WorldWideScience

Sample records for incarcerated young adults

  1. Listening, Writing, Drawing: The Artistic Response of Incarcerated Youth to Young-Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study examining the types of artistic responses and personal interpretations that incarcerated male youths make as they listen and respond to selected pieces of young adult literature. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methodology to gather information about incarcerated youth and their…

  2. Early age at childhood parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk across the young adult lifecourse in the US: Heightened vulnerability of black and Hispanic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria R; Scheidell, Joy D; Rosen, David L; Geller, Amanda; Brotman, Laurie M

    2018-02-01

    We measured associations between parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk, assessing differences by race, age at first parental incarceration, and potential mediators of the relationship. We used Waves I (adolescence), III (young adulthood), and IV (adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,884) to measure associations between age of parental incarceration (never; STI in adolescence and adulthood among white, Black, and Hispanic participants and assessed mediation by sexual and physical abuse, mental disorder symptoms, and drug use. By Wave IV, approximately one in six had experienced a parental incarceration; higher prevalence observed among black (26%) and Hispanic (20%) versus white (15%) respondents (p STI/HIV risk outcomes. In multivariable models, parental incarceration at age STI/HIV risk in both adolescence and adulthood, with strongest associations among non-whites. Among black participants, parental incarceration at STI/HIV prevention and treatment. The unintended consequences of incarceration for children should be considered in decarceration discussions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Incarceration, Identity Formation, and Race in Young Adult Literature: The Case of "Monster" versus "Hole in My Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engles, Tim; Kory, Fern

    2013-01-01

    English teachers can heighten awareness of the factors that influence racial disparities in arrest and incarceration rates by working with literature that dramatizes the differences between white and nonwhite experiences within the US criminal justice system. Tim Engles and Fern Kory demonstrate some methods for doing so by juxtaposing two…

  4. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Family Roles: A Comparison of Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others

    This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…

  5. Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy of Incarcerated Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lise Oen; Varberg, Jeanette; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Asbjornsen, Arve

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to examine the Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy Scale among incarcerated adults. The aim was to examine whether performance of reading and spelling tests (Reading Speed, Nonsense Words and Spelling) explained individual differences in the participants' efficacy beliefs in reading and writing. Six hundred subjects rated…

  6. Documenting Program Outcomes of Relationship Education with Incarcerated Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Taylor Harcourt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined program outcomes for an understudied population of Relationship Education (RE participants: incarcerated men and women. In addition to relationship functioning, we examined a number of individual and parenting outcomes which had not previously been explored. In a sample of 453 adult inmates, we found improvements in (a trust, (b confidence in the relationship, (c intimacy, (d individual empowerment, (e conflict management, (f help-seeking attitudes, (g self-esteem, (h depression, (i global life stress, (j faulty relationship beliefs, and (k parenting efficacy. Tests of moderation by gender and race indicated minimal differences in change patterns between groups; however, we found a significant time by gender interaction on intimacy and a time by race interaction on parenting efficacy. Implications for research and practice are presented

  7. Mindfulness and Rehabilitation: Teaching Yoga and Meditation to Young Men in an Alternative to Incarceration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Carla J

    2017-11-01

    This study used participant/observation and open-ended interviews to understand how male participants (age 18-24 years) benefited from yoga and mindfulness training within an Alternative to Incarceration (ATI) program. Findings suggest that the male participants (age 18-24 years) benefited from the intervention through reductions in stress and improvements in emotion regulation. Several participants noted the importance of the development of an embodied practice for assisting them in managing anger and impulse control. The young men's narratives suggest that mindfulness-based interventions can contribute positively to rehabilitative outcomes within alternative to incarcerations settings, providing complementary benefit to existing ATI programs, especially for clients amenable to mindfulness training. With many jurisdictions expanding rehabilitation-focused interventions for young offenders, service providers should consider the potential positive contributions that mindfulness-based interventions can have for fostering desistance and reducing recidivism among justice system-involved populations.

  8. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

  9. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.

  10. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  11. Young Adult Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

  12. Symptoms of ADHD are related to education and work experience among incarcerated adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arve Egil Asbjørnsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several reports document increased prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD and similar symptoms in incarcerated members of the community, but little is known about how the symptoms are related to education and work experience. An ongoing study among Norwegian inmates reveals that 60 % report signs of ADHD. In the present study a sample of 600 inmates incarcerated in Norway filled out a questionnaire including the WURS-k (Wender Utah Rating Scale, short form and questions to survey completed education level and work experience. A clear relationship was found between the WURS-k score and earlier job-experience, with increased probability of ADHD with work experience from low socio-economic status jobs. The scale was also found to share variance with the inmates’ reported education history, as higher education reduces the probability of ADHD among the incarcerated adults. Thus, the WURS-k could be a useful screening instrument in education assessment among inmates. The link between the present findings and development of anti-social behaviour is discussed.

  13. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  14. Recidivism in HIV-Infected Incarcerated Adults: Influence of the Lack of a High School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Elizabeth; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Estes, Milton; Menendez, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Recidivism is a pervasive problem facing the incarcerated. Incarcerated persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected often have multiple risk factors associated with initial incarceration and recidivism, in particular, injection drug use. Yet, some jails provide case management for HIV-infected inmates to provide continuity of health care, which might have positive effects on reentry into the community. We sought to measure recidivism and factors related to recidivism in an HIV-infected cohort in an urban county jail with an active case management program. Fifty-two inmates surveyed in 1999 at the San Francisco County Jail were followed for rearrests through 2006. In follow-up, 73% were re-incarcerated on an average of 6.8 times for 552 days. Risk factors included nonwhite ethnicity, history of homelessness and crack use, common risk factors for incarceration. Less than high school education was associated with recidivism, shorter time to reincarceration, and more incarcerations. HIV-infected inmates spend a high proportion of time in multiple incarcerations, a reflection of the cyclical nature of incarceration despite comprehensive case management. Well-known risk factors for incarceration were associated with recidivism; in addition, lack of high school education played a prominent role. Education should be explored as a way to make further progress on breaking the cycle of incarceration. PMID:18418714

  15. Experiences of, and attitudes towards, pregnancy and fatherhood amongst incarcerated young male offenders: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie Margaret

    2010-12-01

    Teenage parenthood is problematised in the UK. Attention is increasingly falling on the potential or actual father yet we still know relatively little about young men's experiences and attitudes in this area. This paper focuses on the experiences of, and attitudes towards, pregnancy and fatherhood amongst a sample of men incarcerated in a Scottish Young Offender Institute. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 inmates, aged 16-20, purposively sampled using answers from a questionnaire administered to 67 inmates. Twelve men reported eighteen pregnancies for which they were, definitely or possibly, responsible. All but one of the pregnancies were unplanned. Five of the men were fathers: two were still in a relationship with the mother of their child and were in close contact with her and the child while incarcerated, three, all of whom had separated from their partner before the birth, had had patchy contact with mother and child before and/or during their sentence. All five of the men expressed a strong desire to be 'a good father'. Amongst the interview sample as a whole, most said they did not feel ready to become fathers. The main reason given was being unable to fulfil what they regarded as the key role of financial provider. Most of the men had given little or no thought to the possibility of a sexual partner becoming pregnant. Contraceptive use was high, however, amongst the minority who reported thinking about this possibility. The paper concludes by considering the cultural context of the men's attitudes and the potential for intervention development for incarcerated male young offenders in the areas of Sex and Relationships Education and parenting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Jail Incarceration and Homelessness Patterns on Engagement in HIV Care and HIV Viral Suppression among New York City Adults Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available Both homelessness and incarceration are associated with housing instability, which in turn can disrupt continuity of HIV medical care. Yet, their impacts have not been systematically assessed among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA.We studied a retrospective cohort of 1,698 New York City PLWHA with both jail incarceration and homelessness during 2001-05 to evaluate whether frequent transitions between jail incarceration and homelessness were associated with a lower likelihood of continuity of HIV care during a subsequent one-year follow-up period. Using matched jail, single-adult homeless shelter, and HIV registry data, we performed sequence analysis to identify trajectories of these events and assessed their influence on engagement in HIV care and HIV viral suppression via marginal structural modeling.Sequence analysis identified four trajectories; 72% of the cohort had sporadic experiences of both brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas others experienced more consistent incarceration or homelessness during early or late months. Trajectories were not associated with differential engagement in HIV care during follow-up. However, compared with PLWHA experiencing early bouts of homelessness and later minimal incarceration/homelessness events, we observed a lower prevalence of viral suppression among PLWHA with two other trajectories: those with sporadic, brief occurrences of incarceration/homelessness (0.67, 95% CI = 0.50,0.90 and those with extensive incarceration experiences (0.62, 95% CI = 0.43,0.88.Housing instability due to frequent jail incarceration and homelessness or extensive incarceration may exert negative influences on viral suppression. Policies and services that support housing stability should be strengthened among incarcerated and sheltered PLWHA to reduce risk of adverse health conditions.

  17. Sexting among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2013-03-01

    Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Young people in adult education

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-01-01

    The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline ...

  19. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer View this video ... and Young Adults SeventyK Stupid Cancer Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teen Cancer America 13thirty ...

  20. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  1. Recruiting, Retaining and Engaging Men in Social Interventions: Lessons for Implementation Focusing on a Prison-Based Parenting Intervention for Young Incarcerated Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Recruiting, retaining and engaging men in social interventions can be challenging. The focus of this paper is the successful implementation of a parenting programme for incarcerated fathers, delivered in a Young Offender Institution (YOI) in Scotland. Reasons for high levels of recruitment, retention and engagement are explored, with barriers…

  2. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  3. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

  4. Young Adults in General Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Mental illness is common, and usually starts early in life. However, the majority of those affected never seek mental health care. The overall aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge about help-seeking young adults with mental illness in order to improve diagnostic procedures in clinical psychiatry. A group of young adult psychiatric out-patients (n=217) were consecutively invited to participate in the study between October 2002 and September 2003. Altogether 200 (92%) agreed to particip...

  5. Self-reports of faulty parental attachments in childhood and criminal psychopathy in an adult-incarcerated population: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C; Shelton, D

    2014-05-01

    This study examined self-reports of psychopathic offenders' childhood interactions with their parents to better understand what variables influence adult criminal psychopathy. The findings showed that childhood separations, physical abuse and indifferent parenting styles were more prominent in self-reports of incarcerated male psychopaths than with incarcerated males who were not psychopathic. To better understand the worldview of the criminal psychopath, and the trajectory of psychopathy, there is a need for more studies that examine childhood interactions with parental figures as reported by the adult criminal psychopath. Despite the high percentage of incarcerated psychopaths, few studies attempt to assess the past parent-child bonds of these individuals by asking them to report childhood attachments with their parents. Currently, there is limited data regarding common variables that contribute to a break in parent-child attachment and later adult criminal psychopathy. The data that presently exist concentrate on juvenile or community samples and do not explore the attachment variables that continue into adult criminal psychopathy. This paper presents the current literature regarding self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult psychopaths compared with self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult non-psychopaths. Variables that influence a break in attachment between the offenders and their parents and suggestions for future clinical research are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Young Adult Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Hazel

    1986-01-01

    Applies the idea of the theme booktalk to "Wuthering Heights," which serves as a springboard for talking about themes of family rage, confrontation, quarrel and rebellion in other works of literature with relevance to contemporary young people. (JK)

  7. Young people in adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.

  8. Innocent inmates: The case of children living with incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...

  9. Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Education and Work Experience among Incarcerated Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjørnsen, Arve Egil; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan

    2015-01-01

    Several reports document increased prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) and similar symptoms in incarcerated members of the community. Such conditions have been associated with employment, educational outcomes, and development of anti-social behaviour in the general population. Little is known about how these symptoms are…

  10. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  11. The effect and expense of redemption reintegration services versus usual reintegration care for young African Canadians discharged from incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, Victor; Renner, Chenowa; Dunn, Jody; Hinnewaah, Priscilla; Morris, Kofi; Hamilton, Akilah; Braithewaite, Star; Hunter, Nigel; Browne, Gina; Browne, Dillon T

    2017-03-01

    African Canadians comprise 2.5% of the population, but represent 9.5% of federal inmates - an increase of 80% since 2003-2004. Recidivism among federal inmates is high (about 40%). This paper outlines the findings, at 9 months after enrolment during 2011-2012, of a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness and cost of Redemption Reintegration Services (RRS), a culturally specific, multi-level intervention for young African Canadian former inmates. Retention at 9 months was 95% of those randomised (n = 115 per group) to RRS (n = 114) or usual reintegration services (n = 105) offered by the municipality. The primary outcomes were recidivism and service costs. Mediating and moderating measures were Personality Strengths, Developmental Assets, Meaning in Life, the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth, the Youth Behaviour Checklist and Neighbourhood Vitality. Compared with the usual care group, the RRS group showed significant improvements in: self-reported Personality Strengths, Developmental Assets, the presence and search for Meaning in Life, social and individual risk factors, behaviour, and life events such as obtaining stable housing and enrolling in school. At 9 months, RRS participants generated significantly lower per person per annum expenditures for law enforcement services, housing services and total direct costs. Among RRS participants, 3.5% reported being re-charged for offences in the previous 9 months compared with 45.7% of the usual care group. The 2010-2011 average annual cost per person for incarceration was $114,364. The 48 individuals in the usual care group and 4 in RRS would generate costs of $5,489,472 and $457,456, respectively - a $5 million difference. We conclude that, at 9 months, RRS is more effective and less expensive than usual reintegration services for young African Canadians. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Postsecondary Educational Engagement among Formerly-Incarcerated Transition-Age Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…

  13. Simulation Frames: Young Adult Dystopian Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Tedman

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014) successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes t...

  14. Empowering young people/ young adults to action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Birgitte Gade

    Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...

  15. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  16. Guiding young adults at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Karen Egedal Andreasen, Palle Rasmussen and Christian Ydesen question in their article, how to guide youth in danger of being marginalised or excluded from society in general and the labour market in particular. They analyse the guidance dimension in the youth in development project as described...... in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...... at risk involves guidance to “the right path”, since individual guidance seems to be the key asset in mobilizing young person’s needs and experiences. The article indicates important elements in the guidance of youth at risk, such as psychological intervention and personal support, support from...

  17. Prevalence of Exposure to Risk Factors for Violence among Young Adults Seen in an Inner-City Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Hankin, Abigail; Meagley, Brittany; Wei, Stanley; Houry, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To assess the prevalence of risk factors for violent injury among young adults treated at an urban emergency department (ED). Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of a longitudinal study. Enrollment took place in an urban ED in a Level 1 trauma center, June through December 2010. All patients aged 18–24 years were eligible. Patients were excluded if they were incarcerated, critically ill, or unable to read English. St...

  18. Testing Incapacitation Theory: Youth Crime and Incarceration in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlkopf, Christina; Males, Mike; Macallair, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Under incapacitation theory, higher incarceration rates are expected to correlate with accelerated reductions in crime. California's contemporary incarceration patterns offer an opportunity to analyze the validity of this theory, particularly as it applies to young people. This study focuses on California's juvenile incarceration and crime trends…

  19. Academic and Vocational Education for Incarcerated Adult and Juvenile Sex Offenders: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…

  20. Radicalisation of Young Adults in the Balkan States: Counter-Measures, Healthcare Provision, and Community Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Richardson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the rise of extremism remains a priority for governments worldwide. Motives behind joining an extremist organisation are complex and often unique to the individual, making prevention strategies difficult to design and implement. This article explores several facets of this complex problem, particularly in relation to young adults, including links between extremism, criminality and incarceration, mental health, socioeconomic status and the rise of radicalisation ‘hotspots’ in Muslim majority states in the Western Balkans, where lack of government leadership allows extremist organisations to flourish. Potential counter radicalisation measures are also discussed in various contexts, including healthcare systems, the community, internationally and within the Balkan region.

  1. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... 199.20) shall be made available to all young adult dependents after aging out of the TYA program or... Program (TAMP) eligibility or until reaching age 26, whichever comes first. Upon the death of an active... 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended...

  2. The Relevance of Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallworth, B. Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Although young adult literature is often recommended as a reading bridge to the classics, Stallworth insists that the genre deserves a prominent place in the middle school canon in its own right. She describes several examples from middle school classrooms of how young adult novels can enhance tweens' "life literacy" by both helping them develop…

  3. Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…

  4. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  5. Disconnected Young Adults in Germany: Initial Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Friedhelm Pfeiffer; Ruben R. Seiberlich

    2011-01-01

    Disconnectedness among young adults can have several dimensions. From a socio-economic viewpoint, failure in school, unemployment and the lack of a partner are among the most important ones. In our sample of respondents to the SOEP Youth Questionnaire, approximately 13% of young people had been socio-economically disconnected at least once between the ages of 17 and 19. The percentage of disconnected young adults also rose from 2001 to 2008. We found evidence that an adverse family background...

  6. All-cause, drug-related, and HIV-related mortality risk by trajectories of jail incarceration and homelessness among adults in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Harris, Tiffany G; Nash, Denis; Lennon, Mary Clare; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2015-02-15

    We studied a cohort of 15,620 adults who had experienced at least 1 jail incarceration and 1 homeless shelter stay in 2001-2003 in New York City to identify trajectories of these events and tested whether a particular trajectory was associated with all-cause, drug-related, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related mortality risk in 2004-2005. Using matched data on jail time, homeless shelter stays, and vital statistics, we performed sequence analysis and assessed mortality risk using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and marginal structural modeling. We identified 6 trajectories. Sixty percent of the cohort members had a temporary pattern, which was characterized by sporadic experiences of brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas the rest had the other 5 patterns, which reflected experiences of increasing, decreasing, or persistent jail or shelter stays. Mortality risk among individuals with a temporary pattern was significantly higher than those of adults who had not been incarcerated or stayed in a homeless shelter during the study period (all-cause SMR: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.59; drug-related SMR: 4.60, 95% CI: 3.17, 6.46; HIV-related SMR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.21); all-cause and HIV-related SMRs in other patterns were not statistically significantly different. When we compared all 6 trajectories, the temporary pattern was more strongly associated with higher mortality risk than was the continuously homelessness pattern. Institutional interventions to reduce recurrent cycles of incarceration and homelessness are needed to augment behavioral interventions to reduce mortality risk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Posttraumatic stress mediates the relationship between childhood victimization and current mental health burden in newly incarcerated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Carolyn A; Ford, Julian D; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Barry, Lisa C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interrelationship among childhood abuse and traumatic loss, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and Axis I psychiatric disorders other than PTSD among newly incarcerated adults, and to test a proposed model in which the severity of PTSS mediates the relationship between childhood abuse/loss and adult psychiatric disorders. Four hundred sixty-five male and female inmates participated in a structured clinical research interview. Four types of interpersonal potentially traumatic experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and traumatic loss) were assessed for occurrence prior to the age of 18 years old. Current psychiatric disorders and PTSS were also assessed by structured interview. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the cumulative number of types of childhood abuse/loss experienced and number of current Axis I disorders, and to test the mediation model. Approximately half of the sample (51%) experienced 1 or more types of childhood abuse/loss, and 30% of the sample had at least one psychiatric disorder other than PTSD. For both men and women, childhood physical abuse and childhood sexual abuse were independently associated with psychiatric morbidity, and an increasing number of types of childhood trauma experienced was associated with an increase in the number of current Axis I diagnoses. However, these associations were no longer statistically significant when severity of PTSS was added to the model, providing support for the proposed mediation model. Implications for secondary prevention services for at-risk inmates are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2012-01-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

  9. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  10. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  11. Young & ACE: Young Unemployed People and Adult and Community Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    Pilot projects designed to increase the access of young unemployed Australians to adult and community education (ACE) were undertaken in one rural and one metropolitan adult, community and further education region with significant rates of unemployment among individuals aged 15-24 years. Two consortia were selected to conduct the pilot programs,…

  12. Malignant melanoma in teenagers and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandijan, Nathalie A; Wei, Caimiao; Burke, Anahit; Bedikian, Agop Y

    2014-10-01

    This study compares the natural history and treatment outcomes of cutaneous melanoma in teenagers and young adults to determine if exclusion of teenagers from investigative trials is justified. This is a chart review of patients between the ages of 13 and 40 years treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for melanoma. Data related to the natural history and treatment outcomes were collected. Statistical tools were used to compare characteristics between teenagers and young adults. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to examine the association between age group and overall survival. Of the 476 patients, 109 were teenagers and 367 were young adults. Both groups had comparable disease stage, pathology, and rates of metastasis. Initial disease stage and pathology significantly influenced survival. Sixty-six of 452 patients with skin melanoma developed metastasis. Teenagers survived better than young adults from diagnosis of the skin primary and after development of systemic metastasis. Teenagers tolerated and benefited from interleukin-2-based systemic therapy and targeted therapies as well as the young adults. Because of the similarities in natural history and treatment outcomes between teenage and young adult patients, it is recommended that teenage patients be officially enrolled on adult melanoma therapeutic trials.

