sceptical of the drug-related information they receive in school-based health education, health promotion and the media. Significant societal anxiety surrounds young people's drug consumption, so it is tempting to approach this scepticism as a problem to be solved. In this article, we look closely at a group of young Australian men (n = 25), all of whom hold deeply sceptical views about the drug information they received in schools, social marketing campaigns and public speech generally. We do not approach their scepticism as a problem to be solved in itself, however. Instead, we analyse its origins and how it relates to the way knowledge is constructed in drug education, health promotion and media accounts of drug use. To conceptualise this scepticism, we draw on Irwin and Michael's analysis of the changing relationship between science and society, Warner's theorisation of publics and counterpublics, and Race's related notion of 'counterpublic health'. The article organises the data into three key themes: scepticism about the accuracy of the claims made about drug risks and dangers, scepticism about representations of drug users, and scepticism about the motivations behind the health messages and drug policy in general. We then draw these different aspects of scepticism together to argue that the young men can be seen to constitute a health 'counterpublic', and we consider the implications of this approach, arguing for what has been described as a more diplomatic engagement between science and publics.

  16. Suicidality in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Casey T; Rew, Lynn; Banner, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    This systematic literature review addresses risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempts in young men who have sex with men (YMSM). The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsychArticles, and PsychInfo yielded 14 articles. Risk factors included (1) not being enrolled in school, (2) earlier sexual debut, (3) substance use/abuse, (4) homelessness, (5) bullying and victimization, (6) fear of community violence, (7) and parental abuse. Protective factors included (1) positive sexual minority LGBT stereotypes, (2) family acceptance, (3) school and peer support, (4) high self-esteem, and (5) adaptive coping mechanisms.

  17. A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men's Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity.

  18. Relationship characteristics and sexual risk-taking in young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E; Clerkin, Elise M

    2011-09-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young men of color, are experiencing the largest increase in HIV incidence of any risk group in the United States Epidemiological research suggests that the majority of transmissions among MSM are occurring in the context of primary partnerships, but little research has been done on the processes within these dyads that increase HIV risk behaviors. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal partnership-level data to explore the effects of partner and relationship characteristics on the frequency of unprotected sex within young MSM relationships. One hundred twenty-two young MSM (age 16-20 at baseline) were assessed at three time-points six months apart, with 91% retention at the 12-month follow-up wave. Over 80% were racial/ethnic minorities. At each wave, participants reported on characteristics of the relationships and partners for up to three sexual partners. Hierarchical linear modeling was used for analyses. The largest effect was for considering the relationship to be serious, which was associated with nearly an eightfold increase in the rate of unprotected sex. Other factors that increased risk behaviors included older partners, drug use prior to sex, physical violence, forced sex, and partnership lasting more than six months. Partners met online were not associated with significantly more sexual risk. These data provide insight into the relationship processes that should be addressed in prevention programs targeted at young MSM. Relationships may serve as a promising unit for HIV prevention interventions, although more formative research will be required to address potential logistical obstacles to implementing such interventions. The partner-by-partner analytic approach (i.e., evaluating situational variables associated with several partners for a given participant) holds promise for future HIV behavioral research.

  19. Influence of aerobic fitness on vasoreactivity in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Preston L; Kelley, Edward T; McCoy, Stephanie M; Credeur, Daniel P

    2017-10-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a direct relationship between aerobic fitness and vasodilatory function (i.e., flow-mediated dilation; FMD); however, the relation between aerobic fitness and vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., low flow-mediated constriction; L-FMC), and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) is unclear. To test the hypothesis that L-FMC and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) will be related to aerobic fitness in young, healthy men. Twenty men (age: 23 ± 5 years) were recruited, and divided evenly into a higher (HF) vs. lower (LF) aerobic fitness group, quantified via YMCA cycle ergometry (VO 2 peak extrapolation), and a 3-min step test (1-min heart rate recovery). Duplex Doppler-ultrasound was used to assess brachial artery FMD and L-FMC. Estimated VO 2 peak (HF = 55 ± 10 vs. LF = 38 ± 5 mL/kg/min) and heart rate recovery (HF = 36 ± 10 vs. LF = 25 ± 8 beats) were greater in the HF group (P aerobic fitness in young, healthy men. Longitudinal or interventional studies are warranted to support causality, and to distinguish whether L-FMC is more sensitive to changes in aerobic fitness than FMD.

  20. [Sexual initiation, masculinity and health: narratives of young men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Lúcia Emilia Figueiredo de Sousa; Gomes, Romeu

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the narratives of young university students about the experience of sexual initiation. The theoretical and conceptual references used were the sexual scripts of our society that inform people about when, how, where and with whom they should have their sexual experiences, indicating how to act sexually and the reasons why they have to practice some kind of sexual activity. The method used was a qualitative study of narratives from the perspective of dialectic hermeneutics. The methodological design involves the comprehension of sceneries, contexts, environments and characters of the narratives about sexual initiation. The analysis refers to narratives of university students in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Among the meanings of sexual initiation, we emphasize sexual intercourse, the demarcation of a stage of life, the awakening to the opposite sex and the discovery of the body. We observed that the young men's narratives were coherent with what is considered masculine, present in the discourse of different generations. It is concluded that the young men should be encouraged to participate in actions combining health and education aimed at promotion of sexual and reproductive health.

  1. Fatherhood roles and drug use among young American Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neault, Nicole; Mullany, Britta; Powers, Julia; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Parker, Sean; Walkup, John; Barlow, Allison

    2012-09-01

    High rates of substance abuse among young American Indian (AI) fathers pose multigenerational challenges for AI families and communities. The objective of this study was to describe substance use patterns among young AI fathers and examine the intersection of substance use with men's fatherhood roles and responsibilities. As part of a home-visiting intervention trial for AI teen mothers and their children, in 2010 we conducted a descriptive study of fatherhood and substance use on three southwestern reservations. Substance use and parenting data were collected from n = 87 male partners of adolescent mothers using audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Male partners were on average 22.9 years old, primarily living with their children (93%), unmarried (87%), and unemployed (70%). Lifetime substance use was high: 80% reported alcohol; 78% marijuana; 34% methamphetamines; 31% crack/cocaine; and 16% reported drinking binge in the past 6 months. Substance use was associated with history of alcohol abuse among participants' fathers (but not mothers); participants' poor relationships with their own fathers; unemployment status; and low involvement in child care. Drug and alcohol abuse may be obstructing ideal fatherhood roles among multiple generations of AI males. Targeting drug prevention among young AI men during early fatherhood may provide special opportunity to reduce substance use and improve parenting. Intergenerational approaches may hold special promise.

  2. Tip of the Iceberg: young men who have sex with men, the Internet, and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Herrick, Amy; Mustanski, Brian S; Donenberg, Geri Rachel

    2007-06-01

    We examined the prevalence of Internet use for meeting sexual partners (Internet partners) and HIV risk behaviors associated with this use among young men who have sex with men (aged 16-24 years). A sample of 270 young men who have sex with men completed a computer-assisted survey. We used bivariate chi(2) analyses and hierarchical logistic regression to assess factors associated with Internet-facilitated sexual encounters. Using the Internet to meet sexual partners was common; 48% of our sample had sexual relations with a partner they met online. Of these, only 53% used condoms consistently, and 47% reported having sexual partners older (>4 years) than themselves. Regression analyses showed increased age, White race/ethnicity, history of unprotected anal intercourse, multiple anal intercourse partners, and engaging in sexual activity at a sex club or a bathhouse were associated with meeting sexual partners through the Internet. Only history of unprotected anal intercourse was associated with risky sexual behaviors with Internet partners (Ppartners online also engage in other behaviors that place them at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  3. A Moderated Mediation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Depression, and Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life among Incarcerated Malaysian Men with HIV and Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael; Bazazi, Alexander R; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Although it is well established that HIV-related stigma, depression, and lack of social support are negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLH), no studies to date have examined how these psychosocial factors interact with each other and affect HRQoL among incarcerated PLH. We, therefore, incorporated a moderated mediation model (MMM) to explore whether depression mediates the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL as a function of the underlying level of social support. Incarcerated HIV-infected men with opioid dependence (N = 301) were recruited from the HIV units in Kajang prison in Malaysia. Participants completed surveys assessing demographic characteristics, HIV-related stigma, depression, social support, and HRQoL. Results showed that the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL was mediated via depression (a1:β = 0.1463, p depression was negatively associated with HRQOL (β = -0.0317, p = 0.0133). This indicated that the predicted influence of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL via depression had negative effect on HRQoL for individuals with low social support. The results suggest that social support can buffer the negative impact of depression on HRQoL and highlights the need for future interventions to target these psychosocial factors in order to improve HRQoL among incarcerated PLH.

  4. Young men, mental health, and technology: implications for service design and delivery in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Davenport, Tracey A; Hurley, Patrick J; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2012-11-22

    Young men are particularly vulnerable to suicide, drug, and alcohol problems and yet fail to seek appropriate help. An alternative or adjunct to face-to-face services has emerged with widespread uptake of the Internet and related communication technologies, yet very little evidence exists that examines the capacity of the Internet to engage young men and promote help seeking. To explore young people's attitudes and behaviors in relation to mental health and technology use. The aim was to identify key gender differences to inform the development of online mental health interventions for young men. A cross-sectional online survey of 1038 young people (aged 16 to 24 years) was used. Young men are more likely than young women to play computer games, access online video/music content, and visit online forums. More than half of young men and women reported that they sought help for a problem online, and the majority were satisfied with the help they received. Significant gender differences were identified in relation to how young people would respond to a friend in need, with young men being less likely than young women to confront the issue directly. Online interventions for young men need to be action-oriented, informed by young men's views and everyday technology practices, and leverage the important role that peers play in the help-seeking process.

  5. The social isolation of young men with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, K

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study undertaken to identify perceptions of possible social isolation among individuals who become quadriplegic as young adults. Two focus group sessions were held with 4 male participants in each group. All the young men were between the ages of 19 years and 35 years, and all had been disabled for more than 3 years. The results showed that the participants felt challenged by the environment and their resources but did not experience the feelings associated with social isolation as defined by Goffman (1963). The participants, however, identified important socially isolating stressors based on the human needs described by Maslow (1970) as existing in a hierarchy. The results of the study suggest that people with disabilities need interpersonal techniques that enable them to feel a sense of security and control of their time; rehabilitation nurses are ideally suited to assist clients in developing such techniques.

  6. Urinary bisphenol A levels in young Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-01-01

    between BPA concentration and reproductive hormones and semen quality, adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We found that 98% of the men had detectable urinary levels of BPA. Median (5th-95th percentiles) BPA concentration was 3.25 ng/mL (0.59-14.89 ng/mL). Men with BPA concentrations above...... with other semen parameters. Adjusting for dietary patterns did not influence the results. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of associations between BPA and reproductive hormones could indicate an antiandrogenic or antiestrogenic effect, or both, of BPA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormone feedback system......BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...

  7. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  8. Incarceration in the household: academic outcomes of adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily Bever; Loper, Ann Booker

    2012-11-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, yet there is relatively little information on how the removal of these adults from households impacts the youth who are left behind. This study used a child-centered lens to examine the impact of incarceration on the school outcomes of youth who resided with a family member or family associate who was incarcerated prior to the youth's 18th birthday. We used data from 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult (n = 3,338, 53 % female). Initial analyses indicated that youth who experienced a household members' incarceration evidenced more socioeconomic challenges, more frequent home adversities, and lower cognitive skills relative to youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Results also revealed that youth who had experienced a household member's incarceration were more likely to report extended absence from school and were less likely to graduate from high school relative to those youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Counter to our hypotheses, results revealed the incarceration of an extended family member being in the household was the only relation significantly associated with worse school outcomes. Plausibly, families who allow non-immediate criminally involved individuals to reside in the household are experiencing a more pervasive chaotic home environment than those with a parent or sibling incarcerated. Our study suggests that efforts to address the needs of children with incarcerated parents need to be widened to those who experience the loss of any household member due to incarceration.

  9. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Joshua D; McGue, Matthew K; Iacono, William G

    2015-04-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression than their weaker male counterparts. The traditional interpretation of this phenomenon is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We capitalized on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimated adolescent change in upper-body strength using the slope parameter from a latent growth model. We found that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Fatherhood, marriage and HIV risk among young men in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sanyukta; Higgins, Jenny A; Thummalachetty, Nityanjali; Rasmussen, Mariko; Kelley, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S

    2016-01-01

    Compared to a large body of work on how gender may affect young women's vulnerability to HIV, we know little about how masculine ideals and practices relating to marriage and fertility desires shape young men's HIV risk. Using life-history interview data with 30 HIV-positive and HIV-negative young men aged 15-24 years, this analysis offers an in-depth perspective on young men's transition through adolescence, the desire for fatherhood and experience of sexual partnerships in rural Uganda. Young men consistently reported the desire for fatherhood as a cornerstone of masculinity and transition to adulthood. Ideally young men wanted children within socially sanctioned unions. Yet, most young men were unable to realise their marital intentions. Gendered expectations to be economic providers combined with structural constraints, such as limited access to educational and income-generating opportunities, led some young men to engage in a variety of HIV-risk behaviours. Multiple partnerships and limited condom use were at times an attempt by some young men to attain some part of their aspirations related to fatherhood and marriage. Our findings suggest that young men possess relationship and parenthood aspirations that - in an environment of economic scarcity - may influence HIV-related risk.

  11. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men--five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists--and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Among the ordinary young men the theme 'too much gender equality leads to IPV' emerged, while among the activists the theme 'gender inequality is the root of IPV'. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

  12. Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Fazli Khalaf, Zahra; Low, Wah Yun; Ghorbani, Behzad; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2013-01-01

    Background Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men?s lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men?s health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20?30?years from three ...

  13. Access to health care and religion among young American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.

  14. Incarceration and Black-White inequality in Homeownership: A state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Turney, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    Rising incarceration rates in the United States, as well as the concentration of incarceration among already marginalized individuals, has led some scholars to suggest that incarceration increases economic inequality among American men. But little is known about the consequences of incarceration for wealth, about incarceration's contribution to Black-White disparities in wealth, or about the broader effects of incarceration on communities. In this article, we use state-level panel data (from 1985 to 2005) to examine the relationship between incarceration rates and the Black-White gap in homeownership, a distinct and important measure of wealth. Results, which are robust to an array of model specifications and robustness checks, show that incarceration rates diminish homeownership rates among Blacks and, in doing so, widen Black-White inequalities in homeownership. Therefore, the findings suggest that the consequences of incarceration extend beyond the offender and may increase inequality in household wealth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HIV prevention fatigue and HIV treatment optimism among young men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Birkett, Michelle; Janulis, Patrick; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    HIV prevention fatigue (the sense that prevention messages are tiresome) and being overly optimistic about HIV treatments are hypothesized to increase HIV risk behavior. Little research has examined these constructs and their correlates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), who are at high risk for HIV. YMSM (N = 352; M age = 20; 50% Black) completed measures of prevention fatigue, treatment optimism, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV-related knowledge and attitudes during a longitudinal study. Overall, YMSM reported low levels of HIV prevention fatigue and treatment optimism. Path analysis (n = 307) indicated that greater prevention fatigue and treatment optimism predicted higher rates of condomless sex, but condomless sex did not predict later increases in prevention fatigue or treatment optimism. Results are inconsistent with the hypothesis of high prevention fatigue and treatment optimism among YMSM and point to potential causal relationships among these variables and condomless sex. PMID:28825861

  16. High Substance Use and HIV Risk Behavior Among Young Argentine Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balán, Iván C; Frasca, Timothy; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén O; Barreda, Victoria; Dolezal, Curtis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M

    2018-04-01

    In the United States young men who have sex with men have higher rates of substance use, higher HIV incidence, and less frequent HIV testing than their heterosexual counterparts and older MSM. Less is known about comparable populations in Latin America. As part of an epidemiological study, MSM were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina and answered a computerized behavioral survey. From the total of 500 MSM enrolled, a sub-sample of 233 aged 18-25 was analyzed. The sample was concentrated among lower socioeconomic strata, and only 16% identified as gay. Nearly half reported male, female, and transvestite sexual partners. Reported substance use was widespread ranging from 61% for marijuana to 20% for pasta base (cocaine sulfate). Seventy percent of the sample had never been tested for HIV infection; 3% tested positive for HIV and 8% for syphilis during the study.

  17. Sexting among young men who have sex with men: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Yeagley, Emily; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We know little about the prevalence of sexting behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) or its association with their sexual behaviors. Methods To address these gaps, we used data from an online study examining the partner-seeking behaviors of single YMSM (N=1,502; ages 18–24) in the U.S. Most participants (87.5%) reported sexting, with 75.7% of the sample reporting having sent and received a sext. Results Sexting was more frequent among sexually-active YMSM, with YMSM who had sent and received a sext being more likely to report insertive anal intercourse, with and without condoms, than those who had not sexted. We found no association between sexting and receptive anal intercourse. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexting may vary by YMSM’s sexual roles. We discuss our findings with attention to their implications for sexual health promotion. PMID:24361235

  18. Harassment, discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carolyn F; Weiss, George; Ayala, George; Kipke, Michele D

    2010-08-01

    We examined the relationship among social discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Five Hundred twenty-six YMSM (aged 18-24 years) were recruited using a venue-based, stratified probability sampling design. Surveys assessed childhood financial hardship, violence (physical assault, sexual assault, intimate partner violence), social discrimination (homophobia and racism), and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Analyses examined main and interaction effects of key variables on drug use. Experiences of financial hardship, physical intimate partner violence and homophobia predicted drug use. Although African American participants were less likely to report drug use than their Caucasian peers, those who experienced greater sexual racism were at significantly greater risk for drug use. Racial/ethnic minority YMSM were at increased risk for experiencing various forms of social discrimination and violence that place them at increased risk for drug use.

  19. Patterns of Social Affiliations and Healthcare Engagement Among Young, Black, Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Rachel L; Cornwell, Benjamin T; Schneider, John A

    2018-03-01

    Little work has examined how individuals' social affiliations-the venues in which they meet friends and engage in informal social interaction-influence their engagement with public health services. We investigate how links to these local places shape access to information and exposure to health-seeking behavior. Using longitudinal data from a respondent-driven sample of 618 young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in Chicago, we identify different sets of social venues that connect YBMSM. We then examine how YBMSM's connections within this network influence their receipt of HIV prevention and treatment services and knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Our results show that YBMSM's positions within Chicago's venue network shape the types of health-related services they access, net of demographic, structural, and community covariates. Men with affiliations that are linked to the city's gay enclave are most likely to know about PrEP, while men with affiliations that are predominately in the black community demonstrate improved HIV treatment outcomes. Outreach engaging MSM beyond venues in gay enclaves is needed.

  20. Associations of sexually transmitted infections with condom problems among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors such as using an oil-based lubricant have been associated with condom failures such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview technology, and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Nearly all participants made at least 1 error, with high rates of using oil-based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil-based lubricants than white and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have an STI (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.12). Young men who have sex with men report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil-based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV.

  1. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Goicolea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

  2. The sexuality-assemblages of young men: a new materialist analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alldred, P; Fox, N

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new materialist exploration of young men and sexuality that shifts the focus away from bodies and individuals, toward the affective flow within assemblages of bodies, things, ideas and social institutions, and the sexual capacities this flow produces. Using data from two empirical studies, we explore the sexuality assemblages of teen boys and young men, and the micropolitics of these assemblages. We find that the sexuality produced in the bodies of young men is highly te...

  3. Paternal Incarceration and Support for Children in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda; Garfinkel, Irwin; Western, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    High U.S. incarceration rates have motivated recent research on the negative effects of imprisonment on later employment, earnings, and family relationships. Because most men in jail and prison are fathers, a large number of children may be placed at considerable risk by policies of incarceration. This article examines one dimension of the economic risk faced by children of incarcerated fathers: the reduction in the financial support that they receive. We use a population-based sample of urban children to examine the effects of incarceration on this support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions indicate that formerly incarcerated men are less likely to contribute to their families, and those who do contribute provide significantly less. The negative effects of incarceration on fathers’ financial support are due not only to the low earnings of formerly incarcerated men but also to their increased likelihood to live apart from their children. Men contribute far less through child support (formal or informal) than they do when they share their earnings within their household, suggesting that the destabilizing effects of incarceration on family relationships place children at significant economic disadvantage. PMID:21318455

  4. Ice parties among young men who have sex with men in Thailand: Pleasures, secrecy and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadamuz, Thomas E; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun

    2018-05-01

    Crystal methamphetamine (ice) has become the substance of choice among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in urban Thailand. Yet, there is scarce data on this phenomenon, partly due to the difficulty in accessing men who will disclose and openly discuss the social contexts, meanings and risks surrounding ice practice. We present an ethnography of ice parties, critically discussing the in-depth social meanings of ice; the sexual socialities and the secrecy surrounding its use; the transactions between older and younger men; and the role of the Internet and mobile technology. Forty repeated narrative interviews (life stories), ten focus group discussions, as well as systematic online and offline observations were conducted over a three-year period. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants in a variety of online and offline spaces and through working closely with local Thai community-based organizations serving MSM. To be eligible, participants had to be between 18 and 29 years, able to converse in Thai, had used ice, and had anal sex with another man in the past 6 months. We also strived for sample variability with respects to socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., age, educational attainment and living situation). Data analysis was conducted in Thai by two researchers using the constant comparative method based on grounded theory. On surface, participants described ice parties as exclusive, in trend, luxurious, fun and pleasurable-a kind of modern camaraderie among beautiful men. In reality, however, this group phenomenon was a social hierarchy containing several important players with relational power to one another, to the ice itself and to the physical space where ice was being consumed. These players included ice suppliers, party hosts, party guests and "icetenders." The paper also discusses the sociality of secrecy that surrounds ice parties as well as the power relations between older relatively rich men who provide ice and the younger

  5. Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2014-08-28

    Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  6. Communicating with School Nurses about Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health.…

  7. Vernacular Knowledge and Critical Pedagogy: Conceptualising Sexual Health Education for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Over 30 years after HIV was first recognised in the USA, the epidemic continues to pose a disproportionate threat to vulnerable and marginalised populations. Increasing HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men has spurred debate around the content and approach to HIV prevention interventions directed towards this vulnerable population.…

  8. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  9. Older partner selection in young African-American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Leonard, Lori; Brooks, Durryle; Celentano, David; Ellen, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Young African-American (AA) men who have sex with men (YAAMSM) have experienced the greatest proportional increase in new HIV cases compared with other groups. Bridging sexual partnerships between YAAMSM and older aged cohorts with higher rates of primary HIV infection has emerged as an important independent risk factor for the development of HIV. We explored reasons young AAMSM cite for being attracted to and seeking an older partner and the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Seventeen in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted in YAAMSM residing in a midsized urban city with high HIV prevalence. Two coders independently evaluated transcribed data to identify/collapse codes that emerged. We analyzed data using categorical and contextualizing analytic methods. Two themes emerged from the text for seeking an older sexual partner: the emotional maturity the older partner represented and the ability of the older partner to expose the younger partner to more life experiences. In addition, two themes emerged around attraction: support and physical attractiveness of the older partner. Few men described seeking age-discordant relationships for the sole purpose of exchange sex. Older partners during first same-sex experience helped younger partners sort through sexual position and how to perform in relationships. These interviews suggest that YAAMSM may be seeking older partners to fulfill desires to be in a stable, emotionally mature relationship and for exposure in the larger community. Prevention strategies aimed at targeting adolescent MSM age-discordant relationships will need to address the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.

  11. Brief Prescriptive Psychotherapy for Depression with an Incarcerated Young Offender: An Application of Barkham's 2+1 Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Developed and evaluated psychological intervention for depression in Young Offenders. Recognizing pressure on clinical teams to be both cost and time effective, it was decided to pilot Barkham's 2+1 format in prison setting. Results suggest that depression in prisons can be treated with cognitive-behavioral techniques and that 2+1 format may be…

  12. Changing Deficit Narratives about Young Latino Men in Texas through a Research-Based Mentorship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Emmet E.; Van Ryn, Rebekah; Davidson, Ty J.

    2018-01-01

    Austin Independent School District (AISD) and the University of Texas's Project MALES began a partnership to design a mentoring system for young men of color in hopes of improving the the matriculation and sustainability of this group in college by addressing the social, economic, and cultural obstacles impacting these young men. This strong…

  13. Performance and Surveillance in an Era of Austerity: Schooling the Reflexive Generation of Muslim Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen a remarkable shift in the educational representation of British-born Muslim young men. In the media-led reclassification of them, from South Asian to Muslim, they have moved from ideal student to potential jihadist. This article draws upon a three-year ethnographic study with young Muslim men located within the West…

  14. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  15. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  16. Advance provision of emergency contraception to young men: An exploratory study in a clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Bell, D L; Ogaye, K; Marcell, A V; Westhoff, C L; Rosenthal, S L

    2018-04-17

    To explore the acceptability of advance provision of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) to young men seeking health care. For this exploratory study in a clinic setting, we approached young men aged 16-35 to participate in a survey eliciting socio-demographics, sexual and contraceptive history, and knowledge about ECPs. We offered young men advance provision of ECPs and compared characteristics of 126 young men who did and did not accept the ECPs. Most (76%) of the participants accepted advance provision and left with an ECP pack, with even higher proportions among males whose sexual histories were suggestive of increased risk of involvement in an unintended pregnancy. This study holds promise to inform scale up of advance provision of ECPs among young men. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  18. Social oppression, psychological vulnerability, and unprotected intercourse among young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Kegeles, Susan M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Peterson, John L; Neilands, Torsten B; Johnson, Wayne D; Eke, Agatha N

    2014-12-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are at extraordinarily high risk for HIV infection. Given their dual minority identity, they experience multiple forms of social oppression-racism, homophobia, and poverty. This study tested a model for how these forces contribute to their sexual risk behavior. YBMSM (n = 1,289) from 2 Texas cities completed a 1-time assessment of sexual behaviors and psychosocial variables. Structural equation modeling was used to characterize relationships among variables. Experiences of racism, homophobia, and socioeconomic distress were all associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) either directly or indirectly in a manner largely consistent with Díaz's (1997, 1998) model of the effects of social oppression. Racism, homophobia, and socioeconomic distress were each associated with specific psychological vulnerabilities, which were in turn associated with participation in difficult sexual situations (e.g., in a public setting), and then UAI. The effects of racism were largely mediated by depressive symptoms and participation in difficult sexual situations. Homophobia was mediated by depressive symptoms, social support, and internalized homophobia. The effects of socioeconomic distress were partially mediated by decreased social support and greater participation in difficult sexual situations. Socioeconomic distress also had a significant direct effect on UAI not explained by the proposed mediators. Social oppression contributes to YBMSM's psychological vulnerabilities, participation in difficult sexual situations, and their UAI. Interventions to reduce sexual risk in YBMSM should address socioeconomic disadvantage, homophobia, and racism, as well as the psychological challenges that social oppression creates for them.

  19. Sexting among young men who have sex with men: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Yeagley, Emily; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S

    2014-05-01

    We know little about the prevalence of sexting behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) or its association with their sexual behaviors. To address these gaps, we used data from an online study examining the partner-seeking behaviors of single YMSM (N = 1,502; ages 18-24 years) in the United States. Most participants (87.5%) reported sexting, with 75.7% of the sample reporting having sent and received a sext. Sexting was more frequent among sexually active YMSM, with YMSM who had sent and received a sext being more likely to report insertive anal intercourse, with and without condoms, than those who had not sexted. We found no association between sexting and receptive anal intercourse. Our findings suggest that sexting may vary by YMSM's sexual roles. We discuss our findings with attention to their implications for sexual health promotion. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Facebook network structure and awareness of preexposure prophylaxis among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditya S; Schumm, Phil; Schneider, John A

    2017-03-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are the only population in the United States who have experienced rising human immunodeficiency virus incidence over the past decade. Consistent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use can substantially reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. What differentiates those who become aware of PrEP, and those who do not, remains largely unknown. The social networks of YBMSM can impact their awareness of PrEP; to examine this impact, we used two waves of Facebook data from "uConnect"-a longitudinal cohort study of YBMSM in Chicago (n = 266). While PrEP awareness increased from 45% at baseline to 75% at follow-up, its use remained low (4% and 6%). There were 88 PrEP-unaware individuals at baseline who became aware (BA) by follow-up, and 56 who remained persistently unaware. While the persistently unawares had a higher median number of total Facebook friends, the BAs had a higher median numbers of friends who participated in uConnect, who were PrEP-aware, and who practiced behaviors previously found to be associated with individual-level awareness of PrEP at baseline. The BAs also had substantially more "influential" friends. These findings demonstrate the potential of social networks in raising PrEP awareness and use among YBMSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  2. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  3. Exploration of Incarcerated Men's and Women's Attitudes of Smoking in the Presence of Children and Pregnant Women: Is There a Disparity Between Smoking Attitudes and Smoking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Roberts, Mary B; van den Berg, Jacob J; Bock, Beth; Stein, Lyn A R; Martin, Rosemarie A; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2016-05-01

    A major health challenge facing persons who are incarcerated is tobacco smoking. Upon reentry to the community, concerns regarding smoking cessation may be less likely to receive needed attention. Many individuals have partners who are pregnant and/or reside in households where children and pregnant women live. We explored incarcerated adults' attitudes of smoking in the presence of children and pregnant women and how post-release smoking behaviors are influenced by their attitudes. Two hundred forty-seven incarcerated adults participated in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial in a tobacco-free prison. An instrument was developed to examine smoking attitudes and behaviors around children and pregnant women. Moderating effects of smoking factors on post-release abstinence were examined by evaluating interactions between smoking factors and treatment group. Four factors were defined using factor analysis: smoking around children; impact of smoking on child's health; awareness of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk for pregnant women; and importance of smoking avoidance during pregnancy. We found moderation effects of smoking factors on smoking outcomes which included: treatment group by smoking behavior around children (β = 0.8085; standard error [SE] = 0.4002; P = .04); treatment group by impact of smoking on child's health (β = 1.2390; SE = 0.5632; P = .03) and for those smoking 50% fewer cigarettes post-release, treatment group by smoking impact on child's health (β = 1.2356; SE = 0.4436; P smoking around children and pregnant women and awareness of ETS risk for pregnant women was not found to be significantly associated with smoking outcomes and requires additional investigation. Among individuals who continue to smoke post-release, effective ETS interventions are needed aimed at protecting children and pregnant women with whom they live. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  4. Severe acne vulgaris and tobacco smoking in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaz, Itay; Kochba, Ilan; Shohat, Tzipora; Zarka, Salman; Brenner, Sarah

    2006-08-01

    As the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne remains unclear, we examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and severe acne in a large cohort of young men. Trained nurses interviewed subjects upon discharge from compulsory military service, regarding family history, habits, and tobacco smoking habits. Data was correlated with severe acne status, as diagnosed and coded by board-certified dermatologists. In total, 27,083 male subjects participated in the study from 1983 to 2003, of which 237 (0.88%) had severe acne, 11,718 (43.27%) were active smokers, and 15,365 (56.73%) were nonsmokers at the time of interviews. Active smokers showed a significantly lower prevalence of severe acne (0.71%) than nonsmokers (1.01%) (P = 0.0078). An inverse dose-dependent relationship between severe acne prevalence and daily cigarette consumption became significant from 21 cigarettes a day (chi2 and trend test: P < 0.0001), odds ratio: 0.2 (95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The study did not aim to establish a temporal correlation, and passive smoking and acne treatments were not measured. Previous in vitro and clinical studies strongly support an association with nicotine. We suggest a trial with topical nicotine treatment for acne to further investigate this association.

  5. British Gurkha Recruitment and Higher Education of Gurung Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibaji Gurung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gurungs have historical attachment with British Gurkha recruitment and some special social values about it have been developed. So, lahure practice has been developed as a culture among them. This research has tried to analyze the impact of British Gurkha recruitment on the higher education of Gurung young men. The social value of being a lahure and an educated professional in the Gurung community is a major discourse of the study. The study is based on the field work carried out in Pokhara Sub-metropolis. It is basically qualitative in nature and interview was adopted as the main tool to collect the necessary information. Being a lahure is a matter of great craze among the Gurung youths. The socio-cultural circumstances also encourage them to try for recruitment. There is high social value of being a lahure in the Gurung community in contrast with getting higher education. The educational attainment of the Gurung youths is inter-related with these social values. It has an adverse effect on the educational status of the Gurung youths. The educational achievement of the Gurung community would have been far better if the community was not dominated by the pro-lahure culture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6361Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 143-70

  6. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  7. Pakistani and Bangladeshi Young Men: Re-Racialization, Class and Masculinity within the Neo-Liberal School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men's experiences of schooling to examine what inclusion/exclusion means to them. Qualitative research was undertaken with 48 Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men living in areas of the West Midlands, England. The young men highlighted three key areas: the emergence of a schooling regime…

  8. Parental Monitoring, Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex, and Sexual Risk among Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Brian C.; Huebner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including “coming out” to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically d...

  9. Extragenital Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Missed Treatment Opportunities for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Leandro; Crosby, Richard A; Chamberlain, Nicholas

    2018-05-01

    This study of young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) assessed the prevalence of extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea among those testing negative for urethral infections, and compared prevalence of both by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. A convenience sample of 609 YBMSM was recruited for a cross-sectional study from 2 sexual health clinics located in Jackson, MS. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), nucleic acid amplification testing was performed on urine, rectal swabs, and oral swabs. OraSure was used to detect HIV. Seventy-three percent of all chlamydia infections and 77% of gonorrhea infections were found from anal and oral swabs in the absence of urethral positivity. Compared with HIV-uninfected men, HIV-infected men were significantly more likely to have pharyngeal chlamydia (P = 0.03), multiple CT infections (P = 0.02), rectal NG (P < 0.001), multiple NG infections (P = 0.04), both CT/NG rectal infections (P = 0.001). As much as three quarters of all chlamydia and gonorrhea infections may be missed when only urine-based nucleic acid amplification testing is used to screen YBMSM for bacterial sexually transmitted infections. These missed opportunities for diagnosis may be particularly likely among HIV-infected YBMSM.

  10. "Hedge Your Bets": Technology's Role in Young Gay Men's Relationship Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Raymond M; Milhausen, Robin R; Lachowsky, Nathan J

    2017-01-01

    Technology is playing an increasingly pervasive role among young gay men in the process of meeting potential romantic or sexual partners. We investigated challenges posed by technology related to young gay men's relationships. Focus groups (n = 9) of young gay men aged 18-24 (n = 43) were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was used to identify two major themes regarding challenges to relationship development and maintenance. Subthemes include unrealistic expectations of relationships, inauthentic self-presentation online, sexual primacy over romance, increased opportunities for infidelity, and jealousy. The implications of this study for sexual education and sexual health promotion are discussed.

  11. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, T K; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm...... immotile spermatozoa and follicle stimulating hormone. Possible causes for this high frequency of young men with suboptimal semen quality are obscure and need to be explored. Whether these findings apply for young male populations of comparable countries remains to be seen....

  12. Parental Incarceration and Child Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Goldman, Alyssa W; Turney, Kristin

    2018-04-07

    Mass incarceration has profoundly restructured the life courses of not only marginalized adult men for whom this event is now so prevalent but also their families. We examined research published from 2000 to 2017 on the consequences of parental incarceration for child health in the United States. In addition to focusing on specific health outcomes, we also considered broader indicators of child well-being because there has been little research on the association between parental incarceration and objectively measured child health outcomes. Our findings support 4 conclusions. First, paternal incarceration is negatively associated-possibly causally so-with a range of child health and well-being indicators. Second, although some research has suggested a negative association between maternal incarceration and child health, the evidence on this front is mixed. Third, although the evidence for average effects of paternal incarceration on child health and well-being is strong, research has also suggested that some key factors moderate the association between paternal incarceration and child health and well-being. Finally, because of the unequal concentration of parental incarceration and the negative consequences this event has for children, mass incarceration has increased both intracountry inequality in child health in the United States and intercountry inequality in child health between the United States and other developed democracies. In light of these important findings, investment in data infrastructure-with emphasis on data sets that include reliable measures of parental incarceration and child health and data sets that facilitate causal inferences-is needed to understand the child health effects of parental incarceration.

  13. Young Men, Help-Seeking, and Mental Health Services: Exploring Barriers and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise; Long, Maggie; Moorhead, Anne

    2018-01-01

    International research has identified young men as reluctant to seek help for mental health problems. This research explored barriers and solutions to professional help seeking for mental health problems among young men living in the North West of Ireland. A qualitative approach, using two focus groups with six participants each and five face-to-face interviews, was conducted with men aged 18 to 24 years (total N = 17). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven key themes of barriers to professional help seeking were identified: "acceptance from peers," "personal challenges," "cultural and environmental influences," "self-medicating with alcohol," "perspectives around seeking professional help," "fear of homophobic responses," and "traditional masculine ideals." Five key themes of solutions to these barriers included "tailored mental health advertising," "integrating mental health into formal education," "education through semiformal support services," "accessible mental health care," and "making new meaning." Interesting findings on barriers include fear of psychiatric medication, fear of homophobic responses from professionals, the legacy of Catholic attitudes, and the genuine need for care. This study offers an in-depth exploration of how young men experience barriers and uniquely offers solutions identified by participants themselves. Youth work settings were identified as a resource for engaging young men in mental health work. Young men can be encouraged to seek help if services and professionals actively address barriers, combining advertising, services, and education, with particular attention and respect to how and when young men seek help and with whom they want to share their problems.

  14. Incarcerated Pediatric Hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhai, Sophia A; Glenn, Ian C; Ponsky, Todd A

    2017-02-01

    Indirect inguinal hernias are the most commonly incarcerated hernias in children, with a higher incidence in low birth weight and premature infants. Contralateral groin exploration to evaluate for a patent processus vaginalis or subclinical hernia is controversial, given that most never progress to clinical hernias. Most indirect inguinal hernias can be reduced nonoperatively. It is recommended to repair them in a timely fashion, even in premature infants. Laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia repair is considered a safe and effective alternative to conventional open herniorrhaphy. Other incarcerated pediatric hernias are extremely rare and may be managed effectively with laparoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The state of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarova, A F; Iurtaeva, V R; Kotovskaia, Iu V; Kobalava, Zh D

    2012-01-01

    To study elastic properties of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension (AH). We examined men aged 18-25 years (mean 21.1+/-0.14 years): 36 with normal blood pressure (BP), 123 with stable and 51 with unstable AH. Parameters studied comprised intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries, their M-mode measured maximal systolic and minimal diastolic diameters (Ds and Dd), stiffness of common carotid artery (CCA) wall determined on the basis of analysis of elasticity and distensibility coefficients (CC and DC), Peterson's and Young's modules of elasticity (Ep and E), and index of flow deformation (CS). Compared with young men with normal BP and unstable AH patients with stable AH had abnormal elastic properties of CCA and increased IMT. Stable AH in young men is associated with signs of remodeling of CCA walls and increase of their rigidity.

  16. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K

    2015-01-01

    of sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population......The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis......-based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...

  17. Academic Careers and Post-College Employment of Young Men. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Herman P.; Garfinkle, Stuart

    This study of career goals, academic objectives and the relation of these to success in the job market involved a series of annual interviews with samples of people representing four different population groups: young men who were 14 to 24 years old in 1966; men who were 45 to 59 years old in 1966; young women who were 14 to 24 years old in 1968;…

  18. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of...

  19. Young men's health promotion and new information communication technologies: illuminating the issues and research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2010-09-01

    The article examines the use of newer, interactive information and communication technologies (ICTs) in young men's health promotion (HP), drawing on gender theory, HP research and evidence on young men's Internet usage. The focus is on highlighting an agenda for research in terms of emerging issues. New forms of social media ICT (for example 'web 2'-based on-line social networking sites, micro-blogging services, i-phones and podcasts) have the potential to enable young men to engage with health information in new and interesting ways. Given concerns about young men's engagement with health services, innovative ICT formats, particularly using the Internet, have been tried. However, issues persist around surfing 'addiction', quality control and equal access. Approaches to HP using new ICTs offer distributed control over information content and quality and a lay social context for accessing information. Online communities can potentially legitimize young men's participation in discourses around health, and support sustained engagement. The article discusses how this could support young men to re-conceptualize healthy choices in the context of masculine imperatives and responsible citizenship if specific conditions are met (for trusting engagement) and risks addressed (such as commercial disinformation). The skill requirements for young men to engage effectively with new ICTs are explored, focusing on health literacy (HL). It is predicted that social marketing approaches to HP for young men will increasingly include new ICTs, making specific requirements for HL. These approaches may appeal narrowly to hegemonic masculinities or broadly to multiple masculinities, including those historically marginalized. Recommendations are made for future research.

  20. After the death of a friend: young men's grief and masculine identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John L; Butterwick, Shauna; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Young men can have an uncomfortable relationship with grief. Socially constructed masculine ideals dictate that men be stoic in the aftermath of loss, most often expressing their sadness and despair as anger. Perhaps because of alignment to such masculine ideals little research has been done to explore young men's grief--and chronicle the ways they think about loss, their responses and how they go about describing their identities after a tragic event. Using qualitative individual interviews and photo elicitation methods, we investigated the ways in which 25 men aged 19-25 grieved the accidental death of a male friend. The study was conducted from April 2010-December 2011. Causes of death were diverse, and included motor vehicle accidents, adventure sports, drug overdose and fights. The findings revealed men's predominant grief responses as emptiness, anger, stoicism and sentimentality. Participants' description of their grief responses illustrated the ways in which they struggled to reconcile feelings of vulnerability and manly ideals of strength and stoicism. We gained insight into men's grief practices by looking at the ways in which they aligned themselves with a post-loss masculine identity. These identities, which included the adventurer, father-figure and the lamplighter, revealed gender-specific processes through which men understood and actively dealt with their tragic loss. The results offer novel insights to men's grief and identity work that may serve to affirm other men's experiences as well as guide counselling services targeted to young men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardio-respiratory fitness of young and older active and sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, L A; Dustman, R E; Ruhling, R O; Emmerson, R Y; Johnson, S C; Shearer, D E; Shigeoka, J W; Bonekat, W H

    1988-01-01

    Physiological profiles are described for 30 healthy young (20-31 years) and 30 healthy older (50-62 years) men. Half of the individuals in each group reported that during the previous five years they participated frequently in strenuous physical exercises; the other half reported sedentary lifestyles. A treadmill exercise test was used to determine maximal aerobic power (VO2 max). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured during rest, maximal exercise and recovery. The active older men demonstrated significantly lower resting heart rates, lower resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, higher VO2 max, lower maximal exercise diastolic blood pressure and lower recovery heart rates than the age-matched sedentary men. Compared with the young sedentary men, the older active men had lower resting heart rates and higher VO2 max, walked longer on the treadmill, had lower recovery heart rates and weighed less. Older active men also had higher VO2 max levels than young sedentary men. In summary, physiological profiles of the older active men more closely resembled profiles of active men who were 30 years younger than those of older sedentary men. These results emphasize the range of benefits associated with exercise. PMID:3228686

  2. Lifetime anorexia nervosa in young men in the community : Five cases and their co-twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    Objective: To describe patterns, comorbidity, and outcomes from a case series of anorexia nervosa (AN) among young men from the general population and their co-twins. Method: Men (N = 2,122) born between 1975 and 1979 from Finnish twin cohorts were screened for lifetime eating disorders by

  3. Incarceration in fragile families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Western, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s the U.S. imprisonment rate has increased roughly fivefold. As Christopher Wildeman and Bruce Western explain, the effects of this sea change in the imprisonment rate--commonly called mass imprisonment or the prison boom--have been concentrated among those most likely to form fragile families: poor and minority men with little schooling. Imprisonment diminishes the earnings of adult men, compromises their health, reduces familial resources, and contributes to family breakup. It also adds to the deficits of poor children, thus ensuring that the effects of imprisonment on inequality are transferred intergenerationally. Perversely, incarceration has its most corrosive effects on families whose fathers were involved in neither domestic violence nor violent crime before being imprisoned. Because having a parent go to prison is now so common for poor, minority children and so negatively affects them, the authors argue that mass imprisonment may increase future racial and class inequality--and may even lead to more crime in the long-term, thereby undoing any benefits of the prison boom. U.S. crime policy has thus, in the name of public safety, produced more vulnerable families and reduced the life chances of their children. Wildeman and Western advocate several policy reforms, such as limiting prison time for drug offenders and for parolees who violate the technical conditions of their parole, reconsidering sentence enhancements for repeat offenders, and expanding supports for prisoners and ex-prisoners. But Wildeman and Western argue that criminal justice reform alone will not solve the problems of school failure, joblessness, untreated addiction, and mental illness that pave the way to prison. In fact, focusing solely on criminal justice reforms would repeat the mistakes the nation made during the prison boom: trying to solve deep social problems with criminal justice policies. Addressing those broad problems, they say, requires a greater social

  4. Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers: How their Absences Disrupt Children’s High School Graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh- Luu Huynh- Hohnbaum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The United States is faced with a growing number of children who have incarcerated parents and nearly one quarter of children who fail to complete high school. It has been shown that parental incarceration negatively impacts academic outcomes. This study examined whether parental incarceration affects children’s high school graduation. Data on 12,418 young adults was drawn from the Add Health Wave IV dataset. Logistic regression analyses examined differences between maternal and paternal incarceration and the effects of chronicity of incarceration. Whereas both were found to reduce the likelihood that children will complete high school, maternal incarceration had a greater impact. This study fills gaps in the literature examining differences in parental incarceration. Practice and policy implications are discussed.

  5. The Perspectives of Young Men and Their Teenage Partners on Maternity and Health Services during Pregnancy and Early Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicola J.; Church, Stephanie; Hill, Malcolm; Seaman, Pete; Roberts, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses young couples' interactions with maternity and health services paying particular attention to men's perspectives. Findings are based on research conducted in Scotland with men (aged 16-25) and their teenage partners (aged 16-19). Most young men were very involved in their child's life and provided support and care to their…

  6. Subjective Social Standing and Conflict Tactics Among Young Kenyan Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Serag, Hani; Raimer-Goodman, Lauren; Keiser, Philip; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-09-01

    Efforts to reduce intimate partner violence in sub-Saharan Africa generally approach the issue through the lens of women's empowerment. These efforts include foci on women's relative power in the relationship, educational background, and earning potential. The social status of men has largely been ignored, reducing the potential to involve them in efforts to demote intimate partner violence. In this study we consider whether a man's perceived social status predicts conflict tactics, and whether these tactics are mediated by loneliness and collective self-esteem from a community-based sample in semi-rural Kenya (n = 263). We find that men who reported lower perceived social status also reported significantly more frequent violent conflicts with their intimate partners. This association was significantly, and completely, mediated by lower collective self-esteem and higher loneliness. There was no direct association between subjective social status and negotiation-based conflict tactics, although there was an indirect association. Men with higher perceived social status reported higher collective self-esteem, and men with higher collective self-esteem reported more negotiation-based conflict tactics. These findings inform efforts to reduce intimate partner violence by involving men, showing potential to reduce violence by building self-esteem among men-particularly those with lower perceived social status. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  7. Correlates of Forced Sex Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in Yangon and Monywa, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Mon, Myo Myo; Steinhaus, Mara; Sass, Justine

    2017-05-01

    Forced sex at an early age is associated with a variety of negative factors including increased illness, high-risk sexual and substance-use behaviors, and mental and psychological stress. These sequelae may be compounded for men who have sex with men (MSM), especially young MSM and those with feminine gender identity and expression. This survey examined the prevalence and associations of forced sex among young MSM in two cities in Myanmar. In 2013-2014, surveys using respondent-driven sampling collected data on 200 young MSM in Yangon and 200 in Monywa. One quarter of young MSM in Yangon and 21 % in Monywa reported ever experiencing forced sex. In a multivariable model, having problems with family members and having any MSM friends with many partners had higher odds of experiencing forced sex. Having maternal acceptance of same-sex attraction (compared to acceptance by both parents) and becoming aware of their same-sex attraction at or above the age of 16 had lower odds of experiencing forced sex. Focused research is needed to understand the family and other social dynamics affecting vulnerability to forced sex, as well as specific sexual risks associated with forced sex among young MSM, including HIV acquisition and transmission risks.

  8. Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M

    2004-07-01

    We examined the 6-month cumulative incidence of anti-gay harassment, discrimination, and violence among young gay/bisexual men and documented their associations with mental health. Gay/bisexual men from 3 cities in the southwestern United States completed self-administered questionnaires. Thirty-seven percent of men reported experiencing anti-gay verbal harassment in the previous 6 months; 11.2% reported discrimination, and 4.8% reported physical violence. Men were more likely to report these experiences if they were younger, were more open in disclosing their sexual orientation to others, and were HIV positive. Reports of mistreatment were associated with lower self-esteem and increased suicidal ideation. Absent policies preventing anti-gay mistreatment, empowerment and community-building programs are needed for young gay/bisexual men to both create safe social settings and help them cope with the psychological effects of these events.

  9. Estimation of aerobic fitness among young men without exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Minna M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to develop and estimate the validity of non-exercise methods to predict VO2max among young male conscripts entering military service in order to divide them into the different physical training groups.

  10. Young men?s attitudes and behaviour in relation to mental health and technology: implications for the development of online mental health services

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Hurley, Patrick J; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Background This mixed-methods study was designed to explore young Australian men?s attitudes and behaviour in relation to mental health and technology use to inform the development of online mental health services for young men. Methods National online survey of 486 males (aged 16 to 24) and 17 focus groups involving 118 males (aged 16 to 24). Results Young men are heavy users of technology, particularly when it comes to entertainment and connecting with friends, but they are also using techn...

  11. Psychosocial Disparities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Transgender Young Adults and Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Goldenberg, Tamar; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transgender populations in the United States experience unique inequities in health and social well-being; however, they continue to be categorized with men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV surveillance. To illustrate the differences in the lived realities of young MSM and transgender youth, we compare psychosocial outcomes across a sample of transgender and MSM youth from Detroit. Methods: Data for this study come from a community-based cross-sectional survey of young adults (ages 18-29) living in Detroit who identify as transgender and/or as cisgender young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using participants' geographic location within the city of Detroit, we matched transgender participants ( N =26) to YMSM ( N =123) living in the same area, and compared the prevalence in risk and resilience indicators across the two groups. Results: Transgender participants were more likely than YMSM to experience socioeconomic vulnerability across several indicators, including lower educational attainment and workforce participation, greater residential instability, and higher lifetime experiences of transactional sex. Transgender participants were more likely than YMSM to report poorer health status, higher symptoms of depression and anxiety, and greater experiences of daily hassles and gender-related discrimination. Transgender participants did not differ from YMSM peers on health-promotive factors, including self-esteem, coping mastery, purpose in life, or social support. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of addressing the social and economic inequities experienced by transgender young adults. Local- and national-level programmatic and policy interventions are recommended to alleviate the psychosocial vulnerability experienced by transgender young adults and to improve their health and social well-being.

  12. Challenging and changing gender attitudes among young men in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ravi K; Pulerwitz, Julie; Mahendra, Vaishali; Khandekar, Sujata; Barker, Gary; Fulpagare, P; Singh, S K

    2006-11-01

    This article presents findings from a pilot intervention in 2005-6 to promote gender equity among young men from low-income communities in Mumbai, India. The project involved formative work on gender, sexuality and masculinity, and educational activities with 126 young men, aged 18-29, over a six-month period. The programme of activities was called Yari-dosti, which is Hindi for friendship or bonding among men, and was adapted from a Brazilian intervention. Pre- and post-intervention surveys, including measures of attitudes towards gender norms using the Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale and other key outcomes, qualitative interviews with 31 participants, monitoring and observations were used as evaluation tools. Almost all the young men actively participated in the activities and appreciated the intervention. It was often the first time they had had the opportunity to discuss and reflect on these issues. The interviews showed that attitudes towards gender and sexuality, as reported behaviour in relationships, had often changed. A survey two months later also showed a significant decrease in support for inequitable gender norms and sexual harassment of girls and women. The results suggest that the pilot was successful in reaching and engaging young men to critically discuss gender dynamics and health risk, and in shifting key gender-related attitudes.

  13. Young Men, Help-Seeking, and Mental Health Services: Exploring Barriers and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise; Long, Maggie; Moorhead, Anne

    2016-01-01

    International research has identified young men as reluctant to seek help for mental health problems. This research explored barriers and solutions to professional help seeking for mental health problems among young men living in the North West of Ireland. A qualitative approach, using two focus groups with six participants each and five face-to-face interviews, was conducted with men aged 18 to 24 years (total N = 17). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven key themes of barriers to professional help seeking were identified: “acceptance from peers,” “personal challenges,” “cultural and environmental influences,” “self-medicating with alcohol,” “perspectives around seeking professional help,” “fear of homophobic responses,” and “traditional masculine ideals.” Five key themes of solutions to these barriers included “tailored mental health advertising,” “integrating mental health into formal education,” “education through semiformal support services,” “accessible mental health care,” and “making new meaning.” Interesting findings on barriers include fear of psychiatric medication, fear of homophobic responses from professionals, the legacy of Catholic attitudes, and the genuine need for care. This study offers an in-depth exploration of how young men experience barriers and uniquely offers solutions identified by participants themselves. Youth work settings were identified as a resource for engaging young men in mental health work. Young men can be encouraged to seek help if services and professionals actively address barriers, combining advertising, services, and education, with particular attention and respect to how and when young men seek help and with whom they want to share their problems. PMID:27365212

  14. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial.

  15. Relationship power and HIV risk among young Black men who have sex with men in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, JaNelle M; Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro

    2018-05-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of relationship power on HIV risk behaviour among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Southern US. Methods: Data from 425 Black/African American males aged 18-29 years who reported recent anal intercourse with a male partner were analysed. Five selected measures of relationship power were tested for correlation and association with protected receptive anal intercourse using contingency tables and logistic regression analysis. Results: Acts of 100% protected receptive anal intercourse were common (n=277, 65.2%). Men who reported low barriers to condom negotiation were significantly more likely to report protected acts (P<0.001). Men who reported 100% protected acts were less likely to report financial dependence on male sexual partners and serosorting behaviour (12.0% vs 20.7%, P=0.02; 31.5% vs 49.8%, P<0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Future efforts should further examine the role of relationship power in HIV risk among young Black MSM, including the intersection of individual, dyadic and social-structure risks.

  16. Towards Sensorial Approaches to Visual Research with Racially Diverse Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tabi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a collaborative ethnographic research project that highlights the artistic, literary contributions of racially diverse young men. It uses Critical Race Theory to question conventional, Eurocentric educational approaches that historically and currently continue to suppress various socially and culturally learned modes of communication. This article presents two research projects in urban and suburban formal and informal educational institutions to highlight multimodal literary approaches. The first project is an amalgamation of two critical, ethnographic case studies that explores how racially diverse young men express their literacy through rap and spoken word poetry. The second project uses ethnographic methods to observe racially diverse young men’s production of films and photographs in high school, community centers, and art gallery spaces. This study uses visual methods coupled with affect and sensory-laden approaches to collect data and conduct an analysis. The article reflects on conversations surrounding young men, particularly racialized young men, their relationship with literacy, and how these conversations are founded on their failure and deficit language about their literacy repertoires. We believe that such research is closely tied with other social justice themes and modes of inquiry. This article steers away from the ways racialized young men do not use literacy, and focuses instead on the ways that they do use literacy. Their literacy practices are predominantly visual in nature, frequently accompanied by other modes such as words and moving images. Fitting within the scope of the special issue on social justice and visual methods, we argue for a greater acknowledgement and analytical gaze on sensory and affective nuances within visual research. This approach adds texture and volume to interpreting racialized young men’s narratives. Interrogating their visuals and talking through their narratives that have agentive

  17. Happy alone? Sad young men in East Asian gay cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C

    2000-01-01

    This essay chooses as its texts three films representing contemporary gay male subjects from each of the "three" China's: HK, Taiwan, and the Mainland. Relocating the homoerotic image of the "sad young man," a trope popular from Hollywood rebellion films of the 1950s and 1960s, to contemporary China, I discuss how this masculine icon has been transformed from one of heroic rebellion to one of existential isolation. Indeed, as the politics of both the outmoded Confucian family and fractured Chinese nationhood intersect, what the sad young (gay) man rebels against is a political fluctuation which is no longer fixed; as the young man's opposition is no longer fixed, so too does he become alienated even from his own rebellious cause.

  18. The Effects of Career Interruptions on Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Brett; Lewis, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Data from a sample of 5,837 Australians showed that (1) women had longer career interruptions; (2) regardless of number of interruptions, men had higher wages; (3) longer interruptions had a negative effect on reentry wages; and (4) 1985-88 growth in wages for males was enhanced by increased numbers and length of interruptions, with the opposite…

  19. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity

  20. The Obstacles Facing Young Saudi Men and Women Getting jobs in Small Businesses Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef Saleh Al-Ghamri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses are considered the backbone of the national economy due to their role in creating job opportunities for young men and women who seek private sector employment. However, a series of obstacles face young Saudi male and female citizens in getting jobs in small businesses sector. The present research focuses on studies which discuss the definitions of small businesses and how they are related to the creation of employment opportunities for young men and women, their effect on improving young adults’ economic and social levels by boosting their morale and kindling their entrepreneurial spirit. The research also sets out the proposed mechanisms for the removal of obstacles faced by young small business would-be entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it endeavors to develop solutions, based on hypotheses and primary assumptions, which may contribute to a better understanding of the employment issue of Saudi young men and women. Solutions are set within a comprehensive strategy framework based on the integration and encouragement of young people to initiate small businesses, raise their standard of living, reduce the unemployment phenomenon and its consequences and repercussions which can result in domestic discord and moral degeneration– which may sometimes lead to misanthropy and suicide, as is the case in some societies such as Japan.

  1. Sexual abuse, social stigma and HIV vulnerability among young feminised men in Lahore and Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W; Schunter, Bettina T; Iqbal, Qasim

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of 10 young feminised men in Pakistan. They face high levels of stigma, violence and sexual abuse. The average age of first sex was 11 years old and all reported having been been raped during childhood and early adolescence, often several times. While some mothers and siblings were quietly supportive, young feminised men often end up running away from home, finding support as a member of a hijra dera, a 'pseudo-household' led by an older feminised man or guru, in which they find employment as dancers or sex workers. After their entry into sex work there is little or no opportunity to use condoms. The hijra dera offer an important entry point for improved social support and sexual health programmes, including efforts to ensure young feminised men postpone their sexual debut and/or improve their sexual health, retain access to education, explore alternative forms of employment and improve access to health care.

  2. Does Change in Young Men's Employment Influence Fathering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Goldscheider, Frances

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal and maternal employment changes and changes in the frequency of fathers praising, showing affection, disciplining, and reading to children. Data were drawn from the Young Adult supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Supporting economic theory, fathers were more involved…

  3. Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...... caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and semen quality. High cola (>14 0.5-L bottles...

  4. Profiles of sedentary and non-sedentary young men ? a population-based MOPO study

    OpenAIRE

    Pyky, Riitta; Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Ik?heimo, Tiina M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; M?ntysaari, Matti; J?ms?, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior is associated with poor well-being in youth with adverse trajectories spanning to adulthood. Still, its determinants are poorly known. Our aim was to profile sedentary and non-sedentary young men and to clarify their differences in a population-based setting. Methods A total of 616 men (mean age 17.9, SD 0.6) attending compulsory conscription for military service completed a questionnaire on health, health behavior, socioeconomic situation and media use. They und...

  5. Relationship Between Gonadal Function and Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Men With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Nash, Mark S; Tefara, Eshetu; Tinsley, Emily; Groah, Suzanne

    2018-04-01

    We reported previously that young men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have a greater prevalence of testosterone deficiency compared with an age-matched, healthy control population. Young men with SCI also are at increased risk for developing cardiometabolic dysfunction after injury. It is unclear whether testosterone deficiency is associated with heightened cardiometabolic risk in men with SCI. To investigate associations among levels of testosterone in young men with chronic SCI and surrogate markers of cardiometabolic risk. Secondary cross-sectional analysis. Rehabilitation research centers in Washington, DC, and Miami, Florida. Men (n = 58) aged 18-45 years with chronic (≥1 year), motor complete SCI without comorbidities or use of testosterone therapy. Plasma concentrations of testosterone, lipids, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), percent hemoglobin A1c, glucose, and insulin were measured in a fasting state using standard assays. A 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test and Framingham Risk Score were assessed for each subject. Body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry scan. Surrogate markers of cardiometabolic risk among men based on the level of total testosterone (TT; ≤300, 301-500, or >500 ng/dL) and free testosterone (fT; ≤9 or >9 ng/dL). Comparisons were made between men with normal and low TT or fT. Framingham Risk Score was significantly greater in men with low fT (P .08), were greater in men with low TT or low fT. Men with low TT or low fT had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P .1) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P > .07). Men with low TT had greater levels of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (P .8). In young men with chronic SCI who undergo an accelerated aging process postinjury, hypogonadism is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Further research is needed to determine whether a causal relationship exists between hypogonadism and heightened

  6. Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  7. Condom use and hip hop culture: the case of urban young men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Castellanos, Daniel H; Haliburton, Chanel S; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J; Parker, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    We explored how young men's perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture--urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music--and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Differences in young men's perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Popular discourses on young men's health risks often blame youths' cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men's lives and what aspects of youths' culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk.

  8. Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men-A Review of the Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh Tue; Gabrielson, Andrew T; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2017-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important health concern that can significantly affect a man's psychosocial well-being. ED has traditionally been considered a disease of old age; however, contemporary evidence suggests a growing incidence of ED in men younger than 40 years. The process of achieving an erection is multifaceted; there are many potential mechanisms that can be disrupted. It is critical to identify the specific causes of ED before proceeding with potentially costly and invasive therapeutic options. Advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities offer opportunities to identify and manage young men with ED. To provide an update on the prevalence and risk factors of ED in young men and to provide a framework to guide clinicians in identifying and managing the affected young man. Comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to ED in young men. ED in young men was assessed by outlining the prevalence according to recent epidemiologic studies. The pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, risk factors, and etiologies were reviewed. Large multinational studies have estimated the prevalence of ED in young men to be as high as 30%. Several studies have stratified the etiologies of ED into psychogenic and organic causes. Psychogenic etiologies of ED include depression, anxiety, and partner-related difficulties. These patients tend to experience sudden onset of symptoms, with decreased libido and good quality of spontaneous or self-stimulated erections. Organic etiologies include vasculogenic, endocrinologic, neurogenic, iatrogenic, and structural components. These patients usually experience gradual onset of symptoms and a low to normal libido. Conservative treatments such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors continue to be the mainstay treatment. ED in young men is an increasingly common condition. A careful diagnostic evaluation should focus on the identification of any underlying etiology to ensure appropriate management of patients. Nguyen HMT

  9. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K

    2007-01-01

    -energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) equipment. METHODS: The aim of the present study was 1) to establish population-based reference values for BMD in young men and 2) to study subgroups based on variables with suspected impact on bone metabolism. We included 783 young Caucasian men aged 20 to 30 years...... in the Odense Androgen Study (OAS). RESULTS: Peak BMD was attained within the third decade. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was associated with higher BMD. Abuse of anabolic steroids as well as chronic illness was associated with lower BMD. Our population-based reference values for BMD of the total hip (1.078 +/- 0...

  10. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.......We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...

  11. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  12. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charlene Wear

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…

  13. Depression in early adulthood: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates among young Swiss men

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Jürgen; Hofmann, Karen; Schori, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY Depression in young adults is common, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Our study gives a point prevalence estimate of depression in young Swiss men, and describes the association between depression and education, material and social resources, and job/school satisfaction. METHODS We used data from the cross-sectional Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents (ch-x) from 2010 to 2011 comprising 9,066 males aged between 18 and 25 years. Depression was assessed b...

  14. Making Informed Decisions: How Attitudes and Perceptions Affect the Use of Crystal, Cocaine and Ecstasy among Young Men who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F; Kipke, Michele D

    2007-01-01

    Although the use of illicit substances, particularly those commonly categorized as "club drugs", among men who have sex with men (MSM), is well established in the literature, little is known about the decision making process that is used in deciding whether or not to use a particular substance. In this study, we examine the positive and negative attitudes and perceptions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in regards to three specific drugs: crystal methamphetamine, cocaine and ecstasy. The findings reported here emerged from the baseline quantitative interviews and an accompanying qualitative phase of the Healthy Young Men's study (HYM), a longitudinal study examining risk and protective factors for substance use and sexual risk among an ethnically diverse sample of YMSM. Findings are discussed in relation to framing how service providers and others can design new and innovative interventions to prevent young men from initiating substance use.

  15. A focus on pleasure? Desire and disgust in group work with young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeeney, Ester

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of persuasive arguments as to why sexual pleasure should be included in sexual health work with young people, including the suggestion that this would provide young people with accounts of gender and sexuality that are more critical and holistic than those presented in the popular media, pornography and current sex education curricula. This paper considers the possibilities for engaging young men in critical group work about sexual pleasure in research and education contexts, drawing on a mixed-methods study of young people's understandings and experiences of 'good sex'. The paper provides a reflexive account of one focus group conducted with a group of heterosexual young men and two youth educators. It explores some of the challenges to building relationships with young men and creating 'safe spaces' in which to engage in critical sexuality education in socially unequal contexts. In this case study, adult-led discussion elicits rebellious, 'hyper-masculine' performances that close down opportunities for critical or reflective discussion. Although there are some opportunities for critical work that move beyond limited public health or school-based sex education agendas, there is also space for collusion and the reinforcement of oppressive social norms. The paper concludes by imagining possibilities for future research and practice.

  16. Effect of vitamin C on copper retention in young men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, R.A.; Omaye, S.T.; Skala, J.H.; Taylor, P.C.; Turnlund, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work suggests that supplemental ascorbic acid (AA) may inhibit intestinal copper absorption by stabilizing the less absorbable cuprous state. The authors studied copper absorption in healthy men (age 19-32) fed a constant diet with different amounts of ascorbic acid supplements. The 6 men were confined to a metabolic unit for the entire 14 week study. The basal diet consisted of a 7 day rotating menu which provided an average of 2.1 mg Cu/d and was adequate in all other nutrients except AA (5 mg/d). The basal diet was supplemented with either zero, 60, or 600 mg of AA daily, added to grape juice and consumed at each meal. All feces were collected. Blood was taken weekly for monitoring AA and copper status. Copper absorption was determined by both balance and 65 Cu stable isotope techniques. As determined by fecal Cu excretion, varying intakes of AA between 0.1 to 10 times the RDA had no significant effect on copper retention. This is consistent with the lack of change in serum ceruloplasmin and serum Cu throughout the study

  17. Energy intake compensation after 3 weeks of restricted energy intake in young and elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkels, Renate M; Jolink-Stoppelenburg, Angelique; de Graaf, Kees; Siebelink, Els; Mars, Monica; de Groot, Lisette

    2011-05-01

    Decreased energy intake in older persons poses these people at risk of progressive weight loss. It may result from a failure to regulate energy intake and expenditure after periods of underfeeding. The objective of this study was to investigate if a period of underfeeding differentially influences energy intake of older compared with young men and, additionally, to study potential underlying mechanisms, namely changes in gastric emptying rate and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels in blood. Dietary intervention of 3 phases. After a phase of energy balance, we fed participants in phase 2 by a mean of 70% of their needs for 21 days. During phase 3, we assessed ad libitum energy intake of the participants during 9 days. At the end of phases 1 and 2, we assessed appetite, gastric emptying, and CCK levels in blood in response to a test meal. Fifteen young (age 24 years [range 20-34], body mass index 23.0 kg/m(2) ± 2.3) and 17 older (age 68 years [64-85], body mass index 24.5 kg/m(2) ± 1.9) men participated in this study. During energy balance, mean energy intake of young men (14.3 ± 2.3 MJ/day) was significantly higher than that of older men (11.3 ± 1.8 MJ/day, P men and to 14.4 ± 3.2 MJ/day in older men. Ad lib energy intake after underfeeding did not differ between young and older men (analysis of covariance, with energy intake during phase 1 as covariate, P = .99). There were no differential changes in body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure, gastric emptying rate, CCK-8 levels, and appetite between young and older men during the study. Our results do not indicate that older men have an impaired ability to control energy intake after a period of underfeeding compared with younger men. NCT00561145. Copyright © 2011 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  19. Risperidone and Risk of Gynecomastia in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Mahyar; Carleton, Bruce; Brophy, James M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of gynecomastia with risperidone in adolescent and young adult males. We created a cohort of males 15-25 years of age from the IMS LifeLink database, and conducted a case-control study within the cohort by identifying all new cases of gynecomastia. For each case, 10 controls were selected and matched to the cases by age, follow-up, and calendar times (cases and controls had the same follow up time and cohort entry date). Rate ratios (RR) for current use of risperidone were computed adjusting for potential confounding variables. First diagnosis of gynecomastia was made based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) for gynecomastia. There were 401,924 males ages 15-25 in the primary cohort. There were 1556 cases of gynecomastia and 15,560 corresponding controls. Current users of risperidone had approximately four times the risk of developing gynecomastia than non-users (RR=3.91, 95% CI=2.01-7.62). When the analysis was stratified to children and adolescents (≤18 years of age) taking risperidone, the risk of gynecomastia was five times higher than for non-users (RR=5.44, 95% CI=1.50-19.74). Risperidone is associated with an increase with the risk of gynecomastia in adolescent and young adult males.

  20. Challenges and approaches to mobilizing communities for HIV prevention among young men who have sex with men of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alison J; Dudek, Julia C; Francisco, Vincent T; Castillo, Marné; Freeman, Peter; Martinez, Miguel; Sniecinski, Kevin; Young, Kalima; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in the United States. More HIV prevention interventions targeting risk factors of this group are needed, particularly at the structural level. This article focuses on Connect to Protect®: Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions (C2P), a multisite study employing community mobilization to decrease HIV acquisition and transmission among youth. Seven C2P sites are mobilizing their communities to prevent HIV among YMSM of color. These sites have faced a number of similar challenges. This article uses qualitative data to explore three domains relating to community mobilization at YMSM sites-forming community partnerships, maintaining the coalition, and facilitating structural-level coalition objectives. Challenges and approaches across domains illustrated themes related to stigma and discrimination, mobilization around YMSM of color, coalition participation and funding.

  1. Condom-related problems among a racially diverse sample of young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bois, Steve N; Emerson, Erin; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-10-01

    We described frequencies of condom-related problems in a racially diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and tested these condom-related problems as an explanation for racial disparities in HIV rates among YMSM. Participants were 119 YMSM from a longitudinal study of sexual minority health behaviors. Almost all participants (95.4%) experienced at least one condom error. On average, African American and non-African American YMSM experienced the same number of recent condom-related problems. Therefore, differences in condom-related problems are unlikely to explain racial disparities in HIV rates among YMSM. When serving YMSM, providers should both promote condom use and explain steps to correct condom use.

  2. Associations Between Internalized Homophobia and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica

    2016-10-01

    To assess internalized homophobia (IH) and its relationship to sexual risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a clinic-based sample of young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Six hundred YBMSM completed a self-interview and provided specimens for testing. A 7-item scale assessed IH, and 19 sexual risk behaviors were assessed. In adjusted models, compared with men with less IH, those with greater IH were more likely to report: any condomless anal receptive sex (P = 0.01) and sex with women (P < 0.001). Alternatively, men with greater IH were less likely to: discuss acquired immune deficiency syndrome prevention with sex partners (P = 0.009), disclose their same sex sexual behavior to providers (P = 0.01), be tested for human immunodeficiency virus in the past 12 months (P = 0.04), report condomless oral sex (P = 0.049), and test RPR positive (P = 0.01). With some exceptions, IH among YBMSM attending STI clinics may influence their sexual risk behaviors; however, STI prevalence was not associated with this construct.

  3. Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

    2006-11-01

    Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes.

  4. Endocrine and metabolic diurnal rhythms in young adult men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Saltbæk, Pernille N; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances and alterations of diurnal endocrine rhythms are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We previously showed that young men born small for gestational age (SGA) and with increased risk of T2D have elevated fat and decreased glucose oxidation rates d...

  5. "Looking at the Real Thing": Young Men, Pornography, and Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Louisa

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the sexually explicit comments and references to pornography in young men's answers to a survey about sexuality education. Instead of viewing these remarks as simply impertinent and therefore discountable, I argue that they offer insights into the constitution of masculine identity and an erotic deficit in sexuality…

  6. SEMEN QUALITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF YOUNG CZECH MEN EXPOSED TO SEASONAL AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semen quality and reproductive health of young Czech men exposed to seasonal air pollution.Selevan SG, Borkovec L, Slott VL, Zudova Z, Rubes J, Evenson DP, Perreault SD.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA.This study of male repr...

  7. Relative risk of HIV infection among young men and women in a South African township

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacPhail, C

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available as other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and answered a behavioural questionnaire. The age-prevalence of HIV infection differs between men and women with considerably higher rates of increase with age among young women. The age of sexual debut did...

  8. Aggression Replacement Training for Violent Young Men in a Forensic Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Muris, P.; Zwets, A.J.; Kanters, T.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) were explored in a group of Dutch violent young men aged 16 to 21 years, who were obliged by the court to follow a treatment program in a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic. To evaluate the training, patients completed a set of self-report

  9. Happy to Talk...To a Point: Bereaved Young Men and Emotional Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNess, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses upon the social experiences of bereaved young men, with particular emphasis on the social costs of bereavement-related personal disclosure. Their experiences of regulating their social behaviour were suggestive of the persistence of "traditional" notions of masculine identity (e.g. hegemonic masculinity). While this…

  10. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  11. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  12. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  13. My Brother as "Problem": Neoliberal Governmentality and Interventions for Black Young Men and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that the Obama Administration's My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative serves as an exemplar of neoliberal governmentality, in which Black young men and boys are constructed as essentially damaged, as problems in need of a technocratic public--private solution. More than simply an ideological imposition from above…

  14. Size Matters Stature Is Related to Diagnoses of Depression in Young Military Men

    OpenAIRE

    Valery Krupnik; Mariya V. Cherkasova

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories suggest that depression has evolved as an adaptation to insurmountable adversity or defeat. One prediction stemming from these models is that individual attributes associated with defeat in a given social environment could be risk factors for depression. We hypothesized that in young military men, where physical prowess was important, short stature might constitute a risk of depression and that th...