  13. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Terni

    2015-06-01

    General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  14. Lifestyle of young Australian adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent disease that may affect the lifestyle adopted by young adults. This study investigated whether asthma status influences fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking behavior of young adults in Australia. Information of 2619 participants aged 18 to 29 years was extracted from the 2007-2008 Australian National Health Survey database. The level of physical activity and fruit consumption were found to be similar between young adults with and without asthma. Participants with asthma symptoms in the past 12 months were more likely to achieve the dietary recommendation for vegetable intake, but they tended to smoke tobacco and consume alcohol above safe levels. It may be necessary to develop prevention strategies targeting young adults with asthma that include screening for harmful use of substances. © 2012 APJPH.

  15. Introduction to Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.

  16. The development of a parenting program for incarcerated mothers in Australia: a review of prison-based parenting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.

  17. Art messaging to engage homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.

  18. From Insider to Outsider: The Evolution of Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cart, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses changes in the field of young adult literature since the 1980s. Examines how the definition of "young adult" has evolved. Offers a brief overview of the history of young adult literature from the 1940s. Considers the rise of awards for merit in young adult publishing, noting three in particular. Concludes this is a golden age of young…

  19. Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…

  20. A Tool for Change: Young Adult Literature in the Lives of Young Adult African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Carol Joan

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of young adult literature written from an authentic black cultural perspective in helping black young adults achieve the skills and knowledge they require to succeed in this society. Examples of relevant titles are given in the genres of realistic fiction, biography, autobiography, and folklore. (Contains 35 references.) (LRW)

  1. College-Age & Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and researchers who work with this age group. Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 Infographic View Full Infographic Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2016. Volume II: College students and adults ages 19-50 (PDF, 8MB) [ ...

  2. [Ischemic stroke in the young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, D

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This...

  4. Young adults as users of adult healthcare: experiences of young adults with complex or life-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, B; Stuttard, L

    2014-08-01

    Awareness is growing that young adults may have distinctive experiences of adult healthcare and that their needs may differ from those of other adult users. In addition, the role of adult health teams in supporting positive transitions from paediatrics is increasingly under discussion. This paper contributes to these debates. It reports a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults - all with complex chronic health conditions - as users of adult health services. Key findings from the study are reported, including an exploration of factors that help to explain interviewees' experiences. Study findings are discussed in the context of existing evidence from young adults in adult healthcare settings and theories of 'young adulthood'. Implications for training and practice are considered, and priorities for future research are identified. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  5. Simulation Frames: Young Adult Dystopian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Tedman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.

  6. Sociodemographic Characteristics Of Young Adults Screened For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: HIV screening was performed on all (n = 673) young adults referred to the retrovirology unit of the Haematology Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2003 to December 2003 comprising of 205 males and 432 females were screened for HIV using a double ELISA ...

  7. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  8. Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

  9. Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cart, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

  10. Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

  11. Airflow obstruction in young adults in Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING: The ...

  12. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  13. Young adult conservation jobs and worker health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Elizabeth Housley

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research studies demonstrate links between healthy environment, healthy lifestyles, and healthy people. This study evaluated the correlations between young adult conservation workers’ perceived stress, personal effectiveness, and nature experience using quantitative and qualitative social science methods. The study cohort numbered nearly 300 individuals...

  14. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  15. Selecting Really Excellent Software for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Jean Armour

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses criteria of a good computer software package to aid the public librarian in the building, weeding, and maintenance of a software collection for young adults. Highlights include manuals or documentation; bells, whistles, and color; and the true test of time. (EJS)

  16. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  17. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  18. Sudden cardiac death in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maiken K; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    pathogenic mutations. Lipid profiles and genetic testing for FH could be considered when autopsy reveals significant atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries in young adults. First-degree family members are advised to seek medical advice and testing to determine their own risks of atherosclerosis to prevent...

  19. The consumer competence of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The consumer competence concept is loaded with ambiguity in the academic as well as in the public use of the term. The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept theoretically and empirically. Methodology/Approach Consumer socialization theories were compared and combined...... for the theoretical background, and a mixed-methods methodology was applied for the empirical part. The study included young adults aged 18-25, who had recently established their first household. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore the way in which young consumers establish their first household......, particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels...

  20. Compulsive sexual behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Schreiber, Liana R N; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Harvanko, Arit; Golden, David; Grant, Jon E

    2013-08-01

    Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is estimated to affect 3% to 6% of adults, although limited information is available on the true prevalence and impact of CSB in young adults. This epidemiological study aims to estimate the prevalence and health correlates of CSB using a large sample of students. The survey examined sexual behaviors and their consequences, stress and mood states, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning. The estimated prevalence of CSB was 2.0%. Compared with respondents without CSB, individuals with CSB reported more depressive and anxiety symptoms, higher levels of stress, poorer self-esteem, and higher rates of social anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, compulsive buying, pathological gambling, and kleptomania. CSB is common among young adults and is associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and a range of psychosocial impairments. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that CSB often may have significant associated morbidity.

  1. Laughing with, or Laughing at the Young-Adult Romance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brenda O.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates characteristics of young adult romance novels, particularly their lack of humor. Discusses ways to use romance in the classroom. Provides a list of young adult novels that deal with romance, humor, and body image. (MM)

  2. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tapscott, Brian E.; Schepis, Ty S.

    2013-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription medications (NUPM) is an area of increasing public health concern, particularly in young adults. Young adults aged 18 to 25 have the highest annual and monthly rates of NUPM of any age group in the US, with notable consequences from using opioid, stimulant, tranquilizer and sedative medication. This article will review the literature on young adult NUPM, focusing first on the characteristics of those young adults engaged in NUPM. Then, we will examine the most c...

  3. Social Media: Support for Survivors and Young Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie L; Albrecht, Tara A; Lux, Lauren; Judge Santacroce, Sheila

    2017-10-01

    Social media use is ubiquitous among young adults. Young adults with cancer must make important decisions about where, what, and how to share information on social media. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to start conversations about the risks and benefits of social media use. This column aims to review a variety of social media platforms that may be used by young adults with cancer and provide guidance to nurses on initiating open dialogue with young adults about social media usage. 
.

  4. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  5. Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. AF Mustapha, EO Sanya, TO Bello. Abstract. Background: Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from ...

  6. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical need differ by race and ethnicity for young adults? Summary Definitions Data source and methods About the authors References ... 21%) young adults. This report shows that among young adults aged 20–29 years, there are ... related to health insurance Health insurance coverage: ...

  7. Defining Success in Young Adults with Emotional Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrescia, Susanne G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a definition of success by constructing a portrait of successful young adults with emotional disabilities. Nine young adults with emotional disabilities were interviewed individually after graduating from high school. The research questions that guided the study centered on the young adults'…

  8. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  9. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  10. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  11. 2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

  12. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

  13. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  14. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers 

  15. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asy...

  16. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2007-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exc...

  17. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...

  18. Obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Sam; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. Methods. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantif...

  19. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  20. ALTERNATIVES TO INCARCERATION. STUDIES IN DELINQUENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EMPEY, LAMAR T.

    THIS EXTENSIVE REPORT DISCUSSES VARIOUS CORRECTIONAL PRACTICES FOR ADULT AND JUVENILE OFFENDERS, AND DESCRIBES POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES. ALTERNATIVES TO PRETRIAL INCARCERATION OF ADULT OFFENDERS ARE SUPERVISED RELEASE, DAYTIME RELEASE, RELEASE IN THE CUSTODY OF A THIRD PARTY, SUMMONS INSTEAD OF ARREST, AND REVISED BAIL PROCEDURES. ALTERNATIVES TO…

  1. [Characteristics of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Keizo

    2017-01-01

    In adolescent and young adult(AYA)population, cancer is the leading cause of death due to illness with the lowest mortality rate as well as children, and national measures for cancer was left behind. Leukemia, lymphomas, brain tumors, thyroid cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, testicular cancer and bone and soft tissue sarcomas account for majority of the cancers in this age group. There has been no significant improvement in AYA patients in contrast to other age groups. AYA patients with cancer are under growing independency, starting in life to the community, and reproductive age. As they have physical change to adults and unique psychosocial issues that are distinct from those of pediatric and older adult patients, it is important to establish appropriate disease treatment and psychosocial supportive care with due respect to established themselves. It is urgent issue to develop cancer treatments and the system of medical and supportive care for patients and survivors with cancer in this age group.

  2. Adult-young ratio, a major factor regulating social behaviour of young: a horse study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bourjade

    Full Text Available Adults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. However, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. Here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. Our biological model was naturally-formed groups of Przewalski horses, Equus f. przewalskii, varying in composition.We investigated the social interactions and spatial relationships of 12 one- and two-year-old Przewalski horses belonging to five families with adult-young ratios (AYR ranging from 0.67 to 1.33. We found striking variations of aggression rates and spatial relationships related to the adult-young ratio: the lower this ratio, the more the young were aggressive, the more young and adults segregated and the tighter the young bonded to other young.This is the first study demonstrating a correlation between adult-young ratios and aggression rates and social cohesion of young individuals in a naturalistic setting. The increase of aggression and the emergence of social segregation in groups with lower proportions of adults could reflect a related decrease of the influence of adults as regulators of the behaviour of young. This social regulation has both theoretical and practical implications for understanding the modalities of the influence of adults during ontogeny and for recommending optimal settings, as for instance, for schooling or animal group management.

  3. Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

  4. Mass Incarceration, Parental Imprisonment, and the Great Recession: Intergenerational Sources of Severe Deprivation in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hagan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.

  5. [Atraumatic hip pain in young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Murillo, M; Turcu, V; De Nicolás Navas, M B; Yeguas Bermejo, A

    2016-01-01

    Hip pain in the young adult is a disabling pathophysiological process may be related to multiple etiologies. The process must be determined in order to make a diagnosis and follow-up treatment. The case is presented of a 29 year old woman with anemia, atraumatic hip pain on the right side, and a limp of one month onset. The differential diagnosis includes infectious, rheumatological, tumor, avascular necrosis of hip, hip impingement, hip dysplasia, osteoarthritis and other syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  7. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work

  8. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  9. Parents' and young adults' perspectives on transition outcomes for young adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and whether these indicators match their goals and aspirations. We interviewed parents (n = 21) and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 20) about their experiences with the transition to adulthood to understand what they consider to be desirable outcomes and how they seek to achieve them. Understanding these perspectives will help identify areas of need as well as disconnections between service objectives and the goals of young adults and their families. Participants described outcomes as more complex and nuanced than current conceptions and measures account for. They defined and evaluated outcomes in relation to their or their child's individual abilities, needs, and desires. These findings provide important insight into challenges to and facilitators of desired outcomes, which has implications for programming, service delivery, and policy.

  10. Uncomfortable entanglements : young German adults and the Holocaust

    OpenAIRE

    Krieg, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is about the relationship of young German adults with the Holocaust. It focuses on the experience of discomfort of young adults in educational encounters with the Holocaust, and is set against the backdrop of tensions inherent in the expectations towards Holocaust education in Germany. It is based on data that has been collected through ethnographic field work in 2013 with young adults in two educational settings in Cologne: with tour guides in a museum, and students in an e...

  11. Treatment of Young Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Ankit; Litzow, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are a distinctive category of patients, with substantial difference in disease biology and response to therapy; hence, they pose unique challenges and issues beyond those faced by children and older adults. Despite inferior survival compared to children, there is growing evidence to suggest that young adults have improved outcomes when treated with pediatric-based approaches. With better supportive care and toxicity management and multidisciplinary team and approach, we have made great improvement in outcomes of young adults with ALL. However, despite significant progress, patients with persistence of minimal residual disease have a poor prognosis. This review discusses current controversies in the management of young adults with ALL, outcomes following pediatric and adult protocols, and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We also explore recent advances in disease monitoring and highlight our approach to incorporation of novel therapies in the management of young adults with ALL.

  12. Bridging the gap: an integrated paediatric to adult clinical service for young adults with kidney failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, P N; Walsh, G; Bandler, N; Bradley, S; Lonsdale, D; Taylor, J; Marks, S D

    2012-06-01

    Transition from paediatric to adult care of young adults with chronic diseases is poorly coordinated, often delayed, and usually managed through a single referral letter. About 35% of young adults lose a successfully functioning kidney transplant within 36 months of transfer from paediatric to adult services. Before and after study of the impact of a new integrated paediatric-adult clinical service for patients with kidney failure. Adult renal centre in Oxford and two paediatric renal centres in London. An integrated paediatric-young adult joint transition clinic and care pathway was established in 2006, in conjunction with a young adult clinical service with regular community based clinics. Previously, young adult transplant recipients were transferred by a single referral letter to an adult renal consultant and managed in a conventional adult clinic. Rates of acute rejection and loss of kidney transplants five years before and five years after the introduction of the integrated young adult care pathway. EFFECTS OF THE CHANGE: Nine young adult kidney transplant recipients were transferred directly to adult care between 2000 and 2006 (group 1). From 2006 to 2010, 12 young adult transplant recipients underwent integrated transition into the new young adult service (group 2). Six transplants were lost in group 1 (67%) compared with no transplant losses in group 2. Implementing an integrated transition clinic, coupled with improving young adults' healthcare experience through a young adult clinic, improved patient adherence to regular medication and engagement with healthcare providers, as judged by reduced transplant failure rates. This model may be applicable to other young adult populations with chronic disease transferring to adult healthcare.

  13. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an ... of viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  14. Cancer in young adults with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Karoliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Haapaniemi, Elena; Melkas, Susanna; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. 1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age>40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  16. Micro-Albuminuria In Adolescent/Young Adult Offsprings Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...

  17. Young adult's attachment style as a partial mediator between maternal functioning and young adult offsprings' functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2018-05-01

    The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... of impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden's index. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression...

  19. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  20. Trust and trustworthiness in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rieger, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ruffman, Ted

    2015-12-01

    In a series of 1-shot economic trust games in which participants could make real monetary profits, but also risked losing money, 2 studies compared young and older adults' trust (amount invested with trustees) and trustworthiness (amount returned to investors by trustees). In Study 1, young (n = 35) and older (n = 32) participants acted as investors, and the age of simulated trustees (young, older) was manipulated. In Study 2, young (n = 61) and older (n = 67) participants acted in real life as both investors and trustees. They completed 2 face-to-face trust games with same- and other-age partners, and 3 anonymous trust games with same-, other-, and unknown-age partners. Study 1 found that young and older participants rate older trustees as appearing more trustworthy than young trustees, but neither group invest more with older than young trustees. Rather, older participants were more likely than young participants to invest money averaged across trustee age. In Study 2, there were no age-related differences in trust, but older adults were more trustworthy than young adults in anonymous games with same- and unknown-age partners. It was also found that young adults demonstrate greater reputational concerns than older adults by reciprocating more trust when face-to-face than anonymous. We discuss the complex influences of age on trust game investing and reciprocation, as well as the implications for older adults' wellbeing and financial security. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Spatial navigation in young versus older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eGazova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus dependent and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18-26 years old and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60-70 years old (n=24 and participants 71-84 years old (n=20. All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the 8 consecutive trials, trials 2-8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials. The participants who were 71-84 years old (p< .001, but not those 60-70 years old, showed deficit in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p´s ≤.01. There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. The linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (β=0.30, p=.045 and quadratic (β=0.30, p=.046 effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from prodromal Alzheimer

  2. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…

  3. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  4. Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB

  5. Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions in south-eastern Nigeria. ... A validated questionnaire on sociodemographic, dietary and lifestyle factors was used. Variables studied included body mass index ... Keywords: association, obesity, overweight, socio-demographic factors, young adults ...

  6. Stroke in young adults: about 128 cases | Chraa | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the ...

  7. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  8. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  9. Appalachian Literature for Young Adults: The Contributions of Rebecca Caudill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the life and work of Rebecca Caudill, an author of young adult and children's literature, and discusses how she captures major characteristics of Appalachian culture. Examines four young adult novels: (1) "Tree of Freedom"; (2) "The Far-Off Land"; (3) "Barrie and Daughter"; and (4) "Susan Cornish."…

  10. Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

  11. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  12. Influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults in a Nigerian university. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... Abstract. The study investigated whether parenting style, parental level of education and smoking peers have any influence on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults.

  13. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  14. No excess fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no

  15. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  16. Attitudes toward rape among Nigerian young adults: the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hypotheses were tested with the independent group t-test. Attitudes of young adults toward rape was found to be different based on gender and parental family structure; male young adults had more positive attitudes toward rape than their female counterparts (t = 2.02, df = 318, p < .05); youth from polygamous family ...

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...

  18. Uncomfortable entanglements : young German adults and the Holocaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieg, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is about the relationship of young German adults with the Holocaust. It focuses on the experience of discomfort of young adults in educational encounters with the Holocaust, and is set against the backdrop of tensions inherent in the expectations towards Holocaust education in

  19. Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

  20. Using Young Adult Realistic Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers: Something New, Tried and True, and Recommended Nonfiction (Young Adult Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…

  1. Parents' and Young Adults' Perspectives on Transition Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and…

  2. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  3. Occupational challenges of young adult patients with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluman, M. A.; de Man, S.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite improved survival of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), higher rates of unemployment and work-related problems are seen, especially among younger adults. This study was performed to gain insight into current barriers and facilitating experiences at work among young adult

  4. Incarceration histories of homeless veterans and progression through a national supported housing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejani, N; Rosenheck, R; Tsai, J; Kasprow, W; McGuire, J F

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing concern that adults with a past history of incarceration are at particular disadvantage in exiting homelessness. Supported housing with case management has emerged as the leading service model for assisting homeless adults; however there has been limited examination of the success of adults with past history of incarceration in obtaining housing within this paradigm. Data were examined on 14,557 veterans who entered a national supported housing program for homeless veterans, the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program (HUD-VASH) during 2008 and 2009, to identify characteristics associated with a history of incarceration and to evaluate whether those with a history of incarceration are less likely to obtain housing and/or more likely to experience delays in the housing attainment process. Veterans who reported no past incarceration were compared with veterans with short incarceration histories (≤ 1 year) and those with long incarceration histories (>1 year). A majority of participants reported history of incarceration; 43 % reported short incarceration histories and 22 % reported long incarceration histories. After adjusting for baseline characteristics and site, history of incarceration did not appear to impede therapeutic alliance, progression through the housing process or obtaining housing. Within a national supported housing program, veterans with a history of incarceration were just as successful at obtaining housing in similar time frames when compared to veterans without any past incarceration. Supported housing programs, like HUD-VASH, appear to be able to overcome impediments faced by formerly incarcerated homeless veterans and therefore should be considered a a good model for housing assistance programs.

  5. The Effectiveness of Internet- and Field-Based Methods to Recruit Young Adults Who Use Prescription Opioids Nonmedically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Green, Traci C; Elston, Beth; Yedinak, Jesse L; Hadland, Scott E; Clark, Melissa A

    2018-01-24

    Nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a problem among young adults, yet young NMPO users are a diverse population that has been challenging to engage in overdose prevention and harm reduction programs. This study compared the effectiveness and characteristics of persons recruited through two different sampling strategies to inform research and intervention efforts with young adult NMPO users. We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled persons aged 18 to 29 who reported past 30-day NMPO use. We compared the characteristics of two samples recruited simultaneously between February 2015 and February 2016. One sample was recruited using field-based strategies (e.g., respondent-driven sampling, transit ads), and a second from internet sources (e.g., online classifieds). Among 198 eligible participants, the median age was 25 (IQR: 22, 27), 130 (65.7%) were male, 123 (63.1%) were white, and 150 (78.1%) resided in urban areas. A total of 79 (39.9%) were recruited using field-based strategies and 119 (60.1%) were recruited from internet sources. Internet-recruited persons were younger (median = 24 [IQR: 21, 27] vs. 26 [IQR: 23, 28] years) and more likely to reside in rural areas (16.2% vs. 5.3%), although this finding was marginally significant. Field-recruited participants were more likely to have been homeless (36.7% vs. 17.7%), have been incarcerated (39.7% vs. 21.8%), and engage in daily NMPO use (34.6% vs. 14.5%). Multipronged outreach methods are needed to engage the full spectrum of young adult NMPO users in prevention and harm reduction efforts.

  6. Trichotillomania Among Young Adults: Prevalence and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Magdalena; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Hadryś, Tomasz; Pacan, Przemysław

    2017-04-06

    Trichotillomania is an impulse control disorder characterized by repetitive pulling out of one's hair. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of trichotillomania in young adults and its association with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). A total of 339 individuals completed a questionnaire to determine the presence of trichotillomania. OCD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10), based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Twelve persons (3.5%) reported hair pulling during their lifetime, but only 8 of them met the criteria of trichotillomania according to the ICD-10. Four individuals had stopped their behaviour prior to the study participation. The lifetime anxiety disorders were diagnosed in 5 participants with trichotillomania (62.5%), while in the group without trichotillomania, 67 persons (20.2%) met the diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders (p trichotillomania, among participants without trichotillomania, 14 persons (4.2%) reported symptoms of OCD.

  7. Recurrent giant mandibular ameloblastoma in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravvanis, Andreas; Koumoullis, Harry D; Anterriotis, Dimitrios; Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis; Katsikeris, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to define the most appropriate management of the giant mandibular ameloblastoma (GMA) in young adults. A retrospective study was performed on patients with GMA <30 years old. The data collected included initial treatment, tumor margins, reconstruction, and follow-up. Patients evaluated speech, chewing, swallowing, and facial appearance after definitive treatment. Thirteen patients were identified with recurrent solid/multicystic disease requiring further treatment. Definitive treatment involved segmental mandibulectomy and reconstruction with free fibular flap in all patients. Seven patients had immediate reconstruction (group A) and 6 had secondary (group B). Mandibular resection was planned at least 2 cm beyond the radiological limit, free margins were achieved in all patients, and all flaps were transplanted successfully. In group A, functional score was 13.7 ± 0.45 and facial appearance score was 4.5 ± 0.49, whereas in group B were 11.16 ± 0.37 and 3.3 ± 0.5, respectively (both p < .05). Aggressive resection of the GMA and immediate reconstruction is strongly advised. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1947-E1954, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Iguana-associated salmonellosis in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, B J; Martens, P B; Harte, J S

    1995-08-01

    Review a case of Salmonella infection in a young adult related to handling of an infected iguana. Case report. Most cases of Salmonella infection related to handling of reptiles have occurred in children. We report a case of Salmonella diarrhea in a 19-year-old male who kept a pet iguana. The iguana was asymptomatic, but Salmonella grew from stool specimens. Those who keep iguanas as pets, which are particularly attractive to adolescents and young adults, should be aware that iguanas frequently carry Salmonella. Those caring for adolescents and young adults should always inquire into the pet-keeping habits of their patients when illnesses develop.

  9. Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  10. Young adult cancer survivors and work: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Dawn S; Ganz, Patricia A; Pavlish, Carol; Robbins, Wendie A

    2017-12-01

    Sixty-three percent of cancer survivors continue to work, or return to work after treatment. Among this population, work ability and challenges encountered in the workplace by young adult cancer survivors have not been well established. The purposes of the study are to describe what is currently known about work-related issues for young adult cancer survivors diagnosed between ages 15 and 39, to identify gaps in the research literature, and to suggest interventions or improvements in work processes and occupational settings. A narrative review of articles using PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo was conducted without date limitations. Search phrases included young adult cancer survivors, long-term cancer survivors, young adults affected by cancer, further combined with key terms employment, work, and occupationally active. Inclusion criteria for publications were young adult cancer survivors initially diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, data about work or employment was presented, and articles written in English. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Work-related issues included the potential for reduced work productivity from cancer-changed physical and cognitive functional ability that affected income, and resulted in distress. Coping style, support systems, and changing perspectives about work and life in general were also influential on career decisions among young adult cancer survivors. More research is needed to study interventions to better manage health changes in young adult cancer survivors within the context of the workplace. Since financial hardship has been shown to be especially high among young cancer survivors, employment is essential to ensure payment of cancer-associated costs and continued medical care. While young adult cancer survivors may initially grapple with cancer-related physical and psychosocial changes that impact work productivity or influence choice of occupation, employment appears to enhance overall quality of life.

  11. Reintegration Success and Failure: Factors Impacting Reintegration among Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…

  12. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users

    OpenAIRE

    Harrell, M.B.; Weaver, S.R.; Loukas, A.; Creamer, M.; Marti, C.N.; Jackson, C.D.; Heath, J.W.; Nayak, P.; Perry, C.L.; Pechacek, T.F.; Eriksen, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12?17?years old), young adults (18?29?years old), and older adults (30?+ years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n?=?3907) and young adult college students (n?=?5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n?=?6051) nationwide were administered in 2014?2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation...

  13. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær

    2009-01-01

    by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...

  14. Uncovering the Biology of Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.

  15. Joan Lowery Nixon: The Grande Dame of Young Adult Mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavonetti, Linda M.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the writing of Joan Lowery Nixon, award-winning author of young adult mystery novels. Discusses telling a good story, narrative form, characterization, stereotypes, social commentary, classroom implications, and caring for an audience. (SR)

  16. Health and happiness in young Swiss adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Hudelson, Patricia M; Bovier, Patrick A

    2004-02-01

    To explore whether self-reported happiness is associated with mental and physical health status among young adults. Cross-sectional survey of 1257 randomly selected university students in Geneva, Switzerland. The questionnaire included an item that probed the feeling of happiness in the past month, the Short Form-12 health survey (from which mental and physical health scores were computed), scales to measure self-esteem, stress, and social support, reports of various life problems, and sociodemographic information. Most participants felt happy all of the time or most of the time (63%). In multivariate analysis, feeling happy all or most of the time was strongly associated with better mental health (odds ratios for consecutive quartiles of mental health scores: 1.0 (reference), 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-10.1), 19.2 (95% CI: 12.2-30.2), 39.9 (95% CI: 22.4-71.0)), but also with the feeling of getting enough love and affection (item from the social support scale, odds ratio: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7), female sex (odds ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), being Swiss (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), and higher self-esteem (odds ratios for consecutive quartiles ranged from 1.0 to 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1-5.8). The association between happiness and physical health was weak and statistically non-significant. The strong association between happiness and mental health suggests that asking people if they are happy may help identify mental health care needs. Self-reported happiness may also be a useful outcome measure for evaluation of health interventions.

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics of young adults with anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regards to occupation; the odds of having anterior tooth loss were 0.41 times higher when the young adult is unemployed/student and 2.6 times higher when a semi-skilled than a professional. With a year increase in age of the young adults they are more likely to have anterior tooth loss. Oral health inequalities exist as ...

  18. The Disabled Young Adult: Ready to Leave Home?

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal

    1986-01-01

    The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.

  19. Something to Chew On: Canadian Fiction for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Beverley

    An annotated bibliography of fiction about Canada or written by Canadian authors is presented. The list is intended as a guide for Canadian young adult readers in search of a literature they can identify as their own. It can also be used by librarians and teachers who need assistance in selecting novels and short stories for young Canadians. Over…

  20. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  1. Growing up with Dyslexia: Interviews with Teenagers and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingesson, S. Gunnel

    2007-01-01

    Interviews with 75 teenagers and young adults were performed to investigate how young people with dyslexia experienced school in terms of well-being, educational achievement, self-esteem, peer relations and belief in their future. Results from earlier studies suggest that secondary emotional problems are common. The first six grades in school were…

  2. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed'

  3. Mental Health Problems and Cancer Risk Factors Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; King, Jessica; Ragan, Kathleen; Buchanan Lunsford, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. Mental health problems were associated with white race; less than a high school education; lower income; being out of work or unable to work; being uninsured (for men only); poor health; previous diagnosis of asthma, skin cancer, or diabetes; and not having a recent checkup. After controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status, mental health problems among young adults were associated with smoking, binge drinking, inadequate sleep, having no leisure time physical activity, and being overweight or obese (among women only). Cervical cancer screening was not associated with mental health problems after controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status. Mental health problems in young adulthood were associated with potentially modifiable factors and behaviors that increase risk for cancer. Efforts to prevent cancer and promote health must attend to mental health disparities to meet the needs of young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Ethnoracial inequality and insurance coverage among Latino young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terriquez, Veronica; Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that Latino young adults are uninsured at higher rates relative to other ethnoracial groups. Recent implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased access to health insurance for young adults, in part by maintaining health coverage through their parents until age 26. This paper examines patterns of Latino young adults' insurance coverage during early ACA implementation by addressing three questions: 1) To what extent do Latino young adults remain uninsured relative to their peers of other ethnoracial groups? 2) How do young adults' family socioeconomic background, immigrant characteristics, college enrollment, and employment status mediate their coverage? And, 3) do patterns of insurance coverage differ for employer-provided coverage versus other sources of coverage (including parents' health insurance)? Using a 2011 representative sample of U.S.-born and 1.5-generation immigrant young adults in California, we find that Latinos are more likely than other ethnoracial groups to remain uninsured. While they are as likely as similar peers to obtain employer-provided health insurance, they are less likely to possess insurance through other sources (including their parents). This study contributes to our understanding of the limits of the ACA in reducing disparities in insurance coverage for Latinos by highlighting the importance of family socioeconomic background, immigrant characteristics, college enrollment, and employment in shaping coverage among this age group. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Epidemiology of undiagnosed trichomoniasis in a probability sample of urban young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Rogers

    Full Text Available T. vaginalis infection (trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI in the U.S. It is associated with increased HIV risk and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Trichomoniasis surveillance data do not exist for either national or local populations. The Monitoring STIs Survey Program (MSSP collected survey data and specimens which were tested using nucleic acid amplification tests to monitor trichomoniasis and other STIs in 2006-09 among a probability sample of young adults (N = 2,936 in Baltimore, Maryland--an urban area with high rates of reported STIs. The estimated prevalence of trichomoniasis was 7.5% (95% CI 6.3, 9.1 in the overall population and 16.1% (95% CI 13.0, 19.8 among Black women. The overwhelming majority of infected men (98.5% and women (73.3% were asymptomatic. Infections were more common in both women (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.6, 8.2 and men (OR = 9.0, 95% CI 1.8, 44.3 with concurrent chlamydial infection. Trichomoniasis did not vary significantly by age for either men or women. Women with two or more partners in the past year and women with a history of personal or partner incarceration were more likely to have an infection. Overall, these results suggest that routine T vaginalis screening in populations at elevated risk of infection should be considered.

  6. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  7. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  8. Health Promotion for Young Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21-30) compared with participants over age 30. Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a nonsignificant difference between age groups). Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group.

  9. Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

  10. Circumvention of suddenly appearing obstacles in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly

  11. Greek Young Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities Seeking Learning Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…

  12. Clinical characteristics and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980

  13. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  15. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.

  16. Sexual coercion among youth and young adults in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, C F; Vanoss Marín, B; Sid Hudes, E

    2000-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of sexual coercion in young adults in Lima, Peru. Lifetime sexual coercion and that at first sexual experience were studied in 629 sexually active young people, drawn from representative samples of 611 adolescents and 607 young adults. Almost half of the young women and a quarter of the young men in the study reported sexual coercion. In multiple logistic regression analyses, men and women who reported having been coerced at heterosexual initiation also reported more lifetime sexually transmitted diseases and a lower age at first sex than those not reporting coercion. Men who reported coercion at heterosexual initiation also reported a lower number of lifetime heterosexual partners and less sexual knowledge than men not coerced. Experiencing heterosexual initiation as coercive appears to be a marker for a riskier sexual career for both genders and for future homosexual behavior in men.

  17. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  18. Undiagnosed hypertension among young adults with regular primary care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Bartels, Christie M; Schumacher, Jessica R; Palta, Mari; Pandhi, Nancy; Sheehy, Ann M; Smith, Maureen A

    2014-01-01

    Young adults meeting hypertension diagnostic criteria have a lower prevalence of a hypertension diagnosis than middle-aged and older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of a new hypertension diagnosis for different age groups and identify predictors of delays in the initial diagnosis among young adults who regularly use primary care. A 4-year retrospective analysis included 14 970 patients, at least 18 years old, who met clinical criteria for an initial hypertension diagnosis in a large, Midwestern, academic practice from 2008 to 2011. Patients with a previous hypertension diagnosis or prior antihypertensive medication prescription were excluded. The probability of diagnosis at specific time points was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazard models (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval) were fit to identify predictors of delays to an initial diagnosis, with a subsequent subset analysis for young adults (18-39 years old). After 4 years, 56% of 18-24-year-olds received a diagnosis compared with 62% (25-31-year-olds), 68% (32-39-year-olds), and more than 70% (≥40-year-olds). After adjustment, 18-31-year-olds had a 33% slower rate of receiving a diagnosis (18-24 years hazard ratio 0.66, 0.53-0.83; 25-31 years hazard ratio 0.68, 0.58-0.79) compared with adults at least 60 years. Other predictors of a slower diagnosis rate among young adults were current tobacco use, white ethnicity, and non-English primary language. Young adults with diabetes, higher blood pressures, or a female provider had a faster diagnosis rate. Provider and patient factors are critical determinants of poor hypertension diagnosis rates among young adults with regular primary care use.

  19. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limperg, Perrine F.; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch

  20. Condom use and incarceration among STI clinic attendees in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarceration history is associated with lower rates of condom use and increased HIV risk. Less is known about duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations’ impact on condom use post-release. Methods In the current study, we surveyed 1,416 adults in Mississippi about their incarceration history and sexual risk behaviors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to test associations between duration of incarceration, multiple incarcerations, socio-demographic factors, substance use, sexual behavior, and event level condom use at last sex. Results After adjusting for covariates, having been incarcerated for at least 6 months two or more times remained significantly associated with condomless sex. Conclusions This study found a strong, independent relationship between condom use and multiple, long-term incarceration events among patients in an urban STI clinic in the Deep South. The results suggest that duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations have significant effects on sexual risk behaviors, underscoring the deleterious impact of long prison or jail sentences on population health. Our findings also suggest that correctional health care professionals and post-release providers might consider offering comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services and those providing community care should consider screening for previous incarceration as a marker of risk.

  1. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eÉthier-Majcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  2. Young Adult Authors on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flench, Chris Ebert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses publishing on the Internet by young authors. Describes "fan-fiction" Web sites where fans write passages that link to characters in popular books, television shows, or movies; fan-fiction inspired by the Disney film "Newsies"; posting short stories on Web pages; poetry, book reviews, and other publications; the attraction of the Internet…

  3. Cardiac Pacing and Defibrillation in Children and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinder R. Singh, MD, CCDS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of children and young adults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.

  4. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.

  5. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Examination of the Lived Experience of Incarceration for those with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire; Cashin, Andrew; Waters, Cheryl

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the lived experience of incarceration for those with autism using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Eight adults who were incarcerated in New South Wales, Australia, were interviewed. The lived experience of incarceration for the participants was about being in an unpredictable environment characterised by ever-changing routines and complex social situations. Participants were deprived of their ability to create predictability in their environment, and experienced confusion and distress when forced to comply with actions that were in conflict with their logic. Mental health nursing case management is recommended to address the needs of incarcerated persons with autism.

  6. A Portrait of Popularity: An Analysis of Characteristics of Novels from Young Adults' Choices for 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Rosemary

    1999-01-01

    Presents a "reading choice study"--a study of print materials selected and read from a collection. Analyzes literary elements of 23 Young Adult novels that young adults have chosen to read. Finds that popular Young Adult novels are primarily character driven, and agrees with most previous studies investigating literary elements of Young Adult…

  7. Unemployment in Europe: Young people affected much harder than adults

    OpenAIRE

    Brenke, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The crises of the past few years have led to a significant increase in youth unemployment in Europe. This, in turn, has highlighted the long standing phenomenon of well above average youth unemployment. In some countries, the youth unemployment rate reached unprecedented levels, although the rise of unemployment among young people was no more significant than among adults. Furthermore, the media portrayal of young people's situation is sometimes more negative than the reality, failing to take...

  8. Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Varona, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...

  9. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  10. Tattoos, piercing, and sexual behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2012-09-01

    Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in

  11. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Regina Rachmawati; Diana Samara; Purnamawati Tjhin; Magdalena Wartono; Yefta Bastian

    2016-01-01

    Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC). The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects ha...

  12. Facilitating Teamwork in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann

    2016-11-01

    A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.

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  13. Obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.

  14. Class Origin and Young Adults' Re-Enrollment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Marita; Weiss, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines re-enrollment decisions taken by adults who have previously participated in the labor market in the US. We investigate the influence of social origin on re-enrollment and test hypotheses based on the "status reproduction" argument. We find that young adults from the lower classes re-enroll less often than those from the upper classes and that these differences can be attributed to a large extend to different ability or performance. Beyond the effects of social origin...

  15. A Complementary Alternative Medicine Questionnaire for Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Patterson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM. There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1 positive beliefs about CAM; 2 environmental influence; and 3 psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79 and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research.

  16. THEORETICAL GUIDELINES ON THE OF LONELINESS OF YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLĂMĂDEALĂ Victoria

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of conducted researches in field of loneliness psychology, in order to reveal the feeling of loneliness and its manifestation at young adults. At this age, the main hazard represent the excessive self-concern or avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The inability to establish personal relationships of trust leads to loneliness. The causes and factors findings that could trigger loneliness, as well as their effects on young adults reflect a multi-featured phenomenon of this complex and ambiguous condition. The clear depiction deficiency of loneliness approach among young adults shows that this phenomenon may have different distinctions. As a prerequisite for personal development, as well as a multitude of causes, these can be expressed through various contexts of social isolation disclosure (voluntary or forced and life consequences of young individual. All of the above represent an additional need of developing the loneliness concept of young, based on an integrated approach and oriented towards structuring the control of loneliness and empirical data-bases.

  17. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  18. Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katherine Jane Roney

    2012-01-01

    The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce the…

  19. Connecting with Texts: Teacher Candidates Reading Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Kelly Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…

  20. Experience of young adults from divorced families | Spalding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of particular interest was how the parent-child relationships in divorced homes foster personal identifications and how this affects the individual's ability to separate from the family of origin as well as the young adult's patterns of relating to others in intimate relationships. The design of the study was qualitative and data was ...

  1. Employment Outlook for Young Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehman, Paul; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the employment status of mentally retarded young adults. Results indicated that the total unemployment rate was 58 percent, almost three-fourths of those who were employed earned less than $500 per month, most individuals had never used professional job placement services, and those who were employed had obtained their jobs through family…

  2. 'A Whole New Future' : Identity construction among disadvantaged young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen, J.; van Vianen, A.; Klehe, U.-C.; Zikic, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how disadvantaged young adults construct a positive work-related identity in their transition from unemployment to employment, and what enables or constrains a successful transition. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted semi-structured

  3. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults with Antiphospholipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes ...

  4. STROKE IN YOUNG ADULTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 68 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Harirchian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.

  5. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

  6. Hypercholesterolaemia in children and young adults – current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    documented the safety and efficacy of statin therapy in both children and young adults. Based on these studies, it is now recommended that statin therapy be initiated in all male FH children from the age of ten years and at the onset of menses in females with FH. ..... Writing Group for the DISC Collaborative Research Group.