  15. The Salience and Utility of School Sex Education to Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie; Wight, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on young men's views on the school sex education they have received, the influence of this sex education on their intended or actual behaviour, and the extent to which other sources of information complement or supplement school sex education. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and eight group discussions were conducted with male…

  16. What Does It Mean to Be Young for Syrian Men Living as Refugees in Cairo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Suerbaum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Syrian young men who fled to Egypt after the uprising in 2011. Their life was affected by the challenges stemming from displacement, such as their confrontation with new responsibilities, unknown vulnerabilities and emotions, liminality and precarity. They suffered from forced displacement in a gender- and age-specific way.

  17. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  18. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rhonda; Harris, Linda; Bird, Kisha

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) created the Forward Promise initiative within its Vulnerable Populations Portfolio to place a strategic emphasis on the needs of middle school- and high school-aged young men of color. RWJF's goal is to strengthen educational opportunities, pathways to employment, and health outcomes for these…

  19. Differences among Senior and Young, Men and Women in Attitudes and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    This study examined the cognitive skills and attitudes toward self and others in samples of independent seniors and young men and women. Three proceedings were used to address questions of age or gender differences. Study 1 (N=95) compared the scores of older adults (approximate age range, 64-95 years) on the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and…

  20. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-10-01

    To study the relationship of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Cross-sectional study. University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Healthy young men with untested fertility (n = 215). A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Semen quality parameters. Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥9.5 h/wk) with men in the bottom quartile (≤3 h/wk) were 4.3% (-30.2%, 38.9%) for total sperm count, 7.2% (-30.6%, 45.1%) for sperm concentration, -2.42% (-6.53%, 1.69%) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (-12.0%, 37.2%) for sperm morphology. In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological problems in young men with chronic prostatitis-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, J H; Jeon, Y S; Kim, M E; Lee, N K; Park, Y H

    2002-01-01

    To take a different perspective in assessing young men with chronic prostatitis-like symptoms, this study was designed since few prospective studies are available to survey a population of young men. One hundred and fifty men aged 20 years dwelling in the community were randomly selected. Chronic prostatitis-like symptoms were measured by the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the selfreported scores for pain and urinary symptoms were used to identify chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. The psychological methods used were the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. A total of 87 men (a response rate 58%) completed self-administered questionnaires. As the scores for pain and urinary symptoms increased, those for depression increased (p masculinity scores were not different according to the scores for pain but those were significantly different according to the scores of urinary symptoms (p = 0.042). The mean femininity scores were not different according to the scores of pain and urinary symptoms. Our findings suggest that psychological factors, especially depression and weak masculine identity may be associated with an early stage of chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. Young men with chronic prostatitis-like symptoms also have psychological problems.

  2. Nipple/Breast stimulation and sexual arousal in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy; Meston, Cindy

    2006-05-01

    The role of nipple/breast stimulation in influencing sexual arousal in men and women during lovemaking has only been the subject of opinion-based comment rather than evidence-based study. No attempt to question people about such sexual behavior has ever been undertaken. The study was designed to ascertain the effects of nipple/breast manipulation in young men and women on their sexual arousal. A short questionnaire about nipple/breast stimulation during sexual activity was administered to 301 (148 men; 153 women) sexually experienced undergraduates (age range 17-29 years, 95% between 18 and 22). Replies to questions in questionnaire. The major findings in regard to the women were that 81.5% reported that stimulation of their nipples/breasts caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 78.2% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, 59.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated during lovemaking, and only 7.2% found that the manipulation decreased their arousal. In regard to the men, 51.7% reported that nipple stimulation caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 39% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, only 17.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated, and only 7.5% found that such stimulation decreased their arousal. Manipulation of the nipples/breasts causes or enhances sexual arousal in approximately 82% of young women and 52% of young men with only 7-8% reporting that it decreased their arousal.

  3. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Patients Healthy young men with untested fertility (n=215). Intervention A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Main outcomes measure Semen quality parameters. Results Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥9.5h/wk) to men in the bottom quartile (≤3h/wk) were 4.3% (−30.2, 38.9) for total sperm count, 7.2% (−30.6, 45.1) for sperm concentration, −2.42% (−6.53, 1.69) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (−12.0, 37.2) for sperm morphology. Conclusion In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. PMID:25064411

  4. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and the Opportunity. Issue Brief: Focus on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kisha; Bryant, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief was prepared for the "Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity" briefing held in June 2014 that was co-sponsored by National Council of La Raza, PolicyLink, the Executive Alliance to Expand Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color, and the Institute for Black Male Achievement. The…

  5. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    admissions and the draft board, 3091 young men were identified who had been injured before age 18 and tested at age 18 or shortly thereafter: 970 had suffered a single concussion and were in hospital for one day only; 521 had two concussions at separate times and were in hospital for one day only on each...... Danish men appearing before the draft board had a score classified as dysfunctional). RESULTS: For young men who had suffered a single concussion, cranial fracture, or cerebral lesion before 12 years of age, resulting in less than 12 days of hospital admission (n = 376), rates of cognitive dysfunction.......0, irrespective of age at injury. For cases of two concussions, all odds ratios were > 1.4 but were not significant for all age groupings. CONCLUSIONS: For milder forms of single head injury before age 12 there is no evidence of enduring cognitive dysfunction. The apparent effect at later ages may reflect...

  6. Racial/ethnic disparities and culturally competent health care among youth and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Dzung X; Park, M Jane

    2008-06-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care are receiving increasing national attention from the fields of public health and medicine. Efforts to reduce disparities should adopt a life-span approach and recognize the role of gender. During adolescence, young people make increasingly independent decisions about health-related behavior and health care, while developing gender identity. Little is known about how cultural context shapes gender identity and gender identity's influence on health-related behavior and health care utilization. The authors review disparities in health status and health care among adolescents, especially young men, by reviewing health care access, clinical services, and issues related to culture, identity, and acculturation. Significant differences in health status by gender exist in adolescence, with young men faring worse on many health markers. This article discusses gaps in research and offers recommendations for improving health care quality and strengthening the research base on gender and disparities during adolescence.

  7. Preferences for Injectable PrEP Among Young U.S. Cisgender Men and Transgender Women and Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Hosek, Sybil; Drucker, Morgan T; Belzer, Marvin; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Marrow, Elliot; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Brothers, Jennifer; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-09-19

    Young men who have sex with men account for approximately 20% of incident HIV infections in the U.S. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) administered as a daily pill has been shown to decrease HIV acquisition in at-risk individuals. New modalities for PrEP are being developed and tested, including injectable PrEP; however, acceptability of these emerging modalities has not yet been examined in youth. We conducted six focus groups with 36 young men and transgender men and women who have sex with men in Boston, Chicago, and Los Angeles in 2016 to assess interest in and preference for different PrEP modalities. Youth were purposively recruited based on diversity of age, race/ethnicity, and prior PrEP experience. Data were coded using content coding based on key domains of the interview guide, in particular around the central themes of interest in and barriers and facilitators to injectable PrEP use. Participants were knowledgeable about oral PrEP but suggested barriers to broader uptake, including stigma, marginalization, and access to information. While participants were split on preference for injectable versus oral PrEP, they agreed quarterly injections may be more manageable and better for those who have adherence difficulties and for those who engage in sex more frequently. Concerns specific to injectable PrEP included: severity/duration of side effects, pain, level of protection prior to next injection, distrust of medical system and injections, and cost. Understanding barriers to and preferences for diverse prevention modalities will allow for more HIV prevention options, improved products, and better interventions, thus allowing individuals to make informed HIV prevention choices.

  8. Young adult gay and bisexual men's stigma experiences and mental health: An 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E; Sullivan, Timothy J; Feinstein, Brian A; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-04-05

    This study investigated longitudinal trajectories of stigma (i.e., enacted, anticipated, internalized, concealed); stress-sensitive mental health disorder symptoms (i.e., depression, social anxiety); and their associations across 8 annual assessments in a sample of 128 young gay and bisexual U.S. university students. All forms of stigma significantly decreased over time, while depressive symptoms remained stable and social anxiety symptoms significantly increased. Men from higher socioeconomic backgrounds experienced quicker reductions in anticipated stigma, compared to men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. More self-described feminine men experienced quicker reductions in concealment, compared to more self-described masculine men. Enacted stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with depression and social anxiety across 8 years; and anticipated stigma and internalized stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with social anxiety across 8 years. Enacted stigma was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among men who reported greater masculinity compared to those who reported greater femininity. Findings are discussed in terms of common developmental influences across early sexual orientation identity formation, including gay and bisexual young men's resilience to stigma-based stress; the transition from college; and the rapidly changing social climate surrounding sexual minority individuals. Findings suggest the need for future longitudinal examinations of stigma and mental health among sexual minorities that utilize multiple age cohorts to determine the relative contribution of cohort-specific versus common maturational factors influencing the mental health of this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Incarcerated umbilical hernia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdan, L B; Uba, A F; Kidmas, A T

    2006-02-01

    Umbilical hernia is common in children. Complications from umbilical hernias are thought to be rare and the natural history is spontaneous closure within 5 years. A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of a series of 23 children who presented with incarcerated umbilical hernias at our institution over an 8-year period. Fifty-two children with umbilical hernias were seen in the hospital over the period. Twenty-three (44.2%) had incarceration. Seventeen (32.7%) had acute incarceration while 6 (11.5%) had recurrent incarceration. There were 16 girls and 7 boys. The ages of the children with acute incarceration ranged from 3 weeks to 12 years (median 4 years), while the ages of those with recurrent incarceration ranged from 3-15 years (median 8.5 years). Incarceration occurred in hernias of more than 1.5 cm in diameter (in those whose defect size was measured). Twenty-one children (15 with acute and all six with recurrent incarceration) underwent repair of the umbilical hernia using standard methods. The parents of two children with acute incarceration declined surgery after spontaneous reduction of the hernia in one and taxis in the other. One boy had gangrenous bowel containing Meckel's diverticulum inside the sac, for which bowel resection with end-to-end anastomosis was done. Operation led to disappearance of pain in all 6 children with recurrent incarceration. Superficial wound infection occurred in one child. There was no mortality. Incarcerated umbilical hernia is not as uncommon as thought. Active observation of children with umbilical hernia is necessary to prevent morbidity from incarceration.

  10. Inequalities in maintenance of health and performance between young adult women and men in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Hagberg, Mats

    2009-04-01

    Because of ageing populations, most high-income countries are facing an imminent scarcity of labour. Maintenance of health and performance in young adults therefore becomes a crucial prerequisite for sustainable societies. One major obstruction to this accomplishment is the striking health inequalities between young women and young men. Previously these inequalities have mainly been studied in a cross-sectional way, focusing on ill-health. In this study, we compared the prevalence of maintained health and performance between young adult women and men and the predictors for this outcome. The cohort consisted of 1266 participants from a homogenous sample of university students in Sweden. A combined assessment of self-rated 'very good' health and un-impaired performance took place at three time points (i.e. maintained health and performance). Potential predictors covered stable conditions in health-related behaviours, conditions at work/school and work-home interference. Young women had less maintained health and performance than young men. No major differences in predictors were found. However, there was a tendency for psychosocial factors to be the most important predictors, especially in women. That young women had less maintained health and performance in a homogenous sample beyond well-known differentiating factors suggests explanations other than observable structural differences between the sexes. This was also indicated by the importance attached to perceived demands, and work-home interference, especially in women. The combination of less scheduled, and more unscheduled, schoolwork (i.e. time-flexibility) negatively affected the maintenance of health and performance in our study population, suggesting a focus for future studies.

  11. "God Made Me Gay for a Reason": Young Men Who Have Sex with Men's Resiliency in Resolving Internalized Homophobia from Religious Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…

  12. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  13. Comparative data from young men and women on masseter muscle fibres, function and facial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women......, and the tissue examined for myosin ATPase activity. Further, the cross-sectional areas of the different fibre types were measured. In spite of using age-matched healthy men and women with a full complement of teeth, statistically significant sex differences were found among measures related to muscle function...... and some measures of facial morphology. Thus data from men and women should not be pooled uncritically. The greater bite force in men than women corresponded with the greater diameter and cross-sectional area of type II fibres. Further, the males had more anteriorly inclined mandibles and shorter anterior...

  14. Portrait of an Epidemic: Extremely High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence Among Young Black Men Having Sex With Men and Residing in a Southern City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Leandro; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    A 12-month prospective cohort study of 609 young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) assessed human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion. One-hundred-seventy men (27.9%) were either human immunodeficiency virus-infected before enrollment or tested positive within 30 days afterward. Thirty (4.9%) were classified as incident infections occurring in a 12-month period. Subtracting the 170 from the denominator, incidence was 6.8%.

  15. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Sanders, Stephanie A; Crosby, Richard A; Ingelhart, Kara N; Janssen, Erick

    2015-10-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18-24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being 'turned on' enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions - particularly among men who experience CAEP.

  16. Attitudes of Young Adult Men Toward Domestic Violence and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.

  17. Myosin content of single muscle fibers following short-term disuse and active recovery in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Brocca, Lorenza; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2017-01-01

    healthy men. Following disuse, myosin content decreased (p... young and old in both fiber types, with MHC 2a fibers demonstrating an overshooting in young (+31%, pStrong correlations were observed between myosin content and single fiber SF in both young and old, with greater slope steepness in MHC 2a vs 1 fibers indicating an enhanced intrinsic...

  18. Varicocele among healthy young men in Turkey; prevalence and relationship with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Soylemez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Varicocele is characterized by abnormal tortuosity and dilatation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus within the spermatic cord and is one of the causes related to male infertility. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between varicocele and somatometric parameters. We also aimed to determine prevalence and treatment ratio of this disorder among healthy young Turkish men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2061 young men aged from 19 to 34 years was enrolled and cross sectionally evaluated for status of varicocele. Body mass index was calculated. Patients were categorized as normal weight, overweight and obese using by National Institutes of Health criteria. Patients underwent physical examinations for the presence and grade of varicocele. If the varicocele was found and previously submitted to different treatment modalities, the age of treatment and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Varicocele was present in 498 men (24.2%. The mean age of the participants was 22.7 ± 1.8 years, and the median BMI was 22.8 ± 2.0 kg/m². There were no significant differences in age, height, weight and BMI among the patients with different grades of varicocele (p > 0.05. Although no significant difference was found in varicocele prevalence between normal weight and over-weight participants (p > 0.05, obese participants had significantly lower varicocele prevalence compared with normal or over weight participants (p = 0.006. A total of 49 men had scrotal pain and the treatment ratio was only 2.8%. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of varicocele was found in about 24% of healthy young Turkish population. Participants with varicocele had significantly lower BMI values compared with those without varicocele. Our findings supported the hypothesis that individuals with a greater BMI may have advantages in relieving the varicocele, but further studies are required to clarify this issue. Additionally treatment ratio was low among young men with varicocele.

  19. [Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among Chilean young men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Antonio; Bustos, Patricia; Soto, Rodrigo; Velasco, Nicolás; Amigo, Hugo

    2010-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. To quantify PA in young adults and to correlate it with cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed employing the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), to measure the PA of 983 randomly selected young adults from Valparaiso region born between 1974 and 1978. Its results were associated with levels of obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP- ATP III) RESULTS: Mean physical activity among men and women was 3731 ± 3923 and 1360 ± 2303 METs-minutes/week, respectively (p women and 21.5% of men had an insufficient level of physical activity (p men and 23.4% of women had an intense level of physical activity (p physical activity and insulin resistance. A high physical activity was protective, specially among men, against a low HDL cholesterol level and high triglyceride levels with Odds Ratios of 0.59 (confidence interval (CI): 0,35-0.98) and 0.49 (CI: 0,27-0,87) respectively, after adjusting for body mass index and age. In this sample, men had higher levels of physical activity, that was protective against insulin resistance and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Variability in HOMA-IR, lipoprotein profile and selected hormones in young active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keska, Anna; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18-23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.

  1. Social network and individual correlates of sexual risk behavior among homeless young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Hu, Jianhui; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2012-10-01

    There is growing interest in network-based interventions to reduce HIV sexual risk behavior among both homeless youth and men who have sex with men. The goal of this study was to better understand the social network and individual correlates of sexual risk behavior among homeless young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to inform these HIV prevention efforts. A multistage sampling design was used to recruit a probability sample of 121 homeless YMSM (ages: 16-24 years) from shelters, drop-in centers, and street venues in Los Angeles County. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Because of the different distributions of the three outcome variables, three distinct regression models were needed: ordinal logistic regression for unprotected sex, zero-truncated Poisson regression for number of sex partners, and logistic regression for any sex trade. Homeless YMSM were less likely to engage in unprotected sex and had fewer sex partners if their networks included platonic ties to peers who regularly attended school, and had fewer sex partners if most of their network members were not heavy drinkers. Most other aspects of network composition were unrelated to sexual risk behavior. Individual predictors of sexual risk behavior included older age, Hispanic ethnicity, lower education, depressive symptoms, less positive condom attitudes, and sleeping outdoors because of nowhere else to stay. HIV prevention programs for homeless YMSM may warrant a multipronged approach that helps these youth strengthen their ties to prosocial peers, develop more positive condom attitudes, and access needed mental health and housing services. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2008-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM's (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support.

  3. Return to Work After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Comparison Between Young Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Rachel P; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Weiwei; Du, Xue; Strait, Kelly M; Bierlein, Maggie; Bucholz, Emily M; Geda, Mary; Fox, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Lichtman, Judith H; Bueno, Héctor; Spertus, John A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-02-01

    Return to work after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important outcome and is particularly relevant to young patients. Women may be at a greater risk for not returning to work given evidence of their worse recovery after AMI than similarly aged men. However, sex differences in return to work after AMI has not been studied extensively in a young population (≤ 55 years). We analyzed data from 1680 patients with AMI aged 18 to 55 years (57% women) participating in the Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) study who were working full time (≥ 35 hours) before the event. Data were obtained by medical record abstraction and patient interviews. We conducted multivariable regression analyses to examine sex differences in return to work at 12 months after AMI, and the association of patient characteristics with return to work. When compared with young men, young women were less likely to return to work (89% versus 85%; 85% versus 89%, P=0.02); however, this sex difference was not significant after adjusting for patient sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and health measures. Being married, engaging in a professional or clerical type of work, having more favorable physical health, and having no previous coronary disease or hypertension were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of return to work at 12 months. Among a young population, women are less likely to return to work after AMI than men. This disadvantage is explained by differences in demographic, occupational, and health characteristics. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Growing up as "man of the house": adultification and transition into adulthood for young men in economically disadvantaged families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-03-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field work and life-history interviews with low-income, young African American men and Salvadoran men in the Washington, DC/Baltimore region to illustrate how adultification may deliver contradictory expectations for adolescents. The findings also show how the accelerated responsibilities that accompany the experience of adultification create difficulties in the young men's transition into adulthood. These findings indicate that the age period of emerging adulthood may begin earlier for economically disadvantaged young men. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Linking young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to STI physicians: a nationwide cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bolin; Zhao, Peipei; Bien, Cedric; Pan, Stephen; Tang, Weiming; Watson, Julia; Mi, Guodong; Ding, Yi; Luo, Zhenzhou; Tucker, Joseph D

    2018-05-18

    Many young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are reluctant to seek health services and trust local physicians. Online information seeking may encourage YMSM to identify and see trustworthy physicians, obtain sexual health services, and obtain testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examined online STI information seeking behaviors among Chinese YMSM and its association with offline physician visits. We conducted a nationwide online survey among YMSM through WeChat, the largest social media platform in China. We collected information on individual demographics, sexual behaviors, online STI information seeking, offline STI testing, and STI physician visits. We examined the most commonly used platforms (search engines, governmental websites, counseling websites, generic social media, gay mobile apps, and mobile medical apps) and their trustworthiness. We assessed interest and willingness to use an MSM-friendly physician finder function embedded within a gay mobile app. Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlation between online STI information searching and offline physician visits. A total of 503 men completed the survey. Most men (425/503, 84.5%) searched for STI information online. The most commonly used platform to obtain STI information were search engines (402/425, 94.5%), followed by gay mobile apps (201/425, 47.3%). Men reported high trustworthiness of information received from gay mobile apps. Men also reported high interest (465/503, 92.4%) and willingness (463/503, 92.0%) to use a MSM-friendly physician finder function within such apps. Both using general social media (aOR =1.14, 95%CI: 1.04-1.26) and mobile medical apps (aOR =1.16, 95%CI: 1.01-1.34) for online information seeking were associated with visiting a physician. Online STI information seeking is common and correlated with visiting a physician among YMSM. Cultivating partnerships with the emerging mobile medical apps may be useful for disseminating STI

  6. Shock Incarceration: Rehabilitation or Retribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Doris Layton; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews Louisiana's shock incarceration program used as alternative to standard prison incarceration. Program involves short period of imprisonment in a "boot camp" type atmosphere followed by three phases of intensive parole supervision. Examines the program in regard to its rehabilitative potential and compares program elements to…

  7. Expanding hegemonic masculinity: the use of irony in young men's stories about romantic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, Neill

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the use of irony in young men's stories about romantic and sexual experiences. Because romantic experiences are central in the constitution of a heterosexual self, and because they are increasingly formulated in relation to traditional masculine norms and the simultaneous avowal and disavowal of effeminacy, they reveal an oscillation between complicity and resistance to hegemonic masculine norms. This oscillation is explored in stories about promiscuity, seduction, and vulnerability. Critical discursive analyses reveal how young men discursively pivot between complicity and resistance to traditional masculine norms, how this oscillation functions in the accomplishment of their romantic identities, how a sense of conventional masculinity is reclaimed, and what these processes reveal about the shifting nature of hegemonic masculinity in contemporary culture.

  8. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  9. Reach Out Central: a serious game designed to engage young men to improve mental health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane M; Webb, Marianne; Durkin, Lauren A; Hickie, Ian B

    2010-06-07

    Reach Out Central (ROC) is a serious game drawing on the principles of cognitive behaviour theory that has been designed to improve the mental health and wellbeing of young people, particularly men. ROC was developed over a 3-year period from 2003 to 2006, in consultation with young people aged 16-25 years who use the Reach Out mental health website http://www.reachout.com). ROC was launched online in September 2007. A traditional and viral awareness campaign was designed to engage young men, particularly "gamers". In the first month after launch, ROC had 76 045 unique website visits, with 10 542 new members (52% male) joining Reach Out. An independent online evaluation involving 266 young people aged 18-25 years was conducted between August 2007 and February 2008 to examine psychological wellbeing, stigma and help seeking in ROC players. Overall results indicated that ROC was successful in attracting, engaging and educating young people. Young women reported reduced psychological distress and improved life satisfaction, problem solving and help seeking; however, no significant changes were observed for young men. Although ROC was successful in attracting young men, demonstrating that the concept resonates with them, the service failed to keep them engaged. Further research is needed to explore how (or what changes need to be made) to sustain young men's engagement in the game.

  10. Media Use Patterns of Young Men: Findings from the Youth Attitude Tracking Study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    information about the benefits to be derived from military service. In either case, effective military advertising strategy is determined in part by the...To develop an effective advertising strategy , various questions need to be answered about media use patterns of young men, particularly in terms of...what the relevant media are, but also to know whether media use is related to advertising awareness. To develop a successful advertising strategy , it is

  11. Eating and drinking habits of young London-based Irish men: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Aidan; Ciclitira, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London about their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using combined thematic and discourse analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for not adopting healthy eating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking. Views about the status of different foods also affected their eating habits: they considered red mea...

  12. Gynecomastia in two young men with histories of prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandi, M.A.; Venegoni, E.; Pagani, C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report is to highlight the risk of anabolic androgenic steroid-induced gynecomastia in young men involved in nonagonistic sports and the role of ultrasonography in its diagnosis. The authors describe two cases of gynecomastia in nonprofessional weight lifters with histories of AAS use. In both cases, the diagnosis was based on patient history and clinical findings, but the sonographic examination confirmed the clinical suspicion and excluded the presence of other types of dise...

  13. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that althou...

  14. Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli Khalaf, Zahra; Low, Wah Yun; Ghorbani, Behzad; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2013-11-11

    Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men's lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men's health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20-30 years from three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian). Thematic analysis approach was used to extract data. NVIVO v8 qualitative software was used for data management. From the data collected several concepts emerged that reflected the meanings of masculinity from the participants' view points. These meanings were associated with a combination of traditional and non-traditional norms that generally benefit men who behave according to culturally dominant role expectations. These included: "Having a good body shape", "being respected", "having success with women", "being a family man", and "having financial independence". Socio-cultural factors, such as family environment, religion, public media and popular life style patterns helped to shape and reinforce the meanings of masculinities among university men. This study revealed that the university context provided a particular culture for construction and reinforcement of the meanings of masculinities, which should be considered by the educators to help in development of healthy masculinities.

  15. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Nicola; Buston, Katie; McDaid, Lisa Margaret

    2017-08-17

    Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18-29) in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: 'habitual', 'reactive' and ' ad hoc'. This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and 'community' in shaping young men's approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and 'community' responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with 'transitional moments' such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase rates of HIV testing and testing frequency among young gay and bisexual men should include a

  16. Web-based sex diaries and young adult men who have sex with men: assessing feasibility, reactivity, and data agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Winer, Rachel L; Golden, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    We compared quantitative diary data with retrospective survey data collected from a cohort of young adult men who have sex with men (MSM) in Seattle, Washington. Ninety-five MSM, aged 16-30 years, completed web-based surveys every 3 months and were randomized to 4 diary submission schedules: every 2 weeks, once a week, twice a week, or never. We calculated diary completion rates and assessed agreement between daily diary data and aggregate retrospective survey data for sexual behavior measures. Over 6 months, 78 % of participants completed at least 80 % of their diary days, and the 2-week schedule had the highest and most consistent completion rate. The majority of sexual behavior and substance use measures had strong agreement between the diary and retrospective survey data (i.e., kappa >0.80 or concordance correlation coefficient ≥0.75), although we observed poorer agreement for some measures of numbers of anal sex acts. There were no significant differences in mean responses across diary schedules. We observed some evidence of reactivity (i.e., a difference in behavior associated with diary completion). Participants not assigned diaries reported significantly more unprotected anal sex acts and were more likely to be newly diagnosed with HIV or another sexually transmitted infection compared to those assigned active diary schedules. This study suggests that sexual behavior data collected from young adult MSM during 3-month retrospective survey--an interval commonly used in sexual behavior research--are likely valid. Diaries, however, may have greater utility in sexual behavioral research in which counts, timing, sequence, or within-person variation over time are of particular import.

  17. Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya: are young men allies in social change programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Jerotich, Miriam; le May, Victoria

    2016-05-01

    The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men's (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a "modern" outlook and with aspirations to marry "educated" women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders - campaigners, government and local leaders - to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, A H; Anwer, S; Zafar, H; Al-Eisa, E S

    2017-09-01

    The present study compared the effect of quadriceps and hamstring muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men. Thirty healthy young men (18-30 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10 each): quadriceps cooling (QC), hamstring cooling (HC), or control group (no cooling). Participants in the QC and HC groups received 20 minutes of cooling using a cold pack (gel pack), placed on the anterior thigh (from the apex of the patella to the mid-thigh) and the posterior thigh (from the base of the popliteal fossa to the mid-thigh), respectively. Balance score including unilateral stance was measured at baseline and immediately after the application of the cold pack. No significant difference in the balance score was noted in any group after the application of the cold pack (p⟩0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in post-test balance score were noted among the three groups (p⟩0.05). Cooling of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles has no immediate effect on standing balance in healthy young men. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cooling these muscles on standing balance.

  19. Sexual safety and sexual security among young Black women who have sex with women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F

    2014-01-01

    To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Secondary qualitative content analysis. We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Correlates of care for young men with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer G; Davis, Melinda F; Meaney, F John

    2014-01-01

    In progressive conditions, such as Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD), the need for care may outpace care use. We examined correlates that contribute to utilization of needed care. Structured interviews were conducted on use of care among 34 young men with DBMD who were born before 1982. Disease severity, per capita income, and presence of other relatives with DBMD predicted greater use of services. Race/ethnicity, acculturation, and level of caregiver education did not significantly predict service utilization. We identified disparities in receipt of healthcare and related services in adult men with DBMD that can affect quality of life. Despite the high disease severity identified in this population, these men utilized only half of the services available to individuals with significant progressive conditions. Providers should be aware of low service utilization and focus on awareness and assistance to ensure access to available care. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interpersonal Sensitivity and Sexual Functioning in Young Men with Testicular Cancer: the Moderating Role of Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; McCann, Connor; Savone, Mirko; Saigal, Christopher S; Stanton, Annette L

    2015-12-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity is characterized by the predisposition to perceive and elicit criticism, rejection, and negative social evaluation. It may be linked to poorer physical or functional health outcomes, particularly in the interpersonal context (cancer-related sexual dysfunction). This study tested the association of interpersonal sensitivity with sexual functioning following testicular cancer in young men and whether this association is moderated by coping processes. Men ages 18 to 29 (N = 171; M age = 25.2, SD = 3.32) with a history of testicular cancer were recruited via the California State Cancer Registry and completed questionnaire measures including assessments of interpersonal sensitivity, sexual functioning, and approach and avoidance coping. Regression analysis controlling for education, age, partner status, ethnic status, and time since diagnosis revealed that higher interpersonal sensitivity was significantly related to lower sexual functioning (β = -0.18, p related approach-oriented coping was associated with better sexual functioning (β = 0.19, p interpersonal sensitivity was more strongly associated with lower functioning among men with relatively low use of approach coping. Interpersonal sensitivity may be an important individual difference in vulnerability to sexual dysfunction after testicular cancer. Enhancement of coping skills may be a useful direction for intervention development for interpersonally sensitive young men with cancer.

  2. Examining Masculine Norms and Peer Support within a Sample of Incarcerated African American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derrick M; Hawes, Samuel W; Perez-Cabello, M Arturo; Brabham-Hollis, Tamika; Lanza, A Stephen; Dyson, William J

    2013-01-01

    The adherence to masculine norms has been suggested to be influenced by social settings and context. Prisons have been described as a context where survival is dependent on adhering to strict masculine norms that may undermine reintegration back into the larger society. This study attempted to examine the relationship between masculine norms, peer support, and an individual's length of incarceration on a sample of 139 African American men taking part in a pre-release community re-entry program. Results indicate that peer support was associated with length of incarceration and the interaction between the endorsement of masculine norms and peer support significantly predicted the length of incarceration for African American men in this sample. Implications for incarcerated African American men and future research directions are discussed.

  3. High rates of incident and prevalent anal human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Feng, Qinghua; Popov, Viorica; Koutsky, Laura A; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-02-01

    There are few published estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We estimated incidence and prevalence of type-specific anal HPV infection using clinician-collected anal swabs for HPV DNA testing obtained during a 1-year prospective study of 94 YMSM (mean age, 21 years) in Seattle. Seventy percent of YMSM had any HPV infection detected during the study, and HPV-16 and/or -18 were detected in 37%. The incidence rate for any new HPV infection was 38.5 per 1000 person-months and 15.3 per 1000 person-months for HPV-16/18; 19% had persistent HPV-16/18 infection. No participant tested positive for all 4 HPV types in the quadrivalent vaccine. The number of lifetime male receptive anal sex partners was significantly associated with HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 was 6% among YMSM with a history of 1 receptive anal sex partner and 31% among YMSM with ≥ 2 partners. Although the high prevalence of HPV among YMSM highlights the desirability of vaccinating all boys as a strategy to avert the morbidity of HPV infection, most YMSM appear to remain naive to either HPV-16 or -18 well into their sexual lives and would benefit from HPV immunization.

  4. HIV incidence and risk factors in Chinese young men who have sex with men--a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxin Dong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess HIV incidence and its associated risk factors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM in urban areas, China. DESIGN: The study used a prospective cohort study design and standard diagnostic tests. METHODS: A twelve-month prospective cohort study was conducted among YMSM (18-25 years old in 8 large cities in China. The participants were recruited via snowball sampling. A total of 1102 HIV-negative YMSM completed baseline assessment, 878 YMSM participants completed 6-month follow-up, and 902 completed 12-month follow-up. HIV was screened by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed with Western Blot. Syphilis was screened via rapid plasma reagent and confirmed by treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: 78 HIV seroconversions were identified within 1168.4 person-year observations yielding an incidence rate of 6.7 per 100 person-years. HIV seroconversion was associated with non-student status (RR = 2.61, 90% CI = 1.3-5.26, low HIV transmission knowledge (RR = 8.87, 90% CI = 2.16-36.43, and syphilis infection (RR = 5.04, 90% CI = 2.57-9.90. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of HIV among YMSM is high in urban areas of China. Interventions measures are required to contain the HIV epidemic within this population.

  5. Sexual Health Research With Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Experiences of Benefits and Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Morgan, Anthony; Oidtman, Jessica; Dao, Ann; Moon, Margaret; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Ott, Mary A

    2017-05-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are often underrepresented in sexual health research because of concerns about safety, privacy, and the potential for research harms. Empirical data are needed to understand YBMSM experience of participating in research, benefits and harms (discomfort), to inform policy and regulatory decisions. Using qualitative methods, this article examines 50 YBMSM, aged 15-19 years, experiences of benefits/harms, challenges of participating in sexual health research, and contextual factors impacting research experiences. Participants were asked about benefits and harms experienced in answering questions about sexual orientation, first same-sex attraction, and same-sex sexual experiences after completing an in-depth interview. Interviews were transcribed and coded. Inductive open coding was used to identify themes within and between interviews. Participants were able to describe perceived direct benefits resulting from research interview participation, including awareness of risky sexual behaviors, a safe space to share early coming out stories and same-sex sexual experiences, and a sense of empowerment and comfort with one's sexual orientation. Indirect benefits described by participants included perceptions of helping others and the larger gay community. Few participants described harms (discomfort recalling experiences). Our data suggest that participating in qualitative sexual health research focused on sexual orientation, sexual attraction, and early same-sex sexual experiences may result in minimal harms for YBMSM and multiple benefits, including feeling more comfortable than in a general medical visit.

  6. Multiple Dimensions of Stigma and Health Related Factors Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Voisin, Dexter R.; Bouris, Alida; Jaffe, Kate; Kuhns, Lisa; Eavou, Rebecca; Schneider, John

    2016-01-01

    This study is among the first to examine the association between multiple domains of HIV-related stigma and health-related correlates including viral load and medication adherence among young Black men who have sex with men (N = 92). Individual logistic regressions were done to examine the hypothesized relationships between HIV-related stigma and various health and psychosocial outcomes. In addition to examining total stigma, we also examined four domains of HIV stigma. Findings revealed the various domains of stigma had differential effects on health-related outcomes. Individuals who reported higher levels of total stigma and personalized stigma were less likely to be virally suppressed (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.91–1.00 and OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.25–1.02, respectively). Concerns about public attitudes toward HIV were positively related to medication adherence (OR 2.18, 95 % CI 1.20–3.94) and psychological distress (OR 5.02, 95 % CI 1.54–16.34). The various domains of HIV stigma differentially affected health and psychosocial outcomes, and our findings suggest that some forms of HIV stigma may significantly affect viral load and medication adherence among this population. Stigma-informed approaches to care and treatment are needed, along with incorporated psychological and social supports. PMID:27233249

  7. Using peer ethnography to address health disparities among young urban Black and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Matt G; McKay, Tara; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K

    2013-05-01

    We examined the effectiveness of peer ethnography to gain insider views on substance use and sex among a diverse range of high-risk substance-using Black and Latino young men who have sex with men. We recruited 9 peer ethnographers aged 21 to 24 years from youth programs for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community in Los Angeles, California, and trained them in ethnography, study protocol, and human participant protection. Peer ethnographers collected 137 single-spaced pages of field notes in 2009 and 2010 derived from observation of 150 members of the target population. Peer ethnography revealed local language and phrasing and provided a window into new and different social contexts. Peers provided valuable information on current trends in substance use, revealing themes that needed to be addressed in further research, such as the use of substances during sex to "clock coin" (exchange sex for money and substances). These data enabled us to refine our recruitment strategies and ask more culturally relevant questions in a later phase of the study. The peer ethnography method can provide a sound basis for further research phases in multistage studies on numerous other social issues and with other hard-to-reach populations.

  8. Parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication about sex, and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M

    2014-08-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group.