  7. Young Adults' Relations with Their Grandparents: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the relationship between young adult grandchildren and grandparents are examined. Results suggested the grandparent's kin position relative to the grandchild was a critical variable, more so than the grandparent's sex, in influencing the intensity of the bond. Other results are reviewed. (Author)

  8. Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…

  9. Strategic Selection of Children's and Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Laura M.; McIlhagga, Kristen K. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss strategic selection of literature for children and young adults based on the characteristics of written text and images as teachers and parents choose books for classroom and home settings. The topic is approached from two stances/lenses: (1) the cognitive processes used while reading and the ways different genres, topics, and…

  10. Portrayals of Bullying in Young Adult Literature: Considerations for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Janette; Laffier, Jennifer Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how bullying is portrayed in three recent young adult novels, focusing specifically on whether the information about bullying is accurate, biased, or represents old myths in comparison to current research. The authors conduct a systematic analysis of the following four themes: (1) What is bullying?; (2) Who are…

  11. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Young Adult Literature Research in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayn, Judith A.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S.; Nolen, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The study of young adult literature (YAL) as both an art form and teaching tool is in its infancy. Barely 50 years old, this emerging genre began to establish a presence in the canon of both classical and popular literature. As a developing field of inquiry, however, YAL struggles for legitimacy and prestige. The purpose of this article is to…

  13. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  14. Primary care for young adult cancer survivors: an international perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holge-Hazelton, B.; Blake-Gumbs, L.; Miedema, B.; Rijswijk, E. van

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare and

  15. Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

  16. Quality of life in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30

  17. Promoting Young Adult Literature: The Other "Real" Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoli, Susan P.; Wagner, Mary Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Getting students to read is a common problem in many secondary English language arts classrooms. Many teachers continue to assign only classic literature with novels that have been traditionally used in English language arts classrooms because of the belief in timelessness. There is evidence that the use of young adult literature in the secondary…

  18. Off the Shelves: Poetry and Verse Novels for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Mark, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the material in the English language arts curricula, poetry seems to cause the most consternation among teachers. For a number of teachers, and many students, poetry continues to be a difficult topic to teach and learn. In this article, the author focuses on the ways that young adult literature can help teachers expose their students to…

  19. Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

  20. When Cyberbullies Meet Gamers: What Do Young Adults Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Pustaka, Arkhadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cyberbullying is connected with online gaming in complex ways. Although cyberbullying can occur while people play games, it is also the case that gaming may have the potential to address cyberbullying and bullying problems. Purpose: This study examines young adults' beliefs and experiences related to cyberbullying and gaming. Sample:…

  1. Inviting Spaces: First Person Narrative in Young Adult Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyde, Emma

    2000-01-01

    Examines some of the characteristics of third-person narrative used commonly in teenage fiction prior to the 1990's. Explores whether first person narrative actually provides a more engaging mode of reading, and how exactly it does this. Concludes that teenagers are responding to Young Adult fiction enthusiastically because these books are very…

  2. The Urban Experience in Recent Young Adult Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Guild, Sandy L.

    2002-01-01

    Uses 14 novels to illustrate 9 characteristics that exemplify the best young adult novels written about urban youth. Notes that the novels were chosen because in their characters, their settings, and the problems that drive their plots, they respond honestly and with understanding to the needs of urban teens to read about people "just like" them.…

  3. Representations of Rural Lesbian Lives in Young Adult Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Wendy; Marshall, Elizabeth; Pini, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines representations of rural lesbian lives in three young adult novels. The novels analysed are "Beauty of the broken" by Tawni Waters (2014), Julie Anne Peters (2005) "Pretend you love me", and "Forgive me if you've heard this one before" by Karelia Stetz-Waters (2014). The first of the novels by…

  4. Tsunami Summer! 2003 Young Adult Summer Library Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Alabama with setting up "Tsunami Summer!," a summer program for young adults, i.e., students in grades 6 through 12. The manual contains the following sections: (1) Publicity and Promotion; (2) Working with Schools; (3) Involving the Students, including teen volunteers, teen advisory…

  5. Measuring Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana Use Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Traylor, Zach K.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Marijuana use can result in a variety of negative consequences, yet it remains popular among young adults and the general public at large. Combined with the growing empirical support for the benefits of medicinal marijuana as well as the steady increase in popular opinion regarding its legalization, it is of growing importance to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use, reduce consumption levels, and limit resulting negative consequences among young adults who use marijuana. The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct initial psychometric analyses on a new scale, which we named the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana (PBSM) scale. Method: A sample of undergraduate college students who reported past-6-month marijuana use (n = 210) responded to the initial pool of PBSM items and completed measures of marijuana use, consequences from marijuana use, alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategies for alcohol. Results: Results from an iterative principal component analyses process yielded a single-factor structure with 39 items. The PBSM mean composite score negatively associated with marijuana use and consequences, with the strongest correlations evident for past-month users. The PBSM also significantly positively correlated with alcohol protective strategies. Conclusions: Protective behavioral strategies for marijuana appear to be a measurable construct that are related to marijuana frequency and consequences, and thus may be a useful component of intervention and prevention programs with young adults. More work testing the PBSM items with larger and more diverse samples of young adults is encouraged. PMID:27172576

  6. Predictors of Heterosexual Casual Sex Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy; Giordano, Peggy; Longmore, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Casual sex is often associated with the young adult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the young adult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006–2007 and included young adults (ages 18–24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that young adults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151

  7. Representations of Adoption in Contemporary Realistic Fiction for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sue Christian; Fuxa, Robin; Kander, Faryl; Hardy, Dana

    2017-01-01

    In this critical content analysis of thirty-seven contemporary realistic fiction books about adoption, the authors examine how adoption and adoptive families are depicted in young adult (YA) literature. The critical literacy theoretical frame brings into focus significant social implications of these depictions as the researchers illuminate and…

  8. Executive Functions in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Danielle I.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Schwean, Vicki L.; Montgomery, Janine M.; Thorne, Keoma J.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized, at least in part, by executive function (EF) difficulties associated with the integrity of the frontal lobe. Given the paucity of research regarding EFs in young adults with high functioning ASD (HF-ASD), this research involves an examination of various indices of EF…

  9. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  10. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. van der Merwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.

  11. Young adults and aids epidemics: their perception awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Education and awareness is important in appreciating the seriousness of a disease, and in arousing feeling of concern about an epidemic in any society. Continuing trend show a disproportionate increase in new incidences of HIV infection among young adults in sub-Sahara Africa. This study aimed to ...

  12. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  14. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  15. Case finding for hypertension in young adult patients attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Undetected cases of hypertension, with complications and target end-organ damage, exist in young adults in Ibadan and family physicians and other primary care physicians, especially in Nigeria, should pay attention to case finding for hypertension in this age group. African Health Sciences 2009 9(3): 193 - ...

  16. Parental Death in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…

  17. Young Adults Perception of Appropriateness of some Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young Adults Perception of Appropriateness of some Domestic/Home-Related Activities: Implications for Gender Role Acquisition. ... The process of acquisition of appropriate gender role is both developmental and cultural. The study examined ... The result shows that traditional gender role sill exists in the Nigerian society.

  18. Young adult consumers' media usage and online purchase likelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convenience sampling resulted in 1 298 completed questionnaires. The results indicate that young adult consumers use new media more frequently than traditional media. Respondents with online shopping experience displayed a higher online purchasing likelihood than those who have not used this medium before.

  19. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  20. The social networks of teens and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...

  1. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  2. Determinants of vitamin D status in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2016-01-01

    .68). For vitamin D insufficiency, the highest RR was again for men 1.31 (1.06, 1.61); obese subjects 1.57 (1.17, 2.11); and subjects who exercised 0-½ hours a week 1.51 (1.11, 2.06). CONCLUSION: In this study of young adults, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent. Modifiable factors such as smoking......BACKGROUND: Very few studies have investigated the determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in young adults (18-25 years old) using a set of variables that include lifestyle, sociodemographic, and anthropometric data. Our aim was to investigate the association between...... these variables and vitamin D status in a sample of untreated young adults. METHODS: A total of 738 young adults were enrolled in a (June cross-sectional study 2012 to May 2014) and were recruited from educational institutions in the Copenhagen area. For multivariate logistic regression subjects was categorized...

  3. Double diabetes: an emerging disease in children and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, with increasing obesity the incidence of type 2 diabetes resulting from insulin resistance was high in children and young adults. Most patients with double diabetes were established type 1 diabetics, who while on insulin and on hypercaloric diet developed obesity especially during puberty and hence associated ...

  4. Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

  5. The Awareness of Morphemic Knowledge for Young Adults' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…

  6. Effects of regular exercise on asthma control in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-08-28

    According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.

  7. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  8. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  9. America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Traci; Kappeler, Evelyn; Ellis, Renee; Kominski, Robert; Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica; Donoghue, Brecht; Whitestone, Yuko; Snyder, Tom; Aud, Susan; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Steve; Steffen, Barry; Madans, Jennifer; Lukacs, Susan; Pastor, Patricia; Goldstrom, Ingrid; Han, Beth; Bures, Regina; Chamberlain, Seth; Despain, Jason; Chadwick, Laura; Park, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of young adults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the…

  10. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  11. Occupational therapy needs of adolescents and young adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine occupational therapy needs of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy living in an urban setting, to identify participation levels in activities of daily living and social activities, to identify factors influencing participation and to determine the contribution of occupational therapy in participating ...

  12. Life Satisfaction among Young Adults from Rural Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…

  13. Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

  14. Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

  15. influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    misbehaviour such as smoking. The study also showed that adolescents and young adults can be influenced by their peers' smoking habits. This can be as a result of the flocking phenomenon where those who smoke can acquire friends that do smoke like them. A number of recommendations are emanating from this study.

  16. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  17. Periodontal health status and smoking among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Yuval; Livny, Alon; Zini, Avi; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D

    2008-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the periodontal status and present smoking habits among a representative sample of young adult Israelis and to investigate possible associations. A representative sample of young adult Israelis was examined and interviewed on the day of release from compulsory military service. Collected data included demographic background (gender, education level, family size and father's country of origin) and current smoking habits. Clinical examination included the recording of periodontal health status according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Seven thousand and fifty-six young adults were examined. Sixteen per cent were classified as CPI 0, 78% as CPI 1-2 and 6% as CPI 3-4. In total, 36% of the sample reported a current smoking habit. Periodontal status was significantly improved among non-smokers, females and children of fathers born in Israel or Western countries. Only 7% of the participants demonstrated signs of periodontitis and most young adults did not smoke; a dose-response association was revealed between present smoking habits and periodontal disease.

  18. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  19. Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

  20. Tobacco Retail Outlet Density and Young Adult Tobacco Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Pearson, Jennifer L; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Xiao, Haijun; Kirchner, Thomas R; Vallone, Donna

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the density of tobacco retail outlets around the home residence may influence tobacco use among youth and adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of neighborhood tobacco retail outlet density on young adult initiation of different tobacco product types. Cross-sectional data from a 2013 nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18-34 was examined in relation to a 2012 geocoded listing of all outlets likely to sell tobacco in the United States. Separate multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between neighborhood outlet density and past 6 months first use of cigarettes, non-cigarette combustible products, and noncombustible products among adults aged 18-24 and 25-34. Outlet density was significantly associated with recent initiation of cigarettes and other combustibles, but this impact varied for younger and older groups. Increased density was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of initiating cigarette use among adults aged 25-34 (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.18, 11.90), and of initiating non-cigarette combustible use among 18-24 year olds (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.03, 9.74). There was no impact of outlet density on recent noncombustible product initiation among either group. This study is the first to examine the impact of tobacco outlet density on young adult initiation of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Findings demonstrate that residential neighborhood outlet density is associated with recent initiation of combustible products and this effect varies by product type and age. The tobacco outlet environment may be a critical factor in promoting young adult tobacco use initiation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Body and health perception for obesity in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sampaio Florêncio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the body and health perception and its relationship with obesity in a group of young adults. Methods: This is an analytical study performed on 1,073 young adults from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through a questionnaire whose data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The Ethics Committee approved the study under opinion nº 263.271/ 2013. Results: Results showed that women with obesity tended to perceive their condition more and evidenced greater body dissatisfaction than men. In addition, they were associated with obesity, self-perception of overweight and body satisfaction. Conclusion: Young people with obesity perceive their condition and are dissatisfied with it.

  2. THE LONELINESS REDUCEMENT AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria PLĂMĂDEALĂ1

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term consequences of living loneliness have a negative impact on the whole structure of the personality, on the networking ability and in general on the life quality. The feelings of loneliness diminishing, in our view, could be achieved through the development of subject self-actualization parameters, self understanding, sympathy and sociability, lexibility, parameters which relate with personal development. The purpose of this study consider the development of self self-actualization parameters which inluence on the manifestation of loneliness feeling, in order to reduce the experience of loneliness feeling. In this research, the formative sample constitutes 26 people aged between 21 to 29 years. The hypothesis was conirmed by the obtained results, which have shown that the development of self-actualization parameters decreased the loneliness feeling among young.

  3. Biomarker-based prognostic stratification of young adult glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Qi; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Hong; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yin, Zi; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhou, Liangfu; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Mao, Ying; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-26

    While the predominant elderly and the pediatric glioblastomas have been extensively investigated, young adult glioblastomas were understudied. In this study, we sought to stratify young adult glioblastomas by BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations and examine the clinical relevance of the biomarkers. In 107 glioblastomas aged from 17 to 35 years, mutually exclusive BRAF-V600E (15%), H3F3A-K27M (15.9%), H3F3A-G34R/V (2.8%) and IDH1-R132H (16.8%) mutations were identified in over half of the cases. EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation were only detected in 3.7% and 8.4% in young adult glioblastomas, respectively. BRAF-V600E identified a clinically favorable subset of glioblastomas with younger age, frequent CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and was more amendable to surgical resection. H3F3A-K27M mutated glioblastomas were tightly associated with midline locations and showed dismal prognosis. IDH1-R132H was associated with older age and favorable outcome. Interestingly, tumors with positive PDGFRA immunohistochemical expression exhibited poorer prognosis and identified an aggressive subset of tumors among K27M mutated glioblastomas. Combining BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations allowed stratification of young adult glioblastomas into four prognostic subgroups. In summary, our study demonstrates the clinical values of stratifying young adult glioblastomas with BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations, which has important implications in refining prognostic classification of glioblastomas.

  4. Health Care Transition Experiences of Young Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ellen McLaughlin

    2015-01-01

    Health care transition (HCT) describes the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents from child to adult-orientated care. The purpose of this qualitative study is to uncover the meaning of transition to adult-centered care as experienced by young adults with cerebral palsy (YA-CP) through the research question: What are the lived experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare? Six females and 3 males, aged 19-25 years of age, who identified as carrying the diagnosis of cerebral palsy without cognitive impairment, were interviewed. Giorgi's (1985) method for analysis of phenomenology was the framework for the study and guided the phenomenological reduction. The meaning of the lived experiences of YA-CPs transition to adult health care is expert novices with evidence and experience-based expectations, negotiating new systems interdependently and accepting less than was expected. More information and support is needed for the YA-CP during transition to ensure a well-organized move to appropriate adult-oriented health care that is considerate of the lifelong impact of the disorder. The nurses' role as advocate, mentor and guide can optimize the individual's response to the transition process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Q-methodology to identify young adult renal transplant recipients at risk for nonadherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A

  6. Healthcare needs and access in a sample of Chinese young adults in Vancouver, British Columbia: A qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine H.K. Ou, RN, BN, MSN

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Chinese young adults share similar issues with other young adults in relation to not having a primary care provider and accessing preventive care but their health beliefs and practices make their needs for care unique from other young adults.

  7. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annual list of adult mystery titles (in print as of September 1999) to recommend to teenagers, as well as recently published mystery readers advisory sources or nonfiction mystery-related titles that school and public libraries may want for their collections. (AEF)

  8. Epidemiological and imaging features of intracranial aneurysms in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Huan-yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, the epidemiological report and study about the intracranial aneurysms in young adults are very rare, especially in China. This paper aims to investigate the epidemiological and imaging features of intracranial aneurysms in young adults with the age of 16-29 years old. Methods Clinical data of 2119 patients with intracranial aneurysms admitted from January 2010 to October 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Intracranial aneurysms in young adults (16-29 years old accounted for 1.93% of all intracranial aneurysms (41/2119 treated in the same period, and the gender ratio (male : female was 2.15 : 1. A total of 42 intracranial aneurysms were found in 41 patients, including 35 located in the anterior circulation and 7 in the posterior circulation, of which 13 aneurysms (30.95% in the anterior communicating artery, 6 aneurysms (14.29% each in the middle cerebral artery and the distal of anterior cerebral artery, and 2 aneurysms (4.76% in the posterior communicating artery. There were almost 34 aneurysms (80.95% located in bifurcation of Willis circle and proximal aorta and 8 aneurysms (19.05% in the branches of artery. The diameter of aneurysms were ≤5 mm in 19 aneurysms (45.24%, 6-10mm in 13 (30.95%, 11-24 mm in 3 (7.14% and ≥25mm in 7 (16.67%. Conclusion Young men are much more susceptible to intracranial aneurysms than young women, but the incidence in women increases as they grow old. The anterior communicating artery is the predilection site of intracranial aneurysms in young adults (16-29 years old, and the occurence of giant aneurysms and the aneurysms in the posterior circulation and the distal of anterior cerebral artery is common. The epidemiological and imaging features and gender ratio of intracranial aneurysms in young adults (16-29 years old are similar to those in children and adolesents, but much different from adult patients.

  9. The School-to-Community Transition Experiences of Hearing Young Adults and Young Adults Who Are Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of hearing (n=222) and deaf (n=217) young adults on employment, independent living, and social experience outcomes found that the hearing group was generally more successful than deaf persons from mainstream or residential schools. Gender differences did not uniformly favor men. Suggestions for improving transition programs for the deaf…

  10. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  11. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  12. Mandibular thickness measurements in young dentate adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Narlin B; Le, Thomas T

    2009-09-01

    To measure thicknesses in clinical landmark areas of the dentate mandibles of young men and women. Using standard radiologic software, we obtained mean (SD) thickness measurements at the inferior or posterior borders of the mandible at the following 7 surgically useful sites: (1) the symphysis, (2) a point halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, (3) the mental nerve, (4) a point halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, (5) the facial artery notch, (6) the angle vertex, and (7) the ramus-condylar neck border. University hospital. A total of 150 dentate men and 75 dentate women aged 18 to 30 years who had undergone computed tomography of the head and neck region during the period of December 20, 2006 to February 20, 2007. Thicknesses of 7 mandibular sites. Mean (SD) thicknesses at the 7 mandibular sites were as follows: symphysis, 14.03 (1.53) mm for men and 13.21 (1.46) mm for women; halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, 11.17 (1.37) mm for men and 10.00 (1.08) mm for women; mental nerve, 9.48 (1.28) mm for men and 8.72 (1.00) mm for women; halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, 10.33 (1.24) mm for men and 9.45 (0.92) mm for women; facial artery notch, 7.27 (0.82) mm for men and 7.10 (0.88) mm for women; angle vertex, 5.42 (0.90) mm for men and 5.39 (0.66) mm for women; and ramus-condylar neck border, 5.90 (0.86) mm for men and 5.85 (0.71) mm for women. Clinical landmark areas in young dentate mandibles have mean thicknesses with limited SDs. The thickness measurements obtained at the sites in this study provide practical reference information for mandibular reconstruction and bicortical screw length estimation.

  13. A concept analysis of young adults; Perception of HIV Counselling and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Patrone R. Risenga; Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate perceptions of young adults regarding HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) and the factors contributing to either negative or positive perceptions towards the programme. This article is a report of a concept analysis of young adults' perceptions of HCT that were collected during the study. Background: Perception forms the core of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) use by young adults, because it is from these perceptions that young adults will decid...

  14. The experience of transition in adolescents and young adults transferring from paediatric to adult care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fegran, Liv; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne

    : To synthesize qualitative studies on how adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases experience transition from paediatric to adult care. Methods: Literature search in major databases covering the years from 1999 to November 2010 was performed. Further forward citation snowballing search was conducted...... responsibility. Conclusion: Young adults’ transition experiences seem to be commensurable across diagnoses and cultures. Feelings of not belonging and being redundant during the transfer process moving from paediatric to adult ward, is striking. Appreciating young adults’ need to be acknowledged and valued......Introduction: Despite research and implementation of transition models in the last decades, transfer from paediatric to adult care still poses great challenges. Predominantly studies on health care transition have been based on the perspective of experts or health care professionals. Aim...

  15. Detecting psychopathology in young adults : the Young Adult Self Report, the General Health Questionnaire and the Symptom Checklist as screening instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiznitzer, M; Verhulst, F. C.; van den Brink, W.; Koeter, M.; van der Ende, J.; Giel, R; Koot, H.M.

    This study compares the screening capacity of an age-adjusted child-oriented questionnaire, the Young Adult Self Report (YASR) with two adult-oriented questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) in a sample of young adults (18-25 years). The YASR

  16. Young adults' use of emotional food memories to build resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Essen, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Fredrika

    2017-05-01

    The overall aim of this study is to specifically investigate how young adults make use of emotional-relational food memories related to "significant others" during childhood when trying to build resilience and solve developmental tasks in this period of life. A theoretical sample of three semi-structured interviews drawn from a larger sample of 30 interviews with young adults in Sweden formed the basis for analysis, guided by the steps of a phenomenologically oriented critical narrative analysis. The results illustrate three different overall directions in how the relationship to food can evolve throughout life among young adults: a relationship dominated by 1) positive emotional food memories associated with the use of food as a secure base and 2) negative emotional food memories associated with either a) being emotionally preoccupied with food or b) dismissing food. The results suggest that internalised memories related to food associated with positive emotions can be used to build resilience, by helping young people to adapt and better manage developmental stress. Internalised food memories related to negative emotions can cause vulnerability, but also become the object of a person's reconstruction. The implications and potential risks of using food practice for developing resilience and a healthy lifestyle are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  18. Surgical Consideration for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cervical Chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nanzhe; Yang, Xinghai; Yang, Jian; Meng, Tong; Yang, Cheng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-05-15

    Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients and old adult patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically and present the surgical consideration for adolescents and young adults with cervical chordoma. With predominance in senior patients, chordoma is distinctively rare in AYAs. Because of the rarity of AYA chordoma, individual case report represents most of the literature on this disease entity on mobile spine and lack of long-term follow up, which leads to the paucity of clinical evidence for treatment planning and prognosis prediction. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prognosis of AYA patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically. We collected the clinical data of these patients and their older counterparts, and further compared the prognosis of the patients in different age groups. To estimate survival curves, Kaplan-Meier method was used, and significance was assessed using a log-rank test. Forty consecutive patients with chordoma of the cervical spine treated in our institution were included in the study. Two groups were identified according to age. Group 1 comprised children and adolescents (age ≤ 25 yrs; n = 9) and Group 2 comprised adults (age > 25 years; n = 31). In comparison, Group 1 was featured by significantly higher rate of recurrence and shorter overall survival, although no difference found in the surgical modality between two groups. There is a dismal prognosis in young patients with chordoma, and thus support the notion that as radical a total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of the lesions as possible may benefit the overall survival of these young patients. Although the ensuing neurological deficits may be devastating, it will be worth sacrificing if the life expectancy of these young patients is prolonged. 4.

  19. Racial/ethnic disparities in history of incarceration, experiences of victimization, and associated health indicators among transgender women in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model ever being incarcerated and experiencing victimization while incarcerated as a function of race/ethnicity and health-related indicators. Overall, 19.3% reported having ever been incarcerated. Black and Native American/Alaskan Native transgender women were more likely to report a history of incarceration than White (non-Hispanic) respondents, and those with a history of incarceration were more likely to report negative health-related indicators, including self-reporting as HIV-positive. Among previously incarcerated respondents, 47.0% reported victimization while incarcerated. Black, Latina, and mixed race transgender women were more likely to report experiences of victimization while incarcerated. Transgender women reported disproportionately high rates of incarceration and victimization while incarcerated, as well as associated negative health-related indicators. Interventions and policy changes are needed to support transgender women while incarcerated and upon release.

  20. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  1. 76 FR 23479 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...) shall be made available to all young adult dependents after aging out of the TRICARE Young Adult program... program unless specified otherwise. (A) Active Duty Military Sponsor. TYA coverage ends effective the date... 0720-AB48] Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult...

  2. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  3. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…

  4. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  5. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  6. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from EMT Career Pathway Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Loh-Sze

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…

  7. "I will guide you" The indirect link between overparenting and young adults' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Scharf, Miri

    2015-08-30

    This study addresses knowledge gaps regarding family dynamics, and identifies young adults at-risk for psychopathological symptoms. In particular, we examined overparenting and its associations with young adults' adjustment (distress and interpersonal sensitivity). Both direct and indirect relations were assessed, the latter through young adults' relational characteristics (attachment, psychological control perception, and boundaries diffusion perception). Also, the contribution of gender of parents and young adults was addressed. Questionnaires were collected from 89 Jewish-Israeli intact families. Mothers reported significantly more use of overparenting than fathers. More overparenting of fathers had a direct relation with less adjustment in young adults. This direct relation was partially mediated by higher levels of young adults' attachment anxiety (for the dependent variables distress and interpersonal sensitivity) and young adults' perceptions of parental psychological control (for the dependent variable distress). More overparenting of mothers was related to less interpersonal sensitivity for male young adults and for young adults who reported less parental psychological control. This study showed that parenting qualities and their interplay with young adults' relational characteristics continue to play an important role in the lives of young adult offspring. Therefore, clinicians dealing with young adults at risk for, or suffering from, psychopathology, should be attentive to overparenting and its possible implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

  9. Using breastfeeding images to promote breastfeeding among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Austen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Young adults’ reactions to breastfeeding images were assessed using varied approaches. In Study 1, participants viewed posters from a breastfeeding campaign; many anticipated negative reaction to the campaign. In Study 2, participants viewed novel infant-feeding posters; breastfeeding posters were viewed for less time than bottle-feeding posters, regardless of the task assigned. In Study 3, participants were asked to rate their comfort level viewing infant-feeding images; greater discomfort was reported for breastfeeding images. Taken together, we argue that many young adults expect, and experience, discomfort viewing breastfeeding, but it is important to continue using breastfeeding images in promotion efforts.

  10. Flavored tobacco product use among U.S. young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Richardson, Amanda; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

    2013-04-01

    Passage of the U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009 led to a ban on the sale of flavored cigarettes, largely because of studies showing targeting of these products to youth and young adults. There are no current restrictions on the marketing or sale of noncigarette or new nontraditional smokeless tobacco products (such as snus and dissolvable products), which are available in more than 45 flavors. To determine the prevalence of flavored tobacco use, dual use of flavored and menthol tobacco products, and sociodemographic predictors of flavored tobacco product use in young adults aged 18-34 years (N=4196). The current study utilizes data from Legacy's Young Adult Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample collected in January 2012. Data were analyzed using Stata IC 11.0 in June 2012. Overall, 18.5% of tobacco users report using flavored products, and dual use of menthol and flavored product use ranged from 1% (nicotine products) to 72% (chewing tobacco). In a multivariable model controlling for menthol use, younger adults were more likely to use flavored tobacco products (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.14, 3.11), and those with a high school education had decreased use of flavored products (OR=0.56; 95% CI=0.32, 0.97). Differences in use may be due to the continued targeted advertising of flavored products to young adults and minorities. Those most likely to use flavored products are also those most at risk of developing established tobacco-use patterns that persist through their lifetime. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Children and young people in immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael; Steel, Zachary; Mares, Sarah; Newman, Louise

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews evidence about the impact of immigration detention and other restrictive immigration policies on the mental health of children, young people and the adults who care for them. We review the implications of this for clinicians attempting to assess or work with incarcerated child and adult refugees and asylum seekers. There are increasing numbers of adults and children seeking asylum across the globe and many nations use incarceration and other harsh and interceptive immigration practices. There is mounting evidence of the psychological harm associated with detention of already vulnerable adults and children. Australia is used as a case study. Clinicians are required to consider the intersection of mental health assessment and treatment with human rights violations, and the impact of restrictive immigration policies, not only on asylum seekers and refugees but also on clinicians, clinical practice and professional ethics.

  12. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  13. Predicting the Future: Incarcerated Women's Views of Reentry Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.; Bender, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Research reveals that most incarcerated adults are optimistic about their chances of success after release and believe they will be less likely to reoffend than other prisoners. Moreover, studies suggest that optimism shapes desistance. This raises the interesting question of how and why female inmates maintain an optimistic outlook about their…

  14. THE ROLES OF TRANSLATED YOUNG ADULT FICTION IN ACHIEVEMENT OF YOUNG ADULT DEVELOPMENT IN PITIMOSS FUN LIBRARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuji Muliasari

    2017-02-01

    perkembangan dan usia kronologis pemustaka. Kata Kunci: fiksi remaja terjemahan, pengembangan koleksi fiksi, perkembangan remaja, Pitimoss Fun Library Abstract. Library has to provide fiction as one of its collection. There are two kind of fictions; national fiction and translated fiction. Its selection is not only based on amusement function, but also its role to help readers developing themselves. This research aims to describe the roles of translated young adult fiction in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Those aspects are cognitive, social, and affective. Theoritically, this research gives advantages for library and information science, especially for developing selection theory and bibliotheraphy. Practically, the advantages those are given by this research are tended to caretakers of Pitimoss Fun Library and other researchers. This reasearch is done by using qualitative approach.Meanwhile, descriptive method is chosen with case study interpretative as its model. The answers of research questions are based on explanation of six informants and key informant. Six informants are chosen by purposive sampling technique. Meanwhile, key informant is a bibliotheraphist. Observation, interview, document study, and  online searching are techniques those are used for collecting data. Research data are analyzed by narrative analysis technique. The result shows the two-way relation between translated young adult fiction and developmental achievement. Translated young adult fictions those are provided by Pitimoss Library have roles in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Even so, developmental achievement also determines the effectiveness of translated fiction roles for young adults. It also helps them to react to controversial issues. The roles of translated young adult fiction can be maximized if Pitimoss Fun Library doing some efforts, such us involving developmental needs as one of selection criteria, also giving guidance and books

  15. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  16. Depression Risk in Young Adults With Juvenile- and Adult-Onset Lupus: Twelve Years of Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrea M; Trupin, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Yelin, Edward; Lawson, Erica F

    2018-03-01

    To compare major depression risk among young adults with juvenile-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to determine demographic and health-related predictors of depression. Young adults with SLE ages 18-45 years (n = 546) in the Lupus Outcomes Study completed annual telephone surveys from 2002-2015, including assessment of depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and self-report measures of sociodemographics and health characteristics. Juvenile-onset SLE was defined as age adult-onset SLE. Older age, lower educational attainment, and physical function, higher disease activity, and a history of smoking were associated with an increased depression risk. Juvenile-onset SLE patients had a higher risk of major depression across all educational groups. Young adults with SLE, particularly those with juvenile-onset disease, are at high risk for major depression, which is associated with increased disease activity, poorer physical functioning, and lower educational attainment. Early depression intervention in young adults with SLE has the potential to improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Adolescent and young adult oncology: transition of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, David R; Brugieres, Laurence

    2008-05-01

    The fundamental purposes underlying formal health care transition from the pediatric to adult setting for young adult survivors of childhood cancer are to facilitate the continuous, medically and developmentally appropriate implementation of risk-based guidelines for the monitoring and management of late effects of childhood cancer and its treatment; and to support the normal maturational processes involved with growing from childhood to adulthood. To achieve these, this article identifies specific goals and action items in the following key areas: Models of Transitional Care, Survivor/Family Education, Post-Transitional Care Outcomes, Education of Health Care Professionals, and Health Care Policy and Advocacy. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Understanding and Targeting Indonesian Young Adult Internet Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Chang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia. 

  19. Body piercings and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Perception of young adults toward hookah use in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, K K; Oswal, K; Maudgal, S; Saranath, D

    2015-01-01

    The use of tobacco has been on the rise globally including in India, posing a grave public health problem. Recently, tobacco use through hookah smoking has increased among young adults in India, Middle East, Southwest Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Hookah prevalence of 0.4-15% has been reported in India. The aim of the study was to understand perception of hookah use among young adults in Mumbai. A total of 500 college students, with/without hookah habit, were given a self-administered questionnaire to indicate their perception of hookah use, using yes/no responses. The responses were analyzed in the users/non-users and considered significantly different at P Mumbai, toward hookah use, indicates an increased trend to use hookah. We recommend deterrents for hookah use by display of health warnings on hookah assembly and the tobacco products, implementation of government policies on hookah and tobacco use and punitive measures for offenders.

  1. Contraception for teenagers and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, V; Gbolade, B A; Morgan, S J; Glaser, A

    2004-12-01

    Adolescence can be an extremely stressful time for all concerned. When this period is then compounded by the development of cancer, formidable and seemingly insurmountable problems may be perceived. Cancer in adolescence is relatively uncommon, with an annual incidence rate in western populations of approximately 150-200 per million. Five-year survival of patients diagnosed around 1990 exceeded 70% in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States of America (USA), and adolescents with cancer are likely to remain fertile. Further advances in therapeutic modalities are creating a generation of adolescents and young adults with cancer who can now aspire to the same sexual and reproductive activities as their healthy peers. This then raises the issue of avoidance of undesired pregnancy during and after treatment. This article aims to address the contraceptive needs of adolescents and young adults undergoing treatment for cancer.

  2. The Migraine-Ischemic Stroke Relation in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Dalla Volta, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1) the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by s...

  3. Diabetes risk among overweight and obese metabolically healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir

    2014-11-01

    To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. Understanding and Targeting Indonesian Young Adult Internet Users

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    As the number of global internet users increases, companies' online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. ...

  5. APOL1 and blood pressure changes in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Coca, Steven G

    2017-10-01

    APOL1 risk variants have been shown to be associated with kidney disease and hypertension. In this study, Chen and colleagues assess the association of these risk variants with longitudinal blood pressure in young adults. We review the current literature on association of these alleles with blood pressure and propose future directions to resolve the existing controversies. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  7. Network Measures of Collaborative Support for Young Adults With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee Hassrick, Elizabeth; Shattuck, Paul; Carley, Kathleen

    2018-04-01

    The treatment of autism requires complex, multimodal interventions, provided by parents and providers across settings. As young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) transition into adulthood, new stakeholders are added to support planning for postsecondary employment. In this article, we investigate the use of dynamic social network measures that describe the resources of young adults throughout transition. A longitudinal, dynamic social network survey (Social Dynamics of Intervention [SoDI]) was conceptualized, designed, and conducted as a feasibility test, measuring changes in collaboration among parents and school staff members who provided interventions for children with ASD in 2 urban public schools. Using the SoDI, we tracked the following over time: the team who provided interventions, their locations, the interventions they provided, the autism trainings they attended, and the density of the team's problem-solving network for the child. Using the SoDI, we successfully identified stakeholders across settings who provided interventions for each child. Results indicated variation in the density of problem-solving and trust related to ASD intervention across teams as well as variation in intervention and autism knowledge networks during the school year. Adaptations of the SoDI for mapping pre- and posttransition resources and social connectivity across stakeholders for young adults with ASD are proposed in the Discussion section. Dynamic social network approaches can be used to capture changes in intervention, autism knowledge, and social connectivity, providing informative descriptive data about how vocational rehabilitation policies might increase employment supports during the transition process for young adults with ASD. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  9. Genetic association of impulsivity in young adults: a multivariate study

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in young adult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis ...

  10. Dinamic balance, lifestyle and emotional states in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Manica da; Barreto, Daniele Coronel Mena; Fronza, Andressa Boer; Jung, Ivo Emilio da Cruz; Krewer, Cristina Costa; Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da

    2010-01-01

    A one hypothesis to explain some vestibular peripheral disorders is their association with life style. Thus, studies with young adults are relevant. to analyze the prevalence of dynamic balance alterations in young adults and their possible association with life style variables, health and negative emotional states (since they can impact the outcome). we carried out a non-probabilistic cross-sectional, clinical-retrospective study with young adults (18-32 years of age) from a university with 751 individuals, with a mean age of 22.45+/- 3.32 years. Life style, health and negative emotional states (NES) variables - depression, stress and anxiety, were collected by means of an interview. The Unterberger test was used in order to check for indications of dynamic balance alterations. Individuals with altered dynamic balance (ADB) were compared to those without these alterations (controls). From our sample, 642 (83.6%) had less than 45 masculine of deviation, while 109 (14.2%) had greater than 45 masculine deviation and were the considered with ADB. The ADB group had a greater prevalence of smoking, alcohol abuse/dependence, high blood pressure and NES. the study highlights the occurrence of ADB which needs to be corroborated in future studies.

  11. Young adult smoking in peer groups: an experimental observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.

  12. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.

  13. Mindfulness and emotion regulation in older and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Whitmoyer, Patrick; Aldao, Amelia; Schirda, Brittney

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that dispositional mindfulness is associated with metrics of overall well-being, with enhanced emotion regulation potentially underlying these salutary effects. However, the role of regulation strategy use remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined age-variant associations between dispositional mindfulness, emotion regulation strategies, and emotion dysregulation. Self-report data were collected from 50 older and 50 young adults on mindfulness, emotion dysregulation, and recent strategy use. For the current study, we examined if cognitive reappraisal, experiential suppression, and thought avoidance use mediated the association between mindfulness and emotion dysregulation. Thought avoidance, but not reappraisal or suppression strategies, partially mediated the association between mindfulness and emotion dysregulation. Age group moderated the observed mediation, such that for young adults, lower mindfulness was associated with greater use of thought avoidance, and in turn with greater emotion dysregulation (e.g., difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior in the face of strong emotions). The current cross-sectional study suggests that reduced avoidance of thoughts may partially explain the relationship between trait mindfulness and enhanced emotion regulation, with this mediational pathway being stronger for young compared with older adults.

  14. Preparing childhood cancer survivors for transition to adult care: The young adult perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L; Berwick, Lexie; Tower, Mary; Kenney, Lisa B

    2017-10-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) remain at risk for developing treatment-associated health conditions as they age; however, many do not obtain recommended follow-up, putting them at unnecessary risk for morbidity. Educational interventions targeted at providing survivors with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthcare independence might improve adherence and outcomes as they transition care to the adult medical system. To identify informational needs, educational preferences, and support that young adult CCSs perceive as beneficial for transition from pediatric to adult medical care. Sixteen young adult CCSs (ages 22-39 years) who have transitioned to adult care participated in focus groups led by a trained moderator and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged: (1) education preferences-pediatric oncology provider as the primary source of information and guidance, enhanced by other formats, and early and ongoing engagement in education; (2) family role in transition-desire for independence and acknowledgement of need for ongoing parental support; (3) expectations for adult providers, such as close relationships, open communication, and care coordination; and (4) knowledge deficits regarding disease/treatment history, risk for long-term complications, and navigation of the adult medical system. Transition education as described by young adult CCSs should be a developmentally appropriate process beginning in early adolescents, primarily administered by pediatric oncology providers, and delivered in multiple formats. While healthcare independence is a goal for young adult CCSs, all stakeholders must recognize that families and providers continue to have an important role supporting survivors with transition logistics and medical decision-making. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  16. Birth size and coronary heart disease risk score in young adulthood. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, LE; Oren, A; Bots, ML; Gorissen, WHM; Grobbee, DE; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    Data of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study were used to investigate the association between birth size and the absolute risk for coronary heart disease in healthy young adults. The cohort study comprises 750 (46.9% men) subjects born between 1970 and 1973. Birth characteristics

  17. Young adult couples' decision making regarding emergency contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Richard; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Humphreys, Janice

    2011-03-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health problem among young people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to explore and better understand the reasons for the apparent underuse of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in young people in coupled relationships. THEORETICAL RATIONAL: In postmodern explications of grounded theory, social construction of realities and the influence of subjectivities on the meanings of experiences lead to the development of partial truths that may change with time, context, and situation. Grounded theory methods guided semi-structured face-to-face interviews and data analysis. Twenty-two couples aged 18 to 25 years old were recruited through public notices. Four salient and interrelated conditions were constructed to help explain the complexities involved in young couples decision making regarding ECP use: (a) the shifting locus of responsibility for contraceptive decision making: in a perfect world versus biological reality; (b) relationship power: control-vulnerability continuum; (c) a woman's autonomy over her own body; and (d) conflicting views on ECP. Healthcare professionals whose practice includes young people need to be aware of possible couple dynamics when discussing contraception. Clients in supportive relationships should be encouraged to engage in open communication with their partners about their contraception needs, including possible ECP use. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge with regard to decision making related to ECP use in young adults. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  19. STD and HIV risk factors among U.S. young adults: variations by gender, race, ethnicity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Everett, Bethany

    2012-06-01

    STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. Data from Waves 3 (2001-2002) and 4 (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults' characteristics. Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors-including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration-than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8-6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3-8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  20. TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Maria Ribera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts andthe results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults(AYA. After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALLin the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority ofpediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies inyoung adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewedemphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with eventfreesurvival rates of 60-65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that theunfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescentswith ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensivechemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which aremore frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like,deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents havebeen translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of thesepatients in recent years.

  1. "I Feel Lucky" - Gratitude Among Young Adults with Phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesen, Plata Sofie

    2016-10-01

    If persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) do not start a protein restricted diet in early infancy, they will suffer severe brain damage. Previous qualitative research on adults and adolescents with PKU has identified stigmatization, uncertain risk perceptions, considerable time spent on preparing food, and incongruence between the PKU diet and certain lifestyle demands. The aim of this study was to explore young and early treated Norwegian adults' experiences, by conducting in-depth interviews in 2011 with 11 adults with PKU, aged 20-30. Being the first qualitative study on people with PKU in Norway, the process was inspired by grounded theory. All participants reflected on their own health and existence by expressing positive counterfactual thoughts. They considered themselves lucky to have had parents who had managed the diet, they were grateful for the time and place they were born, and for information and treatment availability, although the results also show some ambiguous attitudes towards the hospital which provided the treatment. The expression of gratitude in association with having PKU suggests a major positive coping strategy. It contributes to a more holistic understanding of the experiences and attitudes of young, Norwegian adults with PKU, as it provides a counterweight to the negative experiences.

  2. Handgrip force steadiness in young and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D

    2018-01-01

    force produced (CVM) and the target force (CVT). Area between the force curve and the target force line (Area) was also calculated. For the older adults we explored reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement using standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement...... (LOA) and smallest real difference (SRD). RESULTS: A systematic improvement in handgrip steadiness was found between sessions for all measures (CVM, CVT, Area). CVM and CVT at 5% of MVC showed good to high reliability, while Area had poor reliability for all percentages of MVC. Averaged ICC for CVM......, CVT and Area was 0.815, 0.806 and 0.464, respectively. Averaged ICC on 5%, 10%, and 25% of MVC was 0.751, 0.667 and 0.668, respectively. Measures of agreement showed similar trends with better results for CVM and CVT than for Area. Young adults had better handgrip steadiness than older adults across...