  9. Motivational Interviewing Targeting Risky Sex in HIV-Positive Young Thai Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongkavilit, Chokechai; Wang, Bo; Naar-King, Sylvie; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Panthong, Apirudee; Koken, Juline A.; Saengcharnchai, Pichai; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to reduce sexual risks among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HMSM) in the U.S. We conducted a randomized trial of Healthy Choices, a 4-session MI intervention, targeting sexual risks among 110 HIV-positive youth ages 16–25 years in Thailand. Risk assessments were conducted at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months post-intervention. This report presents the analysis of 74 HMSM in the study. There were 37 HMSM in the Intervention group and 37 in the control group. The proportions of participants having anal sex and having sex with either HIV-uninfected or unknown partners in past 30 days were significantly lower in Intervention group than in control group at 6 months post-intervention (38% vs. 65%, p = .04; and 27% vs. 62%, p Thai HMSM was associated with sexual risk reduction. Improvements in mental health and HIV stigma were noted in Intervention group. Healthy Choices is a promising behavioral intervention and should be further developed to serve the needs of young HMSM in resource-limited countries. PMID:24668304

  10. Exploring Patterns of Awareness and Use of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Benjamin B; Greene, George J; Phillips, Gregory; Bhatia, Ramona; Madkins, Krystal; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown promise as a safe and effective HIV prevention strategy, but there is limited research on awareness and use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using baseline data from the "Keep It Up! 2.0" randomized control trial, we examined differences in PrEP awareness and use among racially diverse YMSM (N = 759; mean age = 24.2 years). Participants were recruited from study sites in Atlanta, Chicago, and New York City, as well as through national advertising on social media applications. While 67.5 % of participants reported awareness of PrEP, 8.7 % indicated using the medication. Awareness, but not use, varied by demographic variables. PrEP-users had twice as many condomless anal sex partners (ERR = 2.05) and more condomless anal sex acts (ERR = 1.60) than non-users. Future research should aim to improve PrEP awareness and uptake among YMSM and address condom use.

  11. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation).

  12. Genital Responses to Rape Vignettes Among Young Men: The Influence of Mood and Directed Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumière, Martin L; Fairweather, Annabree; Harris, Grant T; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Seto, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Although it is clear that men with a history of sexual assaults against women produce higher relative genital responses to rape vignettes in the laboratory than do men without such a history, it remains unclear what aspects of the vignettes are eliciting these responses, and whether the genital responses are affected by situational factors. The antisocial tendencies hypothesis states that many men are inhibited by cues of violence, suffering, and coercion in rape vignettes, but other men, particularly antisocial and sexually aggressive men, are not so inhibited. In this study, we investigated whether the hypothesized inhibition to rape vignettes among nonoffenders could be affected by manipulation of mood and directed attention. A total of 48 young men were exposed to audio-recorded vignettes describing mutually consenting and nonviolent sexual interactions, mutually consenting and violent sexual interactions, nonconsenting and violent sexual interactions, and nonsexual and nonviolent social interactions (within-subjects). Participants were randomly assigned to a mood manipulation designed to induce a happy, neutral, or sad mood (between-subjects). All were asked to pay attention to either sex words or violent words while listening to the vignettes (within-subjects). As is typically observed, genital responses were lower (inhibited) when vignettes included cues of violence or nonconsent. Both happy and sad mood inductions reduced this inhibition, so that men induced into a happy or sad mood showed greater relative responding to cues of violence or nonconsent compared with men in a neutral mood. The attention manipulation had no significant effect. Results suggest that genital responses to rape cues can be situationally influenced, but not necessarily as predicted by the antisocial tendencies hypothesis.

  13. A nutrition intervention with a main focus on vegetables and bread consumption among young men in the Norwegian National Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglem, Solveig; Stea, Tonje Holte; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Frølich, Wenche; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Young men are difficult to reach with conventional nutrition information and they have a low intake of vegetables and whole grain cereals. Few intervention studies have focused on improving young men's consumption of vegetables and whole grains. A 5-month intervention focusing on a combination of increased availability of healthy foods and nutritional information was developed to stimulate the intake of vegetables and semi-whole grain bread among a group of young men in the Norwegian military. A total of 376 recruits in the intervention group and 105 recruits in the control group participated in the entire study. The average daily increase in consumption of vegetables was 82 g (pbread 47 g (pbread, when controlling for baseline values, and seasonal variation for vegetables. The recruits in the intervention group received higher scores on the questions concerning nutritional knowledge after the intervention, compared to baseline (pbread, without a reduction in food satisfaction, among young men in the military.

  14. A nutrition intervention with a main focus on vegetables and bread consumption among young men in the Norwegian National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglem, Solveig; Stea, Tonje Holte; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Frølich, Wenche; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Background Young men are difficult to reach with conventional nutrition information and they have a low intake of vegetables and whole grain cereals. Few intervention studies have focused on improving young men's consumption of vegetables and whole grains. Objective A 5-month intervention focusing on a combination of increased availability of healthy foods and nutritional information was developed to stimulate the intake of vegetables and semi-whole grain bread among a group of young men in the Norwegian military. Subjects A total of 376 recruits in the intervention group and 105 recruits in the control group participated in the entire study. Results The average daily increase in consumption of vegetables was 82 g (pfood satisfaction after the intervention. Conclusion The combination of increased availability of healthy food items and nutrition information was an effective way to increase the intake of vegetables and semi-whole grain bread, without a reduction in food satisfaction, among young men in the military. PMID:24155686

  15. New arrivals to New York City: vulnerability to HIV among urban migrant young gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrak, Paul; Ponce, Rafael; Zielony, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study explored the social experiences and HIV-related sexual practices of 30 young gay and bisexual men who moved to New York City in the past 3 years from other countries or elsewhere in the United States. For many migrants, a key basis of vulnerability to HIV was their engagement with New York City's unfamiliar sexual culture. Many recent arrivals migrated from places with small gay communities and low HIV prevalence, and some came with a practice of limited condom use. Participants described encountering an abundance of sexual opportunity in New York City, accessible to even the newest arrivals through internet sex sites. Some migrants expressed surprise that few men they met were interested in dating or establishing trust before having sex. Although frequent HIV testing was common, HIV status, testing history, and condom use were seldom discussed with sex partners for some men even with new partners or before sex without condoms. International and in-country migrants who are beginning to navigate New York City's gay sexual culture may be more vulnerable to HIV infection than established residents if they are inexperienced in encountering vast sexual opportunity, are less practiced in local norms of sexual communication, or if their lack of economic resources or social connections encourages them to have sex for money or shelter. This article suggests HIV prevention interventions for urban migrants and other men who have sex with men.

  16. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  17. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Results Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PFacebook is a feasible and efficient strategy for the recruitment of men from across Australia for HPV testing. This method could be used for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination. Additional targeting may achieve a sample that is broadly demographically representative of the Australian population. Future research should explore how the

  18. Communication and interpretation of emotional distress within the friendships of young Irish men prior to suicide: a qualitative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Lorna

    2014-10-16

    The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men\\'s psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men\\'s narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009\\/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants\\' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend\\'s inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk.

  19. Condom Use Errors and Problems: A Comparative Study of HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Mena, Leandro; Yarber, William L; Graham, Cynthia A; Sanders, Stephanie A; Milhausen, Robin R

    2015-11-01

    To describe self-reported frequencies of selected condom use errors and problems among young (age, 15-29 years) black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and to compare the observed prevalence of these errors/problems by HIV serostatus. Between September 2012 October 2014, electronic interview data were collected from 369 YBMSM attending a federally supported sexually transmitted infection clinic located in the southern United States. Seventeen condom use errors and problems were assessed. χ(2) Tests were used to detect significant differences in the prevalence of these 17 errors and problems between HIV-negative and HIV-positive men. The recall period was the past 90 days. The overall mean (SD) number of errors/problems was 2.98 (2.29). The mean (SD) for HIV-negative men was 2.91 (2.15), and the mean (SD) for HIV-positive men was 3.18 (2.57). These means were not significantly different (t = 1.02, df = 367, P = 0.31). Only 2 significant differences were observed between HIV-negative and HIV-positive men. Breakage (P = 0.002) and slippage (P = 0.005) were about twice as likely among HIV-positive men. Breakage occurred for nearly 30% of the HIV-positive men compared with approximately 15% among HIV-negative men. Slippage occurred for approximately 16% of the HIV-positive men compared with approximately 9% among HIV-negative men. A need exists to help YBMSM acquire the skills needed to avert breakage and slippage issues that could lead to HIV transmission. Beyond these 2 exceptions, condom use errors and problems were ubiquitous in this population regardless of HIV serostatus. Clinic-based intervention is warranted for these young men, including education about correct condom use and provision of free condoms and long-lasting lubricants.

  20. THE INDIVIDUAL AND TYPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC AND FEATURES OF THE LATERAL PHENOTYPE AT YOUNG MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Степанович Пуликов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the state of the physical development of the autonomic regulation of the functions and adaptive capacity in relation to the characteristics of the distribution of the lateral phenotype in boys.Methodology: The study on a voluntary basis with the informed consent of 124 apparently healthy young student branch of State Educational Institution of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University V.P. Astafieva in Zheleznogorsk.Anthropometric measurements were carried out by a well-known and accepted techniques that meet modern requirements.Definition of motor and sensory asymmetries person evaluated by the method proposed by N.N. Bragin (1988.Results: In boys, living in the influence of the MCC to the impact of «small and ultra-low doses» of radiation in more than half of the cases, pravolateralny phenotype, regardless of their physical constitution with the highest rate in andromorfnogo type on SDI and voltage adaptation mechanisms, prevalence figures sympathetic tone autonomic regulation. Poor adaptation was observed only in young men with levolateralnym and mixed phenotype. Youth with levolateralnym phenotype were the smallest in size cohort (7,5-12,5%. However, among them there is a tendency to predominance boys and ginekomorfnogo endomorph body types, with poor adaptation, stress adaptation mechanisms and parasympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation. The young men of mixed lateral phenotype was weak distinction constitutional type body, with a predominance of one to ginekomorfnogo and mesomorphic body types on SDI. In the same group, a fairly wide variation between satisfactory and unsatisfactory adaptation and stress coping mechanisms with the same measure of the number of young men from the parasympathetic and sympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation.Practical implications: medicine, psychology, developmental physiology, anthropology, neuroscience.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-14

  1. Effects of immobilization and aerobic training on proteins related to intramuscular substrate storage and metabolism in young and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Prats, Clara; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2016-03-01

    Aging and inactivity lead to skeletal muscle metabolic inflexibility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated how muscle lipid and glycogen stores and major regulatory proteins were affected by short-term immobilization followed by aerobic training in young and older men. 17 young (23 ± 1 years, 24 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 20 ± 2% body fat) and 15 older men (68 ± 1 years; 27 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 29 ± 2% body fat) underwent 2 weeks' one leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks' cycle training. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis just before immobilization (at inclusion), after immobilization, and the after 6 weeks' training. The biopsies were analyzed for muscle substrates; muscle perilipin protein (PLIN), glycogen synthase (GS), synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) protein content, and muscle 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity The older men had higher intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) (73 %) and Glycogen (16%) levels compared to the young men, and IMTG tended to increase with immobilization. PLIN2 and 3 protein content increased with immobilization in the older men only. The young men had higher GS (74%) protein compared to the older men. Immobilization decreased and training restored HAD activity, GS and SNAP23 protein content in young and older men. Evidence of age-related metabolic inflexibility is presented, seen as body fat and IMTG accumulation. The question arises as to whether IMTG accumulation in the older men is caused by or leading to the increase in PLIN2 and 3 protein content. Training decreased body fat and IMTG levels in both young and older men; hence, training should be prioritized to reduce the detrimental effect of aging on metabolism.

  2. Cardiovascular reactivity to video game predicts subsequent blood pressure increases in young men: The CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitz, J H; Raczynski, J M; Wallace, D; Chettur, V; Chesney, M A

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between heightened reactivity of blood pressure (BP) during stress and 5-year changes in blood pressure and hypertensive status, using the CARDIA study. A total of 3364 participants (910 white men, 909 white women, 678 black men, and 867 black women), initially 20 to 32 years old and normotensive, were included. Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stressors (video game and star-tracing tasks for 3 minutes, cold pressor test for 1 minute) was measured in 1987-1988. We then examined reactivity as a predictor of significant BP change (> or = 8 mm Hg, thought to represent a clinically significant increase) over the next 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to control for potential covariates. Significant BP change and the development of hypertension (BP greater than 140/90 or taking medication for hypertension) over the 5-year follow-up were examined in separate analyses. Increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity to the video game was associated with a significant 5-year SBP increase among the entire cohort, independent of resting SBP (p men but not for women. Reactivity to the star-tracing task or the cold pressor test did not predict significant BP change. Among black men only, new hypertensives (N = 36) had greater diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity to the video game (p = .01). Although BP reactivity to all physical and mental stressors used in this study did not consistently predict 5-year change in BP in this young cohort, the results indicate that reactivity to a video game stressor predicts 5-year change in BP and early hypertension among young adult men. These findings are consistent with other studies showing the usefulness of stressors producing a primarily beta-adrenergic response in predicting BP change and hypertension. The results may be limited by the shortened initial rest and recovery periods used in the CARDIA protocol.

  3. Sexting: young women's and men's views on its nature and origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2013-06-01

    This study addresses a gap in evidence regarding the nature and origins of the phenomenon of sexting from the perspective of young people. A qualitative methodology was used, involving individual semistructured interviews with 33 young people aged 15-20 years. Participants were sourced via youth health, recreational, and educational settings using purposive snowball sampling. Results were organized using NVivo, and themes were generated. Interviews with 15 males and 18 females exposed a number of themes, including the gendered nature of sexting, which is the focus of this article. Of particular concern is the theme of pressure experienced by both young women and young men to be involved in the behavior. Findings highlight important implications for the design of strategies to prevent the potential harmful consequences of sexting. For prevention approaches to be effective, they must consider the underlying origins of the behavior and the online sociocultural context within which young people live. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. If you build it will they come? Addressing social isolation within a technology-based HIV intervention for young black men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Pike, Emily C.; Baltierra, Nina; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of HIV infections among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) continues to rise at an alarming pace. YBMSM are particularly vulnerable to social isolation and a lack of social support due to experiences with racism and homophobia, which may have implications for sexual risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of social isolation and sense of community among YBMSM, the need for and receptivity to social networking features designed to reduce social ...

  5. Comparisons in the Recovery Response From Resistance Exercise Between Young and Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joseph A; Hoffman, Jay R; Arroyo, Eliott; Varanoske, Alyssa N; Coker, Nicholas A; Gepner, Yftach; Wells, Adam J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H

    2017-12-01

    Gordon, JA III, Hoffman, JR, Arroyo, E, Varanoske, AN, Coker, NA, Gepner, Y, Wells, AJ, Stout, JR, and Fukuda, DH. Comparisons in the recovery response from resistance exercise between young and middle-aged men. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3454-3462, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a bout of high-volume isokinetic resistance exercise protocol (HVP) on lower-body strength and markers of inflammation and muscle damage during recovery between young and middle-aged adult men. Nineteen recreationally trained men were classified as either a young adult (YA: 21.8 ± 2.0 years; 90.7 ± 11.6 kg) or a middle-aged adult (MA: 47.0 ± 4.4 years; 96.0 ± 21.5 kg) group. The HVP consisted of 8 sets of 10 repetitions, with 1 minute of rest between each set, performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°·s. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions and isokinetic peak torque (PKT) and average torque (AVGT) (measured at 240° and 60°·s, respectively) were assessed at baseline (BL), immediately post (IP), 120 minutes, 24, and 48 hours after HVP. Blood was obtained at BL, IP, 30, 60, 120 minute, 24, and 48 hours after HVP to assess muscle damage and inflammation. All performance data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of covariance, whereas all inflammatory and muscle damage markers were analyzed using a 2-way (time × group) repeated measures analysis of variance. Results revealed no between-group differences for PKT, AVGT, or rate of torque development at 200 ms (RTD200). No between-group differences in myoglobin, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6 were observed. Although BL differences in muscle performance were observed between YA and MA, no between-group differences were noted in performance recovery measures from high-volume isokinetic exercise in recreationally trained men. These results also indicate that the inflammatory and muscle damage response from high-volume isokinetic exercise is similar between

  6. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Boydell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18–29 in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men’s accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: ‘habitual’, ‘reactive’ and ‘ ad hoc’. Results This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and ‘community’ in shaping young men’s approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and ‘community’ responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with ‘transitional moments’ such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase

  7. As fathers and felons: explaining the effects of current and recent incarceration on major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher; Schnittker, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic increases in the American imprisonment rate since the mid-1970s have important implications for the life chances of minority men with low educational attainment, including for their health. Although a large literature has considered the collateral consequences of incarceration for a variety of outcomes, studies concerned with health have several limitations: Most focus exclusively on physical health; those concerned with mental health only consider current incarceration or previous incarceration, but never both; some are cross-sectional; many fail to consider mechanisms; and virtually all neglect the role of family processes, thereby overlooking the social roles current and former prisoners inhabit. In this article, we use stress process theory to extend this research by first considering the association between incarceration and major depression and then considering potential mechanisms that explain this association. Results from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,107) show current and recent incarceration are substantially associated with the risk of major depression, suggesting both immediate and short-term implications. In addition, consistent with stress proliferation theory, the results show the well-known consequences of incarceration for socioeconomic status and family functioning partly explain these associations, suggesting the link between incarceration and depression depends heavily on the consequences of incarceration for economic and social reintegration, not only the direct psychological consequences of confinement.

  8. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  9. Applying an Occupational Classification to a National Representative Sample of Work Histories of Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others

    Holland's occupational classification was used to analyze the work histories of a national representative sample of young men and women age 14-24. This study extended previous tests of the classification in three ways: (1) It was applied for the first time to a national, representative sample of women, (2) For the sample of men, 3-year…

  10. "Dulling the Edges": Young Men's Use of Alcohol to Deal With Grief Following the Death of a Male Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John; Matthews, Jennifer; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The death of a male friend can be challenging for men because expressions of grief can be governed and restrained by dominant ideals of masculinity. It is common for young men to engage in health risk practices, such as alcohol overuse, to deal with feelings of sadness. Objective: This qualitative study investigated the ways that young…

  11. Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Men Historically, men have not been comfortable discussing issues about their health, particularly conditions like diabetes, depression or sexual dysfunction. This has resulted in shorter ...

  12. Evidence of social network influence on multiple HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs among young Tanzanian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Hill, Lauren M; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Research on network-level influences on HIV risk behaviors among young men in sub-Saharan Africa is severely lacking. One significant gap in the literature that may provide direction for future research with this population is understanding the degree to which various HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs cluster within men's social networks. Such research may help us understand which HIV-related norms and behaviors have the greatest potential to be changed through social influence. Additionally, few network-based studies have described the structure of social networks of young men in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the structure of men's peer networks may motivate future research examining the ways in which network structures shape the spread of information, adoption of norms, and diffusion of behaviors. We contribute to filling these gaps by using social network analysis and multilevel modeling to describe a unique dataset of mostly young men (n = 1249 men and 242 women) nested within 59 urban social networks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the means, ranges, and clustering of men's HIV-related normative beliefs and behaviors. Networks in this urban setting varied substantially in both composition and structure and a large proportion of men engaged in risky behaviors including inconsistent condom use, sexual partner concurrency, and intimate partner violence perpetration. We found significant clustering of normative beliefs and risk behaviors within these men's social networks. Specifically, network membership explained between 5.78 and 7.17% of variance in men's normative beliefs and between 1.93 and 15.79% of variance in risk behaviors. Our results suggest that social networks are important socialization sites for young men and may influence the adoption of norms and behaviors. We conclude by calling for more research on men's social networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and map out several areas of future inquiry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Individual, Psychosocial, and Social Correlates of Unprotected Anal Intercourse in a New Generation of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Farzana; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Moeller, Robert W.; Figueroa, Rafael Perez; Barton, Staci C.; Blachman-Forshay, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of individual, psychosocial, and social factors with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among young men who have sex with men in New York City. Methods. Using baseline assessment data from 592 young men who have sex with men participating in an ongoing prospective cohort study, we conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between covariates and likelihood of recently engaging in UAI with same-sex partners. Results. Nineteen percent reported recent UAI with a same-sex partner. In multivariable models, being in a current relationship with another man (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.87), an arrest history (AOR = 2.01), greater residential instability (AOR = 1.75), and unstable housing or homelessness (AOR = 3.10) was associated with recent UAI. Although high levels of gay community affinity and low internalized homophobia were associated with engaging in UAI in bivariate analyses, these associations did not persist in multivariable analyses. Conclusions. Associations of psychosocial and socially produced conditions with UAI among a new generation of young men who have sex with men warrant that HIV prevention programs and policies address structural factors that predispose sexual risk behaviors. PMID:23488487

  14. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City ( n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.

  15. DIGITAL MEDIA AS CLASSIFIED AND CLASSIFYING: THE CASE OF YOUNG MEN IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Danielsson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital media [1] are widely talked about as a democratising force. As internet access proliferates, it is implied, structural constraints will dissolve and bring greater equality - if not instantly, but gradually as today's youth, the digital generation, come of age and agents of the old, non-digital order pass away. Thus, the alleged boundlessness of digital media is thought of as somehow having unbound young people from the larger social structure of power relations. Drawing on the ideas of Pierre Bourdieu, the present article examines the significance of social class for the ways in which young Swedish men perceive, interpret and make use of digital media in their everyday lives. The results suggest that class, through the workings of habitus, shapes the young men's approaches to education, leisure and the future, which, in turn, tend to generate divergent readings of digital media. Those who are privileged in terms of cultural and economic capital think and make use of digital media in compliance with the perceived moral order of digital goods and practices as instituted and imposed by the educational system, for example, whereas those disprivileged in this respect, although recognising the dominant scheme of classification and valuation of such goods and practices, tend to use them in ways that are at odds with it, thereby contributing to the workings of symbolic violence, i.e. to their own subordination.

  16. Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population.

  17. Sex Behaviors as Social Cues Motivating Social Venue Patronage Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Michaels, Stuart; Jonas, Adam; Khanna, Aditya S; Skaathun, Britt; Morgan, Ethan; Schneider, John A

    2017-10-01

    HIV prevention programs often focus on the physical social venues where men who have sex with men (MSM) frequent as sites where sex behaviors are assumed to be practiced and risk is conferred. But, how exactly these behaviors influence venue patronage is not well understood. In this study, we present a two-mode network analysis that determines the extent that three types of sex behaviors-condomless sex, sex-drug use, and group sex-influence the patronage of different types of social venues among a population sample of young Black MSM (YBMSM) (N = 623). A network analytic technique called exponential random graph modeling was used in a proof of concept analysis to verify how each sex behavior increases the likelihood of a venue patronage tie when estimated as either: (1) an attribute of an individual only and/or (2) a shared attribute between an individual and his peers. Findings reveal that sex behaviors, when modeled only as attributes possessed by focal individuals, were no more or less likely to affect choices to visit social venues. However, when the sex behaviors of peers were also taken into consideration, we learn that individuals were statistically more likely in all three behavioral conditions to go places that attracted other MSM who practiced the same behaviors. This demonstrates that social venues can function as intermediary contexts in which relationships can form between individuals that have greater risk potential given the venues attraction to people who share the same risk tendencies. As such, structuring interventions around these settings can be an effective way to capture the attention of YBMSM and engage them in HIV prevention.

  18. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  19. Urban Preparation: Young Black Men Moving from Chicago's South Side to Success in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Chezare A.

    2017-01-01

    Chezare A. Warren chronicles the transition of a cohort of young Black males from Urban Prep Charter Academy for Young Men to their early experiences in higher education. A rich and closely observed account of a mission-driven school and its students, "Urban Preparation" makes a significant contribution to our understanding of how young…

  20. "Gay Boy Talk" Meets "Girl Talk": HIV Risk Assessment Assumptions in Young Gay Men's Sexual Health Communication with Best Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…

  1. Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...... caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and 14 0.5-L bottles....../week) and/or caffeine (>800 mg/day) intake was associated with reduced sperm concentration and total sperm count, although only significant for cola. High-intake cola drinkers had an adjusted sperm concentration and total sperm count of 40 mill/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 32, 51) and 121 mill (95% CI...

  2. Size Matters Stature Is Related to Diagnoses of Depression in Young Military Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Krupnik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theories suggest that depression has evolved as an adaptation to insurmountable adversity or defeat. One prediction stemming from these models is that individual attributes associated with defeat in a given social environment could be risk factors for depression. We hypothesized that in young military men, where physical prowess was important, short stature might constitute a risk of depression and that this risk would be specific to depression and not to other prevalent mental disorders such as anxiety. A preliminary analysis of the diagnostic profile of a sample of male military personnel treated for mental health indicates that men both shorter and taller than average by 1 standard deviation may be predisposed to higher rates of depressive but not anxiety disorders. Practical and theoretical implications of our findings are discussed.

  3. Unrequited Love among Young Filipino Gay Men: Subjective Experiences of Unreciprocated Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Julian Manalastas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory study, I investigated lived experiences of unrequited love among young Filipino gay men in order to explore unrequited love beyond its heteronormative forms. Analysis of qualitative accounts from 11 out gay men who participated in focus groups indicated that unrequited love was a highly meaningful subjective experience involving a spectrum of negative affect, uncertainty, and self-esteem lowering. Non-reciprocity was often attributed to a lack of matching on dimensions like availability, sexual orientation, relationship goals, and personality. Non-homophobic social support was important in the reduction of uncertainty and management of distress, in addition to other strategies for coping with rejection and non-formation of the desired love relationship.

  4. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, Tina Kold; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    concentration was 41 x 10(6)/ml (mean 57.4 x 10(6)/ml). Men with ejaculation abstinence above 48 h had slightly higher sperm concentrations (median 45 x10(6)/ml, mean 63.2 x 10(6)/ml), but even in this subgroup, 21 and 43% respectively had sperm counts below 20 x 10(6)/ml and 40 x 10(6)/ml. Among men...... with no history of reproductive diseases and a period of abstinence above 48 h, as many as 18 and 40% respectively had concentrations below 20 and 40 x 10(6)/ml. Sperm counts were positively correlated with testis size, percentage normal spermatozoa and inhibin B, and negatively correlated with percentage...... for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm...

  5. Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men’s lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men’s health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20–30 years from three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian). Thematic analysis approach was used to extract data. NVIVO v8 qualitative software was used for data management. Results From the data collected several concepts emerged that reflected the meanings of masculinity from the participants’ view points. These meanings were associated with a combination of traditional and non-traditional norms that generally benefit men who behave according to culturally dominant role expectations. These included: “Having a good body shape”, “being respected”, “having success with women”, “being a family man”, and “having financial independence”. Socio-cultural factors, such as family environment, religion, public media and popular life style patterns helped to shape and reinforce the meanings of masculinities among university men. Conclusions This study revealed that the university context provided a particular culture for construction and reinforcement of the meanings of masculinities, which should be considered by the educators to help in development of healthy masculinities. PMID:24215138

  6. Phthalate exposure and reproductive parameters in young men from the general Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    In animals, exposure to certain phthalates negatively affects the male reproductive function. Human results are conflicting and mostly based on subfertile males, in whom the association between exposure and reproductive function may differ from the general population. To study if levels of phthalate metabolites were associated with semen quality and reproductive hormones in general Swedish men. We recruited 314 young men delivering semen, urine and blood samples at the same visit. We analyzed reproductive hormones and several semen parameters including progressive motility and high DNA stainability (HDS)-a marker for sperm immaturity. In urine, we analyzed metabolites of phthalates, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). We studied associations between urinary levels of the metabolites and seminal as well as serum reproductive parameters, accounting for potential confounders. DEHP metabolite levels, particularly urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), were negatively associated with progressive sperm motility, which was 11 (95% CI: 5.0-17) percentage points lower in the highest quartile of MECPP than in the lowest. Further, men in the highest quartile of the DEHP metabolite monoethylhexyl phthalate had 27% (95% CI: 5.5%-53%) higher HDS than men in the lowest quartile. DEHP metabolite levels seemed negatively associated with sperm motility and maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [THE CORRECTION WITH NOOPHEN OF AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION IN YOUNG MEN WITH HYPERTENSION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazkova, I I; Kuzminova, N V; Osovskaya, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of antihypertensive therapy with adding of gamma-amino-beta-phenylbutyric acid hydrochloride on the autonornic regulation of tcardiovascular system and the psychoemotional status in young men with hypertension. The study included 58 male with hypertension, aged 18-39 years (mean age 31.7 yearst 2.3 years), of them 28 patients (group I) administered beta-blocker and the other received a complex therapy which included beta-blocker and gamma-amino-beta-phenylbutyric acid hydrochiotide--Noofen ("OlainFarm", Latvia) 250 mg 3 times a day for 4 weeks. The control group consisted of 20 healthy indi&iduals aged 18-39 years (mean age 31.5 years +/- 2.5 years). The examination included of standard clinical; biochemical and instrumental investigatIons. We conducted a clinical measurement of blorid pressure, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), Doppler echocardiography, heart rate variability, autononlic symptoms questionnaire and Spielberger--Hanina Anxiety Scale. Analysis of circadian blbod pressure profile arid autonomic nervous system state in young men with hypertension, in spite of the short disenle history demonstratnl violations of the blood pressure circadian rhythm associated with the violation of the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system as indreased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic activity heart tate. In hypertensive patients with autonomic dysfunction we noted a reduction of level of mental health, which was reflected in an increase in'the number of people with high and moderate levels of reactive and personal anxiety It has been demonstratedthat the use of combination therapy with adding Noofen in young hypertensive men and autonomic dysfunction helped significantly improve the HRV parameters and restore autonomic balance on time parameters of heart rate variability reduced the level of reactive anxiety and imprdved the psychoemotional state.

  8. Duration of cognitive dysfunction after concussion, and cognitive dysfunction as a risk factor: a population study of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A

    1997-01-01

    : Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1220 young men who had been admitted to hospital for concussion between the ages of 16 and 24 (identified in a national register of admissions) and who had also been cognitively tested by the Danish conscription draft board. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Score on the draft board's cognitive......, the rate of dysfunctional scores was higher (30.4% (158/520)). Apart from suggesting cognitive dysfunction as a risk factor for concussion, this higher proportion seems to relate to the fact that they were typically injured as young adults, whereas those men who were tested after concussion had more often......, more so for young adults than for adolescents....

  9. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  10. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes...... of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake...

  12. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    (HI), 40 mU/m(2) x min], 3-(3)H-glucose, indirect calorimetry, and iv glucose tolerance test. Free fatty acid concentrations were similar during basal steady state but 3.7- to 13-fold higher during clamps. P-glucagon increased and the insulin/glucagon ratio decreased at both LI and HI during...... not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes....

  13. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hagman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD, as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age-matched men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35 aged 65–80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35 aged 18–30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35 and young (UY, n = 35 men. All participants underwent a regional dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1, procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP, and sclerostin were measured. Results: FTE had 7.3%–12.9% higher (p < 0.05 BMD of the femoral neck, wards, shaft, and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UE, and 9.3%–9.7% higher (p < 0.05 BMD in femoral trochanter in both legs compared to UY. FTY had 24.3%–37.4% higher (p < 0.001 BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p < 0.05 leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p < 0.001 whole-body BMD and 18.2% higher (p < 0.001 leg BMD compared to UY. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin, CTX-1, and P1NP were 29%, 53%, and 52% higher (p < 0.01, respectively, in FTY compared to UY. Conclusion: BMD of the proximal femur and whole-body BMD are markedly higher in lifelong trained male football players aged 65–80 years and young elite football players aged 18–30 years compared to age-matched untrained men. Elderly football

  14. Effects of immobilization and aerobic training on proteins related to intramuscular substrate storage and metabolism in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    by aerobic training in young and older men. METHODS: 17 young (23 ± 1 years, 24 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 20 ± 2% body fat) and 15 older men (68 ± 1 years; 27 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 29 ± 2% body fat) underwent 2 weeks' one leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks' cycle training. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus...... lateralis just before immobilization (at inclusion), after immobilization, and the after 6 weeks' training. The biopsies were analyzed for muscle substrates; muscle perilipin protein (PLIN), glycogen synthase (GS), synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) protein content, and muscle 3-hydroxyacyl...... GS (74%) protein compared to the older men. Immobilization decreased and training restored HAD activity, GS and SNAP23 protein content in young and older men. CONCLUSION: Evidence of age-related metabolic inflexibility is presented, seen as body fat and IMTG accumulation. The question arises...

  15. From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L; Kogan, Steven M; Kim, Jihyoung

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one's biological (but not social) father predicted increased father involvement in the next generation, and this association was partially mediated through positive relational schema after controlling for a range of covariates. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that the link between relational schema and father involvement was significantly stronger among fathers of girls than fathers of boys. Findings highlight the unique influence of close, nurturing father-child relationships for downstream father involvement, and the role of relational schemas as a mechanism for intergenerational transmission among young, rural, African American fathers of girls. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. Communication and interpretation of emotional distress within the friendships of young Irish men prior to suicide: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lorna; Owens, Christabel; Malone, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men's psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men's narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend's inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  18. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial.We followed 1,147 men aged 15-26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models.The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49, had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01, had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03 and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97. A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97.The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation.

  19. Prospective Study of Rape Perpetration by Young South African Men: Incidence & Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449

  20. Homelessness as viewed by incarcerated women: participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth Elwood; Hanson, Debra; Hemingway, Christine; Ramsden, Vivian; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Condello, Lara-Lisa; Macaulay, Ann; Janssen, Patti; Hislop, T Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, by incarcerated women who were members of a prison participatory health research team, of a survey tool regarding homelessness and housing, the survey findings and recommendations for policy. A survey was developed by incarcerated women in a minimum/medium security women's prison in Canada. Associations were examined between socio-demographic factors and reports of difficulty finding housing upon release, homelessness contributing to a return to crime, and a desire for relocation to another city upon release. Open-ended questions were examined to look for recurrent themes and to illuminate the survey findings. In total, 83 women completed the survey, a 72 per cent response rate. Of the 71 who were previously incarcerated, 56 per cent stated that homelessness contributed to their return to crime. Finding housing upon release was a problem for 63 per cent and 34 per cent desired relocation to another city upon release. Women indicated that a successful housing plan should incorporate flexible progressive staged housing. The present study focuses only on incarcerated women but could be expanded in future to include men. Incarcerated women used the findings to create a housing proposal for prison leavers and created a resource database of the limited housing resources for women prison leavers. Lack of suitable housing is a major factor leading to recidivism. This study highlights the reality of the cycle of homelessness, poverty, crime for survival, street-life leading to drug use and barriers to health, education and employment that incarcerated women face. Housing is a recognized basic determinant of health. No previous studies have used participatory research to address homelessness in a prison population.

  1. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity in young and elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-05-01

    In order to compare the physiological and the subjective responses to low relative humidity of elderly and young men, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, hydration state of the skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum level recovery and skin temperatures as physiological responses. We asked subjects to evaluate thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Eight non-smoking healthy male students (21.7+/-0.8 yr) and eight non-smoking healthy elderly men (71.1+/-4.1 yr) were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test-room conditions were adjusted to provide 25 degrees C Ta and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%. RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland or change of mean skin temperature. SCT of the elderly group under 10% RH was significantly longer than that of the young group. In particular, considering the SCT change, the nasal mucous membrane seems to be affected more in the elderly than in the young in low RH. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain greater than 30% RH, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain greater than 10% RH. On the thermal sensation of the legs, at the lower humidity level, the elderly group felt cooler than the young group. On the dry sensation of the eyes and throat, the young group felt drier than the elderly group at the lower humidity levels. From the above results, the elderly group had difficulty in feeling dryness in the nasal mucous membrane despite being easily affected by low humidity. On the other hand, the young group felt the change of humidity sensitively despite not being severely affected by low humidity. Ocular mucosa and

  2. Relationship processes and resilience in children with incarcerated parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Eddy, J Mark; Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Myers, Barbara J; Mackintosh, Virginia; Kuznetsova, Maria I; Lotze, Geri M; Best, Al M; Ravindran, Neeraja; Loper, Ann Booker; Clarke, Caitlin Novero; McHale, James P; Salman, Selin; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn K; Martinez, Charles R; Burraston, Bert

    2013-06-01

    Children with incarcerated parents are at risk for a variety of problematic outcomes, yet research has rarely examined protective factors or resilience processes that might mitigate such risk in this population. In this volume, we present findings from five new studies that focus on child- or family-level resilience processes in children with parents currently or recently incarcerated in jail or prison. In the first study, empathic responding is examined as a protective factor against aggressive peer relations for 210 elementary school age children of incarcerated parents. The second study further examines socially aggressive behaviors with peers, with a focus on teasing and bullying, in a sample of 61 children of incarcerated mothers. Emotion regulation is examined as a possible protective factor. The third study contrasts children's placement with maternal grandmothers versus other caregivers in a sample of 138 mothers incarcerated in a medium security state prison. The relation between a history of positive attachments between mothers and grandmothers and the current cocaregiving alliance are of particular interest. The fourth study examines coparenting communication in depth on the basis of observations of 13 families with young children whose mothers were recently released from jail. Finally, in the fifth study, the proximal impacts of a parent management training intervention on individual functioning and family relationships are investigated in a diverse sample of 359 imprisoned mothers and fathers. Taken together, these studies further our understanding of resilience processes in children of incarcerated parents and their families and set the groundwork for further research on child development and family resilience within the context of parental involvement in the criminal justice system.