  3. Genetic susceptibility of intervertebral disc degeneration among young Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelempisioti Anthi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disc degeneration (DD is a common condition that progresses with aging. Although the events leading to DD are not well understood, a significant genetic influence has been found. This study was undertaken to assess the association between relevant candidate gene polymorphisms and moderate DD in a well-defined and characterized cohort of young adults. Focusing on young age can be valuable in determining genetic predisposition to DD. Methods We investigated the associations of existing candidate genes for DD among 538 young adults with a mean age of 19 belonging to the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 16 genes were genotyped. We evaluated lumbar DD using the modified Pfirrmann classification and a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner for imaging. Results Of the 538 individuals studied, 46% had no degeneration, while 54% had DD and 51% of these had moderate DD. The risk of DD was significantly higher in subjects with an allele G of IL6 SNPs rs1800795 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.96 and rs1800797 (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.85 in the additive inheritance model. The role of IL6 was further supported by the haplotype analysis, which resulted in an association between the GGG haplotype (SNPs rs1800797, rs1800796 and rs1800795 and DD with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.11-2.04. In addition, we observed an association between DD and two other polymorphisms, SKT rs16924573 (OR 0.27 95% CI 0.07-0.96 and CILP rs2073711 in women (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.89. Conclusion Our results indicate that IL6, SKT and CILP are involved in the etiology of DD among young adults.

  4. Work characteristics and suicidal ideation in young adults in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Melchior, Maria; Younes, Nadia; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-04-01

    Job insecurity, unemployment, and job strain can predict psychological distress and suicide risk. Young people, who are particularly at risk of suicide, may be especially vulnerable to the deterioration of labor market conditions as a result of the current economic crisis in Europe. We aimed to examine the effects of work and employment characteristics on suicidal ideation in a contemporary sample of young adults. Using data from a sample of French young adults surveyed in 2011 (TEMPO study, N = 1,214, 18-37 years old) and their parents who took part in a longitudinal cohort study, we used multiple logistic regression to examine the relationship between job insecurity, lifetime and recent unemployment and suicidal ideation in the past 12 months. Our analyses were adjusted for factors associated with suicidal risk including age, sex, educational attainment, living with a partner, insufficient social support, alcohol abuse, depression and parental history of depression. Five percent of the sample reported suicidal ideation in the preceding 12 months. Controlling for all covariates, the likelihood of suicidal ideation was associated with job insecurity (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.08-4.63), lifetime unemployment (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17-4.29), and recent unemployment (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.04-4.25). After stratifying by educational attainment, the association between suicidal ideation and job insecurity was particularly notable for participants with low educational attainment (OR 9.28, 95% CI 1.19-72.33). Young adults who have unstable and unfavorable employment characteristics are disproportionately likely to be suicidal, which should be monitored, particularly in times of economic downturn.

  5. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension

  6. Correlates of meal skipping in young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Felicity J; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-12-01

    Meal skipping rates may be highest during young adulthood, a period of transition and development. Although these dietary behaviours may increase future risk of chronic disease, limited research has investigated correlates of meal skipping in young adults. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated correlates of meal skipping behaviours in young adults (aged 18-30 years). EBSCO host, MEDLINE Complete, Global Health, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Informit platforms were searched for eligible articles. Correlates were defined as any factor that was either associated with meal skipping or was self-reported by the participant to have an influence on meal skipping. Randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case-control studies, nested case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal studies were eligible for inclusion. Three-hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, 141 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, resulting in 35 included studies. Multiple methodological and reporting weaknesses were apparent in the reviewed studies with 28 of the 35 studies scoring a negative rating in the risk of bias assessment. Meal skipping (any meal), defined as the skipping of any meal throughout the day, was reported in 12 studies with prevalence ranging between 5 and 83%. The remaining 25 studies identified specific meals and their skipping rates, with breakfast the most frequently skipped meal 14-88% compared to lunch 8-57% and dinner 4-57%. Lack of time was consistently reported as an important correlate of meal skipping, compared with correlates such as cost and weight control, while sex was the most commonly reported associated correlate. Breakfast skipping was more common among men while lunch or dinner skipping being more common among women. This review is the first to examine potential correlates of meal skipping in young adults. Future research would benefit from stronger design and

  7. Kidney transplant survival in pediatric and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acott Phil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a perception that kidney transplant recipients transferred from pediatric centers to adult care have an increased risk of graft loss. It is not clear whether young adults transplanted in adult centers also suffer from high graft loss rates. Methods We examined death censored graft survival in 3 cohorts of young patients transplanted at a single center. Pediatric (PED patients transplanted at the pediatric center were compared to a cohort of young adults (YAD; age 18- Results In a multivariate Cox model for death-censored graft survival, PED survival was statistically similar to the YAD (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44, 1.7, p = 0.66, however the ADL cohort (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.82, p = 0.009 demonstrated better survival. Admitted non-adherence rates were not different among cohorts. Patients were transferred within a narrow age window (18.6 ± 1.0 age in years but at a wide range of times from the date of transplantation (5.1 ± 3.5 years and with a wide range of graft function (serum creatinine 182 ± 81 μmol/L. Conclusions The perception that pediatric transfers do poorly reflects advanced graft dysfunction in some at the time of transfer. The evidence also suggests that it is not the transfer of care that is the critical issue but rather recipients, somewhere between the ages of 11-14 and 25, are a unique and vulnerable cohort. Effective strategies to improve outcomes across this age group need to be identified and applied consistently.

  8. A Replication and Extension of the PEERS® for Young Adults Social Skills Intervention: Examining Effects on Social Skills and Social Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J.; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Casnar, Christina L.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth M.; Gordon, Nakia S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, "PEERS® for Young Adults," shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment…

  9. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.

  10. Moon orientation in adult and young sandhoppers under artificial light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alberto; Boddi, Vieri; Mercatelli, Luca; Castellini, Carlo

    2005-10-22

    Our experiments, carried out at night and during the day on adults and laboratory-born young of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator, deal with the identification and use of the moon as an orientating factor. Sandhoppers were released in an apparatus (a Plexiglas dome) that produced a scenario similar to the natural one (with artificial sky, moon or sun illuminated at different intensities). When tested at night, the adult and young sandhoppers used the artificial moon like the natural one, independently of the intensity of illumination of the artificial sky and moon. In other words, sandhoppers tested at night always identified the artificial moon as the moon and never as the sun. In daytime releases, the seaward orientation failed at low intensities of artificial sky and sun illumination (3.07 and 1.55 microW cm2, respectively), whereas the sun compass was used effectively at higher levels of artificial sun and sky illumination. The innate ability of moon compass orientation in inexpert young sandhoppers was demonstrated even under artificial light.

  11. The behavioral economics of young adult substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol and drug use peaks during young adulthood and can interfere with critical developmental tasks and set the stage for chronic substance misuse and associated social, educational, and health-related outcomes. There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to guide substance abuse prevention efforts during this critical developmental period. This paper discusses the particular relevance of behavioral economic theory to young adult alcohol and drug misuse, and reviews of available literature on prevention and intervention strategies that are consistent with behavioral economic theory. Behavioral economic theory predicts that decisions to use drugs and alcohol are related to the relative availability and price of both alcohol and substance-free alternative activities, and the extent to which reinforcement from delayed substance-free outcomes is devalued relative to the immediate reinforcement associated with drugs. Behavioral economic measures of motivation for substance use are based on relative levels of behavioral and economic resource allocation towards drug versus alternatives, and have been shown to predict change in substance use over time. Policy and individual level prevention approaches that are consistent with behavioral economic theory are discussed, including brief interventions that increase future orientation and engagement in rewarding alternatives to substance use. Prevention approaches that increase engagement in constructive future-oriented activities among young adults (e.g., educational/vocational success) have the potential to reduce future health disparities associated with both substance abuse and poor educational/vocational outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms of young adult female indoor tanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Descriptive statistics, χ(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions.

  13. Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hateley, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…

  14. Post-stroke epilepsy in young adults: a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, R.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of seizures after stroke in young adults. Especially in the young seizures might dramatically influence prognosis and quality of life. We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a

  15. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  16. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  17. Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual problems in young adults due to computer use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, M M; Chatziralli, I P; Siasou, G; Papazisis, L

    2012-04-01

    Computer use can cause visual problems. The purpose of our study was to evaluate visual problems due to computer use in young adults. Participants in our study were 87 adults, 48 male and 39 female, mean aged 31.3 years old (SD 7.6). All the participants completed a questionnaire regarding visual problems detected after computer use. The mean daily use of computers was 3.2 hours (SD 2.7). 65.5 % of the participants complained for dry eye, mainly after more than 2.5 hours of computer use. 32 persons (36.8 %) had a foreign body sensation in their eyes, while 15 participants (17.2 %) complained for blurred vision which caused difficulties in driving, after 3.25 hours of continuous computer use. 10.3 % of the participants sought medical advice for their problem. There was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of visual problems and the duration of computer use (p = 0.021). 79.3 % of the participants use artificial tears during or after long use of computers, so as not to feel any ocular discomfort. The main symptom after computer use in young adults was dry eye. All visual problems associated with the duration of computer use. Artificial tears play an important role in the treatment of ocular discomfort after computer use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Young Adults Attempt Exchanges in Reproductively Relevant Currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults in many species exhibit exchanges in reproductively relevant currencies, where males trade resources for sexual relations with females, and females have sex with males in exchange for provisioning. These exchanges can occur outside of a long-term partnership, which itself could be considered a commitment to the accessibility of reproductive currencies provided by each partner. The current study investigated whether young adults who are not in acute need of resources intentionally attempt reproductive currency exchanges outside of dating relationships or formal committed relationships such as marriage; and whether young adults have awareness of being the target of such attempts made by others. College students (N = 475 completed a brief survey assessing their own attempts to exchange reproductively relevant currencies, as well as others' attempts to make these exchanges with them. Men were more likely to report making attempts to trade investment for sex and women were more likely to report attempted trades of sex for investment. Participants' experiences of exchange attempts initiated by other individuals mirrored these patterns. Men were more likely to report another individual trying to trade sex for their investment, and women were more likely to report another individual trying to trade investment for sex with them. The vast majority of these attempted exchanges took place outside of existing relationships, although a small portion did lead to short or long-term relationships.

  20. Spoken Language Production in Young Adults: Examining Syntactic Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W; Vigeland, Laura M

    2017-05-24

    In this study, we examined syntactic complexity in the spoken language samples of young adults. Its purpose was to contribute to the expanding knowledge base in later language development and to begin building a normative database of language samples that potentially could be used to evaluate young adults with known or suspected language impairment. Forty adults (mean age = 22 years, 10 months) with typical language development participated in an interview that consisted of 3 speaking tasks: a general conversation about common, everyday topics; a narrative retelling task that involved fables; and a question-and-answer, critical-thinking task about the fables. Each speaker's interview was audio-recorded, transcribed, broken into communication units, coded for main and subordinate clauses, entered into Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (Miller, Iglesias, & Nockerts, 2004), and analyzed for mean length of communication unit and clausal density. Both the narrative and critical-thinking tasks elicited significantly greater syntactic complexity than the conversational task. It was also found that syntactic complexity was significantly greater during the narrative task than the critical-thinking task. Syntactic complexity was best revealed by a narrative task that involved fables. The study offers benchmarks for language development during early adulthood.

  1. Distinguishing attentional gain and tuning in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Taylor W; Dixon, Matthew L; Anderson, Adam K; De Rosa, Eve

    2014-11-01

    Here we examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether advanced age affects 2 mechanisms of attention that are widely thought to enhance signal processing in the sensory neocortex: gain and tuning. Healthy young and older adults discriminated faces under varying levels of object competition while fMRI was acquired. In young adults, cortical response magnitude to attended faces was maintained despite increasing competition, consistent with gain. Cortical response selectivity, indexed from repetition suppression, also increased only for attended faces despite increasing competition, consistent with tuning. Older adults exhibited intact gain, but altered tuning, with extrastriate cortical tuning determined by object salience rather than attention. Moreover, the magnitude of this susceptibility to stimulus-driven processing was associated with a redistribution of attention-driven competitive processes to the frontal cortices. These data indicate that although both gain and tuning are modulated by increased perceptual competition, they are functionally dissociable in the extrastriate cortices, exhibit differential susceptibility to advanced aging, and spare the frontal cortices a considerable processing burden through early selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk profile of myocardial infarction in young versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Mona A; Eshah, Nidal F; Moser, Debra K

    2018-04-04

    In developing countries, the number of adults who develop myocardial infarction (MI) at a young age is high. The popularity of waterpipe smoking (WPS) has increased among the same age group. It is unknown if WPS contributes to the incidence of early-onset MI. To study the association of WPS with early-onset MI, which is defined as first MI occurring in individuals 18 ≥ age ≤ 45 years compared to those older than 45 years. This was a cross-sectional study. The association of WPS with first-time MI was compared between younger and older adults (N = 225). Twenty-five percent of all participants developed an acute MI before the age of 46 years. Both cigarette and WPS were more common among younger first-time MI patients than older first-time MI patients. WPS is one risk factor that distinguishes the risk profile of young adults with early-onset MI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived Stress, Parent-Adolescent/Young Adult Communication, and Family Resilience Among Adolescents/Young Adults Who Have a Parent With Cancer in Taiwan: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Mi; Du, Bao-Feng; Ho, Ching-Liang; Ou, Wei-Jen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chen, Wei-Ching

    Family resilience helps family members successfully overcome adversity, for example, chronic disease or unpleasant situations. However, few studies have identified correlates of family resilience among adolescents/young adults having a parent with cancer. This longitudinal study explored (1) relationships among family resilience, adolescents' perceived stress, and parent-adolescent/young adult communication; (2) trends in family resilience with data collection time; and (3) differences in parent-adolescent/young adult communication by parent gender (ie, father or mother). Participants were teenagers and young adults (12-25 years) with a parent who had cancer. Data were collected using structured questionnaires at 3 times for 4 to 5 months, with 2 months between each collection. Of 96 adolescent/young adult participants enrolled at T1, only 32 completed all measurements at T3. We found that (1) family resilience was negatively associated with adolescents' perceived stress (B = -0.35) and positively associated with adolescent/young adult communication with both the father (B = 0.58) and the mother (B = 0.36), (2) the degree of family resilience at T3 was significantly lower than at T1 (B = -4.79), and (3) at all 3 data collection times, the degree of adolescent/young adult communication was higher with mothers than with fathers, whether the mother had cancer or did not have cancer. Family resilience was positively associated with parent-adolescent/young adult communication and negatively related to perceived stress. Family resilience tended to decline with longer parental survival since cancer diagnosis. We suggest nursing interventions to reduce adolescent/young adult stress and develop optimal parent-adolescent/young adult communication to enhance family resilience.

  4. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and

  5. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.

  6. Air Pollution and Ischemic Stroke Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Novack, Victor; Ifergane, Gal; Horev, Anat; Kloog, Itai

    2015-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated consistent associations between cardiovascular illness and particulate matter (PM) stroke received less attention. We hypothesized that air pollution, an inflammation progenitor, can be associated with stroke incidence in young patients in whom the usual risk factors for stroke are less prevalent. We aimed to evaluate the association between stroke incidence and exposure to PM stroke between 2005 and 2012. Exposure assessment was based on a hybrid model incorporating daily satellite remote sensing data at 1-km spatial resolution. We performed case-crossover analysis, stratified by personal characteristics and distance from main roads. We identified 4837 stroke cases (89.4% ischemic stroke). Interquartile range of PM ischemic stroke and increases of interquartile range average concentrations of particulate matter ischemic stroke associated with PM among young adults. This finding can be explained by the inflammatory mechanism, linking air pollution and stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  8. Management of total cancer pain: A case of young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain due to cancer is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by the patients at some or the other time during the course of treatment or disease progression. The multidimensional nature of cancer pain is characterized by various dimensions including physical, social, psychological, and spiritual; which together constitute the term "total pain". Young cancer patients illustrate their unique psychological and developmental needs. This case report highlights the concept of "total cancer pain" in a young adult and demonstrates his distinctive social, spiritual, and psychological sufferings. The report emphasizes that addressing all these concerns is considerably significant in order to provide optimal pain relief to the patient. In the present scenario, it has been done by a skillful multiprofessional team communicating effectively with both the patient and the carer.

  9. Prescription drug misuse among young adults: looking across youth cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; Leclair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2013-05-01

    Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven

  11. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  12. The performance of obesity screening tools among young Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.

  13. [Spanish normative studies in a young adult population (NEURONORMA young adults Project): methods and characteristics of the sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Casanova, J; Casals-Coll, M; Quintana, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Manero, R M

    2012-06-01

    In clinical neuropsychology, normative data are necessary to relate the performance of a subject to a reference group. These normative data should be collected from a pertinent population taking into account sociodemographic and cultural factors. This paper describes the methods and sample characteristics of a series of Spanish normative studies on young adults (NEURONORMA young adults Project). The normative information was based on a series of selected, commonly used, neuropsychological tests covering attention, language, visual-perceptual abilities, constructional tasks, memory, and executive functions. A sample of 179 cognitively normal subjects from 18 to 49 years was studied. Demographics, socio-cultural, and medical data were collected. The statistical procedure used in the normative studies is described. Sociodemographic, family background, health habits, medical history and use of drugs are presented. The use of these norms should improve neuropsychological diagnostic accuracy in young Spanish subjects. These data may also be of considerable use for comparisons with other normative studies. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Young and Adult Education: social representations about writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Mendonça Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how writing is perceived by female students enrolled in the Young and Adult Education program at the Instituto Federal Fluminense, campus Centro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Following contributions of the Social Representations Theory, it was possible to analyze the social aspects th Sabrina Mendonça Ferreira, Gerson Tavares Carmoat influence the reality of those student in regards to writing, and more specifically: their ways of conceiving and perceiving it as subjects of a social identity, of justifying it in the ways they use it or fear it, and of guiding their strategies in relation to desire or fear of writing.

  15. Isolated tuberculosis of scapula in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay A Jagtap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB of the scapula is a very rare presentation among tuberculosis of bones and joints. The following case report describes a rare case of tuberculosis involving the inferior angle of the scapula in a young, immune-competent adult presenting with pain, swelling and an osteolytic lesion over the inferior angle of the scapula with a cold abscess. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology and culture, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI acting as an adjunct to an early diagnosis. The patient was managed successfully with surgical debridement and a four-drug anti-tuberculous regimen.

  16. Isolated tuberculosis of scapula in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Sanjay A; Sonawane, Dhiraj V; Saraogi, Akash A

    2013-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the scapula is a very rare presentation among tuberculosis of bones and joints. The following case report describes a rare case of tuberculosis involving the inferior angle of the scapula in a young, immune-competent adult presenting with pain, swelling and an osteolytic lesion over the inferior angle of the scapula with a cold abscess. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology and culture, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) acting as an adjunct to an early diagnosis. The patient was managed successfully with surgical debridement and a four-drug anti-tuberculous regimen. Copyright © 2013 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D Insufficiency among Free-Living Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tangpricha, Vin; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Chen, Tai C.; Holick, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term vitamin D insufficiency can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia (1). In addition, there is increasing evidence that vitamin D may protect against common cancers, such as cancer of the colon (2–4), prostate (5), and breast (6). Young adults aged 17 to 35 years drink inadequate amounts of milk (7) and are concerned about exposure to the sun because of the fear of developing skin cancer (8,9), which increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency (10). We sought to exami...

  18. [Nodular gastritis and gastric cancer in young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Nodular gastritis is a popular endoscopic gastritis in H. pylori-positive children and young adults. The endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis were mainly characterized by a unique, small granulated pattern in the antrum of the stomach. The cases of gastric cancer with nodular gastritis showed the same characteristics: all were diagnosed histologically as the diffuse-type and were located in the corpus with H. pylori infection. We recommended that endoscopists should carefully examine not only the antrum but also the corpus in patients with nodular gastritis, and H. pylori should be eradicated as soon as possible to prevent gastric cancer.

  19. Primary care for young adult cancer survivors: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Blake-Gumbs, Lyla; Miedema, Baujke

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare...... issues the YA cancer patient may present with. The role of the FP in follow-up care seems to be very limited. CONCLUSIONS: YACs in the western world seem to have comparable medical and psychosocial problems. However, the nature of health insurance is such that it impacts differently on the care...