  3. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 ± 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 ± 0.76 and 7.39 ± 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 ± 2 and 122 ± 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 ± 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs

  4. Social inequality and smoking in young Swiss men: intergenerational transmission of cultural capital and health orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Dominik; Hofmann, Karen; Abel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Smoking is related to income and education and contributes to social inequality in morbidity and mortality. Socialisation theories focus on one's family of origin as regards acquisition of norms, attitudes and behaviours. Aim of this study is to assess associations of daily smoking with health orientation and academic track in young Swiss men. Further, to assess associations of health orientation and academic track with family healthy lifestyle, parents' cultural capital, and parents' economic capital. Cross-sectional data were collected during recruitment for compulsory military service in Switzerland during 2010 and 2011. A structural equation model was fitted to a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Swiss men (N = 10,546). Smoking in young adults was negatively associated with academic track and health orientation. Smoking was negatively associated with parents' cultural capital through academic track. Smoking was negatively associated with health orientation which in turn was positively associated with a healthy lifestyle in the family of origin. Results suggest two different mechanisms of intergenerational transmissions: first, the family transmission path of health-related dispositions, and secondly, the structural transmission path of educational inequality.

  5. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  6. Changes in triglyceride levels and risk for coronary heart disease in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Rudich, Assaf; Shochat, Tzippora; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Henkin, Yaakov; Kochba, Ilan; Shai, Iris

    2007-09-18

    Current triglyceride levels might be only a weak predictor of risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). To assess the association between changes over time in fasting triglyceride levels and CHD risk in young adults. Follow-up study over 5.5 years after 2 measurements of fasting triglycerides 5 years apart. The Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israel Defense Forces, Zrifin, Israel. 13,953 apparently healthy, untreated, young men (age 26 to 45 years) with triglyceride levels less than 3.39 mmol/L (<300 mg/dL). Two triglyceride measurements (at enrollment [time 1] and 5 years later [time 2]), lifestyle variables, and incident cases of angiography-proven CHD. Within 5.5 years, 158 new cases of CHD were identified. The multivariate model was adjusted for age; family history; fasting glucose; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; blood pressure; body mass index; and changes between time 1 and time 2 in body mass index, physical activity, smoking status, and habit of eating breakfast. Investigators categorized triglyceride levels according to low, intermediate, and high tertiles (as measured at time 1 and time 2 [expressed as tertile at time 1/tertile at time 2]). The risk for CHD in men with high-tertile triglyceride levels at time 1 changed depending on the tertile at time 2 (hazard ratios, 8.23 [95% CI, 2.50 to 27.13] for high/high, 6.84 [CI, 1.95 to 23.98] for high/intermediate, and 4.90 [CI, 1.01 to 24.55] for high/low, compared with the stable low/low group). The risk for CHD in men with low-tertile levels at time 1 also changed depending on the tertile at time 2 (hazard ratios, 3.81 [CI, 0.96 to 15.31] for low/intermediate and 6.76 [CI, 1.34 to 33.92] for low/high, compared with the stable low/low group). Participants were healthy and had a low incidence rate of CHD. The study was observational. Two triglyceride measurements obtained 5 years apart may assist in assessing CHD risk in young men. A decrease in initially elevated triglyceride levels is associated

  7. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-11-17

    Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PCapital Territory (P=.004), reside in a major city (P<.001), and have completed undergraduate (P<.001) or postgraduate education (P<.001). HYM study participants were less likely to report being a current smoker (P=.03), but were more likely to identify as bisexual or homosexual (294/529, 55.6%, P<.001), than the general population. Using Facebook is a feasible and efficient

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH AND BALANCE IN YOUNG ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McCurdy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help

  9. Dr Google, porn and friend-of-a-friend: where are young men really getting their sexual health information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litras, Amy; Latreille, Sarah; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2015-11-01

    Background Young men are vulnerable when it comes to sexual health. They attend the general practitioner (GP) less often than females and are less likely to be offered testing for sexually transmissible infections. Access to accurate health information and education is a cornerstone of primary prevention, yet we know very little about how, where and why young people obtain information about sexual health. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 male students aged 16-19 years from two Victorian educational institutions for trade skills until data saturation was reached. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The young men were poorly informed about sexual health. Their existing knowledge mainly came from school-based sexual health education, which while valued, was generally poorly recalled and provided only a narrow scope of physiological information. Young men seek sexual health information from various sources including family, the Internet, friends and pornography, with information from the latter three sources perceived as unreliable. GPs were seen as a source of trust-worthy information but were not accessed for this purpose due to embarrassment. Young men preferred the GP to initiate such conversations. A desire for privacy and avoidance of embarrassment heavily influenced young men's preferences and behaviours in relation to sexual health information seeking. The current available sources of sexual health information for young men are failing to meet their needs. Results identify potential improvements to school-based sexual education and online resources, and describe a need for innovative technology-based sources of sexual health education.

  10. "These young chaps think they are just men, too": redistributing masculinity in Kgatleng bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, D N

    2001-07-01

    In the 19th century the BaKgatla polity was a chiefdom with a redistributional economy based on mixed agriculture. Sorghum beer was symbolic not only of the patrilineal core of their descent system and of the ideologies of reciprocity and redistribution, but also of masculinity and patriarchal control. With the establishment of a market economy, an industrial brewery and individual access to income, both beer and the act of drinking have been symbolically reconstructed. The ideology of redistribution was well suited to the support of the BaKgatla gerontocracy via alcohol production and consumption. The limits on production and consumption of beer inherent in the agricultural cycle and the control of young men's access by elders made alcohol an effective symbol of managerial competence from the limited context of household authority to that of the chiefdom as a whole. Today, young men's greater control of cash income has given them access to beer beyond the control of elders. As a result, the contrasting ideology of market exchange and competitive distribution of beer has contributed to the degradation of the power of seniors. After reviewing the historical background, this paper explores those changes. It argues that while the observed infrastructural changes have had a predictable impact on drinking behaviors and the symbolic structure of "seniority/masculinity", constructions of the "masculine community" in BaKgatla bars demonstrate continuity in key areas of mens' identities. If as anthropologists we see obvious discontinuities in behavior and ideology, the BaKgatla build selective bridges to "tradition" which seemingly ground the experience of change in relatively seamless continuity.

  11. Masculine norms about emotionality and social constraints in young and older adult men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabos, Katie; Hoyt, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Beliefs that men should restrict their display of emotions, or restrictive emotionality, might contribute to adjustment to cancer and this might be sensitive to social receptivity to disclosure. The present research examined relationships of restrictive emotionality, social constraints, and psychological distress in young adults with testicular cancer (N = 171; Study 1) and older men with prostate cancer (N = 66; Study 2). Study 1: positive associations were observed for social constraints and restrictive emotionality with depressive symptoms. Social constraints moderated the relationship, such that high restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms in those with high constraints. Study 2: only social constraints (and not restrictive emotionality) was positively associated with depressive symptoms and cancer-related intrusive thoughts. The social constraints × restrictive emotionality interaction approached significance with depressive symptoms, such with high social constraints low restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms compared to those with less constraints. No significant associations were found for intrusive thoughts in either study. Findings demonstrate unique relationships with psychological distress across the lifespan of men with cancer given perception of constraints and adherence to masculine norms about emotionality.

  12. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    001) BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p 0.05) leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p 001) whole-body BMD and 18.2...... men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35) aged 65-80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35) aged 18-30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35) and young (UY, n = 35) men....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  13. Crystal methamphetamine and ecstasy differ in relation to unsafe sex among young gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Arn J; Lampinen, Thomas M; Miller, Mary Lou; Hogg, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    Poly-substance use in gay social ('club') settings is common. Recent studies suggest a link between 'club' drug use and sexual risk behaviours. In this qualitative study, we compare and contrast two 'club' drugs: crystal methamphetamine and ecstasy (MDMA). Life history interviews were conducted with 12 HIV seroconverters and 12 age-matched controls recruited from a prospective cohort study of young gay and bisexual men in Vancouver, British Columbia. Textual data concerning illicit substance use and unsafe sex were analyzed using NUDIST software. Most men related a substantial knowledge of and experience with crystal and ecstasy. Both drugs had attributes that enhanced gay socialization and were used in the same venues. Crystal was used to remain awake and increase energy. Ecstasy was used to induce euphoria and group connectedness. However, unlike ecstasy, crystal was associated with a distinct pattern of sexual arousal that frequently included unprotected (sometimes group) sex, was more likely to be used regularly by HIV-positive men, and was reportedly highly addictive and problematic. Crystal and ecstasy are used in the same social venues but differ markedly in relation to sexual risk behaviour.

  14. Circadian phase response curves to light in older and young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Katharine M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phase of a circadian rhythm reflects where the peak and the trough occur, for example, the peak and trough of performance within the 24 h. Light exposure can shift this phase. More extensive knowledge of the human circadian phase response to light is needed to guide light treatment for shiftworkers, air travelers, and people with circadian rhythm phase disorders. This study tested the hypotheses that older adults have absent or weaker phase-shift responses to light (3000 lux, and that women's responses might differ from those of men. Methods After preliminary health screening and home actigraphic recording baselines, 50 young adults (ages 18–31 years and 56 older adults (ages 59–75 years remained in light-controlled laboratory surroundings for 4.7 to 5.6 days, while experiencing a 90-min ultra-short sleep-wake cycle. Following at least 30 h in-lab baseline, over the next 51 h, participants were given 3 treatments with 3000 lux white light, each treatment for 3 h, centered at one of 8 clock times. The circadian rhythms of urinary aMT6s (a melatonin metabolite, free cortisol, oral temperature, and wrist activity were assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results Light (3000 lux for 3 h on 3 days induced maximal phase shifts of about 3 h. Phase shifts did not differ significantly in amplitude among older and young groups or among women and men. At home and at baseline, compared to the young, the older adults were significantly phase-advanced in sleep, cortisol, and aMT6s onset, but not advanced in aMT6s acrophase or the temperature rhythm. The inflection from delays to advances was approximately 1.8 h earlier among older compared to young participants in reference to their aMT6s rhythm peaks, and it was earlier in clock time. Conclusion In these experimental conditions, 3000 lux light could shift the phase of circadian rhythms to about the same extent among older and young adults, but the optimal light timing for

  15. A systematic review of literature on psychosocial aspects of gynecomastia in adolescents and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Young, Cara; Harrison, Tracie; Caridi, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Gynecomastia represents a serious psychosocial challenge for many adolescent and young adult males, but short of surgery, little attention has been given to this concern. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a systematic review of the literature about psychosocial correlates, psychosocial interventions, and quality of research evidence about young males with gynecomastia. From an initial 233 published papers, 10 studies were identified and reviewed. Five were descriptive case studies and included no statistical analyses. The other studies were all conducted with small samples. Despite the limited evidence, findings suggest that many young men suffer emotional distress concerning gynecomastia, but this distress has received few interventions beyond surgical removal of the breast tissue. Future studies are needed to address this problem more fully so that more aggressive measures such as frequent assessments of the physical and psychosocial aspects of the condition can be done by healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in triglyceride levels over time and risk of type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Bitzur, Rafael; Kochba, Ilan; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Shochat, Tzippora; Rudich, Assaf

    2008-10-01

    The association between changes in triglyceride concentrations over time and diabetes is unknown. We assessed whether two triglyceride determinations obtained 5 years apart can predict incident type 2 diabetes. Triglyceride levels at baseline (time 1) and 5 years later (time 2), followed by subsequent follow-up of 5.5 years, were measured in 13,953 apparently healthy men (age 26-45 years) with triglycerides <300 mg/dl (<3.39 mmol/l). During 76,742 person-years, 322 cases of diabetes occurred. A multivariate model adjusted for age, BMI, total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose, blood pressure, physical activity, and smoking status revealed a continuous independent rise in incident diabetes with increasing time 1 triglyceride levels (P(trend) < 0.001). Men in the lowest tertile of time 1 triglyceride levels who progressed to the highest tertile over follow-up (low-high) exhibited a hazard ratio (HR) of 12.62 (95% CI 3.52-31.34) compared with those remaining in the lowest tertile at both time points (reference group: low-low). Whereas men who were at the top triglyceride level tertile throughout follow-up (high-high) had a HR for diabetes of 7.08 (2.52-14.45), those whose triglyceride level decreased to the lowest tertile (high-low) exhibited a HR of 1.97 (0.67-6.13). Alterations in triglyceride levels during follow-up were associated with changes in BMI, physical activity, and eating breakfast habit (P < 0.05), but remained an independent modifier of diabetes risk even after adjustment for such changes. Two measurements of fasting triglyceride levels obtained 5 years apart can assist in identifying apparently healthy young men at increased risk for diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors and of associated changes in BMI and lifestyle parameters.

  17. Physical activity and depression symptom profiles in young men and women with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Charlotte; Patton, George C; Schmidt, Michael D; Venn, Alison J; Dwyer, Terence; Sanderson, Kristy

    2013-05-01

    This study explored whether young adults with major depression who are physically active differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive. Analyses included data from 950 (47.6%) men and 1045 women (mean [standard deviation] age = 31.5 [2.6] years) participating in a national study. Participants reported leisure physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and ambulatory activity (pedometer steps per day). Diagnosis and symptoms of major depression were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence of major depression was 5.5% (n = 52) for men and 11.6% (n = 121) for women. Interactions between physical activity and sex were observed for depressed mood, appetite changes, vacillating thoughts, and suicidality (all, p physically active men were significantly less likely to endorse the presence of insomnia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63-0.96), fatigue (PR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99), and suicidality (PR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96) compared with inactive men. Physically active women were significantly less likely to endorse hypersomnia (PR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.95), excessive/irrational guilt (PR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97), vacillating thoughts (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), and suicidality (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.89) compared with inactive women. Associations were adjusted for age, physical health, educational attainment, depression severity, and other depressive symptoms. Among adults with major depression, those physically active seem to differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive.

  18. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    , at the same time as or later than their peers. Their semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentrations of sex hormones (LH, FSH, total testosterone, SHBG, inhibin B) and testicular size were determined......Study Question Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? Summary Answer Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. What...... is Known Already The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. Study Design, Size, Duration In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine...

  19. Enjoyment, Exploration and Education: Understanding the Consumption of Pornography among Young Men with Non-Exclusive Sexual Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research.

  20. Enjoyment, Exploration and Education: Understanding the Consumption of Pornography among Young Men with Non-Exclusive Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research. PMID:28989197

  1. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male...... reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried...... on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. STUDY FUNDING...

  2. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  3. Young men's views toward the barriers and facilitators of Internet-based Chlamydia trachomatis screening: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Karen; McDaid, Lisa

    2013-12-03

    There is a growing number of Internet-based approaches that offer young people screening for sexually transmitted infections. This paper explores young men's views towards the barriers and facilitators of implementing an Internet-based screening approach. The study sought to consider ways in which the proposed intervention would reach and engage men across ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. This qualitative study included 15 focus groups with 60 heterosexual young men (aged 16-24 years) across central Scotland, drawn across age and socioeconomic backgrounds. Focus groups began by obtaining postcode data to allocate participants to a high/low deprivation category. Focus group discussions involved exploration of men's knowledge of chlamydia, use of technology, and views toward Internet-based screening. Men were shown sample screening invitation letters, test kits, and existing screening websites to facilitate discussions. Transcripts from audio recordings were analyzed with "Framework Analysis". Men's Internet and technology use was heterogeneous in terms of individual practices, with greater use among older men (aged 20-24 years) than teenagers and some deprivation-related differences in use. We detail three themes related to barriers to successful implementation: acceptability, confidentiality and privacy concerns, and language, style, and content. These themes identify ways Internet-based screening approaches may fail to engage some men, such as by raising anxiety and failing to convey confidentiality. Men wanted screening websites to frame screening as a serious issue, rather than using humorous images and text. Participants were encouraged to reach a consensus within their groups on their broad design and style preferences for a screening website; this led to a set of common preferences that they believed were likely to engage men across age and deprivation groups and lead to greater screening uptake. The Internet provides opportunities for re-evaluating how we

  4. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  5. The role of acetabulum geometry and femoral head-neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halle, B; Halle, D M; Torfing, T

    2007-01-01

    and the consequence of acetabular retroversion on standardized x-rays. Men aged 26-55 years who earlier had a total hip arthroplasty were included in the case group. This group was compared to a control-group of men treated as trauma patients. The study indicates that acetabular dysplasia and retroversion......We studied the role of acetabulum geometry and head neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis of the hip in young men. Contrary to previous studies we evaluated the significance of the anterior, posterior and total coverage of the femoral head, the influence of the femoral neck...... and a relative decreased head neck ratio are associated with osteoarthritis of the hip in young men....

  6. Changes of brachial arterial doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Goo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water. Doppler waveforms of brachial arteries in 11 young male patients were recorded before and during immersion of ipsilateral hand in ice-cold water(4-5 .deg. C). The procedure was repeated on separate days. Patterns of waveform during immersion were compared with the changes of pulsatility index. Four men showed high impedance waveforms, and 5 men showed low impedance waveforms during immersion both at the first and at the second study. Two men, however, showed high impedance waveforms at the first study and tow impedance waveforms at the second study. The pulsatility index rose and fell in high and low impedance waveforms, respectively. The changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveforms could be classified into high and low impedance patterns, probably reflecting the acute changes in downstream impedance during immersion of hand in ice-cold water

  7. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Ferreira do; Uziel, Anna Paula; Hernández, Jimena de Garay

    2018-02-19

    This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive). Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals' training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  8. 'I'd much rather have sexual intimacy as opposed to sex': Young Australian gay men, sex, relationships and monogamy

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, D.; Prestage, G.; Grierson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored how young gay men negotiate opportunities for rethinking sexual and relationship life associated with gay sexual cultures upon coming out. Drawing on qualitative interview data with Australian gay men aged 18–30, this article explores a tension these participants described between a desire for monogamy as the basis to a committed, enduring and mature relationship on one hand, and sexual opportunities associated with ‘the gay scene’ on the other. We analyse these men’...

  9. Health-related quality of life in young men with testicular cancer: validation of the Cancer Assessment for Young Adults (CAYA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Cano, Stefan J; Saigal, Christopher S; Stanton, Annette L

    2013-12-01

    Patient-reported outcome instruments are needed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in young adults with cancer. The purpose of this project was to establish a conceptual model and measurement instrument for assessment of HRQOL in young men with testicular cancer. Patient interviews and a literature review were used to develop a conceptual framework of biopsychosocial domains of cancer-related quality of life and an initial pool of questionnaire items. Items were piloted and refined. Revised items were administered to a sample (N = 171) of young (ages 18-29) men with testicular cancer and repeated 4 weeks later. Rasch measurement methods guided item reduction and scale construction. Traditional psychometric analyses were also performed to allow for comparison with existing measures. The conceptual framework included seven biopsychosocial domains: physical, sexual, intrapersonal, cognitive-emotional, social-relational, educational-vocational-avocational, and spiritual to form independent scales of the resulting questionnaire, the Cancer Assessment for Young Adults-Testicular (CAYA-T). Each scale fulfilled Rasch and traditional psychometric criteria (i.e., person separation index, 0.34-0.82; Cronbach's alpha, 0.70-0.91; and an expected pattern of convergent and discriminant validity correlations). The CAYA-T can be used to assess HRQOL across a comprehensive set of domains as identified by young men with cancer. It passes strict psychometric criteria and has potential as a useful research and clinical tool. The CAYA-T has potential research and clinical value for addressing inter-related aspects of HRQOL in young adult men with cancer. The measure may assist with assessing and monitoring HRQOL across a range of domains and contributing to more comprehensive assessment of biopsychosocial needs of young adults.

  10. An exploration of religion and spirituality among young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, William L; Okeke, Janice O; Gelaude, Deborah J; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Oster, Alexandra M; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Although religion and spirituality can promote healthy behaviours and mental well-being, negative religious experiences may harm sexual minority men's health. Despite increasing vulnerability to HIV infection among young gay and bisexual men, few studies examine how religion and spirituality might affect them. To this end, we interviewed young gay and bisexual men who were diagnosed with HIV infection during January 2006-June 2009. Questionnaires assessed religious service attendance, disclosure of sexuality within religious communities, and beliefs about homosexuality being sinful. A subset described religious and spiritual experiences in qualitative interviews. We calculated the prevalence of religion- and spirituality-related factors and identified themes within qualitative interviews. Among men completing questionnaires, 66% currently attended religious services, 16% believed they could disclose their sexuality at church, and 37% believed homosexuality was sinful. Participants who completed qualitative interviews commonly discussed religious attendance and negative experiences within religious settings. They often expressed their spirituality through prayer, and some used it to cope with adverse experiences. These data suggest that religion and spirituality are notable factors that shape young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men's social contexts. Programmes and interventions that constructively engage with religious institutions and are sensitive to spiritual beliefs may promote these men's health.

  11. Predictors of completed suicide in a cohort of 50,465 young men: role of personality and deviant behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Allebeck, P.; Allgulander, C.; Fisher, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    Suicide seems to be increasing in young people in various countries and causes the greatest loss of years of life under the age of 65 in the Swedish population. Data from a national survey of 50,465 conscripts in Sweden were used in a prospective follow up study to assess personality and behavioural predictors of suicide in young men. Altogether 247 completed suicides occurred in the cohort during 13 years' follow up. Baseline data on social conditions, psychological assessments, and psychiat...

  12. Factors associated with HIV testing among young men who have sex with men in Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh D; Aung, Poe Poe; Paing, Aye Kyawt; Pasricha, Naanki; Agius, Paul A; Tun, Waimar; Bajracharya, Ashish; Luchters, Stanley

    2017-11-01

    In Myanmar, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience high risk of HIV infection. However, access to HIV testing and prevention services remains a challenge among this marginalized population. The objective of this study was to estimate population prevalence and correlates of prior HIV testing among young MSM (YMSM) and informs the development of HIV testing and intervention programmes that respond to the specific needs of this population. Five hundred and eighty-five YMSM aged 18 to 24 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in a cross-sectional survey conducted in six townships of Myanmar. RDS-adjusted population estimates were calculated to estimate prevalence of HIV testing; RDS-weighted logistic regression was used to examine correlates of HIV testing in the past 6 months and in a lifetime. There were 12 participants who reported receiving a HIV-positive test; of those, five were tested in the past 6 months. The RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of lifetime (any prior) HIV testing was 60.6% (95% CI: 53.3% to 66.4%) and of recent (≤ 6 months) HIV testing was 50.1% (95% CI: 44.1% to 55.5%). In multivariable analysis, sexual identity was associated with lifetime but not recent HIV testing. Lifetime and recent HIV testing were associated with having three or more male sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted ORs (aORs) = 2.28, 95% CIs: 1.21 to 4.32 and 2.69, 95% CI: 1.59 to 4.56), having good HIV-related knowledge (aORs = 1.96, 95% CIs: 1.11 to 3.44 and 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.89), reporting high HIV testing self-efficacy (aORs = 13.5, 95% CIs: 6.0 to 30.1 and 9.81, 95% CI: 4.27 to 22.6) and having access to and use of non-HIV health-related services in the past 12 months (aORs = 13.2, 95% CIs: 6.85 to 25.6 and 7.15, 95% CI: 4.08 to 12.5) respectively. HIV testing coverage among YMSM aged 18 to 24 years old in Myanmar is still suboptimal. Integrated HIV testing and prevention services in existing health service

  13. Drinking and driving among high-risk young Mexican-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Dary D; Berger, Dale E; Ramirez, Juan R

    2007-01-01

    Determinants of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) were explored among a sample of relatively young Mexican-American males with limited income and education, high levels of alcohol consumption, and regular vehicle use. Data were collected using questionnaires (N=104) and focus groups (N=27), including a focus group with wives and girlfriends (N=4). Four mechanisms that may contribute to the high rate of DUI behavior in this population were identified: (1) a subculture of permissiveness toward drinking and driving for men, (2) heavy drinking, promoted by machismo and a propensity to measure masculinity with alcohol intake, (3) inadequate knowledge of DUI statutes and inadequate understanding of the relationships between BAC, impairment, and crash risk, and (4) for undocumented drivers, lack of accountability in case of an alcohol-related incident.

  14. Exogenous cortisol acutely influences motivated decision making in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Antypa, Niki; Crysovergi, Panagiota; van der Does, Willem A J

    2010-02-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Acute psychological stress increases HPA activity and GC release. In humans, chronic disturbances in HPA activity have been observed in affective disorders and in addictive behaviour. Recent research indicates that acute effects of GCs may be anxiolytic and increase reward sensitivity. Furthermore, cortisol acutely influences early cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. In order to extend such findings to more complex emotional-cognitive behaviour, the present study tested acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on motivated decision making in 30 healthy young men. Results showed that cortisol indeed increased risky decision making, as predicted. This effect occurred for decisions where making a risky choice could potentially yield a big reward. These results are discussed with respect to currently proposed mechanisms for cortisol's potential anxiolytic effect and GCs' involvement in reward systems.

  15. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8......) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning...... was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10...

  16. Mechanical properties and collagen cross-linking of the patellar tendon in old and young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Hansen, P; Kongsgaard, M

    2009-01-01

    were higher in OM than in YM (73 +/- 13 vs. 11 +/- 2 mmol/mol; P appreciably influence the dimensions or mechanical properties of the human patellar tendon in vivo. Collagen concentration was reduced, whereas both enzymatic......Age-related loss in muscle mass and strength impairs daily life function in the elderly. However, it remains unknown whether tendon properties also deteriorate with age. Cross-linking of collagen molecules provides structural integrity to the tendon fibrils and has been shown to change with age...... in animals but has never been examined in humans in vivo. In this study, we examined the mechanical properties and pyridinoline and pentosidine cross-link and collagen concentrations of the patellar tendon in vivo in old (OM) and young men (YM). Seven OM (67 +/- 3 years, 86 +/- 10 kg) and 10 YM (27 +/- 2...

  17. Risk factors for sexual aggression in young men: an expansion of the confluence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; LeBreton, James M

    2011-01-01

    There are many explanations for high rates of sexual aggression, with no one theory dominating the field. This study extends past research by evaluating an expanded version of the confluence model with a community sample. One-hour audio computer-assisted self-interviews were completed by 470 young single men. Using structural equation analyses, delinquency, hostile masculinity, impersonal sex, and misperception of women's sexual cues were positively and directly associated with the number of sexually aggressive acts committed. There were also indirect effects of childhood victimization, personality traits associated with subclinical levels of psychopathy, and alcohol consumption. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of the confluence model, as well as the importance of broadening this theory to include additional constructs. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens J

    2003-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  20. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  1. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Young Men With Low Versus Normal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    = 15.4 µg/ml (9.5; 21.3), P index (D(i)) (ß = -2.4% (-4.5%; -0.2%), P = 0.04) and increased basal hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) (ß = 0.02 mg kg(-1) min(-1) (0.002; 0.04), P = 0.03), but not associated...... with peripheral glucose disposal rate or hepatic insulin resistance index. RBP4 levels were not influenced by overfeeding or related to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance provoked by the dietary intervention. In conclusion, plasma RBP4 in young men associates with components of the metabolic syndrome...... = 20) or normal (n = 26) birth weight underwent a 5-day high-fat high-calorie (HFHC) dietary intervention. In vivo glucose metabolism was assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, glucose tracer and intravenous glucose tolerance test techniques. Body composition was measured by a dual-energy x...

  2. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.

    2013-01-01

    . There was a significant time meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p Z 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p meals compared to C and WF meals. Higher mean ratings of satiety (p ...Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results......: Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a doubleblind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from...

  3. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates......, potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were...... fed a weight maintenance diet and 24-h energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation were assessed in a respiratory chamber. RESULTS: No differences in 24-h EE, RQ or substrate oxidation were observed between LBW and controls. Interestingly, the LBW group exhibited lower...

  4. Hepatitis B Prevalance in Young Adult Men Commando Candidates Applying for a Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our country is in the median endemicity belt in terms of hepatitis B virus infection. This study was performed in the commando candidates who came from all over Turkey to a military division/brigade, between January 2007 and December 2009, 20.681 commando candidates were checked for HBsAg positivity and these data were investigated retrospectively. In our study, hepatitis B virus carriage among young men as the Turkey\\s average was 3.3%. This data was lower than those reported previously. We attribute this positive trend to the dissemination of immunization programs, the increase of births in the hospitals rather than home delivery, and the widespread use of HBsAg screening tests before marriage [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 197-200

  5. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  6. Maladaptive social information processing in childhood predicts young men's atypical amygdala reactivity to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-05-01

    Maladaptive social information processing, such as hostile attributional bias and aggressive response generation, is associated with childhood maladjustment. Although social information processing problems are correlated with heightened physiological responses to social threat, few studies have examined their associations with neural threat circuitry, specifically amygdala activation to social threat. A cohort of 310 boys participated in an ongoing longitudinal study and completed questionnaires and laboratory tasks assessing their social and cognitive characteristics the boys were between 10 and 12 years of age. At age 20, 178 of these young men underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a social threat task. At age 22, adult criminal arrest records and self-reports of impulsiveness were obtained. Path models indicated that maladaptive social information-processing at ages 10 and 11 predicted increased left amygdala reactivity to fear faces, an ambiguous threat, at age 20 while accounting for childhood antisocial behavior, empathy, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Exploratory analyses indicated that aggressive response generation - the tendency to respond to threat with reactive aggression - predicted left amygdala reactivity to fear faces and was concurrently associated with empathy, antisocial behavior, and hostile attributional bias, whereas hostile attributional bias correlated with IQ. Although unrelated to social information-processing problems, bilateral amygdala reactivity to anger faces at age 20 was unexpectedly predicted by low IQ at age 11. Amygdala activation did not mediate associations between social information processing and number of criminal arrests, but both impulsiveness at age 22 and arrests were correlated with right amygdala reactivity to anger facial expressions at age 20. Childhood social information processing and IQ predicted young men's amygdala response to threat a decade later, which suggests that childhood social

  7. Etiology of Visual Impairment and Legal Blindness among the Young Men in Southeast Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiray Yildirim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Aim: To identify the etiology of serious visual impairment and legal blindness and to declare the preventive factors among young men who live in the southeast region of Turkey. Material and Method: Between January 2004 and December 2008, records of the patients who admitted to Ophthalmology Department of Diyarbakir Military Hospital were examined respectively. The study includes 2000 young men cases (20 to 30 years whose visual acuity was worse than 0,05 with Snellen chart in at least one eye. Results: Among the patients’eyes of which visual acuity worse than 0,05 with Snellen chart; 11,6 % (232 were bilateral and 43,8 % (876 were only right eye and 44,6 % (892 were only left eye. The distribution of the etiology of the serious visual impairment and blindness was: 1. Trauma 68,4 % (1368, 2. Corneal opacities due to infectious diseases 10 % (200, 3. Congenital cataract 9,4 % (188, 4. Amblyopia due to strabismus and refractive errors 1,2 % (24 ve 5. Genetic eye disorders 10,6 % (212. The classification of the pathologies according to the anatomical segments of the eye was: Anterior segment disorders 53% (1060, posterior segment disorders % 21,2 (424, disintegration of the anatomy of the eye 24,8 % (496 and others 1% (20. Conclusion: It is possible to decrease the rate of prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and blindness both in this region and other parts of our country by creating systematic educational and health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 737-740

  8. Quality of life of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from adolescence to young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Yi-Jing; Chen, Shun-Sheng; Lu, Yen-Mou

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated quality of life (QOL) in adolescent and young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Health-related QOL and global QOL were assessed with the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). Associations between functional status and QOL were assessed. All domains of the SF-36 were below Taiwan norms (effect size: -14.2 to -0.5), especially Physical Function, Role Physical, and Social Function. Three of the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF were below Taiwan norms (effect size: -2.0 to -0.7). The Physical Function of the SF-36 was moderately correlated with functional status (mobility, basic activities of daily living, and arm function). The Social Function of the SF-36 and Social Relationships of the WHOQOL-BREF were also moderately correlated with functional status (impairment, basic activities of daily living, and arm function). The adolescent and young men with DMD had poor health-related and global QOL. Poor QOL was related to both physical condition and social health. We suggest that rehabilitation programs focus on using assistive devices to facilitate arm function and encouraging participation in social activities to improve the QOL of patients with DMD. Implications for rehabilitation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle weakness disease that not only impacts physical health but also leads to poor quality of life in many domains. A valuable rehabilitation goal for patients with DMD is to encourage participation in social activities. Medical care and educational programs should plan a formal transition processes for patients with DMD from pediatric to adult care to maximum their quality of life. Arm function is associated with many domains of global quality of life, so a key element in improving quality of life may be to improve arm function.

  9. Central insulin administration improves odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünner, Yvonne F; Kofoet, Anja; Benedict, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Insulin receptors are ubiquitously found in the human brain, comprising the olfactory bulb, essential for odor processing, and the hippocampus, important for spatial memory processing. The present study aimed at examining if intranasal insulin, which is known to transiently increase brain insulin levels in humans, would improve odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men. We applied a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-subject design. The study was conducted at the research unit of a university hospital. Interventions/Participants/Main Outcome Measures: Following intranasal administration of either insulin (40 I.U.) or placebo, male subjects (n = 18) were exposed to eight odors. During each odor exposure, a green-colored field was presented on a 17-in. computer screen. During immediate recall (comprising 3 runs), the participants were re-exposed to each odor cue, and were asked to select the corresponding field (with visual feedback after each response). The delayed recall was scheduled ∼10 min later (without feedback). To test if insulin's putative effect on odor-place memory would be domain-specific, participants also performed a separate place and odor recognition task. Intranasal insulin improved the delayed but not immediate odor-cued recall of spatial memory. This effect was independent of odor type and in the absence of systemic side effects (eg, fasting plasma glucose levels remained unaltered). Place and odor recognition were unaffected by the insulin treatment. These findings suggest that acute intranasal insulin improves odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men.

  10. Moderate-intensity endurance training improves endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Kolodziejski, Leszek; Szymoniak-Chochol, Dorota; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? The main aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in humans. What is the main finding and its importance? We have shown, for the first time, a protective effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity, as judged by significantly lower basal and end-exercise serum concentrations of glycocalyx damage markers, i.e. syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate, accompanied by attenuation of oxidative stress and enhancement of antioxidant defence after training in previously untrained healthy young men. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 20 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise bout until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40 min sessions, mainly of moderate intensity (∼50% of maximal oxygen uptake), performed four times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were taken before and after the training. Endurance training resulted in a significant increase in physical capacity (P  0.05). Moderate-intensity ET exerts a pronounced protective effect on endothelial glycocalyx integrity at rest and during exercise, probably through an improvement of antioxidant defence that may represent the vasoprotective mechanisms highly responsive to moderate-intensity endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  11. Effects of Physical Training and Fitness on Running Injuries in Physically Active Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Over 4,000 (n = 4,236) soldiers were surveyed. Running injury incidence was 14%. A greater risk of an RRI was associated with older age (OR31+/run per week during personal PT (OR5.1-10/1-5 miles = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.53-0.91, OR10.1-16 +/1-5 miles = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.97, OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98), higher aerobic endurance as measured by 2-mile run performance (ORQ4/Q1 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.72), and unit resistance training ≥3 times a week (OR≥3 times per week/none = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.29-0.73). Greater personal PT running mileage decreased injuries in this population suggesting that the increased protective effect of higher aerobic fitness outweighed the injurious effect of running more miles during personal PT. Countermeasures to prevent RRIs could entail enhancing aerobic endurance, providing opportunities for personal aerobic training, monitoring for excessive unit PT running mileage and encouraging unit resistance training ≥3 times per week.

  12. Decomposing Black-White Wage Gaps Across Distributions: Young U.S. Men and Women in 1990 vs. 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Richey, Jeremiah; Tromp, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate changes in black-white wage gaps across wage distributions for young men and women in the U.S. between 1990 and 2011. Gaps are decomposed into composition and structural effects using a semi-parametric framework. Further, we investigate the roles of occupational choice and self-selection. We find a fall in the composition effect shrinks the wage gap at the lower end of the distribution for men and women. Conversely, an increase in the composition effect for men, and...

  13. The Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment, Depression, and Alcohol Use Disorders on Health-Related Quality of Life among Incarcerated, HIV-Infected, Opioid Dependent Malaysian Men: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Weikum, Damian; Copenhaver, Michael; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Prior research has widely recognized neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depression, and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as important negative predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). No studies to date, however, have explored how these neuropsychological factors operate together and affect HRQoL. Incarcerated male PLWH (N = 301) meeting criteria for opioid dependence were recruited from Malaysia's largest prison. Standardized scales for NCI, depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and HRQoL were used to conduct a moderated mediation model to explore the extent to which depression mediated the relationship between NCI, HRQoL, and AUDs using an ordinary least squares regression-based path analytic framework. Results showed that increasing levels of NCI (B = -0.1773, p depression (B = -0.6147, p depression (B = -0.1230, p depression for individuals with AUDs was significant (B = -0.9099, p = 0.0087), suggesting a moderated mediation effect. The findings disentangle the complex relationship using a moderated mediation model, demonstrating that increasing levels of NCI, which can be reduced with HIV treatment, negatively influenced HRQoL via depression for individuals with AUDs. This highlights the need for future interventions to target these complex interplay between neuropsychological factors in order to improve HRQoL among PLWH, particularly incarcerated PLWH with AUDs.

  14. Partnership agreements less likely among young gay and bisexual men in Australia - data from a national online survey of gay and bisexual men's relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstee, Johann; Philpot, Steven; Grierson, Jeffrey; Bavinton, Benjamin R; Duncan, Duane; Prestage, Garrett

    2017-08-01

    How gay and bisexual men (GBM) establish partnership agreements may be affected by several factors, including age. The ability to communicate with a partner about sexual agreements has important sexual health implications for GBM. To assess differences in partnership agreements among GBM. We surveyed GBM about their partnerships using a national, anonymous online survey in 2013-14. We compared men who had monogamous partnerships with men who had non-monogamous partnerships, according to age and other factors. Regarding the nature of their partnership with their primary regular partner (PRP), younger men were less likely to have an agreement of any sort and were less likely to have discussed it. Younger men were more likely to report having a monogamous partnership, but they were also less likely to report condomless anal intercourse with their PRP. In multivariate analysis of partnership arrangements, having a non-monogamous partnership with their PRP was associated with being older (adjusted odds ratio=1.03; 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.04; Prelationship', younger men were particularly less likely to do so. Due to less communication with partners about sexual agreements, when young GBM engage in sexual risk behaviour they may be at an increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections.

  15. Reference ranges for serum and salivary testosterone in young men of Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Víctor; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; García de Guadiana, Luis; Sánchez-Pellicer, Pedro; Alfayate, Rocío; Mauri, Montserrat; Sánchez-Payá, José; Picó, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The interassay variability found in the measurement of testosterone (T) levels warrants the need for laboratories to validate their methods to establish trustworthy cut-off points for diagnosis of male hypogonadism. The aims of this study were to validate measurement of total T (TT) at our laboratory in order to obtain reference ranges for TT, calculated free T (CFT), calculated bioavailable T (CBT), and salivary T (ST) in healthy young men from the Mediterranean region, and to evaluate the potential clinical value of ST by establishing its correlation with serum T. An observational, cross-sectional study with sequential sampling. men aged 18-30 years with body mass index (BMI)9.7 nmol/L, CFT>0.22 nmol/L, and/or CBT>4.9 nmol/L make the presence of biochemical hypogonadism unlikely. According to the correlation between serum and ST, the clinical value of ST remains to be established. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Process and impact evaluation of a community gender equality intervention with young men in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudberg, Halima; Contractor, Sana; Das, Abhijit; Kemp, Christopher G; Nevin, Paul E; Phadiyal, Ashima; Lal, Jagdish; Rao, Deepa

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the results of a process and impact evaluation to assess the effects of a project aiming to engage men in changing gender stereotypes and improving health outcomes for women in villages in Rajasthan, India. We conducted seven focus group discussions with participants in the programme and six in-depth interviews with intervention group leaders. We also conducted 137 pre- and 70 post-intervention surveys to assess participant and community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours surrounding gender, violence and sexuality. We used thematic analysis to identify process and impact themes, and hierarchical mixed linear regression for the primary outcome analysis of survey responses. Post-intervention, significant changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding gender, sexuality and violence were made on the individual level by participants, as well as in the community. Moderate behavioural changes were seen in individuals and in the community. Study findings offer a strong model for prevention programmes working with young men to create a community effect in encouraging gender equality in social norms.

  17. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: continuity and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Whereas gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding "disjunctures" between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18 to 25, the ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships were delineated. Findings suggest that, although most participants' culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, three styles of working with sexual scripts were found: conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts or interpreted their own nontraditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and well-being, particularly for women, but for men as well.

  18. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  19. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents results for young men’s health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive. Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals’ training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  20. Acute Exercise Improves Mood and Motivation in Young Men with ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Kathryn M; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about whether acute exercise affects signs or symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. This experiment sought to determine the effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity leg cycling exercise on measures of attention, hyperactivity, mood, and motivation to complete mental work in adult men reporting elevated ADHD symptoms. A repeated-measures crossover experiment was conducted with 32 adult men (18-33 yr) with symptoms consistent with adult ADHD assessed by the Adult Self-Report Scale V1.1. Measures of attention (continuous performance task and Bakan vigilance task), motivation to perform the mental work (visual analog scale), lower leg physical activity (accelerometry), and mood (Profile of Mood States and Addiction Research Center Inventory amphetamine scale) were measured before and twice after a 20-min seated rest control or exercise condition involving cycling at 65% V˙O2peak. Condition (exercise vs rest) × time (baseline, post 1, and post 2) ANOVA was used to test the hypothesized exercise-induced improvements in all outcomes. Statistically significant condition-time interactions were observed for vigor (P motivation (P = 0.027), and Profile of Mood States depression (P = 0.027), fatigue (P = 0.030), and confusion (P = 0.046) scales. No significant interaction effects were observed for leg hyperactivity, simple reaction time, or vigilance task performance (accuracy, errors, or reaction time). In young men reporting elevated symptoms of ADHD, a 20-min bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise transiently enhances motivation for cognitive tasks, increases feelings of energy, and reduces feelings of confusion, fatigue, and depression, but this has no effect on the behavioral measures of attention or hyperactivity used.

  1. Endurance training of moderate intensity increases testosterone concentration in young, healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Kulpa, J; Zoladz, J A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training on gonadal hormone profile in untrained men. Fifteen young, healthy men performed an endurance training of 5-week duration on a cycle ergometer. Before and after the exercise program all participants completed a maximal incremental test. Concentration of testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and cortisol (C) as well as blood morphology were determined in venous blood samples at rest both before and after the training. The training program resulted in 3.7% improvement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and 8.2% improvement of power output reached at VO(2max) (PO (max)). This was accompanied by significant increase in T (from 18.84+/-5.73 nmol.l(-1) to 22.03+/-6.61 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.0004) and calculated fT concentration (from 374+/-116 pmol.l(-1) to 470+/-153 pmol.l(-1), p = 0.00005). Moreover, the training caused a significant decrease in SHBG concentration (from 34.45+/-11.26 nmol.l(-1) to 31.95+/-10.40 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.01), whereas no significant changes were found in the cortisol concentration (334+/-138 nmol.l(-1) vs. 367+/-135 nmol.l(-1) for pre- and post-training measures, respectively, p = 0.50) and T/C and fT/C ratios. We have concluded that short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training can significantly increase testosterone concentration in previously untrained men.

  2. Psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and personality among young men by sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dey, M; Soldati, L; Weiss, M G; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2014-10-01

    Personality and its potential role in mediating risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidality are assessed by sexual orientation, using data collected among young Swiss men (n=5875) recruited while presenting for mandatory military conscription. Mental health outcomes were analyzed by sexual attraction using logistic regression, controlling for five-factor model personality traits and socio-demographics. Homo/bisexual men demonstrated the highest scores for neuroticism-anxiety but the lowest for sociability and sensation seeking, with no differences for aggression-hostility. Among homo/bisexual men, 10.2% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for major depression in the past 2weeks, 10.8% for ADHD in the past 12months, 13.8% for lifetime anti-social personality disorder (ASPD), and 6.0% attempted suicide in the past 12months. Upon adjusting (AOR) for personality traits, their odds ratios (OR) for major depression (OR=4.78, 95% CI 2.81-8.14; AOR=1.46, 95% CI 0.80-2.65) and ADHD (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.31-3.58; AOR=1.00, 95% CI 0.58-1.75) lost statistical significance, and the odds ratio for suicide attempt was halved (OR=5.10, 95% CI 2.57-10.1; AOR=2.42, 95% CI 1.16-5.02). There are noteworthy differences in personality traits by sexual orientation, and much of the increased mental morbidity appears to be accounted for by such underlying differences, with important implications for etiology and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term weight changes in obese young adult men and subsequent all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years......BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight......). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...

  4. Acceptability of Condoms, Circumcision and PrEP among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Descriptive Study Based on Effectiveness and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crosby

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined and compared the willingness of young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM to accept pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, adult male circumcision, and condoms for reducing their risk of HIV acquisition. The majority (67% reported unprotected receptive anal sex in the last six months. About three-quarters (71% would accept using PrEP if it was 100% effective. Cost influenced PrEP acceptance with 19% indicating acceptance at $100 per month co-pay. Of those not circumcised, 50% indicated willingness if circumcision was 100% effective. Acceptance of circumcision decreased markedly to 17% with co-pays of $100. About 73% of men were willing to use condoms if they were 100% effective and 50% indicated a willingness at the cost of $10 per month. The findings suggest that condom use promotion strategies should remain at the forefront of public health efforts to control HIV incidence among YBMSM.

  5. Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Someya

    Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

  6. Exercise-induced prostacyclin release positively correlates with VO(2max) in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Chłopicki, S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the effect of maximal incremental cycling exercise (IE) on the systemic release of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), assessed as plasma 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration in young healthy men. Eleven physically active - untrained men (mean +/- S.D.) aged 22.7 +/- 2.1 years; body mass 76.3 +/- 9.1 kg; BMI 23.30 +/- 2.18 kg . m(-2); maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) 46.5 +/- 3.9 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), performed an IE test until exhaustion. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), lactate, and cytokines were measured in venous blood samples taken prior to the exercise and at the exhaustion. The net exercise-induced increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration, expressed as the difference between the end-exercise minus pre-exercise concentration positively correlated with VO(2max) (r=0.78, p=0.004) as well as with the net VO(2) increase at exhaustion (r=0.81, p=0.003), but not with other respiratory, cardiac, metabolic or inflammatory parameters of the exercise (minute ventilation, heart rate, plasma lactate, IL-6 or TNF-alpha concentrations). The exercise-induced increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration?? was significantly higher (p=0.008) in a group of subjects (n=5) with the highest VO(2max) when compared to the group of subjects with the lowest VO(2max), in which no increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration was found. In conclusion, we demonstrated, to our knowledge for the first time, that exercise-induced release of PGI(2) in young healthy men correlates with VO(2max), suggesting that vascular capacity to release PGI(2) in response to physical exercise represents an important factor characterizing exercise tolerance. Moreover, we postulate that the impairment of exercise-induced release of PGI(2) leads to the increased cardiovascular hazard of vigorous exercise.

  7. "What Could Have Been Different": A Qualitative Study of Syndemic Theory and HIV Prevention among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Thomas; Johnson, Amy K; Garofalo, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) experience multiple health disparities, including alcohol and drug use, partner violence, victimization due to sexual orientation, and HIV infection. Syndemic theorists explain the clustering of these disparities among adult MSM as a result of cultural marginalization. To date, research on a similar emerging syndemic among young MSM has been limited to quantitative studies. This study seeks to better understand these disparities, and how they may cluster together, via qualitative interviews with 21 ethnically diverse, HIV infected young MSM aged 18-24 years old. These youth report a lack of gay-specific HIV prevention education, absence of role models, and lack of productive future goal-related activities as factors related to their acquisition of HIV, and downplay substance use as a factor. Although not necessarily the components traditionally cited by syndemic theorists, these findings support the notion that multiple factors of cultural marginalization cluster together in the lives of young MSM, and underscore the importance of community-level interventions, such as sexual health education, access to mentors, and assistance with future goal setting and planning.

  8. Testicular function in young men in long-term remission after treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Geisler, C; Hansen, M M

    1984-01-01

    16 young men in long-term remission after standard treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease were examined for testicular function 48 to 125 months after termination of therapy. The patients had received mantle field irradiation, plus either irradiation of infradiaphragmatic lymph nodes...... to chemotherapy, especially including alkylating agents....

  9. COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENCE OF THE TEENAGE YOUNG MEN AND THE PERSONS WHO ARE CALLED UP FOR MILITARY SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Иванович Бабенко

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion. The elaborated information and analytical model allows keeping track of the nature of the formation of the defense potential on all the key parameters of the assessment of the state of health of teenage young men and the persons of draft age.

  10. Development and Evaluation of an Internet-Based Program to Improve the Mental Health and Wellbeing of Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Louise A.; McCabe, Kathryn; Davenport, Tracey; Burns, Jane M.; Rahilly, Kitty; Nicholas, Mariesa; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the development of WorkOut, an Internet-based program designed to help young men overcome the barriers towards help-seeking and to build the skills they need to understand and manage their own mental health. Information and communication technologies (ICT) hold great potential to significantly improve mental…

  11. The Work-to-College Transition: Postsecondary Expectations and Enrolment for Young Men and Women in the US Labour Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan S.; Bills, David B.; Devlin, Maura E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates early employment influences on postsecondary expectations and enrolment for working men and women who have recently completed high school in the United States. We find that young workers still have very high expectations for postsecondary education, but that women are more likely to enrol. However, this difference is…

  12. Success in These Schools? Visual Counternarratives of Young Men of Color and Urban High Schools They Attend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of published scholarship on urban high schools in the United States focuses on problems of inadequacy, instability, underperformance, and violence. Similarly, across all schooling contexts, most of what has been written about young men of color continually reinforces deficit narratives about their educational possibility.…

  13. The Impact of Child Maltreatment and Family Violence on the Sexual, Reproductive, and Parenting Behaviors of Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluzzi, Patricia; Kahn, Abby

    2007-01-01

    The phrase, "Boys will be Boys" is often given as a tongue-in-cheek response to aggressive or "boyish" behavior; the kind of roughhousing or bullying more often tolerated--or even encouraged--among boys than girls. Such a strict and outmoded definition of masculinity serves as one major barrier to boys and young men who seek the opportunity to…

  14. What Does Playing Cards Have to Do with Science? A Resource-Rich View of African American Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions…

  15. Only minor additional metabolic health benefits of high as opposed to moderate dose physical exercise in young, moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M H; Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, P L

    2014-01-01

    % in HIGH (P health assessed by questionnaire increased similarly in MOD (P additional health benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important...... public health implications....

  16. A systematic review of SNAPO (Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity) randomized controlled trials in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee M; Morgan, Philip J; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Young, Myles D; Collins, Clare E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity (SNAPO) interventions in young men exclusively. The secondary aim was to evaluate the recruitment, retention and engagement strategies. A search with no date restrictions was conducted across seven databases. Randomized controlled trials recruiting young men only (aged 18-35 years) into interventions targeting any SNAPO risk factors were included. Ten studies were included (two nutrition, six alcohol use, two targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors). Six studies (two nutrition, three alcohol use and one targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors) demonstrated significant positive short-term intervention effects, but impact was either not assessed beyond the intervention (n=3), had short-term follow-up (≤6 months) (n=2) or not sustained beyond six months (n=1). Overall, a high risk of bias was identified across studies. Only one study undertook a power calculation and recruited the required sample size. Adequate retention was achieved in three studies. Effectiveness of engagement strategies was not reported in any studies. Despite preliminary evidence of short-term effectiveness of SNAPO interventions in young men, few studies characterized by a high risk of bias were identified. High quality SNAPO interventions for young men are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been reported that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<35 mg/dL. But in this study, some patients had hypertension that may have affected the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio. This study consisted of 1274 asymptomatic healthy young men. In contrast with the previous study, we investigated the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with controls. Methods: We studied 1274 asymptomatic young males (military personnel screening who underwent routine health check-up. Of them, 102 subjects had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than that of the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in asymptomatic healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control participants.

  18. Premarital sexual experience and preferred sources of reproductive health information among young men in Kumbotso, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Z; Zubairu, I; Abubakar, I S; Isa, S A; Galadanci, H S; Hadiza, S G; Babam Maryam, A; Babam-Maryam, A; Aliyu, M H; Muktar, H A

    2012-01-01

    Despite well known risks associated with unprotected premarital sex, this phenomenon has not been well explored among young men in rural northern Nigeria. We studied the predictors of premarital sex and preferred sources of sexual and reproductive health information among young unmarried men in Kumbotso, northern Nigeria. A cross section of 400 young men were interviewed using structured questionnaires with mostly closed ended questions. Of the 385 respondents, 39 (10.1%) were sexually experienced. Less than half of respondents (48.7%) used a condom at sexual debut, and an equal proportion reported having multiple sex partners. Only 41.0% of sexually experienced respondents reported subsequent consistent condom use Age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.24-5.20 and educational attainment [AOR = 3.57; 95% CI (1.49-9.10)] were significant predictors of sexual experience. The current versus preferred sources of sexual and reproductive health information included friends (51.3% vs. 93.3%), Islamic school teachers (41.0% vs. 72.7%) and school teachers (8.8% vs. 15.1%). Although the prevalence of premarital sex among young men in this community in northern Nigeria as low, those that did engage in such activity were likely to not use condoms and to have multiple partners. Preferred and trusted sources of information included peers and religious leaders. The findings in this study could be used to develop innovative strategies for reaching young men with accurate sexual and reproductive health information.

  19. The incidence of gastrointestinal pathology and subsequent anemia in young men presenting with iron deficiency without anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dan; Bardan, Eytan; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Avidan, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of iron deficiency (ID) without anemia in young men is unclear, and there are no evidence-based recommendations for the required gastrointestinal (GI) evaluation. The aims of this study were to examine the incidence of significant GI pathology and the development of anemia during the follow-up of young men presenting with ID, but without anemia. All young men (18-30 years) who served in the Israel Defense Forces during the years 2005-2013 and had at least a single laboratory test indicative of ID without anemia were followed until the diagnosis of significant GI pathology or discharge from military service. The study population included 2061 young men (mean age 20.7±1.8). During follow-up of 3150 person years, significant GI pathologies were diagnosed in 39 patients: inflammatory bowel disease in 25 (1.2%), celiac disease in 8 (0.4%), and peptic disease in 4 (0.1%). No cases of GI-related cancer were diagnosed. ID anemia developed during follow-up in 203 (9.8%). Lower baseline hemoglobin levels, lower ferritin levels, and younger age at diagnosis were more common among those who developed anemia. The development of anemia was a predisposing factor for the diagnosis of GI pathology (risk ratio=3.60, 95% confidence interval 1.34-8.32, P=0.012). Significant GI pathology is very uncommon in young men presenting with ID. Overt anemia developed in close to 10% of the study cohort. Therefore, we advise simple GI evaluation (celiac serology, C-reactive protein or fecal calprotectin, and urease breath test) as well as follow-up in this population.

  20. Masculinities, 'guy talk' and 'manning up': a discourse analysis of how young men talk about sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Frank, Blye; Ogilvie, Gina

    2012-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infection testing rates among young men remain low, and their disengagement from sexual health services has been linked to enactments of masculinity that prohibit or truncate discussions of sexual health. Understanding how men align with multiple masculinities is therefore important for tailoring interventions that appropriately respond to their needs. We draw on 32 in-depth interviews with 15-24-year-old men to explore the discourses that facilitate or shut down sexual health communication with peers and sex partners. We employ a critical discourse analysis to explore how men's conversations about sexual health are constituted by masculine hierarchies (such as the ways in which masculinities influence men's ability to construct or challenge and contest dominant discourses about sexual health). Men's conversations about sexual health focused primarily around their sexual encounters - something frequently referred to as 'guy talk'. Also described were situations whereby participants employed a discourse of 'manning up' to (i) exert power over others with disregard for potential repercussions and (ii) deploy power to affirm and reify their own hyper-masculine identities, while using their personal (masculine) power to help others (who are subordinate in the social ordering of men). By better understanding how masculine discourses are employed by men, their sexual health needs can be advanced. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Gender differences in associations of sexual and romantic stimuli: do young men really prefer sex over romance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2012-08-01

    Theory and research emphasize differences in men's and women's sexual and romantic attitudes, concluding that men have stronger preferences for sexual than romantic stimuli as compared to women. However, most of the research on gender differences have relied on self-reports, which are plagued by problems of social desirability bias. The current study assessed young men's and women's implicit attitudes toward sexual and romantic stimuli to test whether, in fact, men have a stronger preference for sexual over romantic stimuli compared to women. We also assessed associations between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as sex role ideology and personality. College students (68 men and 114 women) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assessed strengths of associations of sexual and romantic stimuli to both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Results revealed that both men and women more strongly associated romantic images to the pleasant condition than they associated the sexual images to the pleasant condition. However, as predicted, women had a stronger preference toward romantic versus sexual stimuli compared to men. Our study challenges a common assumption that men prefer sexual over romantic stimuli. The findings indicate that measures of implicit attitudes may tap preferences that are not apparent in studies relying on self-reported (explicit) attitudes.

  2. Generational changes in the meanings of sex, sexual identity and stigma among Latino young and adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18-60. This study asks how the bisexual identity and experience of stigma is different for Latino men along the generational spectrum and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men aged 18-25, whose open bisexual identity correlated positively with kinship/peer support and flexible gender and sexual roles, and men aged 26-60, who refused or were reluctant to identify as bisexual despite the fact that they were sexually active with both men and women. This group as a whole had less kinship and peer support, were more likely to identify with traditional gender roles and were less sexually versatile. Finally, a third group reflected Latino men across the generational divide who were less concerned with same-sex stigma, but who nevertheless felt the bisexual label to be confining, illegitimate or otherwise negative.

  3. A cross-national comparison of violence among young men in China and the UK: psychiatric and cultural explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Hu, Junmei; Kallis, Constantinos; Ping, Yuan; Zhang, Juying; Hu, Yueying; Bui, Laura; Ullrich, Simone; Bebbington, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Public health psychiatry has a key role in violence prevention. Cross-national comparisons of violence and associated psychiatric morbidity can indicate targets for preventive interventions. Data on young adult men in households, 18-34 years, were drawn from the Second Men's Modern Lifestyles survey in Great Britain (n = 2046) and from a corresponding survey in Chengdu, China (n = 4132), using a translated questionnaire. Binary logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the cross-national differences for different types of violence and to identify explanatory variables. Chinese men were less likely to report violence in the past 5 years (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.72, P violence were lower among Chinese men except intimate partner violence (AOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.65-3.59, P violence persisting into adulthood, confidence in fighting ability, perception that violence is acceptable behaviour, and experience of violent victimization. More British men screened positive for antisocial personality disorder and substance misuse. Attitudes which condone violence and a serious problem of alcohol-related, male-on-male violence are key targets for preventive interventions among British men. The higher prevalence of life course-persistent antisocial behaviour among British men is of concern and requires further investigation. Higher prevalence of intimate partner violence among Chinese men reflects patriarchal approaches to conflict resolution and confirms an important public health problem in China which requires further cross-national investigation.

  4. Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: evidences from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (pdefinitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  6. Association between Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Chinese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, X; Song, Zh; Zhao, Ch; Jiang, Y

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Chinese population and assess the association between HOMA-IR and different components of MetS in young Chinese men. Overall 5576 young Chinese subjects (age range [19-44 yr], 3636 men) were enrolled in, who visited our Health Care Center for a related health checkup from March to December 2008. The international diabetes federation (IDF) definition for MetS was used. The SPSS statistical package, version 11.5 was used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence of MetS was 21.81% in young men and 5.62% in young women. According to suffering from different numbers of MetS components, the male subjects were divided into four groups. Numbers of MetS components were more and HOMA-IR values were significantly higher. In this male population, the quartile of HOMA-IR was higher, values of triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FBG), systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and waist circumference (WC) were all significantly higher, as well as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) value was significantly lower (P= 0.000). In Spearman's correlation analysis, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with TG, FBG, SBP, DBP and WC, and negatively correlated with HDL-C (r= 0.460, 0.464, 0.362, 0.346, 0.586, -0.357, respectively, all P value= 0.000). The prevalence of MetS in these young Chinese men was obviously high. Insulin resistance played an important role in occurrence and development of MetS. Waist circumference was the best correlation with HOMA-IR among all components of MetS.

  7. Recruiting Young Gay and Bisexual Men for a Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intervention Through Social Media: The Effects of Advertisement Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Bauermeister, Jose A; Shoben, Abigail B; Paskett, Electra D; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2017-06-02

    Web-based approaches, specifically social media sites, represent a promising approach for recruiting young gay and bisexual men for research studies. Little is known, however, about how the performance of social media advertisements (ads) used to recruit this population is affected by ad content (ie, image and text). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different images and text included in social media ads used to recruit young gay and bisexual men for the pilot test of a Web-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intervention. In July and September 2016, we used paid Facebook advertisements to recruit men who were aged 18-25 years, self-identified as gay or bisexual, US resident, and had not received HPV vaccine. A 4x2x2 factorial experiment varied ad image (a single young adult male, a young adult male couple, a group of young adult men, or a young adult male talking to a doctor), content focus (text mentioning HPV or HPV vaccine), and disease framing (text mentioning cancer or a sexually transmitted disease [STD]). Poisson regression determined whether these experimental factors affected ad performance. The recruitment campaign reached a total of 35,646 users who viewed ads for 36,395 times. This resulted in an overall unique click-through rate of 2.01% (717/35,646) and an overall conversion rate of 0.66% (241/36,395). Reach was higher for ads that included an image of a couple (incidence rate ratio, IRR=4.91, 95% CI 2.68-8.97, Psocial media recruitment ads. ©Paul L Reiter, Mira L Katz, Jose A Bauermeister, Abigail B Shoben, Electra D Paskett, Annie-Laurie McRee. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 02.06.2017.

  8. Project Gel a Randomized Rectal Microbicide Safety and Acceptability Study in Young Men and Transgender Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McGowan

    Full Text Available The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women (TGW at risk of HIV infection.MSM and TGW aged 18-30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel. This was followed by the final phase of the study (Stage 2 in which a subset of participants from Stage 1B were enrolled into a Phase 1 rectal safety and acceptability evaluation of tenofovir (TFV 1% gel.248 participants were enrolled into Stage 1A. Participants' average age was 23.3 years. The most common sexually transmitted infection (STIs at baseline were Herpes simplex (HSV-2 (16.1% by serology and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT (10.1% by NAAT. 134 participants were enrolled into Stage 1B. During the 12 week period of follow-up 2 HIV, 5 rectal CT, and 5 rectal Neisseria gonorrhea infections were detected. The majority of adverse events (AEs were infections (N = 56 or gastrointestinal (N = 46 and were mild (69.6% or moderate (28.0%. Of the participants who completed Stage 1B, 24 were enrolled into Stage 2 and randomized (1:1 to receive TFV or placebo gel. All participants completed Stage 2. The majority of AEs were gastrointestinal (N = 10 and of mild (87.2% or moderate (10.3% severity.In this study we were able to enroll a sexually active population of young MSM and TGW who were willing to use rectal microbicides. TFV gel was safe and acceptable and should be further developed as an alternative HIV prevention intervention for this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01283360.

  9. Comparative analysis of two different methods of anaerobic capacity assessment in sedentary young men

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    Klašnja Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Wingate anaerobic test is a valid and reliable method of measuring anaerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether other modified test can be used instead of the Wingate test. Methods. A group of 30 sedentary young men were first tested with a cycle ergometer (classic Wingate test, and then with a dynamometer during 30 s of 'all out' leg extension exercise (modified Wingate test; WAnTe in order to test anaerobic capacity. Subsequent correlations between these tests were made. Results. Peak power, mean power on cycling ergometer in absolute and relative values were 463 ± 105 W, 316.7 ± 63.8 W, 5.68 ± 1.17 W/kg, 3.68 ± 0.78 W/kg, respectively. On a dynamometer absolute and relative values of maximal and mean load in kg and power in Watts were 136.54 ± 21.3 kg, 1.67 ± 0.26; 128.65 ± 19.93 kg, 1.57 ± 0.24 kg, 657 ± 125.87 W, and 8 ± 1.54 W/kg, respectively. There was no correlation between 5 s intervals of the classic Wingate test and WAnTe during the first, fourth and fifth intervals, but in the second (r = 0.49, p < 0.05, third (r = 0.38, p < 0.05 and last 5 s intervals (r = 0.39, p < 0.05, and also in peak power and mean power (r = 0.42, p < 0.05 and r = 0.45, p < 0.05 respectively, a significant positive correlation was detected. Conclusion. A modified Wingate test of leg extension on a dynamometer in sedentary young men shows a correlation with the classic Wingate test only in parameters of peak power, and mean power and the second, the third and the last 5 s intervals. Because of that it should only be used for orientation, whereas for precise measurements of anaerobic capacity the classic Wingate test should be used.

  10. Young men's health: a balance between self-reliance and vulnerability in the light of hegemonic masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Regina; Sandén, Inger

    2008-06-01

    Masculinity, in its hegemonic form, can have the effect that men avoid talking about health problems and do not consult health care, even when help is needed. This study had two aims: firstly to describe how young men relate to health, ill health, masculinity and their bodies, and secondly to investigate their abilities of self-care. Interviews with eleven men were conducted using a semi-structured approach. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interviews. The findings revealed five main themes; 'body awareness', 'the creation of self-reliance', 'feelings of freedom', 'the process of self-care awareness' and, finally, 'feelings of vulnerability'. Hegemonic masculinity impacted greatly on the men in this study and could be traced in expressions of dependency, vulnerability, loss of freedom and an altered body image. These were viewed as health disadvantages due to the threat to hegemonic masculinity.

  11. Sensation seeking moderates the effects of alcohol and drug use prior to sex on sexual risk in young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Clerkin, Elise M; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-04-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in the United States each year, and young MSM (ages 13-24) have the highest increases in new infections. Identifying which young MSM engage in sexual risk-taking in which contexts is critical in developing effective behavioral intervention strategies for this population. While studies have consistently found positive associations between the use of certain drugs and sexual risk, research on alcohol use as a predictor of risk has been less consistent. Participants included 114 young MSM from a longitudinal study of LGBT youth (ages 16-20 at baseline). Participants reported number of unprotected sex acts with up to nine partners across three waves of data collection spanning a reporting window of 18 months, for a total of 406 sexual partners. Sensation seeking was evaluated as a moderator of the effects of both alcohol and drug use prior to sex on sexual risk. Higher levels of sensation seeking were found to significantly increase the positive associations between frequency of unprotected sex and frequency of both alcohol use and drug use with partners. Follow-up analysis found that average rates of alcohol use moderated the association between alcohol use prior to sex and sexual risk, such that decreases in average alcohol use increased the positive association between these variables. Results suggest that while drug use with partners increased sexual risk for all young MSM, the effects of alcohol use prior to sex were limited in low sensation-seeking young MSM as well as those who are high alcohol consumers on average. Implications for future research and behavioral interventions are discussed.

  12. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained Muslim men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of sleep deprivation and dietary irregularities during Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained male Muslim individuals. 77 untrained Muslim men were recruited in the study. They were divided into the experimental group (EG; n=37, age: 22.62±1.77 years) and the control group (CG; n=40, age: 23.00±1.48 years). EG was undergoing RIF while CG abstained. Aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity or high-intensity efforts (HIEs), agility, flexibility, vertical jump height and handgrip strength were measured on 8 separate occasions-15 days before RIF, 7 days before RIF, 1st day of RIF, 7th day of RIF, 15th day of RIF, 21st day of RIF, last day of RIF and 15 days after RIF. Aerobic fitness and HIE showed a significant difference (p<0.05) during RIF in EG. Agility and flexibility score showed a significant decrease in EG during RIF, whereas changes in the vertical jump score (VJT) and handgrip strength were statistically insignificant. Studied parameters showed an insignificant variation in CG during RIF. Aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility showed a significant intergroup variation during different experimental trials. The present investigation revealed that RIF had adverse effects on aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility of young untrained Muslims of Kolkata, India. VJT, waist-hip ratio and handgrip strength were not affected by RIF in the studied population. Mild but statistically insignificant reduction in body mass was also reflected after the mid-Ramadan week.

  13. PERSONIFICATION OF WAY OF LIFE TYPES OF YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN – GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY

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    Svetlana Tigranovna Dzhaneryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study aimed at research of the characteristics of personification as the substantive characteristic of each type of the way of life ideals (matrimonial, bohemian, health, career, community, social, social-protection, gnostic of young men and women – graduates of the university.Research methods: survey (questionnaire for study the way of life ideal, a content analysis of the open questions of the questionnaire, expert evaluation categories, methods of nonparametric statistics.Results. The article presents ideas about the way of life ideals, discloses its components and characteristics. In the article designated types of way of life ideals: matrimonial, bohemian, health, career, community, social-protection, gnostic. Established the features of personification of each type of boys and girl’s ideals (who are graduates of the university. The results show that all kinds of way of life ideals are personified; that there are attractive to young people personality traits of real people (or groups whose way of life influences on the construction of their own ideals of life. It is shown that the differentiation of male and female personification of ideals occurs on different parameters: for the ideals of «matrimonial life» and «career life» appears only in the parameter singularity / community; for the ideal of «social life» – in the parameters singularity / community, the psychological portrait, similarities; for the ideal of «health life» – in the parameters singularity / community, the psychological portrait, a means of implementing, similarities.Application of the results: psychological services in high schools and personnel services in different companies.

  14. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neychev, V K; Mitev, V I

    2005-10-03

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on androgen metabolism in young males. Twenty-one healthy young 20-36 years old men with body weight ranging from 60 to 125 kg were randomly separated into three groups-two experimental (each n=7) and a control (placebo) one (n=7). The experimental groups were named TT1 and TT2 and the subjects were assigned to consume 20 and 10 mg/kg body weight per day of Tribulus terrestris extract, respectively, separated into three daily intakes for 4 weeks. Testosterone, androstenedione and luteinizing hormone levels in the serum were measured 24 h before supplementation (clear probe), and at 24, 72, 240, 408 and 576 h from the beginning of the supplementation. There was no significant difference between Tribulus terrestris supplemented groups and controls in the serum testosterone (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 15.75+/-1.75 nmol/l); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 16.32+/-1.57 nmol/l); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 17.74+/-1.09 nmol/l) (p>0.05)), androstenedione (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 1.927+/-0.126 ng/ml); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 2.026+/-0.256 ng/ml); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 1.952+/-0.236 ng/ml) (p>0.05)) or luteinizing hormone (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 4.662+/-0.274U/l); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 4.103+/-0.869U/l); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 4.170+/-0.406U/l) (p>0.05)) levels. All results were within the normal range. The findings in the current study anticipate that Tribulus terrestris steroid saponins possess neither direct nor indirect androgen-increasing properties. The study will be extended in the clarifying the probable mode of action of Tribulus terrestris steroid saponins.

  15. Complexity of heartbeat interval series in young healthy trained and untrained men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platisa, Mirjana M; Nestorovic, Zorica; Gal, Vera; Mazic, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    The origin of heart rate variability (HRV) is largely in parasympathetic activity. The direct influence of sympathetic activity and other control mechanisms, especially at an increased HR, is not well understood. The objectives of the study were to investigate the influence of increasing HR on the properties of heartbeat interval (RR) series in young healthy subjects. ECG was recorded in 9 trained and 11 untrained young men during supine rest, standing, incremental running exercise and relaxation. During exercise, a breath-to-breath gas exchange was monitored. The RR time series analysis included the spectral analysis, detrended fluctuations analysis method and sample entropy (SampEn) calculation. During exercise, spectral powers were reduced dramatically in both groups. The dependence of short-term scaling exponent (α 1 ) on the RR included a characteristic maximum, while SampEn for the same value of the RR had a minimum. The value of HR corresponding to the maximum of α 1 and minimum of SampEn (IHR) corresponded to the intrinsic HR obtained by an autonomic blockade. In trained subjects, the curves α 1 versus RR and SampEn versus RR were moved toward larger RR, compared with control. For HR values higher than IHR, α 1 decreased and SampEn increased. These results reveal that the complexity of the heart rhythm above intrinsic HR decreases with an increase in HR. We suggest that at the highest HR intrinsic heart control is reflected in the heart rhythm. We point out the possibility of developing a new non-invasive method for the determination of intrinsic HR from the curve α 1 versus RR

  16. All the young men gone: losing men in the gentrification of Australian nursing circa 1860-1899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J

    1996-12-01

    Men played an important role in nursing in colonial Australia. However the number of men undertaking nursing duties declined dramatically in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reasons for this are explored in relation to ramifications of the introduction of the Nightingale pattern of nurse training in Australia, which occurred within the Victorian ethos of gentility and decorum. In this context, nursing came to be seen as a calling that was natural and appropriate for women. The controlled, decorous ambience of nursing, its subservient relationship to medicine and the attractiveness to employers of female pay rates are all associated with the decline in male participation over this period.