  20. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  1. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  2. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  3. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  4. The Empathetic Librarian: Rural Librarians as a Source of Support for Rural Cyberbullied Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Abigail Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a problem many young adults ages 12 to 18 have experienced on a daily basis. Adult support is critical in both the prevention and intervention of cyberbullying. Although parents, teachers, and school administrators have been highlighted as sources of support for cyberbullied young adults, librarians have not been studied as a…

  5. Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…

  6. Impact of Childhood Family Disruption on Young Adults' Relationships with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of childhood family disruption for parent-adult child relations in sample of 4,516 young adults. Among young adults raised in single-parent families, relationships with custodial mothers and custodial fathers remained quite positive into early adulthood. Becoming noncustodial parent resulted in severe deterioration of…

  7. Clinical and neurocognitive markers of suicidality in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-05-01

    Suicide represents a leading cause of death in young people, yet relatively little is known regarding the neurobiological sequelae of preceding suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Although some studies have reported cognitive deficits associated with suicidality, very few studies have been undertaken in young people, especially from non-clinical contexts. To quantify cognitive deficits associated with suicidality using a representative sample of young people, recruited from the general community using media advertisements. 304 adults (18-29 years) undertook the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI) suicidality module, along with Cambridge Gamble and Stop-Signal tasks. Suicidality was defined as non-zero MINI scores (broad definition) and a past history of suicide attempt(s) (narrow definition). Clinical features and cognitive performance were compared between those with and those without suicidality, using analysis of variance/chi-square; findings were further explored using linear regression. Suicidality was relatively common (broad definition: 14.8%; narrow definition: 5.3%) in young people and was associated with impaired decision-making on the Cambridge Gamble task (p definition). Linear regression demonstrated that decision-making performance was associated with a significant incremental benefit with respect to predicting suicidality, over and above the utility of demographic and clinical variables considered (p young people with suicidality, and may thereby predispose towards a range of suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Further work is needed to clarify the chain of progression from such thoughts/behaviours, which are relatively common, through to actual suicide, which is not. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coronary artery disease in young adults: Angiographic study - A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Incidence of critical CAD in young adults is quite high. Young patients with CAD are mainly males, and SVD is more common. Emphasis should be given on diagnosis and management of risk factors in this vulnerable group.

  9. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight December 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young ...

  10. The Relationship between P3 Amplitude and Working Memory Performance Differs in Young and Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older

  11. Young Adult Outcomes of Juvenile Court-Involved Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in the number of girls involved in the juvenile justice system has resulted in increased academic and public attention. Thus far, this attention has focused on entry into the juvenile justice system rather than longer-term consequences. This research helps fill this gap by examining a sample of 700 maltreated and/or impoverished juvenile court-involved females. Competing risks models were used to control for time from juvenile-court entry to adult outcomes: criminal justice system involvement, use of public mental health or substance use services, and income maintenance use. Results indicate that there are distinct predictors associated with the different outcomes, although learning disability and adolescent parenthood were associated with higher risk of both mental health/substance use services and income maintenance. Individualized services for juvenile court-involved girls are suggested. Prospective, longitudinal research is needed to investigate intrapsychic and behavioral dynamics associated with females' young adult outcomes.

  12. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using...... a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time...... and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own...

  13. Conservative management of a young adult with hip arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kyle M; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2009-12-01

    Case report. Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a young adult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multifaceted rehabilitation program. A 28-year-old female with severe left hip degeneration, as identified with diagnostic imaging, was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion, and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3-month follow-up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self-mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Therapy, level 4.

  14. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.

  15. Predictors of migraine subtypes in young adults with ischemic stroke: the italian project on stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Casoni, Federica; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Delodovici, Maria Luisa; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Rasura, Maurizia; Del Sette, Massimo; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Zini, Andrea; Cerrato, Paolo; Costa, Paolo; Magoni, Mauro; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    the mechanisms underlying the relationship between migraine and ischemic stroke remain uncertain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of major cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac interatrial abnormalities, and additional biological markers on migraine subtypes in young adults with ischemic stroke. ischemic stroke patients aged 45 years or younger were consecutively enrolled as part of the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults. A comprehensive evaluation was performed including assessment of self-reported migraine and cardiovascular risk factors, interatrial right-to-left shunt, and genotyping to detect factor V Leiden and the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene. nine hundred eighty-one patients (mean age, 36.0 ± 7.6 years; 50.7% women) were included. The risk of migraine with aura increased with decreasing number of cardiovascular risk factors (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.24-0.99 for 2 factors or more), increasing number of thrombophilic variants (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.05-4.68 for carriers of at least 1 of the 2), and the presence of right-to-left shunt (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.37-3.45), as compared to patients without migraine. None of these factors had influence on the risk of migraine without aura. in young adults with ischemic stroke, low cardiovascular risk profile, right-to-left shunt, and an underlying procoagulant state are predictors of migraine with aura. The biological effects of these factors should be considered in future studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms linking migraine to brain ischemia.

  16. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  17. Young Adult Gambling Behaviors and their Relationship with the Persistence of ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Breyer, Jessie L.; Botzet, Andria M.; Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy D.; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George

    2009-01-01

    Young adulthood is a period renowned for engagement in impulsive and risky behaviors, including gambling. There are some indications that young adults exhibit higher gambling rates in comparison to older adults. Problem gambling has also been linked to ADHD. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between gambling and ADHD among an epidemiological sample of young adults (n = 235; males = 179, females = 56) aged 18–24. Results indicate that individuals who report childhood ADHD sympt...

  18. Articulation of young adult readers in a digitalized and medialized landscape of texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....

  19. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  20. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.

  1. [Prolonged fever: specific issues in the young adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmoi, T; Grateau, G; Billhot, M; Dumas, G; Biale, L; Perrot, G; Algayres, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Early studies on prolonged fever date back to the 1960s. Fifty years later, prolonged unexplained fever remains a diagnostic challenge to the general internists. Although the aetiologies of prolonged fevers have not changed much in the general population, the distribution between the various causes is not the same anymore. A regular decrease in infectious and neoplastic causes is noticed whatever the age. Prolonged fevers related to inflammatory disorders and fevers that remain of unknown origin still represent approximately 30 to 50% of the cases. In the young adult population, as in the older patients, prolonged fevers can be attributed to four groups: infection, inflammation, neoplasic and other aetiologies (including drug-related fevers). In the young adult population, the management of prolonged fever presents some specific issues that are the purpose of this review coupled with our own experience. The prognosis of undiagnosed prolonged fever is usually favourable, as a life-threatening aetiology is exceptionally diagnosed during the follow-up if the initial management was complete and accurate. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco industry lifestyle magazines targeted to young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Daniel K; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2009-09-01

    This is the first study describing the tobacco industry's objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999, targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions. Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the "under-the-radar" strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded Websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking.

  3. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  5. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  6. Chewing Duration Time Of Various Food Textures In Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raísa Coutinho Vitcel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values of chewing time of several food textures in young adults. METHOD: descriptive study with a quantitative approach that was developed in a clinical reference, being the population composed of 40 young adults between 18-30 years of age, of both genres. As exclusion criteria: those with neuromuscular and / or degenerative diseases or consequences thereof, as well as subjects who were making use of any orthodontic / orthopedic resource. We conducted a dental evaluation, followed by a clinical assessment. One at a time, the following foods were offered: French bread, wafer biscuit, roasted cashews, for voluntary chewing.  To measure the food chewing time, we used a stopwatch, and this collection procedure was filmed. Data analysis was performed by means of the SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM® program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the medians of chewing time of French bread, wafer biscuit and cashew nuts, which were 33.0s (interquartile amplitude 29.0 - 40.0, 10.0s (interquartile amplitude 8.25-12.0 and 18.5s (interquartile amplitude 15.0-23.75, respectively. CONCLUSION: The texture of foods influences the length of mastication. The more rigid is the food, the more cycles and mandibular movements, and therefore the longer the duration of chewing.

  7. Negative Experiences on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Real Time Assessment of Young Adults' Attitudes toward Tobacco Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-01-01

    We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine factors related to attitude towards message and intentions to use tobacco. Messages depicting e-cigarettes (p < .001) or hookah (p < .05) were associated with significantly more favorable attitudes compared with traditional cigarettes. Positive attitude towards the message was significantly associated with intention to use the depicted product (p < .001). Messages depicting e-cigarettes and hookah were significantly associated with higher intention to use. Message source was not significantly related to attitudes towards the message or product use intentions. Marketing featuring e-cigarettes and hookah is an important target for future regulation. Given that pro-tobacco and e-cigarette messages are prevalent online, future research should consider the Internet and social media as important venues for counter-marketing and intervention efforts.

  9. Evaluation of disordered eating tendencies in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlier, Nevin; Navruz Varli, Semra; Macit, M Sedanur; Mortas, Hande; Tatar, Tugba

    2017-12-01

    It was aimed to determine the prevalence of high disordered eating tendencies and its relationship with food addiction, emotional eating and self esteem in participants at 18 and 33 years age group. This study was planned as a cross-sectional study and conducted with 1359 young adult volunteers (M = 386, F = 973) with an average age of 22.4 ± 2.84 years. Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used. EAT-26 score above 20 was considered as eating disorders risk cutoff. Participants with disordered eating tendencies have higher rates (22.4%) of food addiction compared to participants without high disordered eating tendencies (7.2%). There is no difference for EMAQ and YFAS scores; however, there is a significant difference for RSES and EAT-26 scores according to gender. A positive association of EAT-26 with YFAS and EMAQ-negative scores and a negative association of EAT-26 with RSES and EMAQ-positive were found. There is association among EAT-26, YFAS, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Emotional Appetite Questionnaire scores. This study provides information for future studies about high disordered eating tendencies, food addiction and mood that are thought to be important in young adults. Level V (cross-sectional descriptive study).

  10. Perceived health in young adults with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, M; Post, M W M; Barf, H A; van Asbeck, F W A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H

    2007-03-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the perceived health of young adults with spina bifida with a population without disability, and to determine the effect of the disease characteristics and resulting impairments on perceived health. This cross-sectional study is part of the Adolescents with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands study. Data were collected by physical examination and a questionnaire. In total, 179 patients (age range 16-25y) participated in the study and perceived health data were completed for 164 participants (92 females, 72 males; mean age 20y 7mo [SD 2y 9mo]). Twenty-six participants had spina bifida occulta and 138 had spina bifida aperta, of whom 115 also had hydrocephalus. Perceived health was measured with the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36), a generic health status measure. SF-36 scores of young adults with spina bifida were below those of an age-matched population group for six of the eight domains. This difference was largest for the physical functioning domain. Although these differences were statistically significant they were small. Findings for the emotional health domains (vitality, mental health, role problems due to emotional problems) did not differ at all from the population group.

  11. Neurocognitive deficits associated with shoplifting in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2012-11-01

    Shoplifting is a relatively common behavior in young adults, but the demographic and neuropsychological correlates of shoplifting remain poorly characterized in this context. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29 years) were recruited from the general community on the basis of having no Axis I disorders, no history of illicit substance use, and no history of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Participants were grouped according to presence or absence of shoplifting (at least 1 time over the past 12 months). Measures relating to impulsivity along with objective computerized neuropsychological measures were collected. Shoplifters (n = 14) and controls (n = 95) did not differ significantly in terms of salient demographic characteristics. Compared with controls, shoplifters endorsed higher impulsivity on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, gambled significantly more points on the Cambridge Gambling Task, and showed deficits on the hardest level of difficulty on the Spatial Working Memory task. Performance on executive planning, set-shifting, and response inhibition did not differ significantly between shoplifters and controls. This study identified significant cognitive deficits in those with past-year shoplifting behavior even in the absence of Axis I disorders and a history of illicit drugs or alcohol. These preliminary findings inform our understanding of the neurocognitive sequelae of shoplifting and its relationship with other impulse control problems, subclinical and clinical. Future work should use longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between these deficits, shoplifting behavior, other impulsive behavior, and functional impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  13. Intra- versus intermodal integration in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Brent P; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2008-05-01

    The ability to integrate information across sensory channels is critical for both within- and between-modality speech processing. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that inter- and intramodal integration abilities are related, in young and older adults. Further, the investigation asked if intramodal integration (auditory+auditory), and intermodal integration (auditory+visual) resist changes as a function of either aging or the presence of hearing loss. Three groups of adults (young with normal hearing, older with normal hearing, and older with hearing loss) were asked to identify words in sentence context. Intramodal integration ability was assessed by presenting disjoint passbands of speech (550-750 and 1650-2250 Hz) to either ear. Integration was indexed by factoring monotic from dichotic scores to control for potential hearing- or age-related influences on absolute performance. Intermodal integration ability was assessed by presenting the auditory and visual signals. Integration was indexed by a measure based on probabilistic models of auditory-visual integration, termed integration enhancement. Results suggested that both types of integration ability are largely resistant to changes with age and hearing loss. In addition, intra- and intermodal integration were shown to be not correlated. As measured here, these findings suggest that there is not a common mechanism that accounts for both inter- and intramodal integration performance.

  14. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  15. Motivational and mindfulness intervention for young adult female marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel A; Herman, Debra S; Britton, Willoughby B; Hagerty, Claire E; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). The participants' marijuana use was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = -2.42, p = .015), 7.81 (z = -2.78, p = .005), and 6.83 (z = -2.23, p = .026) fewer days at Months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

    2010-04-01

    Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites.

  17. Obesity increases risk of ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho M. Strömmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.

  19. Tobacco industry research on smoking cessation. Recapturing young adults and other recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-05-01

    Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers' needs. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, "ultra low tar" cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers' motivations.

  20. Adoption consideration and concerns among young adult female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Standridge, Daniel; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Romero, Sally A D; Roberts, Samantha A; Su, H Irene

    2017-02-01

    We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups. We assessed characteristics and concerns related to adoption consideration among cancer survivors. Among cancer survivors, 81.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-87.6) reported that they would consider adoption compared to 40.3 % (95 % CI 40.3-40.3) of women in the general population. While over 80 % of the cancer survivor sample reported that they would consider adoption, only 15 % of cancer survivors reported no concerns about adoption. The most common concerns were desire for a biological child (48 %), expense (45 %), adoption agency candidacy (41 %), and needing more information (39 %). We observed a twofold higher interest in adoption when comparing the cancer survivor with the general population, suggesting that adoption is a consideration for many young women who have survived cancer. Adoption is an important family-building option for those who want to have a child but are unable to or choose not to have a biological child. However, young adult survivors may need more support to understand and navigate this process.

  1. Non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis and patent foramen ovale in young adults with cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V

    2017-05-01

    Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.

  2. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.

  3. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version

    OpenAIRE

    Limperg, Perrine F; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A; van Rossum, Marion AJ; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18–30 years. Methods A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch population aged 18–30 years, stratified by age, sex, marital status and education, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA online. Internal c...

  4. An examination of suicide attempts among incarcerated sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.

  5. Homeless and incarcerated: an epidemiological study from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Fliers, Joelle M; Frankish, Jim; Somers, Julian; Schuetz, Christian G; Krausz, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Incarceration and homelessness are closely related yet studied rarely. This article aimed to study the incarcerated homeless and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the nonincarcerated homeless. It also aimed to describe the homeless population and its significant involvement with the criminal justice and enforcement system. Data were derived from the British Columbia Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada: the large urban center Vancouver (n = 250), Victoria (n = 150) and Prince George (n = 100). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Incarcerated homeless were more often male (66.6%), were in foster care (56.4%) and had greater substance use especially of crack cocaine (69.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (78.7%). They also had greater scores on emotional and sexual abuse domains of CTQ, indicating greater abuse. A higher prevalence of depression (57%) and psychotic disorders (55.3%) was also observed. Risk factors identified which had a positive predictor value were male gender (p Homeless individuals may be traumatized at an early age, put into foster care, rendered homeless, initiated into substance use and re-traumatized on repeated occasions in adult life, rendering them vulnerable to incarceration and mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Nasal allergies hayfever among young adults in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abramson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research

  7. Orienting task effects on memory for presentation modality in children, young adults, and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, E B; Bovasso, M; Grout, L A; Happ, L K

    1992-01-01

    Children (7 to 10 years), young adults (17 to 24 years), and older adults (55 to 77 years) were asked to learn three lists of words that were of mixed modality (half the words were visual, and half the words were auditory). With one list the subjects were asked a semantic orienting question; with another, a nonsemantic orienting question; and with a third, no orienting question. Half the subjects in each age group were also asked to remember the presentation modality of each word. Older adults remembered less information about modality than children and young adults did, and the variation in the type of orienting question--or the lack of one--affected modality identification. However, there was no Orienting Task x Age interaction for modality identification. The results of this study suggest that encoding modality information does not take place automatically--in any age group--but that explanations focusing on encoding strategies and effort are not likely to account for older adults' difficulties in remembering presentation modality.

  8. Transition From Pediatric to Adult Care by Young Adults With Chronic Granulomatous Disease: The Patient's Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Rachel; Wiener, Lori; Pao, Maryland; Malech, Harry L; Holland, Steven M; Driscoll, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Children with chronic illnesses are living longer, prompting health care provider attention to the transition from pediatric to adult care. Transition of care is successful when youth are independent in managing their health. The aims of this study were to identify the strengths and barriers to transition from pediatric to adult care and to determine strategies that could enhance the transition process. A survey was administered via a structured interview to 33 young adult participants (19-27 years of age), living with chronic granulomatous disease all of whom transitioned from pediatric to adult care. The participants were predominately male (88%) and Caucasian (73%). Topics covered in the survey included understanding of disease and treatment, adherence, advance care planning, and barriers to transition. Data were analyzed using a conventional content analysis approach. Seventy-six percent of the participants did not understand their disease process and only 50% understood their prophylactic medication regimen. Seventy-five percent of participants perceived their transition as uneventful. Ninety-four percent were independent in self-management skills such as making appointments and 90% in refilling prescriptions. More than half of the participants thought that the transition process needed improvement. Specific suggestions to create a practical approach to transition were offered. Gaps in disease-related knowledge and transition planning were identified by adolescents and young adults living with chronic granulomatous disease. The findings suggest the need for enhancing the transition process utilizing interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a transition policy and program. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Nostalgia for a Childhood Without: Implications of the Adult Gaze on Childhood and Young Adult Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Lareau, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the adult gaze on children’s literature through the lens of Eric Tribunella’s article “From Kiddie Lit to Kiddie Porn” (2008) which explores the implications of child sexuality through an examination of Chris Kent’s parodies of The Coral Island by R. M. Ballantyne and Tom Brown’s Schooldays by Thomas Hughes. Introducing Kincaid’s term ‘child-loving,’ I explore the implications of the types of ‘child-loving’ as they are examined in children’s and young adult literature. Thi...

  10. Evaluation of Seafood Product Concepts by Young Adults and Families with Young Children from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low

  11. Symptom burden among young adults with breast or colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Stacy D; Zhao, Fengmin; Salsman, John M; Chang, Victor T; Wagner, Lynne I; Fisch, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Cancer incidence has increased among young adults (YAs) and survival rates have not improved compared with other age groups. Patient-reported outcomes may enhance our understanding of this vulnerable population. In a multisite prospective study, patients completed a cancer symptom inventory at the time of enrollment (T1) and 4 weeks to 5 weeks later (T2). YAs (those aged ≤ 39 years) with breast or colorectal cancer were compared with older adults (those aged ≥ 40 years) with breast or colorectal cancer with regard to symptom severity, symptom interference, changes over time, and medical care. Participants included 1544 patients with breast cancer (96 of whom were YAs) and 718 patients with colorectal cancer (37 of whom were YAs). Compared with older adults, YAs with breast cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe drowsiness, hair loss, and symptom interference with relationships at T1. YAs with colorectal cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe pain, fatigue, nausea, distress, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and rash plus interference in general activity, mood, work, relationships, and life enjoyment compared with older adults. Compared with older adults, shortness of breath, appetite, and sore mouth were more likely to improve in YAs with breast cancer; vomiting was less likely to improve in YAs with colorectal cancer. Referrals for supportive care were few, especially among patients with colorectal cancer. YAs with breast cancer were somewhat more likely to be referred to nutrition and psychiatry services than older patients. YAs reported symptom severity, symptom interference, and variations over time that were distinct from older patients. Distinctions were found to differ by diagnostic group. These findings enhance the understanding of symptom burden in YAs and inform the development of targeted interventions and future research. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  12. Homelessness in a national sample of incarcerated veterans in state and federal prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J; McGuire, James F

    2014-05-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been increasing efforts to reach out to assist incarcerated veterans. While previous studies have shown strong associations between incarceration and homelessness, few studies have examined distinctive characteristics of incarcerated homeless and non-homeless veterans. National administrative data on 30,348 incarcerated veterans served by the Health Care for Re-entry Veterans (HCRV) program were analyzed. Incarcerated veterans were classified into four groups based on their history of past homelessness: not homeless, transiently homeless, episodically homeless, and chronically homeless. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare groups on sociodemographic characteristics, criminal justice status, clinical status, and their interest in using VHA services. Of the sample, 70 % were classified as not homeless, 8 % as transiently homeless, 11 % as episodically homeless, and 11 % as chronically homeless. Thus, 30 % of the sample had a homeless history, which is five times the 6 % rate of past homelessness among adult men in the general population. Compared to non-homeless incarcerated veterans, all three homeless groups reported significantly more mental health problems, more substance abuse, more times arrested in their lifetime, more likely to be incarcerated for a non-violent offense, and were more interested in receiving VHA services after release from prison. Together, these findings suggest re-entry programs, like HCRV, can address relevant mental health-related service needs, especially among formerly homeless veterans and veterans in need of services are receptive to the offer of assistance.