  17. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  18. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  19. Evaluation of sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele using the International Index of Erectile Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamé, Xavier; Moscovici, Jacques; Gamé, Laurence; Sarramon, Jean-Pierre; Rischmann, Pascal; Malavaud, Bernard

    2006-03-01

    To assess sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele. Between November 2003 and February 2004, a cross-sectional study was performed in 55 men older than 18 years of age who had been regularly followed up for myelomeningocele since childhood, between 1961 and 1985, in the Pediatric Internal Surgery Department. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was mailed to each man. The response rate was 72.7%. Of the 40 men who replied, 16 (40%) had had sexual intercourse at least once during the previous month. These were the older men (age 31.9 +/- 5.7 years versus 27.7 +/- 5.5 years, P = 0.027). The IIEF scores for the whole group were erectile function 11.61 +/- 9.44, orgasmic function 3.53 +/- 3.86, sexual desire 6.94 +/- 2.4, intercourse satisfaction 3.7 +/- 4.81, and overall satisfaction 4.7 +/- 3.34. According to the classification of Cappelleri, of the 16 men who had had sexual intercourse during the previous month, 4 had no erectile dysfunction, 3 had mild, 4 mild to moderate, and 5 severe dysfunction. Erectile function was statistically related to the ability to maintain erections (mean IIEF score 4 and 5 for men with no erectile dysfunction versus a mean IIEF score of 4 and 5 for men with erectile dysfunction: 4.75 +/- 0.5 versus 2.00 +/- 1.32, P = 0.011 for IIEF score of 4 and 4.50 +/- 1.5 versus 3 +/- 2, P = 0.040 for IIEF score of 5). Young adult men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele begin sexual activity late. Moreover, 75% have erectile dysfunction that is related to difficulty in maintaining erections.

  20. A Theory-Based Exploration of Condomless Anal Intercourse Intention Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men of Different Sexual Roles in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jen-Hao; Huang, Jiun-Hau

    2017-11-28

    In recent years, men who have sex with men (MSM) have accounted for over 80% of all new HIV cases in Taiwan. More than 70% of new cases have occurred in those aged 15-34 years. Condomless anal intercourse (CAI) has been identified as the main route of HIV transmission among MSM. To systematically examine CAI intention and associated factors among young MSM in Taiwan, an anonymous online survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was conducted. Data from 694 MSM aged 15-39 years were included in the analysis. This study found that, overall, all five TPB factors (i.e., attitudes toward positive and negative outcomes regarding CAI, perceived support for CAI from important others, and perceived behavioral control of CAI under facilitating and constraining conditions) were significantly associated with CAI intention. When data were stratified by sexual role (i.e., receptive, versatile, and insertive), the associations between TPB factors and CAI intention varied. Of the five TPB factors, positive attitudes toward positive outcomes regarding CAI were most strongly associated with high CAI intention (AOR 5.68 for all young MSM; AOR 3.80-15.93, depending on sexual role). Findings from this study could inform the development of theory-driven HIV prevention programs as well as future research and practice. These results also highlight the importance of tailoring HIV prevention initiatives for young MSM of different sexual roles to optimize the program effectiveness.

  1. HIV Prevention and Sex Behaviors as Organizing Mechanisms in a Facebook Group Affiliation Network Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Fujimoto, Kayo; Schneider, John A

    2018-03-13

    Online social networking sites (SNS)-the Internet-based platforms that enable connection and communication between users-are increasingly salient social environments for young adults and, consequently, offer tremendous opportunity for HIV behavioral research and intervention among vulnerable populations like young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing from a cohort of 525 young Black MSM (YBMSM) living in Chicago, IL, USA April 2014-May 2015, we conducted social network analysis, estimating an exponential random graph model (ERGM) to model YBMSM's group affiliations on Facebook in relation to their sex behaviors and HIV prevention traits. A group's privacy setting-public, closed, or secret-was also modeled as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings reveal that HIV positive individuals were more likely to affiliate with Facebook groups, while those who engaged in group sex were less likely to do so. When it came to the privacy of groups, we learned that HIV positive individuals tended not to belong to groups with greater privacy (e.g., closed and secret groups), while individuals who engaged in group sex and those who engaged in regular HIV testing were more likely to belong to those groups. Results also showed that individuals who engaged in condomless sex showed significant signs of clustering around the same set of groups. HIV positive individuals, on the other hand, were significantly less likely to demonstrate clustering. Implications for interventions and future research are discussed.

  2. Study of the international epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia in young caucasian men using photographs from the internet

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    Yaniv Shalom Avital

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII, non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results : The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.

  3. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.

  4. Gender Policing During Childhood and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Sexual Minority Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men ( N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress. Over one third of the sample (37.8%) reported their parent(s) or the person(s) who raised them had policed their gender, including the use of disciplinary actions. Using multivariable regression, this study examined the relationship between parental gender policing and psychological well-being and substance use, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and current student status. Gender policing during childhood and adolescence was associated with recent substance use behaviors and psychological distress in multivariable models. A linear association between substance use behaviors and psychological distress and the number of disciplinary actions experienced during childhood and adolescence was also observed. Parents' attempts to police their sons' gender expression were associated with markers of distress among young sexual minority men. The relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and distress among young sexual minority men are discussed.

  5. Autophagy is induced by resistance exercise in young men but unfolded protein response is induced regardless of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentilä, Jaakko; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A; Hulmi, Juha J

    2018-04-02

    Autophagy and unfolded protein response (UPR) appear to be important for skeletal muscle homeostasis and may be altered by exercise. Our aim was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise and training on indicators of UPR and autophagy in healthy untrained young men (n = 12, 27 ± 4 years) and older men (n = 8, 61 ± 6 years) as well as in resistance-trained individuals (n = 15, 25 ± 5 years). Indicators of autophagy and UPR were investigated from the muscle biopsies after a single resistance exercise bout and after 21 weeks of resistance training. Lipidated LC3II as an indicator of autophagosome content increased at 48 hours post resistance exercise (P resistance-training period (P resistance exercise in untrained young and older men (P resistance-training period regardless of age. UPR was unchanged within the first few hours after the resistance exercise bout regardless of the training status. Changes in autophagy and UPR ER indicators did not correlate with a resistance-training-induced increase in muscle strength and size. Autophagosome content is increased by resistance training in young previously untrained men, but this response may be blunted by aging. However, unfolded protein response is induced by an unaccustomed resistance exercise bout in a delayed manner regardless of age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahola Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500 will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640 or a control group (n = 640 during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference, body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service

  7. Gamified physical activation of young men--a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Riikka; Pyky, Riitta; Jämsä, Timo; Mäntysaari, Matti; Koskimäki, Heli; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Huotari, Maija-Leena; Röning, Juha; Heikkinen, Hannu I; Korpelainen, Raija

    2013-01-14

    Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640) or a control group (n = 640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men can provide a translational model for community

  8. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of African American males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K Mukku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  9. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of african american males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K

    2012-01-01

    Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  10. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J; Williams, P L; Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Swan, S H; Chavarro, J E

    2014-07-01

    Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009-2010. Men aged 18-22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. Supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment), 'Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproductive Health' (DEER) grant 212844. Grant P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16 and T32HD060454 from the National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare.

  11. A single administration of cortisol acutely reduces preconscious attention for fear in anxious young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Hermans, Erno J; Koppeschaar, Hans; van Schijndel, Alexandra; van Honk, Jack

    2007-08-01

    Chronically elevated HPA activity has often been associated with fear and anxiety, but there is evidence that single administrations of glucocorticoids may acutely reduce fear. Moreover, peri-traumatic cortisol elevation may protect against development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Hypervigilant processing of threat information plays a role in anxiety disorders and although relations with HPA functioning have been established, causality of these relations remains unclear. Presently, self-reported anxiety and response time patterns on a masked emotional Stroop task with fearful faces were measured in 20 healthy young men after double-blind, placebo-controlled oral administration of 40 mg cortisol. The masked fearful Stroop task measures vocal colornaming response latencies for pictures of neutral and fearful faces presented below the threshold for conscious perception. Results showed increased response times on trials for fearful compared to neutral faces after placebo, but this emotional Stroop effect was acutely abolished by cortisol administration. This effect was most pronounced in subjects with heightened anxiety levels. This is the first evidence showing that exogenous cortisol acutely reduces anxiety-driven selective attention to threat. These results extend earlier findings of acute fear reduction after glucocorticoid administration. This suggests interactions of HPA functioning and vigilant attention in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Possible neuroendocrine mechanisms of action are discussed.

  12. Young Blood Rejuvenates Old Bodies: A Call for Reflection when Moving from Mice to Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2018-01-01

    Connecting the circulatory system of old and young mice (parabiosis) is documented to have rejuvenating effects on cells, tissues, organs, and functions. A wide range of benefits are envisioned. Blood-based rejuvenation can come to totally change population health and aging. The first blood rejuvenation studies on humans with Alzheimer's disease have started. It puts blood at the center of therapy and revitalizes the historical line of humoral pathology from Hippocrates and Harvey, creating a new type of 'bloodletting.' However, moving from mice to men requires careful consideration. Parabiosis actualizes well-known ethical challenges, such as just distribution of health care, avoiding disparities, and providing equal access to health care resources, as well as issues of human enhancement. However, it also poses new problems. Using internal substances in some persons as means to rejuvenate others calls for ethical reflection. New type of 'blood bonds' may result from the continuous demand for specific types of blood. Even if rejuvenating substances from blood may be artificially and cheaply produced and justly distributed, problems arise: survival may have to be balanced against reproduction, as reproductive age increases. Eternal youth and endless bliss have always been vital human dreams. Although parabiosis may bring us closer to the fountain of youth than ever, it is still too early to provide full-fledged assessments of its implications or to foresee how it will change health, aging, medicine, and society. However, in order to bring our reflective abilities on par with our technical skills, we need to start reflection now.

  13. Muscle activation in young men during a lower limb aquatic resistance exercise with different devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan Carlos; Furio, Josep; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    Little research has been reported on the effects of using different devices with resistance exercises in a water environment. This study compared muscular activation of lower extremity and core muscles during leg adduction performed at maximum velocity with drag and floating devices of different sizes. A total of 24 young men (mean age 23.20 ± 1.18 years) performed 3 repetitions of leg adduction at maximum velocity using 4 different devices (ie, large/small and drag/floating). The maximum amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of the adductor longus, rectus abdominis, external oblique on the dominant side, external oblique on the nondominant side, and erector lumbar spinae were recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Unexpectedly, no significant (P > 0.05) differences were found in the neuromuscular responses among the different devices used; the average activation of agonist muscle adequate for neuromuscular conditioning was 40.95% of MVIC. In addition, external oblique activation is greater on the contralateral side to stabilize the body (average, 151.74%; P < 0.05). Therefore, if maximum muscle activation is required, the kind of device is not relevant. Thus, the choice should be based on economic factors.

  14. Psychological well-being among religious and spiritual-identified young gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799

  15. Masculinities and young men's sex education needs in Ireland: problematizing client-centred health promotion approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Abbey; Howlett, Etaoine; Drennan, Jonathan; Brady, Dympna

    2005-12-01

    In recent decades, dominant discourses in health promotion have emphasized empowerment, client participation and the notion of people identifying and being facilitated to meet their own health needs. However, there has been little analysis of the concept of 'need' and the possibility, at least, that the fulfillment of some such self-defined needs are not in the interest of social justice and equality. In this article, we present an account of the sex education needs of secondary school pupils from their own perspectives, and problematize the concept of self-identified needs in health education. Twenty-nine focus group interviews were conducted with 226 secondary school pupils in Ireland, and data were subjected to a qualitative analysis. Findings suggested that young men tended to prioritize practical guidance that would provide them with the skills and confidence to take the lead in sexual encounters, and display competence in the act of penetrative sex. We argue that these self-defined sex education needs emanate from a culture of traditional masculinity where, for a male, one's place in the pecking order is derived from one's capacity to conquer, lead and display mastery with regard to sex. In the discussion, we attempt to unpack the notion of clients identifying their own needs and the concept of empowerment as it relates to our data, in the context of gender-based structural inequalities.

  16. Consequences of low birthweight on urinary excretion of DNA markers of oxidative stress in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillestrøm, P R; Weimann, A; Jensen, C B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birthweight (LBW) has been associated with an increased risk of development of type 2 diabetes in adult life. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized by increased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether young healthy adults born...... with LBW showed differences in oxidative stress under normal conditions and during the added challenge of a physiological Intralipid infusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urinary excretion of DNA markers of oxidative stress were analyzed by LC-MS/MS in 19 men (aged 19 years) with LBW and in 19 age matched...... with LBW and NBW (66.9 versus 73.9 nmol/15 h, 17.8 versus 18.5 nmol/15 h, 11.9 versus 14.4 nmol/15 h and 44.0 versus 43.2 pmol/15 h, respectively). Furthermore, Intralipid infusion did not affect excretion of DNA adducts in LBW or NBW subjects. Statistically significant correlations were found between body...

  17. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jorge E Chavarro; Jaime Mendiola; Manuela Roca; Cigdem Tanrikut; Jesús Vioque; Niels Jørgensen; Alberto M Torres-Cantero

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may inlfuence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this ifeld has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross‑sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may inlfuence testicular function.

  18. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakobowchuk, M; McGowan, C L; de Groot, P C; Bruinsma, D; Hartman, J W; Phillips, S M; MacDonald, M J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12 weeks, using a rotating 3-day split-body routine. Resting brachial blood pressure (BP), carotid pulse pressure, carotid cross-sectional compliance (CSC), carotid initima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular dimensions were evaluated before beginning exercise (PRE), after 6 weeks of exercise (MID) and at the end of 12 weeks of exercise (POST). CSC was measured using the pressure-sonography method. Results indicate reductions in brachial (61.1 +/- 1.4 versus 57.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg; P training and the mechanisms responsible for cardiac hypertrophy and reduced arterial compliance are either not inherent to all resistance-training programmes or may require a prolonged stimulus.

  20. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Kevin A; John, Casey S; Lawrence, Marcus M; Battista, Rebecca A; Shanely, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2) whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years) performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest) at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. PMID:24520199

  1. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  2. Young Men With Cancer Experience Low Referral Rates for Fertility Counseling and Sperm Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Natalie S; Deal, Allison M; Wood, William A; Mersereau, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    With improved cancer survival rates and the current trend of delaying parenthood, fertility is a growing issue among cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fertility counseling and sperm banking in reproductive-age male cancer patients and to assess factors that influence counseling and banking. Male patients ages 13 to 50 years who received a new cancer diagnosis from January 1, 2013, to May 1, 2015, and planned to initiate curative chemotherapy at our center were identified. Documentation of fertility counseling and sperm cryopreservation was abstracted from the medical record. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine variables associated with fertility counseling and sperm banking. Of 201 patients who fit the study criteria, 59 (29%) received fertility counseling and 23 (11%) attempted sperm banking. All patients who banked sperm had documentation of fertility counseling. Younger patients were significantly more likely to be counseled, with mean ages of 27.4 and 40.4 years for counseled and noncounseled patients, respectively (P year odds ratio, 0.61; P fertility counseling and referral for sperm banking in young men with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Further work is needed to develop interventions to improve fertility counseling rates and opportunities for sperm banking. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN YOUNG MEN FROM MAPUTO CITY, MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eugénio Tchamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.

  4. Risk Behavior and Reciprocity of Organ Donation Attitudes in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterli, D C M; Lava, S A G; Essig, S; Milosevic, G; Cajöri, G; Uehlinger, D E; Moor, M B

    2015-01-01

    Lack of donor organs remains a major obstacle in organ transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate (1) the association between engaging in high-risk recreational activities and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) the degree of reciprocity between organ acceptance and donation willingness in young men. A 17-item, close-ended survey was offered to male conscripts ages 18 to 26 years in all Swiss military conscription centers. Predictors of organ donation attitudes were assessed in bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Reciprocity of the intentions to accept and to donate organs was assessed by means of donor card status. In 1559 responses analyzed, neither motorcycling nor practicing extreme sports reached significant association with donor card holder status. Family communication about organ donation, student, or academic profession and living in a Latin linguistic region were predictors of positive organ donation attitudes, whereas residence in a German-speaking region and practicing any religion predicted reluctance. Significantly more respondents were willing to accept than to donate organs, especially among those without family communication concerning organ donation. For the first time, it was shown that high-risk recreational activities do not influence organ donation attitudes. Second, a considerable discrepancy in organ donation reciprocity was identified. We propose that increasing this reciprocity could eventually increase organ donation rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  6. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  7. Disclosure of newly diagnosed HIV infection and condom use at first sex after diagnosis: a study of young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro; Arnold, Trisha

    2017-08-01

    Background The first purpose of the present study was to determine whether young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) disclose their newly diagnosed HIV infection to a male or female partner, and to determine whether this disclosure is related to condom use; the second was to identify correlates of disclosing newly diagnosed HIV infection to male sex partners, including a measure of partner-related barriers to condom use. A sample of 125 HIV-infected YBMSM (age 15-29 years) provided cross-sectional data used for both study purposes. Recruitment occurred in a mid-size city in the southern US experiencing inordinately high prevalence and incidence rates of HIV among YBMSM. Significance was defined by an α level of <0.05. Eighty-eight YBMSM (70.4%) indicated disclosing their newly diagnosed HIV status to the first male partner they had sex with after being diagnosed. Of these, nine (9.1%) reported that condoms were not used during ensuing sex with that partner. However, of the men not disclosing, 27.0% reported not using condoms for ensuing sex (P=0.009). Similar findings were observed relative to sex with females (P=0.057). Regarding the second study purpose, in addition to a protective effect of advancing age, men scoring at or above the median on a measure of partner-related barriers to condom use were 2.4-fold more likely to not disclose compared with men scoring below the median (P=0.04). For YBMSM, a beneficial counselling objective relative to disclosing newly diagnosed HIV may be to help men resolve perceptions of partner-related barriers to condom use.

  8. Persistent Sexual Dysfunction and Suicidal Ideation in Young Men Treated with Low-Dose Finasteride: A Pharmacovigilance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayad K; Heran, Balraj S; Etminan, Mahyar

    2015-07-01

    Finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, is marketed in a low dose (1 mg) as a popular therapy for androgenic alopecia in young men. As case reports and small surveys have suggested a link between persistent sexual dysfunction (SD) and suicidal ideation (SI) with low-dose finasteride, the aim of this study was to detect signals of SD and SI secondary to low-dose finasteride use in young men. Retrospective pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis. United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Low-dose finasteride-related adverse event reports for men aged 18-45 years that were submitted to the FAERS between 1998 and 2013 were retrieved. Multi-item Gamma Poisson Shrinker disproportionality analysis was applied to calculate the empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an association metric between low-dose finasteride and the events of interest. Signals were defined as associations with thresholds of a CI lower limit of 2.0 or greater. Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms denoting to SD and SI were identified to reflect the outcome of interest. In total, of 4910 reports, 577 persistent SD and 39 SI adverse event reports (11.8% and 7.9%, respectively) were identified for young men using low-dose finasteride; 34 (87.2%) of the 39 men with SI also experienced SD. The majority of these events were serious (e.g., contributed to the patient's death, hospitalization, or disability). Low-dose finasteride was associated with more than expected reporting of SD in young men compared with reporting of these events with all other drugs within the database (EBGM 28.0, 95% CI 26.1-30.0). Disproportional reporting in SI events was noted, although it did not reach signal threshold (EBGM 1.72; 95% CI 1.31-2.23). Among serious SD events, 43% led to disability; 28% required medical intervention, including hospitalization; and 5% were life-threatening. Six fatal SD

  9. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 performance in trained young men. Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg(-1) · min(-1); means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg(-1) body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P = 0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44 ± 0.01 vs 7.32 ± 0.01 and 33.7 ± 3.2 vs 27.3 ± 0.6 mmol · l(-1), respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 mmol · l(-1) at baseline and increased to 11.3 ± 1.4 and 9.4 ± 0.8 mmol · l(-1) at exhaustion in SBC and CON, respectively, being higher (P = 0.03) in SBC. Additionally, peak blood lactate was higher (P = 0.02) in SBC than in CON (11.7 ± 1.2 vs 10.2 ± 0.7 mmol · l(-1)). Blood glucose, plasma K(+) and Na(+) were not different between trials. Peak heart rate reached at exhaustion was 197 ± 3 and 195 ± 3 bpm in SBC and CON, respectively, with no difference between conditions. RPE was 7% lower (P = 0.003) in SBC than in CON after 440 m, but similar at exhaustion (19.3 ± 0.2 and 19.5 ± 0.2). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior

  10. Understanding Engagement in HIV Risk and Prevention Research Among Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya

    2016-08-01

    To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16-21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention.

  11. A longitudinal examination of factors associated with social support satisfaction among HIV-positive young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Charlotte; Quinn, Katherine; Voisin, Dexter R; Schneider, John

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the long-term predictors of social support satisfaction among HIV-positive young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Data were collected across three waves between October 2012 and November 2014 as part of the baseline assessment from Project nGage, a preliminary efficacy randomized control study examining the role of social support in improving HIV care among YBMSM. The sample included 92 YBMSM aged 18-29. Major results controlling for age, education and intervention effects indicated that psychological health, social network size, and education at baseline predicted differences in social support satisfaction at Wave 3, with no significant effects based on length of HIV diagnosis. Therefore, interventions that are intended to promote the quality of life for YBMSM and their engagement and retention in HIV care must focus on their psychological health concerns and network size.

  12. Recent HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Bangkok and Chiang Mai: HIV Testing and Prevention Strategies Must Be Enhanced in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert

    2016-09-01

    HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts.

  13. Associations between sexual sensation seeking and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among young men who have sex with men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengting; Xiao, Chenchang; Cao, Yue; Yu, Bin; Li, Shiyue; Yan, Hong

    2017-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have become high risk groups for HIV infection in China. Recent researches suggest that sexual sensation seeking is significantly associated with AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, but the relationship is not clear in the field of YMSM in China. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sexual sensation seeking and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among YMSM in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to November 2013. 403 YMSM were recruited and 373 of them completed the questionnaire. Regression analyses indicated that YMSM with high sexual sensation seeking score are more likely to have low awareness of knowledge and negative attitude about condom use, as well as more risky sexual behaviors.

  14. Association between childhood physical abuse, unprotected receptive anal intercourse and HIV infection among young men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arn J Schilder

    Full Text Available The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population.We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders.Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5% reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6% reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8% participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.65-14.48, after controlling for potential confounders.Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.

  15. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring: a study of 1,925 young men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    motile sperm (-4.0%, 95% CI: -8.0, -0.1), and fewer morphologically normal spermatozoa (-2.0%, 95% CI: -4.1, 0.0). They also had a lower serum testosterone level and free androgen index (results not statistically significant). These findings should be viewed in light of the increasing use of fertility......Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample...

  16. The Effect of Reduced Physical Activity and Retraining on Blood Lipids and Body Composition in Young and Older Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Jesper; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . Daily physical activity decreased by 31±9 (Y) and 37±9 (O) % (Polder adults. FFA and glycerol......We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged...... increased with reduced activity (Pphysical activity for two weeks increases blood lipids in both Y and O men. Six weeks of training improved...

  17. Cognitive ability in young adulthood and risk of dementia in a cohort of Danish men, brothers, and twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Christensen, Gunhild T; Garde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We examined the association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and dementia in Danish men, brothers, and male twins. METHODS: In total, 666,986 men born between 1939 and 1959 were identified for dementia diagnosis in national registries from 1969 to 2016. The association.......03-1.13]). The intrabrother and twin analyses (taking shared family factors into account) showed attenuated risk estimates but with wide CIs. DISCUSSION: Low early-life cognitive ability increases the risk of dementia before the age of 78 years. The association is partly explained by shared family factors....

  18. Altered PI3-kinase/Akt signalling in skeletal muscle of young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.B.; Martin-Gronert, M.S.; Storgaard, H.

    2008-01-01

    obtained from 20 healthy 19-yr old men with BWbirth weight controls (NBW), matched for physical fitness and whole-body glucose disposal, prior to (fasting state) and following a 4-hr hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (insulin stimulated state......BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased future risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that young LBW men have reduced skeletal muscle expression of PI3K p85alpha......). Expression and phosphorylation of selected proteins was determined by Western blotting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insulin stimulated expression of aPKCzeta (pcontrols. LBW was associated with increased insulin...

  19. Young men with low birthweight exhibit decreased plasticity of genome-wide muscle DNA methylation by high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine C; Gillberg, Linn; Bork-Jensen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    The association between low birthweight (LBW) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes may involve epigenetic mechanisms, with skeletal muscle being a prime target tissue. Differential DNA methylation patterns have been observed in single genes in muscle tissue from type 2 diabetic and LBW...... individuals, and we recently showed multiple DNA methylation changes during short-term high-fat overfeeding in muscle of healthy people. In a randomised crossover study, we analysed genome-wide DNA promoter methylation in skeletal muscle of 17 young LBW men and 23 matched normal birthweight (NBW) men after...... a control and a 5 day high-fat overfeeding diet....

  20. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  1. Young men's attitudes and behaviour in relation to mental health and technology: implications for the development of online mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Hurley, Patrick J; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-04-20

    This mixed-methods study was designed to explore young Australian men's attitudes and behaviour in relation to mental health and technology use to inform the development of online mental health services for young men. National online survey of 486 males (aged 16 to 24) and 17 focus groups involving 118 males (aged 16 to 24). Young men are heavy users of technology, particularly when it comes to entertainment and connecting with friends, but they are also using technology for finding information and support. The focus group data suggested that young men would be less likely to seek professional help for themselves, citing a preference for self-help and action-oriented strategies instead. Most survey participants reported that they have sought help for a problem online and were satisfied with the help they received. Focus group participants identified potential strategies for how technology could be used to overcome the barriers to help-seeking for young men. The key challenge for online mental health services is to design interventions specifically for young men that are action-based, focus on shifting behaviour and stigma, and are not simply about increasing mental health knowledge. Furthermore, such interventions should be user-driven, informed by young men's views and everyday technology practices, and leverage the influence of peers.

  2. [Male identity, sport and health : Starting points for gender-sensitive support of boys and young men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Christoph; Neuber, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Sport is highly relevant in the life of boys and young men. It is not only one of the most common and important leisure activities, but also helps male self-assurance through physical conflicts and competitions as well as through physical proximity and social involvement. At the same time, sport is an ambivalent area that preserves health, but can also be dangerous to it. By considering the development of male identity, the specific possibilities of sport, as well as an overview of the health situation of boys, this article develops starting points for lifestyle-oriented health promotion of boys and young men in the area of exercise, games and sport. In sports, physical practices are learned that can have long-term effects as somatic cultures on health behavior. The work with boys in sports can be health-promoting if opportunities and risks are reflected upon and considered in the didactic planning and execution.

  3. Two weeks of one-leg immobilization decreases skeletal muscle respiratory capacity equally in young and elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity affects human skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity but the influence of aging combined with physical inactivity is not known. This study investigates the effect of two weeks of immobilization followed by six weeks of supervised cycle training on muscle oxidative...... capacity in 17 young (23±1years) and 15 elderly (68±1years) healthy men. We applied high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized fibers from muscle biopsies at inclusion after immobilization and training. Furthermore, protein content of mitochondrial complexes I-V, mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mt......HSP70) and voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) were measured in skeletal muscle by Western blotting. The elderly men had lower content of complexes I-V and mtHSP70 but similar respiratory capacity and content of VDAC compared to the young. In both groups the respiratory capacity and protein content...

  4. Racial differences in prostate cancer risk in young HIV-positive and HIV-negative men: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anupriya; Uno, Hajime; Holman, Alex; Lorenz, David R; Gabuzda, Dana

    2017-07-01

    African American men have the highest incidence of prostate cancer among ethnic groups, and racial disparity is highest in younger men. Prostate cancer prevalence is rising in HIV-infected men due to improved survival on antiretroviral therapies, yet little is known about racial differences in prostate cancer risk by HIV-infection status and age. This is a prospective cohort study of prostate cancer risk in 2,800 HIV-infected and -uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 40-70 years (22% African American) who were enrolled in the multicenter AIDS cohort study from 1996 to 2010. Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between race and HIV-infection status and prostate cancer risk among men aged 40-70, 40-55, and 56-70 years. Among men aged 40-70 years, incidence rates (IR) per 100,000 person-years were 169 among all men and 276 among African American HIV-infected men. Prostate cancer risk was similar by HIV-infection status (IRR 1.0, 95% CI 0.55-1.82), but nearly threefold higher in African Americans compared to non-African Americans in adjusted models (IRRs 2.66 and 3.22, 95% CIs 1.36-5.18 and 1.27-8.16 for all or HIV-infected men, respectively). Racial disparity in prostate cancer risk was greatest in African American men aged 40-55 years (adjusted IRR 3.31, 95% CI 1.19-9.22). Prostate cancer risk showed associations with family history of prostate cancer (p = 0.001), but not heavy smoking, androgen supplement use, or HIV-related factors. Among MSM, African American HIV-positive and HIV-negative men aged 40-55 years have threefold increased risk of young-onset prostate cancer compared to non-African American men, highlighting the need to make informed decisions about screening in this population.

  5. Perceived Stress After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison Between Young and Middle-Aged Women Versus Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly M; Edmondson, Donald E; Davidson, Karina W; Beltrame, John F; Bueno, Héctor; Lin, Haiqun; Dreyer, Rachel P; Brush, John E; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; DʼOnofrio, Gail; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how psychological stress changes over time in young and middle-aged patients after experiencing an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and whether these changes differ between men and women. We analyzed data obtained from 2358 women and 1151 men aged 18 to 55 years hospitalized for AMI. Psychological stress was measured using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) at initial hospitalization and at 1 month and 12 months after AMI. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine changes in PSS-14 scores over time and sex differences in these changes, while adjusting for patient characteristics and accounting for correlation among repeated observations within patients. Overall, patients' perceived stress decreased over time, especially during the first month after AMI. Women had higher levels of perceived stress than men throughout the 12-month period (difference in PSS-14 score = 3.63, 95% confidence interval = 3.08 to 4.18, p men = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.32 to 2.16, p middle-aged patients with AMI, women reported higher levels of perceived stress than men throughout the first 12 months of recovery. However, women and men had a similar pattern in how perceived stress changed over time.

  6. Development of a Multisystemic Parent Management Training Intervention for Incarcerated Parents, Their Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2008-01-01

    The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. Because prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce…

  7. Measures of Attitudes Toward and Communication about Condom Use: Their Relationships With Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Yarber, William L; Sanders, Stephanie A; Milhausen, Robin R; Mena, Leandro

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and test measures of psychosocial mediators that could be used in intervention studies seeking to promote safer sex behavior among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). A total of 400 YBMSM, ages 18 to 29 years, were recruited from a clinic for sexually transmitted infection in the southern United States. All men had engaged in penile-anal sex with a man as a "top" in the past 6 months. The men completed an audio-computer-assisted self-interview and provided specimens used for nucleic acid amplification testing to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Four measures were constructed and tested for criterion validity (Safer Sex Communication, Condom Turn-Offs, Condom Pleasure Scale, and a single item assessing frequency of condom use discussions before sexual arousal). With the exception of Safer Sex Communication, all of the measures showed criterion validity for both unprotected anal insertive and unprotected anal receptive sex. With the exception of the Condom Turn-Offs, the 3 other measures were supported by criterion validity for oral sex. Both the Condom Turn-Offs and Condom Pleasure Scale were significantly related to whether or not the men reported multiple partners as a top, but only the Condom Pleasure Scale was associated with reports of multiple partners as a "bottom." Only the Condom Turn-Offs Scale was positively associated with having been diagnosed with either Chlamydia or gonorrhea. Findings provide 3 brief scales and a single item that can be used in intervention studies targeting YBMSM. Perceptions about condoms being a turnoff and about condoms enhancing pleasure showed strong association with sexual risk behaviors.

  8. Being both and acting 'man': exploring patterns of masculinisation among young same-sex-attracted men in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-five same-sex-attracted rural young Thai men were interviewed three times to investigate how their sexual subjectivity changed over an 18-month period after they completed high school and moved into a new life-phase. Many young men grew up with strong gender-based understandings of homosexuality, in which a masculine (top) partner is seen as complementing a feminine (bottom) partner. The discursive division between the masculine and feminine domains became increasingly blurred in the actual practice of dating, forcing the young men to develop new understandings of homosexuality and same-sex relations. The shift from a rural to urban environment, the use of the Internet and the experience of falling in love played important roles in this experimentation with new, increasingly masculine presentations of the self, also influenced by a modern urban masculine aesthetic. The paper concludes that the encounter between 'traditional' gender-based homosexuality and new ideas, in which masculine object-choice is important in defining sexual identity leads to a variety of fluid ideas and expressions. This process created confusion among some, and opportunities for exploration of new ways of defining sexual subjectivities among others.

  9. Methamphetamine use among newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men in North Carolina, United States, from 2000 to 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Hurt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a new arrival to the Southeastern United States (US. Incidence of HIV is also increasing regionally, but data are limited regarding any association between this trend and MA use. We examined behavioral data from North Carolina (NC residents newly diagnosed with HIV, collected by the Department of Health between 2000-2005.Among 1,460 newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men, an increasing trend was seen from 2000-2005 in MA use (p = 0.01, total n = 20. In bivariate analyses, users of MA had significantly greater odds of reporting other substance use, including alcohol, powder or crack cocaine, marijuana, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy". They were also more likely to have reported sexual activity while traveling outside NC; sex with anonymous partners; and previous HIV testing. In a predictive model, MA use had a negative association with nonwhite race, and strong positive associations with powder cocaine, "ecstasy," or intravenous drug use and being a university student.Similar to trends seen in more urban parts of the US, MA use among newly diagnosed, HIV-positive young men is increasing in NC. These data are among the first to demonstrate this relationship in a region with a burgeoning epidemic of MA use. Opportunities exist for MA-related HIV risk-reduction interventions whenever young men intersect the healthcare system.

  10. Do early unemployment and health status among young men and women affect their chances of later employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Janlert, U

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the risk of future unemployment among young people who had experienced early unemployment, and to examine whether this risk was influenced by their health status. A total of 1,083 pupils in the final year of compulsory schooling were included in the cohort. The non-participation rate was 2%. At the time of a five-year follow-up, of those who were unemployed during the first two-year period, 71% of the men and 49% of the women were unemployed, had recent experience of unemployment, or were outside the labour market. The relative risk of being unemployed was 2.39 for men (95% CI 1.85-3.10) and 1.76 for women (95% CI 1.25-2.48) among those who had experienced early unemployment compared with those who had been in Youth Opportunities Programmes (YOP) or in work. Young women in YOP had the same risk of later unemployment as those who had experienced early unemployment, while young men in YOP did not have increased risk. Health status and health behaviour had only a minor influence on the risk of unemployment.

  11. Smoking is associated with impaired bone mass development in young adult men: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudäng, Robert; Darelid, Anna; Nilsson, Martin; Nilsson, Staffan; Mellström, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    It has previously been shown that smoking is associated with reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk, but no longitudinal studies have been published investigating altered smoking behavior at the time of bone mass acquisition. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone density and geometry according to alterations in smoking behavior in a 5-year, longitudinal, population-based study of 833 young men, age 18 to 20 years (baseline). Furthermore, we aimed to examine the cross-sectional, associations between current smoking and parameters of trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), in young men aged 23 to 25 years (5-year follow-up). Men who had started to smoke since baseline had considerably smaller increases in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the total body (mean ± SD, 0.020 ± 0.047 mg/cm(2) versus 0.043 ± 0.040 mg/cm(2) , p young adulthood have poorer development of their aBMD at clinically important sites such as the spine and hip than nonsmokers, possibly due to augmented loss of trabecular density and impaired growth of cortical cross-sectional area. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Endurance training increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A; Majerczak, J; Grandys, M; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Duda, K

    2008-12-01

    It is believed that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal growth, transmission, modulation and plasticity. Single bout of exercise can increase plasma BDNF concentration [BDNF](p) in humans. It was recently reported however, that elevated [BDNF](p) positively correlated with risk factors for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age group of subjects. On the other hand it is well established that endurance training decreases the risk of diabetes and development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have examined the effect of 5 weeks of moderate intensity endurance training on the basal and the exercise induced changes in [BDNF](p) in humans. Thirteen young, healthy and physically active men (mean +/- S.E: age 22.7 +/- 0.5 yr, body height 180.2 +/- 1.7 cm, body weight 77.0 +/- 2.5 kg, V(O2max) 45.29 +/- 0.93 ml x kg-1 x min(-1)) performed a five week endurance cycling training program, composed mainly of moderate intensity bouts. Before training [BDNF]p at rest have amounted to 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1). No effect of a single maximal incremental cycling up to V(O2max) on its concentration was found (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1), P=0.74). The training resulted in a significant (P=0.01) increase in [BDNF]p at rest to 16.8 +/- 2.1 pg x ml(-1), as well as in significant (P=0.0002) exercise induced increase in the [BDNF](p) (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1) before training vs. 68.4 +/- 16.0 pg x ml(-1) after training). The training induced increase in resting [BDNF](p) was accompanied by a slight decrease in insulin resistance (P=0.25), calculated using the homeostatic model assessment version 2 (HOMA2-IR), amounting to 1.40 +/- 0.13 before and 1.15 +/- 0.13 after the training. Moreover, we have found that the basal [BDNF](p) in athletes (n=16) was significantly higher than in untrained subjects (n=13) (29.5 +/- 9.5 pg x ml(-1) vs. 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1), P=0.013). We have concluded that endurance training of

  13. Unpacking the racial disparity in HIV rates: the effect of race on risky sexual behavior among Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the large disparity in HIV prevalence rates between young Black and White Americans, including young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Research focusing on individual behaviors has proven insufficient to explain the disproportionately high rate of HIV among Black YMSM. The purpose of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of the pronounced racial disparity in HIV by evaluating whether YMSM are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors as a function of their partner's race. Participants included 117 YMSM from a longitudinal study evaluating lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth (ages 16-20 at baseline), who reported characteristics and risk behaviors of up to 9 sexual partners over an 18-month period. Results indicated that participants were less likely to have unprotected sex with Black partners, and this finding was not driven by a response bias (i.e., Black YMSM did not appear to be minimizing their reports of unprotected sex). Furthermore, there was support for the hypothesis that participants' sexual networks were partially determined by their race insofar as sexual partnerships were much more likely to be intra-racial (as opposed to interracial). It is possible that dyad- and sexual network-level factors may be needed to understand racial disparities in HIV among YMSM.

  14. Beliefs and Perception About HIV/AIDS, Self-Efficacy, and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Thai Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsaen, Natawan; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the relationships of HIV/AIDS beliefs, self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors, perception of HIV as a chronic disease, and HIV risk behaviors among young Thai men who have sex with men. Participants were recruited for a self-administered anonymous survey through Facebook. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with each of four HIV risk behavior outcomes. Factors associated with sexual risk behaviors included age (18 and 21 years), having a current regular male partner, self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors (self-efficacy in refusing sexual intercourse, self-efficacy in questioning potential sex partners, and self-efficacy in condom use), AIDS health belief (perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, perceived severity of HIV/AIDS, perceived barriers to condom use, and cues to action for HIV/AIDS prevention), and perception of HIV/AIDS as a chronic disease (perceived HIV sero-status disclosure). Knowledge generated from this study has the potential to inform prevention messages for young Thai MSM.

  15. Multiple joint muscle function with ageing: the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships in young and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sarah J; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Folland, Jonathan P

    2013-05-01

    Whilst extensive research has detailed the loss of muscle strength with ageing for isolated single joint actions, there has been little attention to power production during more functionally relevant multiple joint movements. The extent to which force or velocity are responsible for the loss in power with ageing is also equivocal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of force and velocity to the differences in power with age by comparing the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships in young and older men during a multiple joint leg press movement. Twenty-one older men (66 ± 3 years) and twenty-three young men (24 ± 2 years) completed a series of isometric (maximum and explosive) and dynamic contractions on a leg press dynamometer instrumented to record force and displacement. The force-velocity relationship was lower for the older men as reflected by their 19 % lower maximum isometric strength (p decrement in force was greater and therefore the major explanation for the attenuation of power during a functionally relevant multiple joint movement.

  16. Diurnal variation of vascular diameter and reactivity in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F.D. Bau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The higher incidence of cardiovascular events in the morning is accompanied by an increased vascular tone. However, there are few published studies designed to evaluate the diurnal variation of vascular and endothelial parameters in healthy subjects. In the present investigation, we evaluated the diurnal variation in brachial artery diameter (BAD, flow-mediated dilation (FMD and endothelium-independent dilation (NFMD in a homogeneous sample of healthy non-smoker young men. Fifty subjects aged 20.8 ± 0.3 years (range: 18 to 25 years were investigated by brachial artery ultrasound. Exclusion criteria were female gender and evidence of clinically significant health problems, including obesity. Volunteers were asked to rest and avoid fat meals as well as alcoholic beverages 48 h before and until completion of the evaluations. BAD, FMD and NFMD were measured at 7 am, 5 pm, and 10 pm and tested by repeated measures ANOVA. BAD was smaller at 7 am (mean ± SEM, 3.8 ± 0.1 mm in comparison with 5 pm (3.9 ± 0.1 and 10 pm (4.0 ± 0.1 mm; P < 0.001. FMD values did not change significantly during the day, while NFMD increased more at 7 am (18.5 ± 1.1%, when compared to 15.5 ± 0.9% at 10 pm and 15.5 ± 0.9% at 5 pm (P = 0.04. The physiological state of vasoconstriction after awakening, with preserved capability to dilate in the morning, should be considered to be part of the healthy cardiovascular adaptation before considering later life risk factors and endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Peer pressure and alcohol use in young men: a mediation analysis of drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Henchoz, Yves; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-07-01

    Peer pressure (PP) has been shown to play a major role in the development and continuation of alcohol use and misuse. To date, almost all the studies investigating the association of PP with alcohol use only considered the PP for misconduct but largely ignored other aspects of PP, such as pressure for peer involvement and peer conformity. Moreover, it is not clear whether the association of PP with alcohol use is direct or mediated by other factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of different aspects of peer pressure (PP) with drinking volume (DV) and risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), and to explore whether these associations were mediated by drinking motives (DM). A representative sample of 5521 young Swiss men, aged around 20 years old, completed a questionnaire assessing their usual weekly DV, the frequency of RSOD, DM (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, and conformity motives), and 3 aspects of PP (i.e. misconduct, peer involvement, and peer conformity). Associations between PP and alcohol outcomes (DV and RSOD) as well as the mediation of DM were tested using structural equation models. Peer pressure to misconduct was associated with more alcohol use, whereas peer involvement and peer conformity were associated with less alcohol use. Associations of drinking outcomes with PP to misconduct and peer involvement were partially mediated by enhancement and coping motives, while the association with peer conformity was partially mediated by enhancement and conformity motives. Results suggest that PP to misconduct constitutes a risk factor, while peer conformity and peer involvement reflect protective factors with regard to alcohol use. Moreover, results from the mediation analyses suggest that part of the association of PP with alcohol use came indirectly through DM: PP was associated with DM, which in turn were associated with alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relations between subdomains of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and quality of life in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päivärinne, V; Kautiainen, H; Heinonen, A; Kiviranta, I

    2018-04-01

    To assess the relationship between physical activity (PA) in work, transport, domestic, and leisure-time domains (with sitting time included) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among young adult men. The long version of IPAQ and SF-36 Health Survey were used to assess PA and HRQoL, respectively, in 1425 voluntary 20- to 40-year-old Finnish male participants. Participants were divided into tertiles (MET-h/week): Lowest tertile (100 MET-h/week). The IPAQ domain leisure-time PA predicted positively the Physical Component Summary (PCS) (β = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.16) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) (β = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.16) dimensions. Occupational PA predicted negative relationships in the PCS (β = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.07), and sitting time predicted negative relationships in the MCS dimension (β = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07). In addition, a linear relationship was found between total PA level (including sitting time) and all of the IPAQ domains (<0.001). The Middle tertile had the highest leisure-time PA (38% of total PA), whereas the highest sitting time (28%) and lowest occupational PA (8%) were found in the Lowest tertile. The Highest tertile had the highest occupational PA (61%), while the leisure-time PA was the lowest (16%). Different PA domains appear to have positive and negative relationships to mental and physical aspects of HRQoL. Relatively high leisure-time PA indicated a better HRQoL regardless of the amount of total PA, while occupational PA and higher daily sitting time related negatively to HRQoL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, H B; Hoeger Bement, M; Madsen, A B; Fridriksson, J; Dasa, M; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-01-01

    Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. Cuff pressure pain tolerance was significantly increased after exercise compared with baseline and rest (p  0.77) compared with HPT (intraclass correlation = 0.54). The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain-coping strategy. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the heat and pressure pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  20. The Effect of Occasional Alcohol Drinking on Semen Quality and Sperm Morphology among Young and Healthy Polish Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicja Lwow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Ethanol (EtOH is an agent that seems to exert an especially harmful effect on male fertility. The impact of high EtOH intake on fertility was demonstrated in numerous researches, with data suggesting that this effect may have been due to decreased semen quality; however, similar negative effects were not identified among occasional EtOH drinkers. There are currently no recommendations for alcohol consumption for men who plan to have a child other than avoiding high EtOH intake. Thus, studies on the effect of moderate and occasional EtOH drinking on semen quality are needed to develop appropriate recommendations for men planning to have a child in the future. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in semen quality parameters and sperm morphology occur in healthy young men who occasionally exceed the WHO-recommended weekly dose of EtOH but are not alcohol dependent and do not frequently consume high amounts of EtOH. Methods: The study sample consisted of 172 young men residing in urban areas. The semen quality and morphology of men who consumed more than 140 g of ethanol (high-risk group, HR, n=44 weekly was compared with that of low-risk group members (LR, n=128 who reported lower alcohol consumption. Results: The only between-group difference in semen characteristics was the identification of a higher percentage of macrocephalic sperm in the HR group (P=0.011. Alcohol intake was the sole factor influencing the percentage of macrocephalic sperm (b=0.171, P=0.025, multiple linear regression. Conclusions: We concluded that occasional alcohol consumption did not alter fertility but caused the accumulation of macrocephalic sperm potentially containing damaged DNA. Therefore, we recommend that men who plan to father children stop drinking alcohol at least 3 months before engaging in sexual intercourse that may lead to pregnancy.

  1. Narrative Art and Incarcerated Abused Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…

  2. Sexual practices of young educated men: implications for further research and health education in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheel, Hafsa; Mahmood, Muhammad Afzal; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz

    2013-03-01

    Considering the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other associated health problems among young people globally, it is important to identify sexual practices that could potentially compromise health. This study explored the sexual practices of young men in Riyadh city, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and methodology A cross-sectional study among young, male students was conducted using a pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated. Among 225 study participants, 31% had engaged in premarital sexual activity at least once and 61% viewed pornographic movies/materials. Only 51% knew that condom use could prevent STIs, 20% were not aware that HIV could be transmitted through both homosexual and heterosexual contacts. Premarital sexual activity was associated with the use of illegal drugs (OR: 2.51), viewing of pornographic movies (OR: 6.79) and traveling alone abroad (OR: 3.10). and recommendations Our study was the first to report the existence of premarital sexual practices among young educated men in KSA. There is a need to identify in detail the risks and the knowledge gaps, and base sexual health awareness among youth on such knowledge in order to prevent the spread of STIs and HIV.

  3. Intimacy, monogamy, and condom problems drive unprotected sex among young men in serious relationships with other men: a mixed methods dyadic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George J; Andrews, Rebecca; Kuper, Laura; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study aimed to examine partner and relationship characteristics associated with HIV risk among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). A sub-sample of YMSM (18-25 years) who were involved in serious relationships with other men were recruited from two on-going longitudinal studies, Project Q2 and Crew450 (N = 20 couples). The mean age of the dyadic sample was 22.5 years (SD = 5.33, range 18-46 years) and participants were racially and ethnically diverse, with the largest percentage of the sample identifying as African American (47.5 %), followed by Hispanic (20 %). Participants completed individual self-report measures using computer-assisted self-interview technology and engaged in couples-based interviews. Mixed methods analyses indicated three global reasons for unprotected sex among YMSM in serious relationships: (1) the desire to achieve emotional intimacy; (2) the perception of being in a monogamous relationship; and (3) the difficulties associated with accessing and/or using condoms. Couples' decision-making processes, including decisions made "in the heat of the moment," have implications for HIV prevention interventions.

  4. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Lucy, Debbie; Usher, DaShawn; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl

    2018-01-01

    Background Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29. Methods We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach. Results We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc.) and beliefs about the “fit” between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC. Conclusions These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues) is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and

  6. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Wilton, Leo; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Lucy, Debbie; Usher, DaShawn; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl

    2018-01-01

    Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29. We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach. We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc.) and beliefs about the "fit" between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC. These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues) is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and transgender women. Addressing perceptions of

  7. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Frye

    Full Text Available Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC. In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29.We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach.We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc. and beliefs about the "fit" between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC.These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and transgender women. Addressing

  8. Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Brien, Natasha; Jones, Nicolette; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Levermore, Kandasi; Marshall, Annecka; Nyblade, Laura; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-04

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica have the highest HIV prevalence in the Caribbean. There is little information about HIV among transgender women in Jamaica, who are also overrepresented in the Caribbean epidemic. HIV-related stigma is a barrier to HIV testing among Jamaica's general population, yet little is known of MSM and transgender women's HIV testing experiences in Jamaica. We explored perceived barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young MSM and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica. We implemented a community-based research project in collaboration with HIV and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) agencies in Kingston. We held two focus groups, one with young (aged 18-30 years) transgender women (n = 8) and one with young MSM (n = 10). We conducted 53 in-depth individual semi-structured interviews focused on HIV testing experiences with young MSM (n = 20), transgender women (n = 20), and community-based key informants (n = 13). We conducted thematic analysis to identify, analyze, and report themes. Participant narratives revealed social-ecological barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included healthcare provider mistreatment, confidentiality breaches, and HIV-related stigma: these spanned interpersonal, community and structural levels. Healthcare provider discrimination and judgment in HIV testing provision presented barriers to accessing HIV services (e.g. treatment), and resulted in participants hiding their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Confidentiality concerns included: clinic physical arrangements that segregated HIV testing from other health services, fear that healthcare providers would publicly disclose their status, and concerns at LGBT-friendly clinics that peers would discover they were getting tested. HIV-related stigma contributed to fear of testing HIV-positive; this intersected with the stigma of HIV as a "gay" disease. Participants also anticipated healthcare provider

  9. Ricky and Lucy: gender stereotyping among young Black men who have sex with men in the US Deep South and the implications for HIV risk in a severely affected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Kay, Emma Sophia; Klinger, Ian; Mutchler, Matt G

    2018-03-01

    HIV disproportionately affects young Black men who have sex with men in the USA, with especially high rates in the Deep South. In this Alabama study, we interviewed 24 pairs of young Black men who have sex with men aged 19-24 and their close friends (n = 48) about sexual scripts, dating men and condom use. Three main themes emerged from the study: the power dynamics of 'top' and 'bottom' sexual positions for condom use; gender stereotyping in the iconic style of the 'I Love Lucy' show of the 1950s; and the sexual dominance of 'trade' men. Gender stereotyping was attributed to the cultural mores of Black families in the South, to the preferences of 'trade' men who exerted sexual and financial control and to internalised stigma relating to being Black, gay and marginalised. The findings suggest that HIV prevention education for young Black men who have sex with men is misguided if gendered power dynamics are ignored, and that funded access to self-protective strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis could reduce HIV risk for this severely affected population.

  10. Epic Allies, a Gamified Mobile Phone App to Improve Engagement in Care, Antiretroviral Uptake, and Adherence Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men and Young Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E; Platt, Alyssa; Soni, Karina; Egger, Joseph R; Nwoko, Nkechinyere; McNulty, Tobias; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2018-04-05

    In the United States, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women who have sex with men (YTWSM) bear a disproportionate burden of prevalent and incident HIV infections. Once diagnosed, many YMSM and YTWSM struggle to engage in HIV care, adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and achieve viral suppression. Computer-based interventions, including those focused on behavior change, are recognized as effective tools for engaging youth. The purpose of the study described in this protocol is to evaluate the efficacy of Epic Allies, a theory-based mobile phone app that utilizes game mechanics and social networking features to improve engagement in HIV care, ART uptake, ART adherence, and viral suppression among HIV-positive YMSM and YTWSM. The study also qualitatively assesses intervention acceptability, perceived impact, and sustainability. This is a two-group, active-control randomized controlled trial of the Epic Allies app. YMSM and YTWSM aged 16 to 24 inclusive, with detectable HIV viral load are randomized 1:1 within strata of new to care (newly entered HIV medical care ≤12 months of baseline visit) or ART-nonadherent (first entered HIV medical care >12 months before baseline visit) to intervention or control conditions. The intervention condition addresses ART adherence barriers through medication reminders and adherence monitoring, tracking of select adherence-related behaviors (eg, alcohol and marijuana use), an interactive dashboard that displays the participant's adherence-related behaviors and provides tailored feedback, encouragement messages from other users, daily HIV/ART educational articles, and gamification features (eg, mini-games, points, badges) to increase motivation for behavior change and app engagement. The control condition features weekly phone-based notifications to encourage participants to view educational information in the control app. Follow-up assessments are administered at 13, 26, and 39 weeks for each arm. The

  11. Poverty, sexual behaviour, gender and HIV infection among young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Seekings, Jeremy; Whiteside, Alan

    2012-12-01

    This article contributes methodologically and substantively to the debate over the importance of poverty, sexual behaviour and circumcision in relation to HIV infection, using panel data on young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodological challenges included problems of endogeneity and blunt indicator variables, especially for the measurement of sexual behaviour. Noting these difficulties, we found that the importance of socioeconomic and sexual-behavioural factors differed between men and women. While we found a clear association between the number of years of sexual activity and HIV status among both men and women, we found that past participation in a concurrent sexual partnership increased the odds of HIV infection for men but not women. Women, but not men, who made the transition from school to tertiary education (our key indicator of socioeconomic status) were less likely to be HIV-positive than those who made the transition from school to unemployment. Both poverty and sexual behaviour matter to individuals' HIV risk, but in gendered ways.

  12. Semen quality of young men from the general population in Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erenpreiss, Juris; Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the parameters of semen quality in Baltic men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Combined parameters of sperm concentration, motility and morphology revealed that 11-15% of men had low semen quality, 37-50% intermediate and 38-52% high semen quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies...... have revealed regional differences in semen parameters, and semen quality of Baltic men has been suggested to be better than that of other European men. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a cross-sectional study of 1165 men aged 16-29 years from Estonia (N = 573), Latvia (N = 278) and Lithuania (N...... = 314) conducted in 2003-2004. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS: Men from the general population, median age 19.8 years, provided one semen sample each, had blood samples taken, had testis size determined, and provided information on lifestyle. Based on combined data of sperm concentration, sperm...

  13. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  14. A social ecology of rectal microbicide acceptability among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2013-08-01

    With HIV-incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok among the highest in the world, a topical rectal microbicide would be a tremendous asset to prevention. Nevertheless, ubiquitous gaps between clinical trial efficacy and real-world effectiveness of existing HIV preventive interventions highlight the need to address multi-level factors that may impact on rectal microbicide implementation. We explored the social ecology of rectal microbicide acceptability among MSM and transgender women in Chiang Mai and Pattaya, Thailand. We used a qualitative approach guided by a social ecological model. Five focus groups were conducted in Thai using a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim in Thai and translated into English. We conducted thematic analysis using line-by-line and axial coding and a constant comparative method. Transcripts and codes were uploaded into a customized database programmed in Microsoft Access. We then used content analysis to calculate theme frequencies by group, and Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test to compare themes by sexual orientation/gender expression and age. Participant's (n=37) mean age was 24.8 years (SD=4.2). The majority (70.3%) self-identified as gay, 24.3% transgender women. Product-level themes (side effects, formulation, efficacy, scent, etc.) accounted for 42%, individual (increased sexual risk, packaging/portability, timing/duration of protection) 29%, interpersonal (trust/communication, power/negotiation, stealth) 8% and social-structural (cost, access, community influence, stigma) 21% of total codes, with significant differences by sexual orientation/gender identity. The intersections of multi-level influences included product formulation and timing of use preferences contingent on interpersonal communication and partner type, in the context of constraints posed by stigma, venues for access and cost. The intersecting influence of multi-level factors on

  15. Body composition and circulating estradiol are the main bone density predictors in healthy young and middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilha, S C; Branisteanu, D; Buzduga, C; Constantinescu, D; Cianga, P; Anisie, E; Covic, A; Ungureanu, M C

    2018-01-16

    Current fracture risk assessment options in men call for improved evaluation strategies. Recent research directed towards non-classic bone mass determinants have often yielded scarce and conflicting results. We aimed at investigating the impact of novel potential bone mass regulators together with classic determinants of bone status in healthy young and middle-aged men. Anthropometric measurements, all-site bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition parameters assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and also serum concentrations of (1) the adipokines leptin and resistin, (2) vitamin D and parathormone (PTH), (3) sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone and estradiol (free testosterone was also calculated) and (4) C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) were obtained from 30 apparently healthy male volunteers aged 20-65 years enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Only lean mass (LM) and total estradiol independently predicted BMD in men in multiple regression analysis, together explaining 49% (p ≤ 0.001) of whole-body BMD variance. Hierarchical regression analysis with whole-body BMD as outcome variable demonstrated that the body mass index (BMI) beta coefficient became nonsignificant when LM was added to the model. Adipokines, fat parameters, testosterone (total and free), SHBG, PTH and vitamin D were not independently associated with BMD or CTx. The present study shows that LM and sex hormones-namely estradiol-are the main determinants of bone mass in young and middle-aged men. The effects of BMI upon BMD seem to be largely mediated by LM. Lifestyle interventions should focus on preserving LM in men for improved bone outcomes.

  16. Sexual interaction or a solitary action: young Swedish men's ideal images of sexual situations in relationships and in one-night stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmerstig, Eva; Wijma, Barbro; Sandell, Kerstin; Berterö, Carina

    2014-10-01

    It seems that traditional gender norms influence young women's and men's sexuality differently. However, little attention has been paid to ideal images of sexual situations. This study identifies young heterosexual men's ideal images of sexual situations and their expectations of themselves in sexual situations. The present study employs a qualitative design. Twelve Swedish men (aged 16-20) participated in individual in-depth qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Our study revealed that the young men's conceptions of normal sexual situations were divided into two parts: sexual situations in relationships, and sexual situations in one-night stands. Their ideal image, "a balanced state of emotional and physical pleasure", was influenced by the presence/absence of intimacy, the partner's response, and their own performance. The greatest opportunities to experience intimacy and the partner's response were found during sexual situations in relationships. In one-night stands, the men wanted to make a good impression by performing well, and behaved according to masculine stereotypes. Stereotyped masculinity norms regulate young heterosexual men's sexuality, particularly in one-night stands. Sexual health promotion should emphasize the presence of these masculinity norms, which probably involve costs in relation to young men's sexual wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Definition of osteoporosis by bone density criteria in men: effect of using female instead of male young reference data depends on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of energy and nutritional intake of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Keeping to a balanced diet plays a key role in maximizing the body's efficiency so that sports training becomes more effective. Previous studies have shown that an athletes' diet is often not properly balanced, and can thus negatively affect sporting performance. To assess the energy and nutrient intake in young men practicing aerobic sport and compare them with those recommended. Subjects were 25 male athletes, aged 19-25 years, practicing aerobic sports who were students at two Warsaw Universities; The Military University of Technology and University of Physical Education. The average body mass was 80.6 +/- 9.6 kg and average height was 187.0 +/- 7.6 cm, (BMI thus being 23.01 +/- 1.70 kg/m2). Dietary assessment was based on three-day dietary recalls consisting of two weekdays and one day of the weekend. The energy and macro/ micro-nutrient intake were evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package and compared to recommendations and standards. Supplements were absent from the athletes' diets. The energy value of diets were too low in most instances; average %-age deficiency was 30.22 +/- 13.76%. Total protein intake, (mean 1.41 +/- 0.36 g per kg body weight) was inadequate in 40% of cases, whilst all showed appropriate intakes of animal protein. Most subjects' carbohydrate intake (84%) was deficient; median 3.28 g/kg body weight. Fibre intake, (median 17.17 g) was also insufficient in 76% cases. Total fat intake, (33.9% +/- 5.7 energy) was too high in 32% of cases. The %-age dietary energy obtained from saturated fatty acids was 12.18% +/- 2.53 and 5.72% +/- 1.43 from polyunsaturated fatty acids, where most subjects' diet (64%) was, as well, high in cholesterol. Furthermore, significant deficiencies were observed in the following: Vitamin A (44% of group below EAR), vitamin C (80% below EAR), vitamin D (92% below EAR), foliate (84% below EAR), calcium (52% below EAR) and magnesium (60% below EAR). Vitamin E intake was however higher than the AI level

  19. Diabetes in young adult men: social and health-related correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Koelmeyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a global public health issue. It is associated with significant disability, morbidity and mortality risks and substantial healthcare costs. Of great concern is the fact that its prevalence is rising, particularly amongst the young, while epidemiological data regarding the incidence, prevalence and complications of early-onset type 2 diabetes is noted to be sparse. Methods We used data from the baseline wave of Ten to Men, a national cohort study of Australian males, to investigate the social and health-related correlates of Australian males aged 18–49 years reporting being diagnosed with diabetes. Results The estimated prevalence of a self-reported diabetes diagnosis amongst Australian males aged 18–49 years was 2.95 % (95 % CI: 2.54–3.43 %. Within this age group, approximately 75 % of those diagnosed with diabetes are expected to be living with a known diagnosis of type 2 diabetes; the remainder are expected to be living with type 1 diabetes. Of the 20 social and health-related factors considered, we found evidence to support the association of eighteen factors after adjusting for age and body mass index. The strongest correlates of reporting a diabetes diagnosis, associated with a ≥2-fold increase in the odds of reporting diabetes were being aged 35–49 years, being unemployed, being obese, seeing a doctor for a check-up more frequently, reporting comorbid high blood pressure or physical or mental health comorbidities and worse self-rated and physical health status. Conclusion Australian males aged 18–49 years who are living with a known diagnosis of diabetes are more likely to be socio-economically disadvantaged and suffer substantially worse health status than Australian males aged 18–49 years living without a diabetes diagnosis. Based on the associations detected in this study, older, single males living in regional areas who are socioeconomically disadvantaged, obese and/or who have other

  20. A qualitative study of career exploration among young adult men with psychosis and co-occurring substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Alison; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the meaning and importance of career exploration and career development in the context of integrated treatment for young adults with early psychosis and substance use disorders (i.e., co-occurring disorders). Twelve young adult men (aged 18 to 35 years) with co-occurring disorders recruited from an integrated treatment center completed a series of three semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Purposive sampling ensured participants represented a range of substance abuse treatment stages. Participants had a mean age of 26 (SD = 3) and identified as White. Two-thirds of participants (n = 8, 67%) had diagnosed schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, three (25%) had bipolar disorder, and one (8%) had major depression; four (33%) also had a co-occurring anxiety disorder. The most common substance use disorders involved cannabis (n = 8, 67%), cocaine (n = 5, 42%), and alcohol (n = 5, 42%). These young adult men with co-occurring disorders described past jobs that did not align with future goals as frustrating and disempowering, rather than confidence-building. Most young adult participants began actively developing their careers in treatment through future-oriented work or school placements. They pursued ambitious career goals despite sporadic employment and education histories. Treatment engagement and satisfaction appeared to be linked with career advancement prospects. Integrating career planning into psychosocial treatment is a critical task for providers who serve young adults with co-occurring disorders. Whether integrating career planning within early intervention treatment planning will improve clinical, functional, or economic outcomes is a promising area of inquiry for rehabilitation researchers and clinicians.

  1. Lack of effect of a high-calorie dextrose or maltodextrin meal on postprandial oxidative stress in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Carbohydrate powder in the form of maltodextrin is widely used by athletes for postexercise glycogen resynthesis. There is some concern that such a practice may be associated with a postprandial rise in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and subsequent oxidation of macromolecules. This is largely supported by findings of increased oxidative-stress biomarkers and associated endothelial dysfunction after intake of dextrose. To compare the effects of isocaloric dextrose and maltodextrin meals on blood glucose, triglycerides (TAG), and oxidative-stress biomarkers in a sample of young healthy men. 10 men consumed isocaloric dextrose and maltodextrin powder drinks (2.25 g/kg) in a random-order, crossover design. Blood samples were collected premeal (fasting) and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hr postmeal and assayed for glucose, TAG, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, nitrate/nitrite, and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity. Significant meal effects were noted for glucose total area under the curve (p=.004), with values higher for the dextrose meal. No other statistically significant meal effects were noted (p>.05). With respect to the 2 (meal)x5 (time) ANOVA, no significant interaction, time, or meal effects were noted for any variable (p>.05), with the exception of glucose, for which a main effect for both meal (pdextrose or maltodextrin, pose little postprandial oxidative insult to young, healthy men. As such, there should be minimal concern over such feedings, even at high dosages, assuming adequate glucose metabolism.

  2. Nitrite inhalant use among young gay and bisexual men in Vancouver during a period of increasing HIV incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattheis Kelly

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrite inhalants ("poppers" are peripheral vasodilators which, since the beginning of the epidemic, have been known to increase risk for acquiring HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM. However, few studies in recent years have characterized use. From 1999 to 2004, new HIV diagnoses among MSM in British Columbia increased 78%, prompting us to examine the prevalence and correlates of this modifiable HIV risk factor. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were completed between October 2002 and May 2004 as part of an open cohort study of HIV-seronegative young MSM. We measured nitrite inhalant use during the previous year and use during sexual encounters with casual partners specifically. Correlates of use were identified using odds ratios. Results Among 354 MSM surveyed, 31.6% reported any use during the previous year. Nitrite inhalant use during sexual encounters was reported by 22.9% of men and was strongly associated with having casual partners, with greater numbers of casual partners (including those with positive or unknown serostatus and with anal intercourse with casual partners. Nitrite inhalant use was not associated with non-use of condoms with casual sexual partners per se. Conclusion Contemporary use of nitrite inhalants amongst young MSM is common and a strong indicator of anal intercourse with casual sexual partners. Since use appears to increase the probability of infection following exposure to HIV, efforts to reduce the use of nitrite inhalants among MSM should be a very high priority among HIV prevention strategies.

  3. The development of a parenting program for incarcerated mothers in Australia: a review of prison-based parenting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.

  4. Physiological reactivity in a community sample of sexually aggressive young men: a test of competing hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Men's sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men's salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men's sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 'Nobody teases good girls': A qualitative study on perceptions of sexual harassment among young men in a slum of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Susannah; Das, Madhumita

    2017-06-05

    Young adulthood is a key period in which gender norms are solidified. As a result, young women are particularly vulnerable to gender-based violence. In Delhi, over 90% of women have ever experienced sexual violence in public spaces. Sexual harassment of girls and women in public spaces is commonly named 'eve teasing' in India. Experience of sexual harassment in public spaces has been found to be associated with restricted mobility, interrupted education, and early age at marriage. Little is known about men's perspectives on eve teasing and how they believe it affects women and girls. This study fills that gap through qualitative research to explore the attitudes and perceptions of adolescent boys and young men on this topic. Ten focus group discussions were conducted in two slum communities in Mumbai. Coding and thematic analysis were performed. We identified themes of acceptance of harassment, weak sanctions, traditional gender norms supportive of harassment, and ideologies of male sexual entitlement. Many of the perceived risk and protective factors for sexual harassment in public spaces are operationalised at the community level. Community mobilisation is necessary in designing interventions focused on the primary and secondary prevention of sexual harassment.

  6. Changes in Bone Mineral Density and Metabolic Parameters after Pulsatile Gonadorelin Treatment in Young Men with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

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    Chen-Xi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in young men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH and to investigate the changes of BMD and metabolic parameters, a total of 22 young male patients with HH and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. BMD, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were measured in two groups. Osteoporosis was more prevalent in HH patients (45.45% than the control subjects (10.00% (P<0.001. The patients with HH had lower BMD in lumbar spine 2–4, femoral neck, and total hip (P<0.001, for all and higher fasting insulin (P=0.001, HOMA-IR (P=0.002, and SHBG (P<0.001 compared to the controls. After 6 months of pulsatile gonadorelin treatment, BMI (P=0.021 and BMD in lumbar spine 2–4, femoral neck, and total hip (P=0.002, P=0.003, and P=0.003, resp. increased dramatically and total cholesterol (P=0.034, fasting insulin (P=0.025, HOMA-IR (P=0.021, and SHBG (P=0.001 decreased significantly in HH patients. The study shows a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in young men with HH. Long-term pulsatile gonadorelin treatment indicates a positive effect on BMD and metabolic parameters of HH patients.

  7. Association of birth order with cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (pbirth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.

  8. Trends in Gender Disparities at the Transition from School to Work: Labour Market Entries of Young Men and Women between 1984 and 2005 in West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marita; Kleinert, Corinna; Kuhhirt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trends in school-to-work transitions of young men and women with lower and higher secondary education in West Germany between 1984 and 2005. This period was marked by an increase in young women's educational attainment and a continuous growth of the service sector. We assume that both developments have benefited women more than…

  9. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases o...

  10. Race-Based Sexual Stereotypes and their Effects on Sexual Risk Behavior in Racially-Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially-diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks. PMID:26116010

  11. Race-based sexual stereotypes and their effects on sexual risk behavior in racially diverse young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks.

  12. HIV-Related Stigma and HIV Prevention Uptake Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Weaver, James; Roungkraphon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2016-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is a pervasive structural driver of HIV. With an HIV epidemic among young men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) in Thailand characterized as explosive, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG aged 18-30 years. From April-August 2013, participants recruited using venue-based sampling from gay entertainment sites and community-based organizations completed a tablet-assisted survey interview in Thai language. We conducted multiple logistic regression to assess correlations between HIV-related stigma (felt-normative, vicarious domains) and socio-demographic variables, HIV vulnerabilities (gay entertainment employment, sex work, forced sex history), and HIV prevention uptake (condom use, HIV testing, rectal microbicide acceptability). Among participants (n = 408), 54% identified as gay, 25% transgender, and 21% heterosexual. Two-thirds (65.7%) were employed at gay entertainment venues, 67.0% had more than three male partners (past month), 55.6% had been paid for sex, and 4.5% were HIV-positive. One-fifth (21.3%) reported forced sex. Most participants reported experiencing felt-normative and vicarious HIV-related stigma. Adjusting for socio-demographics, participants with higher total HIV-related stigma scores had significantly lower odds of HIV testing and rectal microbicide acceptability, and higher odds of having experienced forced sex. Both vicarious and felt-normative dimensions of HIV-related stigma were inversely associated with HIV testing and rectal microbicide acceptability. Our findings suggest that HIV-related stigma harms the health of HIV-negative MSM and TG at high risk for HIV infection. HIV-related interventions and research among young MSM and TG in Thailand should address multiple dimensions of HIV-related stigma as a correlate of risk and a barrier to accessing prevention.

  13. "I Don't Shag Dirty Girls": Marginalized Masculinities and the Use of Partner Selection as a Sexual Health Risk Reduction Strategy in Heterosexual Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Understanding and addressing the sexual risk taking of young men remains a key research, policy, and practice concern in attempts to improve the emotional and physical sexual health of young men and their sexual partners. This article explores one of the ways in which young men attempt to mitigate sexual risk through the assigning of labels to particular young women and using these as a basis for their decisions in relation to sexual activity, contraception, and condom use. The article uses the lens of hegemonic masculinities theory to increase understanding of the role played by the construction and performance of marginalized masculinities and how these in turn are influenced by social exclusionary processes. The article draws on focus group and interview data from 46 young men aged 15 to 17 years living in the northwest of England, purposively selected on the basis of the prevailing policy definitions of social inclusion and exclusion. The article describes a form of marginalized masculinity pertaining to socially excluded young men, which as a result of limited access to other tenets of hegemonic masculinity, is disproportionately reliant on sexual expertise and voracity alongside overt demonstrations of their superiority over women. It is in this context that young women are assigned the labels of "dirty" or "clean" on the basis of a selection of arbitrary judgments relating to dress, demeanor, area of residence, and perceived sexual activities. The motivations of the young men, the impact on young women, and the policy and practice implications are all discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Relationships between incarcerated women. Moving beyond stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Holly M

    2004-01-01

    1. Described as one of the "pains of imprisonment," separation may be particularly difficult for women in prison because most functioned in multiple relational roles, including mother, wife, girlfriend, daughter, sister, and friend, before incarceration. 2. In the absence of consistent contact with family, friends, and other loved ones outside prison, incarcerated women may seek to develop connections with other inmates as a way to adapt to life in prison. 3. Positive adaptation may allow incarcerated women to take advantage of educational/vocational, parenting, and drug treatment programs offered in prison, thus facilitating their adaptation after release.

  15. Strengthening Incarcerated Families: Evaluating a Pilot Program for Children of Incarcerated Parents and Their Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Alison L.; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea

    2013-01-01

    Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP...

  16. Idiopathic urethritis in young men in the United States: prevalence and comparison to infections with known sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Catherine M; Manhart, Lisa E; Golden, Matthew R

    2009-11-01

    Urethritis is the most common male reproductive tract disease syndrome; yet 20-50% of diagnosed cases have no defined etiology, and few population-level data exist on the prevalence or etiology of the syndrome. We estimated the prevalence of urethritis among young men in the United States and compared correlates of idiopathic cases to correlates of detected infections w