  13. Sexual Health of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults in the United States Sexual Health of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States Published: ... been a drop off in the share of adolescents engaging in sexual activity. Despite this shift, recent ...

  14. LGBTQ+ Young Adults on the Street and on Campus: Identity as a Product of Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rachel M; Tyler, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and other sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ+) young adults face unique identity-related experiences based on their immersion in distinctive social contexts. The predominant framework of performing separate analyses on samples of LGBTQ+ young people by their primary social status obfuscates more holistic understandings of the role of social context. Using 46 in-depth interviews with LGBTQ+ college students and LGBTQ+ homeless young adults, we ask: How are LGBTQ+ young adults' capacities for "doing" their gender and sexual identities shaped by their distinctive social contexts? In developing their identities, both groups of LGBTQ+ young adults navigated their social environments to seek out resources and support. Most college students described their educational contexts as conducive to helping them develop their identities, or "undo" rigid norms of gender and sexuality. Homeless young adults' social environments, meanwhile, imposed complex barriers to self-expression that reinforced more normative expectations of "doing" gender and sexual identities.

  15. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebner, Rebecca L; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Hartung, Erum A; Hooper, Stephen R; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a known complication in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, less is known about putative mechanisms or modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD compared with controls. Cross-sectional study. The Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (NiCK) Study included 90 individuals aged 8 to 25 years with CKD compared with 70 controls. CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure. Performance on neurocognitive assessment with relevant tests grouped into 11 domains defined a priori by expert opinion. Results of tests were converted to age-normalized z scores. Each neurocognitive domain was analyzed through linear regression, adjusting for eGFR and demographic and clinical variables. For domains defined by multiple tests, the median z score of tests in that domain was used. We found significantly poorer performance in multiple areas of neurocognitive function among individuals with CKD compared with controls. Particular deficits were seen in domains related to attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found lower performance in multiple domains with decreasing eGFRs (attention: β=0.053, P=0.02; visual spatial: β=0.062, P=0.02; and visual working memory: β=0.069, P=0.04). Increased diastolic load and decreased diastolic nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were independently associated with impairments in neurocognitive performance. Unable to assess changes in neurocognitive function over time, and neurocognitive tests were grouped into predetermined neurocognitive domains. Lower eGFR in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance, particularly in

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-02-28

    To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20(th), 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients' age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant differences in cortical

  18. Ageist attitudes block young adults' ability for compassion toward incapacitated older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Yoav S; Bodner, Ehud

    2015-09-01

    Upon encountering older adults, individuals display varying degrees of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. While some display compassion and empathy, others draw away and wish to maintain their distance from them. The current study examined if and how ageist attitudes influence the association between the sight of physical incapacity in older age and compassionate reactions toward them. We predicted that ageist attitudes would interfere with the ability to respond to them with compassion. Young adults (N = 149, ages 19-29) were randomly distributed into two experimental conditions, each viewing a short video portraying different aspects of older adult physicality; one group viewed older adults displaying incapacitated behavior, and the other viewed fit behavior. Participants subsequently filled out scales assessing aging anxieties, and ageist and compassionate attitudes. Ageism was associated with reduced compassion toward the figures. Moreover, viewing incapacitated older adults led to increased concern toward them and perceived efficacy in helping them. However, significant interactions proved that higher scores of ageism in response to the videos led to increased need for distance and reduced efficacy toward incapacitated adults, an effect not observed among subjects with lower ageism scores. Ageism seems to be a factor which disengages individuals from older adults displaying fragility, leading them to disregard social norms which dictate compassion. The results are discussed from the framework of terror management theory, as increased mortality salience and death-related thoughts could have led to the activation of negative attitudes which, in turn, reduce compassion.

  19. Psychosocial and Health Behavior Outcomes of Young Adults with Asthma or Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-04-30

    Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults' BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 - 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults' chronic disease status. Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals.

  20. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S.

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:28588530

  1. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women ( n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  2. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Dhir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies, editing (cropping and filtering, and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%. The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

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  11. Covering young adults under the Affordable Care Act: the importance of outreach and Medicaid expansion: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that many young adults (ages 19--29) will remain without health insurance in 2014 despite the Affordable Care Act's reforms, including subsidized private coverage offered in new state marketplaces and expanded Medicaid eligibility. How things turn out will likely depend on outreach efforts and states' decisions on expanding Medicaid. Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey data from 2011 and 2013 show increasing awareness among young adults of the 2010 requirement that health plans cover children under age 26. Of the estimated 15 million young adults enrolled in a parent's plan in the prior 12 months, 7.8 million would not likely have been eligible to enroll prior to the law. Still, only 27 percent of 19-to-29-year-olds are aware of the marketplaces. Meanwhile, most uninsured young adults living below poverty will not have access to subsidized public or private insurance in states opting out of the Medicaid expansion.

  12. Stories of management in the future according to young adults and young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas of secondary school students and young nurses. Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (N = 68), some of whom were immigrants (N = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analyzed using content analysis. According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.

  13. Stories of management in the future by young adults and young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-04-11

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.

  14. Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

  15. Young adults' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior about abortions in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, M; Cavanaugh, R M; Henneberger, P K; Keenan, D; Lebish, C L

    1996-02-01

    To document opinions and decision-making strategies of young adults regarding abortions for young women. Eighty-nine male and 215 female college students completed a questionnaire on abortion during routine visits to their university health center. Among the salient findings, most respondents took a pro-abortion stance for girls under 18 in cases of rape (92% of students), incest (90%), or danger to the girl's health (90%). A much lower priority was given for abortion in cases of fetal abnormalities (55% of students), economic hardship (51%), or for girls who were married (55%). Abortion was considered acceptable regardless of circumstances by 46% of students and never a good idea by 18%. The outcome of unplanned pregnancies for minors should be decided by the girl (90% of students), partner (55%), parents (29%), and state or federal law (8%). Abortions for minors should require parental notification (45%) or consent (33%). Although only one student felt illegal abortions were safe, 19% would seek this kind of abortion and 4% of females would try to cause their own miscarriage if abortions were outlawed in the United States. The vast majority of young adults believed that girls under 18 should retain the right to decide the outcome of their pregnancy and should not be subjected to governmental restrictions. The highest priority for abortion was given to girls who had been victimized or whose health was at risk. Although nearly all respondents are aware of the hazards of criminal abortions, many would resort to such unsafe practices if legal alternatives were no longer available.

  16. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limperg, Perrine F; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A; van Rossum, Marion A J; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2014-01-18

    The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch population aged 18-30 years, stratified by age, sex, marital status and education, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA online. Internal consistency of the PedsQL_YA scales was determined with Cronbach's alphas. Norm scores were obtained by calculating the mean PedsQL scale scores by gender, age and health status. Differences in scale scores were analyzed for gender, age and health status (construct validity) using two-sample t-tests and effect sizes were calculated. Construct validity was determined by testing differences in PedsQL scores between healthy young adults and young adults with chronic health conditions. All scales of the PedsQL_YA showed satisfactory to excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas between .77 and .94. Men reported higher scores (indicating better HRQOL) than women on all scales (p age differences were found. Young adults with chronic health conditions scored lower on all scales (p young adults, indicating good construct validity. Effect sizes varied from medium to large. The Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA has adequate psychometric properties. With the availability of reliable norm data, the PedsQL_YA can be used as a tool in the evaluation of health related quality of life in healthy young adults and those with a chronic health condition.

  17. Comparison of adolescent, young adult, and adult women's maternity experiences and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Heaman, Maureen; Fell, Deshayne; Chalmers, Beverley

    2012-05-01

    Pregnant adolescents face unique challenges. Understanding the experiences, knowledge, and behaviors of adolescents during the pregnancy and postpartum periods may contribute to improvement of their maternity care. The purpose of this study was to compare the maternity experiences, knowledge, and behaviors of adolescent, young adult, and adult women by using a nationally representative sample. This study used data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (N = 6421). The weighted proportions of each variable were calculated by using survey sample weights. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Bootstrapping techniques were used to calculate variance estimates for prevalence and 95% confidence intervals. Adolescents and young adults were more likely to experience physical abuse in the previous 2 years, initiate prenatal care late, not take folic acid before or during pregnancy, have poor prenatal health behaviors, have a lower cesarean delivery rate, have lower breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, experience more stressful life events, experience postpartum depression symptoms, and rate their infant's health as suboptimal than adult women. Adolescents were more likely to rate their own health as suboptimal. Adolescents have unique needs during pregnancy and postpartum. Health care professionals should seek to provide care in a manner that acknowledges these needs.

  18. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...

  20. The Migraine-Ischemic Stroke Relation in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pezzini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1 the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by specific risk factors such as patent foramen ovale or endothelial dysfunction and more frequent in particular conditions like spontaneous cervical artery dissection; (2 migraine is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; (3 the link is caused by migraine-specific drugs; (4 migraine and ischemic vascular events are linked via a genetic component. In the present paper, we will review epidemiological studies, discuss potential mechanisms of migraine-induced stroke and comorbid ischemic stroke, and pose new research questions.

  1. VR Mobile Solutions For Chronic Stress Reduction in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kenneth; Boyd, Chelsie; Wiederhold, Mark D; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress in young adults has become a growing problem within recent decades and many are unable to find cost-effective and accessible treatment for psychological stress in their daily lives. We analyze the market of using a mobile application, Positive Technology, as a solution. Eleven participants, aged between 18 and 24, participated in the exercise. Self-reported stress reduction was measured via an online marketing survey, while physiological measurements were monitored via peripheral devices. Secondary goals assessed the app's ease-of-use, accessibility, and cost. Results indicate that participants enjoyed the availability of the mobile solution and found the app to be fun and easy to learn. Stress levels were reduced in 73% of the participants, with higher effects in females and in participants aged 18-24. We conclude that the mobile platform is an effective means of delivering psychological stress reduction, and could provide an accessible, cost-effective solution.

  2. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s......Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  3. Perceived fraudulence in young adults: is there an "imposter syndrome"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligian, J; Sternberg, R J

    1991-04-01

    This investigation consists of two studies designed to examine perceived fraudulence, its measurement, and the personality traits associated with the experience in young adults. For Study 1, the Perceived Fraudulence Scale (PFS), a new measure constructed for this study, was administered to a sample of 50 college undergraduates, along with several other self-report measures; a semistructured interview and thought-listing exercise were added to provide convergent assessments of perceived fraudulence. Correlational patterns and regression analyses supported the investigators' conceptualization of perceived fraudulence as involving a combination of fraudulent ideation, depressive tendencies, self-criticism, social anxiety, achievement pressures, and self-monitoring skills. Study 2, in which 100 college undergraduates completed several personality questionnaires, replicated the factor structure of the PFS and provided some evidence for the discriminant validity of the construct of perceived fraudulence.

  4. Determinants of loneliness of young adult drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Ami

    2002-11-01

    Loneliness is a subjective experience that is influenced by such variables as personality, life experiences, and situation. In the present study, the author examined the connection between the use of ecstasy (MDMA) and the antecedents of loneliness. MDMA users were compared with non-MDMA drug users and with a group of young adults in the general population who did not use drugs. A total of 818 participants from all 3 groups volunteered to answer a 30-item yes-no questionnaire reflecting on their experiences of loneliness and what caused them. Results showed that the predominant causes of loneliness were personal inadequacies, developmental deficits, unfulfilling intimate relationships, relocation or significant separations, and social marginality. There were significant differences between the scores of the MDMA users and scores of the other groups. Gender differences between and within groups were also examined.

  5. The Link Between Inadequate Sleep and Obesity in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.

  6. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Sameer Ganu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.

  7. [Teenage and young adult cancer: how to make effective disclosures?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhova, Ivanka; Martinez, Nicole; Ciais, Catherine; Fogliarini, Anne; Cherikh, Faredj; Coso, Diane; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Announcement of diagnosis is a critical step in establishing a trust-based relationship of quality between patient and physician. Disclosing "bad news" is a difficult and sensitive task which has direct consequences on psychological, emotional and relational levels, as well as on therapeutic management. This is a potentially traumatic experience which requires a long process of integration and psychological adaptation. The hematologist-oncologist occupies a central position: He introduces the framework for a multidisciplinary care, while taking into account the personality and behavior of the teenager or young adult. We propose an analysis of doctor-patient interaction; an overview of psychological issues associate with diagnosis disclosure; suggestions to build and manage communication with patients; and a clarification of the role of the psychologist and of the psychological adjustment at the time of disclosure.

  8. Skeletal dosimetry of injected 226RA in young adult beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.; Atherton, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Revised equations are presented for the skeletal dose to young adult beagles from 226 Ra injection. For 0.1 kg of skel/kg body and given 1 μCi 226 Ra/kg with 210 Pb/ 226 Ra = 0.05, the average skeletal dose in rad at 6 yr is 226 Ra = 1200, 222 Rn -> 214 Po = 1050, injected 210 Pb = 56 and 210 Pb from Rn decay in bone = 22. For a Pb/Ra ratio = 0.4, dose from injected 210 Pb is about 20% of that from 226 Ra -> 214 Po. A similar but not numerically indentical relationship obtains for ingested 226 Ra, so the dose from 210 Pb should be included in any study of 226 Ra effects. (orig.)

  9. Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Amanda A.; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires.

  10. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  11. Approach Behaviour, Stress and Substance Use in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Forman-Alberti, Alissa B; Aquino, Ana K; Szollos, Sebastian; Degnan, Kathryn A

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the interaction between approach behaviours (measured through performance on a resource-gathering task) and self-reported global life stress to predict substance use. Our hypothesis that high levels of approach behaviour in combination with high life stress would predict elevated substance use was guided by the reinforcement sensitivity theory (Gray & McNaughton, ). Ninety-three young adult students (61 women and 32 men) completed a computerized resource-gathering task and questionnaires assessing global life stress and substance use. Consistent with the hypothesis, approach behaviour was positively related to substance use for individuals with high life stress. The findings suggest that person by environment interactions are useful in understanding substance use and we discuss how approach-motivated individuals may arrive at different substance use outcomes as a function of stressful contexts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Dissociative fugue: Recurrent episodes in a young adult

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    Chintan Madhusudan Raval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one′s customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one′s past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1΍ year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family.

  13. Attractiveness judgments and discrimination of mommies and grandmas: perceptual tuning for young adult faces.

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    Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Hackland, Anne T

    2015-01-01

    Adults are more accurate in detecting deviations from normality in young adult faces than in older adult faces despite exhibiting comparable accuracy in discriminating both face ages. This deficit in judging the normality of older faces may be due to reliance on a face space optimized for the dimensions of young adult faces, perhaps because of early and continuous experience with young adult faces. Here we examined the emergence of this young adult face bias by testing 3- and 7-year-old children on a child-friendly version of the task used to test adults. In an attractiveness judgment task, children viewed young and older adult face pairs; each pair consisted of an unaltered face and a distorted face of the same identity. Children pointed to the prettiest face, which served as a measure of their sensitivity to the dimensions on which faces vary relative to a norm. To examine whether biases in the attractiveness task were specific to deficits in referencing a norm or extended to impaired discrimination, we tested children on a simultaneous match-to-sample task with the same stimuli. Both age groups were more accurate in judging the attractiveness of young faces relative to older faces; however, unlike adults, the young adult face bias extended to the match-to-sample task. These results suggest that by 3 years of age, children's perceptual system is more finely tuned for young adult faces than for older adult faces, which may support past findings of superior recognition for young adult faces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenomenology and the meaning of aging for young and old adults.

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    Adams-Price, C E; Henley, T B; Hale, M

    1998-01-01

    Qualitative methods were used to examine the similarities and differences in the meaning of aging for young and old adults. Nineteen young adults and seventeen older adults were asked to describe in detail a specific event or time in their lives that suggested to them that they were aging. Their responses were reduced to significant statements by two independent coders, until a thematic structure became apparent. Younger adults associated aging with major events in their lives, and even though these events tended to be positive, aging had a negative meaning for them. Young adults tended to associate aging with increased responsibility and lost freedom. By contrast, older adults associated aging with everyday events or no specific events at all, and they perceived aging positively. Both young and old adults mentioned themes of times, the body, and others.

  15. Modulation of prepulse inhibition and startle reflex by emotions: A comparison between young and older adults

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    Jolyanne eLe Duc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 y.o.; Elderly: 63.6 y.o. were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter.

  16. Consequences of Partner Incarceration for Women's Employment.

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    Bruns, Angela

    2017-10-01

    Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).

  17. Psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults

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    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.

  18. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults.

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    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16-26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use). Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed. Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  19. Eating styles, overweight and obesity in young adult twins.

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    Keski-Rahkonen, A; Bulik, C M; Pietiläinen, K H; Rose, R J; Kaprio, J; Rissanen, A

    2007-07-01

    To explore the association of eating styles with overweight and obesity in young adults, controlling for identical genetic background in monozygotic twins. Prospective twin cohort study. Finland, 1991-2002. Two-hundred and thirty-three women and 2060 men from the FinnTwin16 study, aged 16 years at baseline (T1), and ranging from 22 to 27 years at the time of the nutritional assessment (T4). Eating styles (Restrictive/overeating, health-conscious, snacking, emotional and externally induced), self-reported at T4, were contrasted with body mass indices (BMIs) at T1 and T4. At T4, obesity (BMI>or=30Kg/m(2)) was significantly cross-sectionally associated with restrictive eating, frequent snacks, eating in the evening, avoiding fatty foods and failure to maintain healthy eating patterns. These associations were independent of BMI at T1. Obese women self-reported more vulnerability to external eating cues and comfort eating than normal-weight women. However, in a multivariable model, only restrictive/overeating and health-conscious eating styles were significant correlates of obesity at T4, independent of gender and BMI at T1. When we controlled for genetic background restricting the analysis to the 39 female and 45 male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obesity or overweight (BMI>or=25Kg/m(2)), restrictive/overeating eating style was still statistically significantly associated with excess weight. The eating styles of obese young adults differ from their normal-weight counterparts: restrictive eating, overeating and fewer healthy food choices are associated with obesity. Different eating styles may partially explain weight differences in individuals with identical genetic background.

  20. Fertility Issues in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors.

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    Benedict, Catherine; Shuk, Elyse; Ford, Jennifer S

    2016-03-01

    Many adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors place great importance on fertility. This study explored AYAs' discussions of fertility in the context of discussing their survivorship experiences. Secondary analyses of a qualitative study of young adult survivors of adolescent cancers ("AYA survivors") was performed using semistructured individual interviews and focus groups. Analyses were conducted using grounded theory using thematic content analysis with an inductive data-driven approach. Participants (n = 43) were 16-24 years old, diagnosed with cancer between ages 14 and 18 years, and were at least 6 months post-treatment. Before treatment, 5 males banked sperm and no females preserved fertility. More males (50%) than females (39%) reported uncertainty about their fertility. Three major categories emerged from the data: fertility concerns, emotions raised when discussing fertility, and strategies used to manage fertility concerns. Fertility concerns focused on dating/partner reactions, health risks, and what potential infertility would mean for their life narrative. Emotions included distress, feeling overwhelmed and hopeful/wishful thinking. Females were more likely to feel distressed and overwhelmed than males. Strategies to manage concerns included acceptance/"making do," desire to postpone concerns, and reliance on assisted reproductive technology. Most AYAs in our study reported a number of reproductive concerns and fertility-related distress after treatment, which may affect other areas of psychosocial functioning. Females may be more at-risk for distress than males, particularly in situations of uncertainty and limited knowledge. Future work should explore how to best incorporate fertility-related informational and support services more fully into survivorship care. Implications for survivorship care are discussed.